WorldWideScience

Sample records for arm climate research

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  5. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, RA; Kehoe, KE; Sonntag, KL; Bahrmann, CP; Richardson, SJ; Christensen, SW; McCord, RA; Doty, DJ; Wagener, Richard [BNL; Eagan, RC; Lijegren, JC; Orr, BW; Sisterson, DL; Halter, TD; Keck, NN; Long, CN; Macduff, MC; Mather, JH; Perez, RC; Voyles, JW; Ivey, MD; Moore, ST; Nitschke, DL; Perkins, BD; Turner, DD

    2008-03-01

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) data quality assurance program as it existed in 2008. The performance of ACRF instruments, sites, and data systems is measured in terms of the availability, usability, and accessibility of the data to a user. First, the data must be available to users; that is, the data must be collected by instrument systems, processed, and delivered to a central repository in a timely manner. Second, the data must be usable; that is, the data must be inspected and deemed of sufficient quality for scientific research purposes, and data users must be able to readily tell where there are known problems in the data. Finally, the data must be accessible; that is, data users must be able to easily find, obtain, and work with the data from the central repository. The processes described in this report include instrument deployment and calibration; instrument and facility maintenance; data collection and processing infrastructure; data stream inspection and assessment; the roles of value-added data processing and field campaigns in specifying data quality and haracterizing the basic measurement; data archival, display, and distribution; data stream reprocessing; and engineering and operations management processes and procedures. Future directions in ACRF data quality assurance also are presented.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information February 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-03-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-10-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report June 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2010-12-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information October 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-06-21

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-04-19

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ARM Climate Research Facility Instrumentation Status and Information January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report July 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2010-08-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  18. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  19. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  20. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility External Data Center Operations Plan Located At Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gregory, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lazar, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liang, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ma, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tilp, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The External Data Center (XDC) Operations Plan describes the activities performed to manage the XDC, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), for the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. It includes all ARM infrastructure activities performed by the Data Management and Software Engineering Group (DMSE) at BNL. This plan establishes a baseline of expectation within the ARM Operations Management for the group managing the XDC.

  1. Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies: 2015 ARM Climate Research Facility Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, CR [University at Albany-SUNY; Santanello, JA [NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center; Gentine, P [Columbia University

    2015-11-01

    Matching observed diurnal cycles is a fundamental yet extremely complex test for models. High temporal resolution measurements of surface turbulent heat fluxes and boundary layer properties are required to evaluate the daytime evolution of the boundary layer and its sensitivity to land-atmosphere coupling. To address this need, (12) one-day intensive observing periods (IOP) with enhanced radiosonding will be carried out at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) during summer 2015. Each IOP will comprise a single launch to correspond with the nighttime overpass of the A-Train of satellites (~0830 UTC) and hourly launches during daytime beginning from 1130 UTC and ending at 2130 UTC. At 3-hourly intervals (i.e., 1140 UTC, 1440 UTC, 1740 UTC, and 2040 UTC) a duplicate second radiosonde will be launched 10 minutes subsequent to launch of the on-hour radiosonde for the purpose of assessing horizontal atmospheric variability. In summary, each IOP will have a 14-sounding supplement to the 6-hourly operational sounding schedule at the ARM-SGP CF. The IOP days will be decided before sunset on the preceding day, according to the judgment of the PI’s and taking into consideration daily weather forecasts and the operability of complimentary ARM-SGP CF instrumentation. An overarching goal of the project is to address how ARM could better observe land-atmosphere coupling to support the evaluation and refinement of coupled weather and climate models.

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Fourth Quarter: July 1–September 30, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C

    2012-11-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report First Quarter: October 01-December 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C

    2012-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  4. An Overview of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, Randy A. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Long, Chuck A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Turner, D. [University of Wisconsin; Bahrmann, C. P. [Pennsylvania State University; Christensen, Sigurd W [ORNL; Doty, K. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Eagan, R. C. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Halter, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ivey, M. D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Keck, N. N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Kehoe, Kenneth E. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Liljegren, J. C. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Macduff, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Mather, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); McCord, Raymond A [ORNL; Monroe, Justin W. [University of Oklahoma; Moore, Sean T. [Mission Research and Technical Services; Nitschke, K. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Orr, B. W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Perez, Robin C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Perkins, B. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Richardson, S. J. [Pennsylvania State University; Sonntag, Karen L. [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2008-10-30

    This report documents key aspects of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's data quality assurance program. Processes described include data archival, display, and distribution, data stream reprocessing, and future directions in ARM data quality checking. A comprehensive, end-to-end data quality assurance program, from instrument siting, to calibration and maintenance, through data quality control and well-documented dissemination, is essential for producing a high-quality research data set. The processes developed over the past 15 years by the ARM Program offer a possible framework for use by other instrumentation-diverse networks, and are offered here to highlight the myriad aspects that go into producing such a data set.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Instrument Report Fourth Quarter: October 1–December 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. Time Series of Aerosol Column Optical Depth at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Fourth Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Flynn; AS Koontz; JH Mather

    2009-09-01

    The uncertainties in current estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are dominated by the effects of aerosols, both in relation to the direct absorption and scattering of radiation by aerosols and also with respect to aerosol-related changes in cloud formation, longevity, and microphysics (See Figure 1; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Assessment Report 4, 2008). Moreover, the Arctic region in particular is especially sensitive to changes in climate with the magnitude of temperature changes (both observed and predicted) being several times larger than global averages (Kaufman et al. 2009). Recent studies confirm that aerosol-cloud interactions in the arctic generate climatologically significant radiative effects equivalent in magnitude to that of green house gases (Lubin and Vogelmann 2006, 2007). The aerosol optical depth is the most immediate representation of the aerosol direct effect and is also important for consideration of aerosol-cloud interactions, and thus this quantity is essential for studies of aerosol radiative forcing.

  7. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  8. Long-term Observations of the Convective Boundary Layer Using Insect Radar Returns at the SGP ARM Climate Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A S; Kollias, P; Giangrande, S E; Klein, S A

    2009-08-20

    A long-term study of the turbulent structure of the convective boundary layer (CBL) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility is presented. Doppler velocity measurements from insects occupying the lowest 2 km of the boundary layer during summer months are used to map the vertical velocity component in the CBL. The observations cover four summer periods (2004-08) and are classified into cloudy and clear boundary layer conditions. Profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and mass flux are estimated to study the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer during these conditions. A conditional sampling method is applied to the original Doppler velocity dataset to extract coherent vertical velocity structures and to examine plume dimension and contribution to the turbulent transport. Overall, the derived turbulent statistics are consistent with previous aircraft and lidar observations. The observations provide unique insight into the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer and the role of increased cloudiness in the turbulent budget of the subcloud layer. Coherent structures (plumes-thermals) are found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total turbulent transport resolved by the cloud radar system. The extended dataset is suitable for evaluating boundary layer parameterizations and testing large-eddy simulations (LESs) for a variety of surface and cloud conditions.

  9. Satellite Data Support for the ARM Climate Research Facility, 8/01/2009 - 7/31/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Khaiyer, Mandana M [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    This report summarizes the support provided by NASA Langley Research for the DOE ARM Program in the form of cloud and radiation products derived from satellite imager data for the period between 8/01/09 through 7/31/15. Cloud properties such as cloud amount, height, and optical depth as well as outgoing longwave and shortwave broadband radiative fluxes were derived from geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellite imager radiance measurements for domains encompassing ARM permanent sites and field campaigns during the performance period. Datasets provided and documents produced are listed.

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report January 1–March 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C

    2011-06-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, and (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Third Quarter: April 01–June 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C

    2011-08-18

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Fourth Quarter: July 01–September 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C

    2011-11-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text.

  13. Climatic gradients of arms race coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Sota, Teiji; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2011-05-01

    In nature, spatiotemporally dynamic coevolutionary processes play major roles in the foundation and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we examined the arms race coevolution involving a seed-eating weevil with a long snout and its camellia plant host with a thick fruit coat (pericarp) throughout the marked climatic gradient observed across the Japanese islands. Results demonstrated that female weevils, which bored holes through camellia pericarps to lay eggs into seeds, had evolved much longer snouts than males, especially in areas in which Japanese camellia pericarps were very thick. The thickness of the plant pericarp was heritable, and the camellia plant evolved a significantly thicker pericarp on islands with the weevil than on islands without it. Across populations with weevils, resource allocation to plant defense increased with increasing annual mean temperature or annual precipitation, thereby geographically differentiating the evolutionary and ecological interactions between the two species. Given that the coevolutionary relationship exhibited appreciable variation across a relatively small range of annual mean temperatures, ongoing global climatic change can dramatically alter the coevolutionary process, thereby changing the ecological interaction between these species.

  14. Reading and Readability Research in the Armed Services. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht, Thomas G., Ed.; Zapf, Diana Welty, Ed.

    The Conference on Reading and Readability Research in the Armed Services brought together reading, technical writing, and readability experts from civilian research and development (R & D) centers with R & D specialists from the armed services for discussion of reading and text-design problems in the military. This report of the proceedings…

  15. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  16. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijin [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sha, Feng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, Tami [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vogelmann, Andrew [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This five-year award supports the project “Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements (FASTER)”. The goal of this project is to produce accurate, consistent and comprehensive data sets for initializing both single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs) using data assimilation. A multi-scale three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme (MS-3DVAR) has been implemented. This MS-3DVAR system is built on top of WRF/GSI. The Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is an operational data assimilation system at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. This MS-3DVAR is further enhanced by the incorporation of a land surface 3DVAR scheme and a comprehensive aerosol 3DVAR scheme. The data assimilation implementation focuses in the ARM SGP region. ARM measurements are assimilated along with other available satellite and radar data. Reanalyses are then generated for a few selected period of time. This comprehensive data assimilation system has also been employed for other ARM-related applications.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  18. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  19. Guest Editorial: Research update: VA study to optimize DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA announced its Revolutionizing Prosthetics program and funded the development of the DEKA prosthetic arm. The DEKA Arm System incorporates major technological advances such as flexible socket design, innovative control features, software, and hardware that together enable enhanced functionality that promises to surpass any currently available prosthetic device. In 2008, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA entered into an agreement with DARPA to conduct clinical evaluations of the prototype DEKA Arm System, a prosthetic device system still under development and not yet available commercially. Studies of the DEKA Arm System have been underway at VA sites since late 2008, with the first subject fitted with a DEKA Arm in early 2009.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  1. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate

  2. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    From the executive summary; Based on our evaluation, we make six major recommendations and provide suggestions for how these might be implemented. 1. Establish a clear and coherent national strategy for climate research and its funding. 2. The Research Council of Norway should develop a new integrated long-term climate research programme. 3. Build on strengths and develop capacities in areas where Norway currently lacks sufficient scientific expertise. 4. Ensure societal relevance as well as inter- and transdisciplinarity in research. 5. Emphasise collaboration and cooperation as a basis for successful climate research. 6. Prioritise outreach and stakeholder interaction.(Author)

  3. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  4. Cosmic Ray Diffusion from the Galactic Spiral Arms, Iron Meteorites, and a possible climatic connection?

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, N J

    2002-01-01

    We construct a Galactic cosmic ray (CR) diffusion model while considering that CR sources reside predominantly in the Galactic spiral arms. We find that the CR flux (CRF) reaching the solar system should periodically increase each crossing of a Galactic spiral arm. We search for this signal in the CR exposure age record of Iron meteorites and confirm this prediction. We then check the hypothesis that climate, and in particular the temperature, is affected by the CRF to the extent that glaciations can be induced or completely hindered by possible climatic variations. We find that although the geological evidence for the occurrence of IAEs in the past Eon is not unequivocal, it appears to have a nontrivial correlation with the spiral arm crossings--agreeing in period and phase. Thus, a better timing study of glaciations could either confirm this result as an explanation to the occurrence of IAEs or refute a CRF climatic connection.

  5. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  6. Climate strength: a new direction for climate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole; Subirats, Montse

    2002-04-01

    Climate strength was conceptualized within D. Chan's (1998) discussion of compositional models and the concept of culture strength from the organizational culture literature. Climate strength was operationalized in terms of within-group variability in climate perceptions-the less within-group variability, the stronger the climate. The authors studied climate strength in the context of research linking employee service climate perceptions to customer satisfaction. The hypothesis was tested that climate strength moderates the relationship between employee perceptions of service climate and customer satisfaction experiences. Partial support for the hypothesis was reported in both a concurrent and predictive (3-year) test across 118 branches of a bank. In the predictive study only the interaction of climate and climate strength predicted customer satisfaction. Implications for future research on climate and climate strength are discussed.

  7. The Impact of ARM on Climate Modeling. Chapter 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David A.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Donner, Leo J.; Collins, William D.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate models are among humanity's most ambitious and elaborate creations. They are designed to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and cryosphere on time scales far beyond the limits of deterministic predictability, and including the effects of time-dependent external forcings. The processes involved include radiative transfer, fluid dynamics, microphysics, and some aspects of geochemistry, biology, and ecology. The models explicitly simulate processes on spatial scales ranging from the circumference of the Earth down to one hundred kilometers or smaller, and implicitly include the effects of processes on even smaller scales down to a micron or so. The atmospheric component of a climate model can be called an atmospheric global circulation model (AGCM). In an AGCM, calculations are done on a three-dimensional grid, which in some of today's climate models consists of several million grid cells. For each grid cell, about a dozen variables are time-stepped as the model integrates forward from its initial conditions. These so-called prognostic variables have special importance because they are the only things that a model remembers from one time step to the next; everything else is recreated on each time step by starting from the prognostic variables and the boundary conditions. The prognostic variables typically include information about the mass of dry air, the temperature, the wind components, water vapor, various condensed-water species, and at least a few chemical species such as ozone. A good way to understand how climate models work is to consider the lengthy and complex process used to develop one. Lets imagine that a new AGCM is to be created, starting from a blank piece of paper. The model may be intended for a particular class of applications, e.g., high-resolution simulations on time scales of a few decades. Before a single line of code is written, the conceptual foundation of the model must be designed through a creative

  8. AMF3 ARM's Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, F.; Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science And Aerosol Science For The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF-3 instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at AMF3 and the challenges of powering an Arctic site without the use of grid power.

  9. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M [Scripps/UCSD; Lubin, Dan [Scripps/UCSD

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the

  10. A Bibliometric Analysis of Climate Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, C. W.; Seidel, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past five years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of media and scientific publications on the topic of climate engineering, or geoengineering, and some scientists are increasingly calling for more research on climate engineering as a possible supplement to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. In this context, understanding the current state of climate engineering research can help inform policy discussions and guide future research directions. Bibliometric analysis - the quantitative analysis of publications - is particularly applicable to fields with large bodies of literature that are difficult to summarize by traditional review methods. The multidisciplinary nature of the published literature on climate engineering makes it an ideal candidate for bibliometric analysis. Publications on climate engineering are found to be relatively recent (more than half of all articles during 1988-2011 were published since 2008), include a higher than average percentage of non-research articles (30% compared with 8-15% in related scientific disciplines), and be predominately produced by countries located in the Northern Hemisphere and speaking English. The majority of this literature focuses on land-based methods of carbon sequestration, ocean iron fertilization, and solar radiation management and is produced with little collaboration among research groups. This study provides a summary of existing publications on climate engineering, a perspective on the scientific underpinnings of the global dialogue on climate engineering, and a baseline for quantitatively monitoring the development of climate engineering research in the future.

  11. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  13. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  16. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydes Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1 stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2 adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility, three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival, and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival. Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1 Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the

  17. Collaborative Research: Reducing tropical precipitation biases in CESM — Tests of unified parameterizations with ARM observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Vincent [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gettelman, Andrew [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Morrison, Hugh [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bacmeister, Julio [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Feingold, Graham [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Lee, Seoung-soo [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Williams, Christopher [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-09-14

    In state-of-the-art climate models, each cloud type is treated using its own separate cloud parameterization and its own separate microphysics parameterization. This use of separate schemes for separate cloud regimes is undesirable because it is theoretically unfounded, it hampers interpretation of results, and it leads to the temptation to overtune parameters. In this grant, we are creating a climate model that contains a unified cloud parameterization and a unified microphysics parameterization. This model will be used to address the problems of excessive frequency of drizzle in climate models and excessively early onset of deep convection in the Tropics over land. The resulting model will be compared with ARM observations.

  18. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  19. Climate Change Research in View of Bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric study of a large publication set dealing with research on climate change aims at mapping the relevant literature from a bibliometric perspective and presents a multitude of quantitative data: (1) The growth of the overall publication output as well as (2) of some major subfields, (3) the contributing journals and countries as well as their citation impact, and (4) a title word analysis aiming to illustrate the time evolution and relative importance of specific research topics. The study is based on 222,060 papers (articles and reviews only) published between 1980 and 2014. The total number of papers shows a strong increase with a doubling every 5-6 years. Continental biomass related research is the major subfield, closely followed by climate modeling. Research dealing with adaptation, mitigation, risks, and vulnerability of global warming is comparatively small, but their share of papers increased exponentially since 2005. Research on vulnerability and on adaptation published the largest proportion of very important papers (in terms of citation impact). Climate change research has become an issue also for disciplines beyond the natural sciences. The categories Engineering and Social Sciences show the strongest field-specific relative increase. The Journal of Geophysical Research, the Journal of Climate, the Geophysical Research Letters, and Climatic Change appear at the top positions in terms of the total number of papers published. Research on climate change is quantitatively dominated by the USA, followed by the UK, Germany, and Canada. The citation-based indicators exhibit consistently that the UK has produced the largest proportion of high impact papers compared to the other countries (having published more than 10,000 papers). Also, Switzerland, Denmark and also The Netherlands (with a publication output between around 3,000 and 6,000 papers) perform top-the impact of their contributions is on a high level. The title word analysis shows that

  20. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai

    2011-05-01

    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease.

  1. A car theft deterrent system research based on ARM9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Liu, Jinhao; Fan, Lijun

    2009-07-01

    The traditional automotive burglarproof systems commonly only rely on the simple remote control to security which measures are not perfect and functions are too single. With the development of society, people tend to concern on the fingerprint recognition technology, GSM /GPRS wireless transmission technology, the idea of ARM9-based design of automobile burglarproof system is dependent on both of them. The S3C2410 microprocessor embedded system is used in this system, which is illuminated the idea of the control system design through the hardware and software. The spot use indicates that the high control precision, steady performance and the humanistic rational design of automotive burglarproof system.

  2. Gaps in agricultural climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The value of the social sciences to climate change research is well recognized, but notable gaps remain in the literature on adaptation in agriculture. Contributions focus on farmer behaviour, with important research regarding gender, social networks and institutions remaining under-represented.

  3. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces (Report 3). The US Army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V I; Ivchenko, I V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2012-12-01

    The US Army. The present article is the third part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first and the second parts have been published in the previous issuses of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Army. It is shown that in the US Army the medical and biological research is conducted and coordinated by the special US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. The following units are successively presented: US Army Institute of Surgical Research, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine. The particular research programs conducting in the above mentioned institutions are presented.

  4. Retrospect and prospect: advances and future strategies in climate research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A brief review of the progress in climate research and a prospect on its further development in the 21st century is presented. Some key findings including the concept of climate system, the discovery of climatic multi-equilibrium and abrupt climate changes, and the recognition of human activities as an important force of climate change made breakthroughs in climatology possible during last few decades. The adaptation to climatic and global change emerged as a new aspect of climatic research during the 1990s. Climate research will break through in the observation of the global system, in the analysis of mass data, in the deepening of research on the mechanism of climatic change, and in the improvement of models. In the applied fields of climate research, there will be substantial progress in the research on adaptation to global change and sustainable development, on orderly human activities, and climate modification.

  5. The research in climate system modeling, simulating and forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The major point of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) is to predict the real-time climate change in seasons and years. Climate disasters in China occurred frequently, and resulted in a 200 billion RMB lost annually.

  6. Getting African climate change research recognised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Fatima; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica

    2011-11-15

    Across Africa, programmes such as the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa initiative are investigating what it means for countries and communities to effectively adapt to climate change, and how this can be achieved in practice. But research results are not always recognised by policymakers or the global research community — in part because they are not visible within the traditional hallmark of scientific scholarship and credibility, peer-reviewed literature. Greater efforts are required to encourage African scientists to engage in the peer-review process and give their research the credibility it needs to convince decision makers that robust scientific findings support the solutions offered. At the same time, decision makers themselves must find ways of assessing and making use of robust research outside the peer-review arena.

  7. Developing public awareness for climate change: Support from international research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, F.J.; Clements, W.E.

    1998-12-31

    Developing regional and local public awareness and interest in global climate change has been mandated as an important step for increasing the ability for setting policy and managing the response to climate change. Research programs frequently have resources that could help reach regional or national goals for increasing the capacity for responding to climate change. To obtain these resources and target recipients appropriately, research investigators need clear statements of national and regional strategies or priorities as a guide. One such program, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has a requirement to develop local or regional education enrichment programs at their observational sites in the central US, the tropical western Pacific (TWP), and on the north slope of alaska. ARM's scientific goals will result in a flow of technical data and as well as technical expertise that can assist with regional needs to increase the technical resources needed to address climate change issues. Details of the ARM education program in the Pacific will be presented.

  8. Climate engineering research : A precautionary response to climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.; Fleurke, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of dire forecasts for anthropogenic climate change, climate engineering is increasingly discussed as a possible additional set of responses to reduce climate change’s threat. These proposals have been controversial, in part because they – like climate change itself – pose uncertain risks

  9. CURRENT ISSUES IN THE RESEARCH OF COLD STEEL ARMS AND THROWING WEAPONS AND THEIR TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meretukov G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article point out that the research of cold steel arms and their traces has been considered in detail in the studies of different criminologists. Unfortunately, many scientists, examining cold steel arms as the item of expertise, mainly paid attention to the knives, swords, daggers, etc., but few researchers considered crossbows as cold steel weapon. In accordance with part. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of Russia for illegal manufacture, alteration or repair of throwing weapons, as well as the illegal sale of throwing weapons (Art. 4, Art. 222 of the Criminal Code, criminal liability is stipulated. Thus, the authors agree with the opinions expressed in the literature according to which attention should be paid to the fuzzy wording of p. 4 Art. 222 of the Criminal Code and p. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: "Cold steel weapons, including throwing weapons". Throwing weapons are not included in the number of cold steel arms; it is an independent type of weapon that is different from the cold steel by its technical characteristics. The common feature of cold steel arms and throwing weapons is striking of a target due to the muscle power of a man. The main difference is that there is no projectile with directional movement in cold steel arms and striking occurs due to the direct contact with the object. The definitions of these types of weapons are contained in the Federal Act "About Weapons"

  10. Collaborative Research: ARM observations for the development and evaluation of models and parameterizations of cloudy boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Bruce,

    2013-07-12

    This is a collaborative project with Dr. Ping Zhu at Florida International University. It was designed to address key issues regarding the treatment of boundary layer cloud processes in climate models with UM’s research focusing on the analyses of ARM cloud radar observations from MMCR and WACR and FIU’s research focusing on numerical simulations of boundary layer clouds. This project capitalized on recent advancements in the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) processing and the development of the WACR (at the SGP) to provide high temporal and spatial resolution Doppler cloud radar measurements for characterizing in-cloud turbulence, large-eddy circulations, and high resolution cloud structures of direct relevance to high resolution numerical modeling studies. The principal focus of the observational component of this collaborative study during this funding period was on stratocumulus clouds over the SGP site and fair-weather cumuli over the Nauru site. The statistical descriptions of the vertical velocity structures in continental stratocumulus clouds and in the Nauru shallow cumuli that are part of this study represents the most comprehensive observations of the vertical velocities in boundary layer clouds to date and were done in collaboration with Drs. Virendra Ghate and Pavlos Kollias.

  11. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... COMMISSION The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R... Operating License No. R-84 (Application), which currently authorizes the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research... the renewal of Facility Operating License No. R-84, which currently authorizes the licensee to...

  12. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  13. Conducting qualitative research in the British Armed Forces: theoretical, analytical and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-04-13

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  15. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  16. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using Arm Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-01-02

    Under the support of this grant, we investigated the fast process of interaction of clouds, shallow convection, and boundary layer turbulence and their parameterizations. Main accomplishments involve two things. One is the understanding of the physical mechanisms of low cloud feedbacks; the second is the development and evaluation of convection and cloud parameterizations in climate models.

  17. Contributions of the ARM Program to Radiative Transfer Modeling for Climate and Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlawer, Eli J.; Iacono, Michael J.; Pincus, Robert; Barker, Howard W.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate climate and weather simulations must account for all relevant physical processes and their complex interactions. Each of these atmospheric, ocean, and land processes must be considered on an appropriate spatial and temporal scale, which leads these simulations to require a substantial computational burden. One especially critical physical process is the flow of solar and thermal radiant energy through the atmosphere, which controls planetary heating and cooling and drives the large-scale dynamics that moves energy from the tropics toward the poles. Radiation calculations are therefore essential for climate and weather simulations, but are themselves quite complex even without considering the effects of variable and inhomogeneous clouds. Clear-sky radiative transfer calculations have to account for thousands of absorption lines due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, which are irregularly distributed across the spectrum and have shapes dependent on pressure and temperature. The line-by-line (LBL) codes that treat these details have a far greater computational cost than can be afforded by global models. Therefore, the crucial requirement for accurate radiation calculations in climate and weather prediction models must be satisfied by fast solar and thermal radiation parameterizations with a high level of accuracy that has been demonstrated through extensive comparisons with LBL codes. See attachment for continuation.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.

  19. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-01-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-10-10

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. Climate Research Wageningen UR : Projects, researchers and expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon-Steensma, van J.M.; Vellinga, P.; Remme, R.

    2009-01-01

    Wageningen UR focuses not only on the global climate system but also on regional and local climate phenomena, taking both scientific and social aspects into account in an integral way. Wageningen UR wants to play an effective role in the transition to a world that is both climate neutral and climate

  4. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  5. Teachers Learning to Research Climate: Development of hybrid teacher professional development to support climate inquiry and research in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, M. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Kennedy, T.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program is an international science and education focused on connecting scientists, teachers and students around relevant, local environmental issues. GLOBE's focus during the next two years in on climate, global change and understanding climate from a scientific perspective. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRFC) will engage youth from around the world in understanding and researching climate through investigations of local climate challenges. GLOBE teachers are trained in implementation of inquiry in the classroom and the use of scientific data collection protocols to develop inquiry and research projects of the Earth System. In preparation for the SCRC, GLOBE teachers will need additional training in climate science, global change and communicating climate science in the classroom. GLOBE's reach to 111 countries around the world requires development of scalable models for training teachers. In June GLOBE held the first teacher professional development workshop (Learning to Research Summer Institute) in a hybrid format with two-thirds of the teachers participating face-to-face and the remaining teachers participating virtually using Adobe Connect. The week long workshop prepared teachers to integrate climate science inquiry and research projects in the classrooms in the 2011-12 academic year. GLOBE scientists and other climate science experts will work with teachers and their students throughout the year in designing and executing a climate science research project. Final projects and research results will be presented in May 2012 through a virtual conference. This presentation will provide the framework for hybrid teacher professional development in climate science research and inquiry projects as well as summarize the findings from this inaugural session. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered in Boulder, is funded through cooperative agreements with NASA and NOAA with additional support from NSF and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE

  6. The Cloud Project Climate Research with Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the in- dustrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthro- pogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. How- ever, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming—and yet the mechanism is not under- stood. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales are too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind, may be directly affect- ing the climate, providing an effective indirect solar forcing mechanism. Indeed recent satellite observations—although disputed—suggest that cosmic rays may affect clouds un- der certain conditions. However, given the many sources of variability in the atmosphere and the lack of control of the cosmic ray flux, demonstrating overall ca...

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  8. Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, C.M.; Amelung, B.; Cohen, S.; Leemans, R.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Long, P.

    2015-01-01

    This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequ

  9. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, July, August and September 1986. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contents include: post-radiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates; heart-function studies in dogs after acute gamma irradiation of the precordium; the effect of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic drugs on intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary kinetics; effect of gamma radiation on sodium channels in different conformations in neuroblastoma cells; effects of ethanol exposure on brain sodium channels; ionizing radiation alters the properties of sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes; thymic hormones in thymus recovery from radiation injury; acute toxicity of petroleum- and shale-derived distillate fuel; light microscopic, hematologic, and serum chemistry studies; radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A from Salmonella Minnesota R595; brain areas involved in production of morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57B1/6J mouse; preliminary evaluation of US Army radiac detector DT-236/PD and radiac computer-indicator CP-696/UD; and calorimetric dose measurements and calorimetric system developed for the armed forces radiobiology research institute.

  10. Integrating climate change into agricultural research for development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon

    2011-09-15

    African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.

  11. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  12. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda; Chu, Eric; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Aylett, Alexander; Debats, Jessica; Goh, Kian; Schenk, Todd; Seto, Karen C.; Dodman, David; Roberts, Debra; Roberts, J. Timmons; Vandeveer, Stacy D.

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers of social vulnerability as part of urban local climate change adaptation efforts, or evaluated how emerging adaptation plans impact marginalized groups. Here, we present a roadmap to reorient research on the social dimensions of urban climate adaptation around four issues of equity and justice: (1) broadening participation in adaptation planning; (2) expanding adaptation to rapidly growing cities and those with low financial or institutional capacity; (3) adopting a multilevel and multi-scalar approach to adaptation planning; and (4) integrating justice into infrastructure and urban design processes. Responding to these empirical and theoretical research needs is the first step towards identifying pathways to more transformative adaptation policies.

  13. Advancing Australia's role in climate change and health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Pitman, Andrew; Barnett, Adrian; Kaldor, John; Doherty, Peter; Stanley, Fiona

    2017-02-01

    A major Australian government report published 25 years ago called for urgent investment in research on the impacts of climate change on human health. Since that report's release, less than 0.1% of Australian health funding has been allocated to this area. As the world continues on a high emissions pathway, the health impacts from climate change are increasing in size and complexity. While Australia has established leadership roles in climate science and health research, it must now link these two strengths. Doing so would boost regional understanding of how climate change will affect health and what adaptation strategies are needed to reduce these threats. Such research would support better health planning and decision-making in partnership with other regional countries.

  14. Relationships between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and self-reported research practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R

    2013-09-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one's university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals' deviations from these shared perceptions. Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior.

  15. How Agribusiness Uses Climate Predictions: Implications for Climate Research and Provision of Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonka, S. T.; Changnon, S. A., Jr.; Hofing, S. L.

    1992-12-01

    The paper presents an analysis of climate prediction needs and uses within six important subsegments of the agribusiness sector. Results are based on a mail survey of 114 managers. Although nearly 70% of the respondents indicated some use of climate predictions in the last year, only 1 in 8 of the respondents used that information in a specific decision. Lack of sufficient accuracy and prediction lead time were identified as two important impediments to current use of climate predictions. Estimates of necessary accuracy levels and lead time are reported both for the group average and by segments of need. Recommendations are offered regarding research needs to enhance climate prediction and activities of the government and the private sector to improve use of climate predictions.

  16. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  17. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  18. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  19. NASA indicators research in support of the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, A. K.; Houser, P. R.; Tsaoussi, L.

    2013-12-01

    Indicators have the potential to concisely communicate to a broad audience the observed and projected climate trends and anomalies, as well as society's vulnerability and ability to adapt to climate change. Consequently, indicators are anticipated to play an important role in the Fourth U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) report, slated to be released in four years. The NCA objectives include providing information about observed and anticipated changes in climate and assessing the impacts for regions and sectors, in order to help the nation prepare for a changing climate. Efforts are underway within the NCA to identify a set physical, ecological, and societal climate change indicators, by leveraging existing indicators currently in use by federal agencies. The NCA indicators are intended to provide meaningful and authoritative measures about the status and trends of climate for decision makers and the public. As a complement to this effort, and to support the NCA sustained assessment process, NASA solicited membership for an Indicators System Team and selected fourteen projects to begin research in summer 2013. These teams will develop and test potential new indicators that align with the vision set forth by the NCA, by combining NASA's remote sensing and modeling data products with additional datasets. Here, we further describe the objectives of the research program and highlight preliminary findings of several key projects related to physical, ecological, and societal climate change indicators, and discuss future research activities. Ultimately, this research will be made available in the peer-reviewed literature so that the newly developed indicators have the potential to be included in future NCA reports.

  20. Increasing Diversity in Global Climate Change Research for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Marchese, P.; Carlson, B. E.; Howard, A. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Druyan, L. M.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Austin, S. A.; Cheung, T. D.; Damas, M. C.; Boxe, C.; Prince, T.; Ng, C.; Frost, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global Climate Change and the ability to predict the effects of forcings and feedback mechanisms on global and local climate are critical to the survival of the inhabitants of planet Earth. It is therefore important to motivate students to continue their studies towards advanced degrees and pursue careers related to climate change. This is best accomplished by involving undergraduates in global climate change research. This Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) initiative is based at the City University of New York (CUNY) and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), and is supported by NASA and NSF. Mentors for the primarily summer research experiences include CUNY faculty and GISS scientists. Research topics include the Wetland Carbon Project, The Cooling Power Of Urban Vegetation, Internal Ocean Mixing, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Pollution Transport and Tropospheric Ozone. Students are recruited from CUNY colleges and other colleges and universities. The program maintains an emphasis on under-represented minorities and females. Approximately sixty percent of the undergraduate students are under-represented minorities and forty percent are female. The project is supported by NSF award AGS-1359293 REU Site: CUNY/GISS Center for Global Climate Research.

  1. Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, David R.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Climate engineering (CE), the intentional modification of the climate in order to reduce the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, is sometimes touted as a potential response to climate change. Increasing interest in the topic has led to proposals for empirical tests of hypothesized CE techniques, which raise serious ethical concerns. We propose three ethical guidelines for CE researchers, derived from the ethics literature on research with human and animal subjects, applicable in the event that CE research progresses beyond computer modeling. The Principle of Respect requires that the scientific community secure the global public's consent, voiced through their governmental representatives, before beginning any empirical research. The Principle of Beneficence and Justice requires that researchers strive for a favorable risk-benefit ratio and a fair distribution of risks and anticipated benefits, all while protecting the basic rights of affected individuals. Finally, the Minimization Principle requires that researchers minimize the extent and intensity of each experiment by ensuring that no experiments last longer, cover a greater geographical extent, or have a greater impact on the climate, ecosystem, or human welfare than is necessary to test the specific hypotheses in question. Field experiments that might affect humans or ecosystems in significant ways should not proceed until a full discussion of the ethics of CE research occurs and appropriate institutions for regulating such experiments are established.

  2. Research on the man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lifeng; Peng, Jinbao

    2017-03-01

    The Man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control research complex real-world environment, which requires the operator to continuously control and adjust the remote manipulator, as the background, completes the specific mission human in the loop entire system as the research object. This paper puts forward a kind of robot arm control system of Man in the loop based on gesture control, by robot arm control system based on gesture control and Virtual reality scene feedback to enhance immersion and integration of operator, to make operator really become a part of the whole control loop. This paper expounds how to construct a man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control. The system is a complex system of human computer cooperative control, but also people in the loop control problem areas. The new system solves the problems that the traditional method has no immersion feeling and the operation lever is unnatural, the adjustment time is long, and the data glove mode wears uncomfortable and the price is expensive.

  3. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  4. An Unattended Cloud-Profiling Radar for Use in Climate Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kenneth P.; Martner, Brooks E.; Post, M. J.; Kropfli, Robert A.; Welsh, David C.; Widener, Kevin B.

    1998-03-01

    A new millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR) has been designed to provide detailed, long-term observations of nonprecipitating and weakly precipitating clouds at Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Scientific requirements included excellent sensitivity and vertical resolution to detect weak and thin multiple layers of ice and liquid water clouds over the sites and long-term, unattended operations in remote locales. In response to these requirements, the innovative radar design features a vertically pointing, single-polarization, Doppler system operating at 35 GHz (Ka band). It uses a low-peak-power transmitter for long-term reliability and high-gain antenna and pulse-compressed waveforms to maximize sensitivity and resolution. The radar uses the same kind of signal processor as that used in commercial wind profilers. The first MMCR began operations at the CART in northern Oklahoma in late 1996 and has operated continuously there for thousands of hours. It routinely provides remarkably detailed images of the ever-changing cloud structure and kinematics over this densely instrumented site. Examples of the data are presented. The radar measurements will greatly improve quantitative documentation of cloud conditions over the CART sites and will bolster ARM research to understand how clouds impact climate through their effects on radiative transfer. Millimeter-wave radars such as the MMCR also have potential applications in the fields of aviation weather, weather modification, and basic cloud physics research.

  5. Climate research and climate negotiations - status and prospect; Klimaforskning og klimaforhandlinger - status og utsikter fremover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Holtsmark, Bjart; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the climate process from the preliminary work on the Climate Convention to the negotiations about the Berlin mandate about the increased commitments of the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. Future prospects are discussed up to the Kyoto meeting in 1997. A status survey is given of the climate research and possible man-made climate disturbances. The various countries take different positions on some of the most important issues in the negotiations: (1) Are the various countries to have the same goal, or should the goals be differentiated?, (2) Goal and dating of emission reductions, (3) Selection of measures and means, (4) Flexibility in the fulfillment of commitments over time, (5) Only carbon dioxide or more greenhouse gases?, (6) Is binding of carbon dioxide through net forest growth to be included in the negotiations? 32 refs., 52 figs.

  6. Reconciling justice and attribution research to advance climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo; Stone, Dáithí; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement is an important step for international climate policy, but the compensation for negative effects of climate change based on clear assignment of responsibilities remains highly debated. From both a policy and a science perspective, it is unclear how responsibilities should be defined and on what evidence base. We explore different normative principles of justice relevant to climate change impacts, and ask how different forms of causal evidence of impacts drawn from detection and attribution research could inform policy approaches in accordance with justice considerations. We reveal a procedural injustice based on the imbalance of observations and knowledge of impacts between developed and developing countries. This type of injustice needs to be considered in policy negotiations and decisions, and efforts strengthened to reduce it.

  7. Research on the climatic effects of nuclear winter: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-12-03

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has undertaken a series of research efforts to develop and implement improvements to the Community Climate Model (CCM) needed to make the model more applicable to studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war. The development of the model improvements has reached a stage where implementation may proceed, and several of the developed routines are being incorporated into the next approved version of the CCM (CCM1). Formal documentation is being completed describing the specific model improvements that have been successfully implemented. This final report includes the series of annual proposals and progress reports that have guided the project.

  8. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Hua-Dong; ZHANG; Li; ZHU; Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development,especially through providing biological,physical,and chemical parameters on a global scale.Earth observation data has the 4V features(volume,variety,veracity,and velocity) of big data that are suitable for climate change research.Moreover,the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role.This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research,such as synchronous satelliteeaerialeground observation experiments,which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors(e.g.,glaciers,lakes,vegetation,radiation,and urbanization); and global environmental change information and simulation systems.With the era of global environment change dawning,Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking.Inevitably,Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  9. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  11. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  14. Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) - An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Aviation plays an important role in global and domestic economic development and transport mobility. There are environmental concerns associated with aviation noise and emissions. Aircraft climate impacts are primarily due to release of emissions at the cruise altitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Even though small in magnitude at present, aviation climate impacts will likely increase with projected growth in air transport demand unless scientifically informed and balanced mitigation solutions are implemented in a timely manner. There are large uncertainties associated with global and regional non-CO2 aviation climate impacts which need to be well quantified and constrained to support decision making. To meet future aviation capacity needs, the United States is developing and implementing a dynamic, flexible and scalable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that is safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound. One of the stated NextGen environmental goals is to limit or reduce the impacts of aviation emissions on global climate. With the support from the participating agencies of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) with the main objective to identify and address key scientific gaps and uncertainties that are most likely to be achieved in near (up to 18 months) and mid (up to 36 months) term horizons while providing timely scientific input to inform decision making. Till date, ACCRI funded activities have resulted in release of 8 subject-specific whitepapers and a report on The Way Forward. These documents can be accessed via http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/aviation_climate/media/ACCRI_Report_final.pdf. This presentation will provide details on prioritized key scientific gaps and uncertainties to better characterize aviation climate impacts. This presentation will also include a brief

  15. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  16. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  17. Development of a two arm, high energy, high power laser for plasma research in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A. S.; Kamath, M. P.; Sharma, A. K.; Raghuramaiah, M. R.; Patidar, R. K.; Ansari, M. S.; Sreedhar, N.; Chandra, R.; Navathe, C. P.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-11-01

    We report here work done towards development of a two arm, high energy, high power Nd:phosphate glass laser system. One arm of the laser is proposed to be operated in a long pulse (˜1.5ns pulse duration) with an energy of ˜400 J. Presently, this arm of the laser is operating at energy of ˜100 J after a disc amplifier that amplifies the laser beam of diameter ˜94 mm. After the addition of two more disc amplifiers which are nearing completion, the laser beam will have energy of ˜400 J, with a beam diameter 140 mm, at an intensity of ˜2 GW/cm2. This beam will be converted to its second harmonic using a 2 × 2 array KDP crystals. The second arm, under development, will operate with a hybrid amplification scheme using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) and conventional amplification using the existing Nd:glass amplifiers to produce 50 TW, 25 J, 500 fs pulse. A tiled triangular pulse compressor is under development for compressing the stretched pulse.

  18. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  19. A study of longwave radiation codes for climate studies: Validation with ARM observations and tests in general circulation models. Final report, September 15, 1990--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.

    1998-09-01

    DOE has launched a major initiative -- the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program -- directed at improving the parameterization of the physics governing cloud and radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs). One specific goal of ARM is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in GCMs under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. In 1990, the authors proposed to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems connected with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem -- longwave radiation. In particular, their long-term research goals are to: develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations, assess the impact of the longwave radiative forcing in a GCM, determine the sensitivity of a GCM to the radiative model used in it, and determine how the longwave radiative forcing contributes relatively when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and expansion.

  20. Climate Comics: polar research in a cartoon form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Z.; Carbaugh, S.; Defrancis, G.; Donegan, R.; Brown, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Comics is a collaborative outreach effort between the Montshire Museum of Science, in Norwich, VT, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research staff, and freelance artist and recent graduate of the Center for Cartoon Studies in White River Junction, VT, Sam Carbaugh. The project involves the cartoonist, the education staff from the museum, and researchers from CRREL creating a series of comic books with polar science and research themes, including sea ice monitoring, sea ice albedo, ice cores, extreme microbial activity, and stories and the process of fieldwork. The aim of the comic series is to provide meaningful science information in a comic-format that is both informative and fun, while highlighting current polar research work done at the lab. The education staff at the Montshire Museum develops and provides a series of hands-on, inquiry-based activity descriptions to complement each comic book, and CRREL researchers provide science background information and reiterative feedback about the comic books as they are being developed. Here, we present the motivation for using the comic-book medium to present polar research topics, the process involved in creating the comics, some unique features of the series, and the finished comic books themselves. Cartoon illustrating ways snow pack can be used to determine past climate information.

  1. Overview of a new scenario framework for climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes; the risks these could pose to human and natural systems, particularly how these changes could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce the risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. Developing new scenarios for use in impacts, adaptation, and mitigation research requires more than emissions of greenhouse gases and resulting climate change. Scenarios also require assumptions about socioeconomic development, including a narrative, and qualitative and quantitative assumptions about development patterns. An insight recently gained is that the magnitude and extent of greenhouse gas emissions is relatively independent of demographic and socioeconomic development; that is, multiple demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can lead to any particular emission scenario. A relatively wealthy world with high population density could have low greenhouse gas emissions because of policies that encourage energy efficiency and sufficient low emission technology. The opposite also is plausible. Therefore, demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can be described separately from the Representative Concentration Pathways and then combined using a matrix architecture into a broader range of scenarios than was possible with the SRES. Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale. To encompass a wide range of possible development pathways, five SSPs are defined along two axes describing worlds with increasing socioeconomic challenges to mitigation (y-axis) and adaptation (x

  2. Engaging the Global South on climate engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, David E.; Flegal, Jane A.; Asrat, Asfawossen

    2015-07-01

    The Global South is relatively under-represented in public deliberations about solar radiation management (SRM), a controversial climate engineering concept. This Perspective analyses the outputs of a deliberative exercise about SRM, which took place at the University of California-Berkeley and involved 45 mid-career environmental leaders, 39 of whom were from the Global South. This analysis identifies and discusses four themes from the Berkeley workshop that might inform research and governance in this arena: (1) the 'moral hazard' problem should be reframed to emphasize 'moral responsibility'; (2) climate models of SRM deployment may not be credible as primary inputs to policy because they cannot sufficiently address local concerns such as access to water; (3) small outdoor experiments require some form of international public accountability; and (4) inclusion of actors from the Global South will strengthen both SRM research and governance.

  3. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, January, February, March 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    precisely controlled intervals. As shown in the classic experiments of Hodgkin and Huxley ," electrical impulses or action potentials develop in neurons that...Pharmacel 19:425-431, 1981. 6. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF: A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in...prostaglandins and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) Jordan E. Warnick 2 and Terry C. Pellmar l ’Physiology Department. Armed Forces

  4. Growing Diversity in Space Weather and Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Ng, C.; Marchese, P.; Austin, S.; Frost, J.; Cheung, T. D.; Robbins, I.; Carlson, B. E.; Steiner, J. C.; Tremberger, G.; Paglione, T.; Damas, C.; Howard, A.; Scalzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather and Global Climate Impacts are critical items on the present national and international science agendas. Understanding and forecasting solar activity is increasingly important for manned space flight, unmanned missions (including communications satellites, satellites that monitor the space and earth environment), and regional power grids. The ability to predict the effects of forcings and feedback mechanisms on global and local climate is critical to survival of the inhabitants of planet Earth. It is therefore important to motivate students to continue their studies via advanced degrees and pursue careers related to these areas. This CUNY-based initiative, supported by NASA and NSF, provided undergraduate research experience for more than 70 students in topics ranging from urban impacts of global climate change to magnetic rope structure, solar flares and CMEs. Other research topics included investigations of the ionosphere using a CubeSat, stratospheric aerosols in Jupiter's atmosphere, and ocean climate modeling. Mentors for the primarily summer research experiences included CUNY faculty, GISS and GSFC scientists. Students were recruited from CUNY colleges as well as other colleges including Spelman, Cornell, Rutgers and SUNY colleges. Fifty-eight percent of the undergraduate students were under-represented minorities and thirty-four percent were female. Many of the research teams included high school teachers and students as well as graduate students. Supporting workshops for students included data analysis and visualization tools, space weather, planetary energy balance and BalloonSats. The project is supported by NASA awards NNX10AE72G and NNX09AL77G, and NSF REU Site award 0851932.

  5. Transformation in a changing climate: a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Fazey, I.; Moug, P; Allen, S.; Beckmann, K.; Blackwood, D; Bonaventura, M; Burnett, K.; Danson, M; Falconer, R; Gagnon, A; Harkness, R; Hodgson, A; Holm, L; Irvine, KN; Low, R

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation in relation to climate and other global change is increasingly receiving attention. The concept provides important opportunities to help examine how rapid and fundamental change to address contemporary global challenges can be facilitated. This paper contributes to discussions about transformation by providing a social science, arts and humanities perspective to open up discussion and set out a research agenda about what it means to transform and the dimensions, ...

  6. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, E [Argonne National Laboratory; Sisterson, DL [Argonne National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily-accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed.

  7. Climate adaptation - 5 key research themes; Denmark; Klimatilpasning - 5 centrale forskningstemaer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Bent; Binnerup, S.; Bijl, L. van der; Villholth, K.G.; Drews, M.; Strand, I.F.; Henrichs, T.; Larsen, Niels; Timmermann, T.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-06-15

    The report proposes five key research themes under the heading 'Future climate and climate adaptation' which can support the Danish climate adaptation efforts. These themes underpin climate adaptation in the light of research needs identified by the research environments and sectors under the government's strategy on adaptation to climate change in Denmark from March 2008. The paper has been prepared within the framework of RESEARCH2015-proposal by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation in order to bring about the knowledge and tools that are demanded by sectors and authorities to implement the government's climate adaptation strategy. This concept paper for research themes is a thorough, holistic and inter-sectoral suggestion for future research priorities in climate adaptation with anchoring in both the research community as well as in the political-administrative system. The five key themes are; 1. Models and climate adaptation; 2. Communities and climate adaptation; 3. Construction and climate adaptation; 4. Landscape and climate adaptation; 5. Climate adaptation in the coastal zone. The overall research needs over a 5 year period is estimated at 700 million DKK, of which 85 million DKK yearly can be estimated to be financed primarily through national basic funds and research council funds. Research is assumed to be coupled to external financing, for which the EU's 7th Framework Program and the Nordic excellence and innovation program in the energy, climate and environment will be significant sources.

  8. THE IMPACT OF THERMAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Patrick [Arizona State University; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Otanicar, Todd [University of Tulsa; Phelan, Bernadette [Phelan Research Solutions, Inc.; Prasher, Ravi [Arizona State University; Taylor, Robert [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Tyagi, Himanshu [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, India

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is recognized by many people around the world as being one of the most pressing issues facing our society today. The thermal engineering research community clearly plays an important role in addressing this critical issue, but what kind of thermal engineering research is, or will be, most impactful? In other words, in what directions should thermal engineering research be targeted in order to derive the greatest benefit with respect to global climate change? To answer this question we consider the potential reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, coupled with potential economic impacts, resulting from thermal engineering research. Here a new model framework is introduced that allows a technological, sector-by-sector analysis of GHG emissions avoidance. For each sector, we consider the maximum reduction in CO2 emissions due to such research, and the cost effectiveness of the new efficient technologies. The results are normalized on a country-by-country basis, where we consider the USA, the European Union, China, India, and Australia as representative countries or regions. Among energy supply-side technologies, improvements in coal-burning power generation are seen as having the most beneficial CO2 and economic impacts. The one demand-side technology considered, residential space cooling, offers positive but limited impacts. The proposed framework can be extended to include additional technologies and impacts, such as water consumption.

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Spectral Surface Albedo Value-Added Product (VAP) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, S; Gaustad, K; Long, C; Mlawer, E

    2011-07-15

    This document describes the input requirements, output data products, and methodology for the Spectral Surface Albedo (SURFSPECALB) value-added product (VAP). The SURFSPECALB VAP produces a best-estimate near-continuous high spectral resolution albedo data product using measurements from multifilter radiometers (MFRs). The VAP first identifies best estimates for the MFR downwelling and upwelling shortwave irradiance values, and then calculates narrowband spectral albedo from these best-estimate irradiance values. The methodology for finding the best-estimate values is based on a simple process of screening suspect data and backfilling screened and missing data with estimated values when possible. The resulting best-estimate MFR narrowband spectral albedos are used to determine a daily surface type (snow, 100% vegetation, partial vegetation, or 0% vegetation). For non-snow surfaces, a piecewise continuous function is used to estimate a high spectral resolution albedo at 1 min temporal and 10 cm-1 spectral resolution.

  10. AGU Journals Among Most Cited Publications in Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jon

    2010-03-01

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) and Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (JGR-D) both ranked among the top 10 of the most highly cited research publications on climate change over the past decade in a recent analysis by sciencewatch.com, an Internet tool published by the Thomson Reuters Web of Science® that tracks trends and performances in basic research. Although Nature and Science—the multidisciplinary heavyweights—led the field, GRL ranked fifth and JGR-D ranked sixth. The study was conducted by searching the Web of Science® database for terms such as “global warming,” “climate change,” “human impact,” and other key phrases in journal articles published and cited between 1999 and the spring of 2009. The analysis produced over 28,000 papers, from which sciencewatch.com identified the most cited institutions, authors, and journals. To see the analysis in full, visit http://sciencewatch.com/ana/fea/09novdecFea/.

  11. Research Advances of Impacts of Climate Changes on Crop Climatic Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture received most direct influences from climate changes. Because of climate changes, agricultural climate resources changed and thus influenced climate adaptability of agricultural products. The growth and output of crops were finally affected. The calculation method and application of agricultural products in recent years were summarized. Several questions about the response of agricultural crops to climate elements were proposed for attention.

  12. The use of climate research in the management of climatic changes; Bruk av klimaforskning i haandteringen av klimaendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Knut H.

    2008-07-01

    The presentation aims at clarifying what is needed for increasing the influence of the climate research on development of policies and practical decisions. Various communication models are discussed with focus on relevance of the knowledge to be communicated and possible relationships between policies and knowledge, and aids such as regulations and standards. Some implications of the research are discussed and more emphasis on relevancy and political and managerial translations of the climatic research (tk)

  13. Carbon, Climate and Cameras: Showcasing Arctic research through multimedia storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachihara, B. L.; Linder, C. A.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In July 2011, Tachihara spent three weeks in the Siberian Arctic documenting The Polaris Project, an NSF-funded effort that brings together an international group of undergraduate students and research scientists to study Arctic systems. Using a combination of photography, video and interviews gathered during the field course, we produced a six-minute film focusing on the researchers' quest to track carbon as it moves from terrestrial upland areas into lakes, streams, rivers and eventually into the Arctic Ocean. The overall goal was to communicate the significance of Arctic science in the face of changing climate. Using a selection of clips from the 2011 video, we will discuss the advantages and challenges specific to using multimedia presentations to represent Arctic research, as well as science in general. The full video can be viewed on the Polaris website: http://www.thepolarisproject.org.

  14. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  15. Climate Literacy Through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Brooks, D.; Lefer, B.; Linsley, A.; Duckenfield, K.

    2006-12-01

    Expanding on the GLOBE Program's Atmosphere and Aerosol investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy in both content and the science process. Through the use of Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships, Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve the needs of the classroom as well as participating scientific investigators. During the proof-of-concept phase of this partnership model, teachers and their students developed science plans, through consultation with scientists, and began collecting atmospheric and aerosol data in support of the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) campaign in Houston Texas. This effort uses some pre-existing GLOBE materials, but draws on a variety of other resources to tailor the teacher development activities and intended student participation in a way that addresses local and regional problems. Students and teachers have learned about best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped to expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This work began with a Student-Teacher-Scientist partnership started in 2002 during a GLOBE Aerosol Protocol Cross- Ground Validation of AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements. Several other GLOBE schools, both national and international, have contributed to this research. The current project support of the intensive GoMACCS air quality and atmospheric dynamics field campaign during September and October of 2006. This model will be evaluated for wider use in other project-focused partnerships led by NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  16. Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-10

    conditioning systems.”20 A recent rise in one measure of poverty in the United States is argued by some to suggest that there may be more poor ...conclusions are common to several studies on possible health effects of climate change: the infirm, the elderly, and the poor may be disproportionately...Global Change Research Program, op. cit. 20 Ibid. 21 Madrick, Jeff. A Rise in Child Poverty Rates Is At Risk In U.S., the New York Times on the Web, June

  17. Research and Design on Detection System of Soil Compaction Degree Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyuan Tan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes detection methods of vehicular soil compaction degree based on a series of ideal conditions and GIS, which is to reflect the soil compaction degree and soil moisture through measuring the variation of acceleration amplitude of vibrating compaction wheels, in combination with the mathematical model of “vibrating drum-soil” two-degree-of-freedom vibrating system based on the analysis of the operating principle of vehicle; designs an embedded system based on ARM and modules such as the collection, processing and transmission of acceleration signals; writes application programs of system software in μC/OS-II environment; and develops a new detector of soil compaction degree. Experimental results show that this detection system can meet the requirement of comprehensive real-time monitoring for the soil compaction degree and soil moisture.

  18. Tracking Middle Grades Climate Data to Inform School Change. REL West Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory West, 2015

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that positive school climate is a key lever for students' academic and social development and success. This research digest shows how an alliance of California schools and districts, school climate experts, and state education agency personnel have teamed up to use school climate data to drive a continuous cycle of…

  19. Climate change and health: Research challenges for health in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandve Harshal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as one of the most important environmental issues ever to confront humanity. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change, and health hazards are a major concern. Research pertaining to the effects of climate change on human health is the need of the hour. This paper discusses the broad challenges in health research in developing countries with specific reference to climate change.

  20. The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carmody

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. CSBR is leading the establishment of Architecture 2030 standards in Minnesota, assisting local governments in writing green building policy, providing design assistance to local government, developing tools to assist design decision making, providing technical assistance to the affordable housing community inMinnesota, and establishing a regional case study database that includes actual performance information. CSBR is creating a publicly accessible, credible knowledge base on new approaches, technologies and actual performance outcomes. Research centers such as CSBR can be a critical component of the necessary feedback loop often lacking in the building industry. A research center can also fill major gaps in providing in depth professional education as well as be a catalyst for demonstration projects and public education.

  1. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  2. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, D.P. van; Riahi, K.; Moss, R.; Edmonds, J.; Thomson, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Kram, T.; Berkhout, F.; Swart, R.; Janetos, A.; Rose, S.K.; Arnell, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario " thread" through the different climate research communities (climate change - vulnerability, impact, and adaptation - and mitigation) in order to support assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and climate impac

  3. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van D.P.; Riahi, K.; Moss, R.; Edmonds, J.; Thomson, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Kram, T.; Berkhout, F.; Swart, R.J.; Janetos, A.; Rose, S.K.; Arnell, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario "thread" through the different climate research communities (climate change - vulnerability, impact, and adaptation - and mitigation) in order to support assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and climate impact

  4. Patterns and biases in climate change research on amphibians and reptiles: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Climate change probably has severe impacts on animal populations, but demonstrating a causal link can be difficult because of potential influences by additional factors. Assessing global impacts of climate change effects may also be hampered by narrow taxonomic and geographical research foci. We review studies on the effects of climate change on populations of amphibians and reptiles to assess climate change effects and potential biases associated with the body of work that has been conducted within the last decade. We use data from 104 studies regarding the effect of climate on 313 species, from 464 species–study combinations. Climate change effects were reported in 65% of studies. Climate change was identified as causing population declines or range restrictions in half of the cases. The probability of identifying an effect of climate change varied among regions, taxa and research methods. Climatic effects were equally prevalent in studies exclusively investigating climate factors (more than 50% of studies) and in studies including additional factors, thus bolstering confidence in the results of studies exclusively examining effects of climate change. Our analyses reveal biases with respect to geography, taxonomy and research question, making global conclusions impossible. Additional research should focus on under-represented regions, taxa and questions. Conservation and climate policy should consider the documented harm climate change causes reptiles and amphibians. PMID:27703684

  5. Patterns and biases in climate change research on amphibians and reptiles: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Maiken; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Hochachka, Wesley M; Koehncke, Arnulf; Meiri, Shai; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Climate change probably has severe impacts on animal populations, but demonstrating a causal link can be difficult because of potential influences by additional factors. Assessing global impacts of climate change effects may also be hampered by narrow taxonomic and geographical research foci. We review studies on the effects of climate change on populations of amphibians and reptiles to assess climate change effects and potential biases associated with the body of work that has been conducted within the last decade. We use data from 104 studies regarding the effect of climate on 313 species, from 464 species-study combinations. Climate change effects were reported in 65% of studies. Climate change was identified as causing population declines or range restrictions in half of the cases. The probability of identifying an effect of climate change varied among regions, taxa and research methods. Climatic effects were equally prevalent in studies exclusively investigating climate factors (more than 50% of studies) and in studies including additional factors, thus bolstering confidence in the results of studies exclusively examining effects of climate change. Our analyses reveal biases with respect to geography, taxonomy and research question, making global conclusions impossible. Additional research should focus on under-represented regions, taxa and questions. Conservation and climate policy should consider the documented harm climate change causes reptiles and amphibians.

  6. ARM Research in the Equatorial Western Pacific: A Decade and Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Charles N.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Minnis, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mather, James H.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.; Jensen, Michael; Jakob, Christian

    2013-05-22

    The tropical western Pacific (TWP) is an important climatic region. Strong solar heating, warm sea surface temperatures and the annual progression of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across this region generate abundant convective systems, which through their effects on the heat and water budgets have a profound impact on global climate and precipitation. To accurately represent tropical cloud systems in models, measurements of tropical clouds, the environment in which they reside, and their impact on the radiation and water budgets are needed. Because of the remote location, ground-based datasets of cloud, atmosphere, and radiation properties from the TWP region have traditionally come primarily from short-term field experiments. While providing extremely useful information on physical processes, these datasets are limited in statistical and climatological information because of their short duration. To provide long-term measurements of the surface radiation budget in the tropics, and the atmospheric properties that affect it, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program established a measurement site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea in 1996 and on the island republic of Nauru in late 1998. These sites provide unique datasets available from more than 10 years of operation in the equatorial western Pacific on Manus and Nauru. We present examples of the scientific use of these datasets including characterization of cloud properties, analysis of cloud radiative forcing, model studies of tropical clouds and processes, and validation of satellite algorithms. We also note new instrumentation recently installed at the Manus site that will expand opportunities for tropical atmospheric science.

  7. Survey of organizational research climates in three research intensive, doctoral granting universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James A; Thrush, Carol R; Martinson, Brian C; May, Terry A; Stickler, Michelle; Callahan, Eileen C; Klomparens, Karen L

    2014-12-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is a new instrument that assesses dimensions of research integrity climate, including ethical leadership, socialization and communication processes, and policies, procedures, structures, and processes to address risks to research integrity. We present a descriptive analysis to characterize differences on the SOuRCe scales across departments, fields of study, and status categories (faculty, postdoctoral scholars, and graduate students) for 11,455 respondents from three research-intensive universities. Among the seven SOuRCe scales, variance explained by status and fields of study ranged from 7.6% (Advisor-Advisee Relations) to 16.2% (Integrity Norms). Department accounted for greater than 50% of the variance explained for each of the SOuRCe scales, ranging from 52.6% (Regulatory Quality) to 80.3% (Integrity Inhibitors). It is feasible to implement this instrument in large university settings across a broad range of fields, department types, and individual roles within academic units. Published baseline results provide initial data for institutions using the SOuRCe who wish to compare their own research integrity climates.

  8. Fieldwork and the practical implications for completing qualitative research in the British Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan

    2014-06-01

    This article provides direction regarding the practical implications of undertaking qualitative research within the British Army, and in particular the Defence Medical Services (DMS). Qualitative researchers must gather sufficient data to answer their research question, and guidance on using DMS healthcare professionals as the research sample is offered, including dealing with the 'gatekeepers' who control access, and the principles for creating a conducive environment to gather reliable data. Data collection is often through intensive interviewing where communication skills and personal awareness are vital to a successful study. Aids to a productive study include memo writing and listing factors that may later provide an insight into how the interviewees characterise and describe particular activities, events and groups. Guidance is offered to develop an interview schedule with questions related to each other in a seamless, meaningful way. Both the researcher's and participant's conscious and unconscious biases must be acknowledged. In this narrow and specialist field, DMS researchers need extensive knowledge of clinical practice and the military's distinctive language, characterised with nuances and abbreviations. These words portray meanings and perspectives that signpost the participants' view of their empirical world. Early identification, without having to seek clarification, means that the researcher can examine hidden assumptions in the sample's own language.

  9. Measurement Capabilities of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Kluzek, C. D.; Chand, D.; Pekour, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites in three important climatic regimes that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties. ARM also operates mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months) to investigate understudied climate regimes around the globe. Finally, airborne observations by ARM's Aerial Facility (AAF) enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval algorithm development, and model evaluation that is not possible using ground-based techniques. AAF started out in 2007 as a "virtual hangar" with no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments owned by ARM. In this mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, the Battelle owned G-1 aircraft was included in the ARM facility. The G-1 is a large twin turboprop aircraft, capable of measurements up to altitudes of 7.5 km and a range of 2,800 kilometers. Furthermore the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of seventeen new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also heavily engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments. In the presentation we will showcase science applications based on measurements from recent field campaigns such as CARES, CALWATER and TCAP.

  10. Research and Utilization of NEON Technology Based on ARM Cortex-A9%ARM Cortex-A9的NEON技术研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新泽; 杨斌

    2013-01-01

    ARM Cortex-A系列处理器首次集成了NEON技术,可以有效加速多媒体应用.本文基于Cortex-A9处理器,对NEON技术进行研究,并对JM解码器进行NEON优化,提供实际优化效果.在PandaBoard开发板上对不同分辨率的多个测试序列进行了解码测试,测试结果显示,优化后的解码速率提高了,而且提高分辨率并不影响优化效果.

  11. ARM Operations Quarterly Report - April - June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-07-18

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. Climate Change and Rural Sociology: Broadening the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is the preeminent environmental problem of this time, and Joseph Molnar's call for greater attention to it by rural sociologists is both welcome and timely. The agenda he lays out for rural sociology's engagement with climate change, however, seems rather narrow and restrictive. Examining the potential impacts of climate change,…

  13. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, L.; Chu, E.; Anguelovski, I.; Aylett, A.; Debats, J.; Goh, K.; Schenk, T.; Seto, K.C.; Dodman, D.; Roberts, D.; Roberts, J.T.; VanDeveer, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers o

  14. Solar Climate Engineering and Intellectual Property : Toward a Research Commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Jesse; Contreras, Jorge L; Sarnoff, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges confronting society today. Solar climate engineering (SCE) has the potential to reduce climate risks substantially. This controversial technology would make the earth more reflective in order to counteract global warming. The science of SCE is still i

  15. Progress in Research on Climatic Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuedu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Global climatic change caused by human factors has become a major issue of increasing international concern. Climatic change may lead to irreversible change to the climatic system on the global scale, and thus result in immeasurable change to the living environment of mankind.

  16. Designing an Africa-EU research and innovation collaboration platform on climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tostensen, Arne; Monteverde Haakonsen, Jan; Hughes, Mike;

    Climate change is arguably the most significant of a set of interconnected global challenges threatening water resources and food security. In particular, the relationship between water resources, food systems and climate change is tightly coupled, and improved food security under climate change...... and ongoing successful research and innovation initiatives. Diverse actors from all over the world—from corporations to governments and citizens—are increasingly recognising the urgent need to address climate change in their respective spheres of influence. This report is intended to contribute to making...... this process more effective by developing a proposition for a platform to strengthen Africa-EU research and innovation collaboration on climate change....

  17. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  18. Inventory of Research on the Impacts of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats for the global environment today. Global mean temperature has risen by about 0.6 degrees C during the 20th century, greater than during any other century in the last 1000 years. Subsequently, climate change is likely to have detrimental effects on all global natural and anthropogenic systems. Climate change will have consequences for the structure and function of ecosystems and all the major global biomes. Also agricultural production and producti...

  19. Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldern, Matthias V.

    Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

  20. IEK-3 report 2011. Climate-relevant energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    IEK-3 is one of nine sub-institutes within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. IEK-3 aims to conduct research of social, ecological and economic relevance and thus generate groundbreaking results on an international level. This quality of work is achieved through basic research in close coordination with technical development work in relevant scientific and technical fields of expertise. Special significance is attached here to international cooperations with partners from research and industry. By implementing research results in innovative products, procedures and processes in cooperation with industry, IEK-3 hopes to help bridge the gap between science and technology. Cooperation with universities, universities of applied sciences, training departments and training centers is designed to promote opportunities for further education and training. With a staff of approximately 100, IEK-3 concentrates on the basic topics of electrochemistry and process engineering for fuel cells. In an integrated approach, the four key areas worked on in the institute - direct methanol fuel cells, high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and fuel processing systems - are accompanied by systems analysis and theoretical investigations, basic modeling and simulations, and by experimental and theoretical systems evaluations. The information generated in these areas is used to design and verify functional systems. In addition, particular attention is given to the development, configuration and application of special measuring techniques for the structural analysis of membrane electrode assemblies, for flow simulation and visualization, and for the characterization of stacks. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack pictured comprises 36 cells, each with an active cell area of 360 cm{sup 2}. The nominal power at a mean cell voltage of 800 mV is approximately 5.5 kW. The stack is operated on natural gas, which is

  1. US Agriculture and Climate Change: Perspectives from Recent Research

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Across several projections of climate change in the coming century, total food production in the United States is not found to be at risk. Some regions, however, could experience declining production and profitability due to unfavorable climate, water availability, ecological pressures, or extreme weather events.

  2. Climate exposed: tools and methods in climate research; Le climat a decouvert: Outils et methodes en recherche climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandel, C.; Mosseri, R.

    2011-07-01

    This collective book benefited from the experience of more than a hundred of contributors who present a wide survey of the methods and tools implemented to study our climate and its future. They show that, in order to tackle the extraordinary complex climate question, a pluri-disciplinary approach is more necessary than ever, at the crossroad of experiment, observation, simulation and theory. What is the greenhouse effect? Is the role of man detectable and how? How can we measure the meltdown of ice caps and glaciers or the rise of sea level? What data allow to describe and model the past climates? How can we proceed to foresee the evolution of climate? These are some of the many questions addressed in this book. (J.S.)

  3. Ethical aspects of the mitigation obstruction argument against climate engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, David R

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators fear that climate engineering research might lead policy-makers to reduce mitigation efforts. Most of the literature on this so-called 'moral hazard' problem focuses on the prediction that climate engineering research would reduce mitigation efforts. This paper focuses on a related ethical question: Why would it be a bad thing if climate engineering research obstructed mitigation? If climate engineering promises to be effective enough, it might justify some reduction in mitigation. Climate policy portfolios involving sufficiently large or poorly planned reductions in mitigation, however, could lead to an outcome that would be worse than the portfolio that would be chosen in the absence of further climate engineering research. This paper applies three ethical perspectives to describe the kinds of portfolios that would be worse than that 'baseline portfolio'. The literature on climate engineering identifies various mechanisms that might cause policy-makers to choose these inferior portfolios, but it is difficult to know in advance whether the existence of these mechanisms means that climate engineering research really would lead to a worse outcome. In the light of that uncertainty, a precautionary approach suggests that researchers should take measures to reduce the risk of mitigation obstruction. Several such measures are suggested.

  4. Research on Climate Change and Climate Change Communication%论气候变化与气候传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑保卫; 李玉洁

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the origin of the climate change, makes discussion about the rising and importance of climate change communication research, introduces the current research of climate change communication both at home and abroad, and clarifies the basic notion and way in the research. It defines the climate change communication as such a commutative activity which promotes the climate change information and related scientific knowledge to be understood and mastered by the public then to seek the solving of climate change problems as the target via changing the public's attitude and behavior regarding the climate change. While the paper also points out the meaning of this research lies in: to make theory summary and systematic explanation of the climate change communication phenomena, to do the mass dissemination and popularization work of such kind of knowledge, and to provide academic supports for those stakeholders including the government ,media ,business and NGO of climate change.%本文论述了气候变化问题的由来及发展,以及气候传播研究的兴起及意义,介绍了国外和国内气候传播研究的现状,同时厘清了气候传播研究中的一些基本概念与思路。论文认为气候传播是将气候变化信息及其相关科学知识为社会与公众所理解和掌握,并通过公众态度和行为的改变,以寻求气候变化问题解决为目标的社会传播活动;指出气候传播研究的目的及意义在于:对气候传播现象进行理论概括和系统阐释;对气候传播知识进行社会传播与推广;为政府、媒体、企业和NGO等社会组织提供有关气候传播的学术支持等。

  5. The french researches on the climatic change; Les recherches francaises sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Scientists were the first to prevent decision makers on the risk of the climatic change bond to the greenhouse gases emissions. The results of the third GIEC report confirmed that the main part of the global warming of the last 50 years is due to the human activities. This document presents the major results of the french researches during the last five years: the planet observation, the climate evolution study, the simulation of the future climate, the climatic change in France, the impacts of the climatic change on the marine and earth biosphere, the climatic risks and the public policies, the health impacts, the 2003 heat and the research infrastructures. (A.L.B.)

  6. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  7. Perceptions of climate change in China:The research and policy connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHua Zhou; J Scott Hauger; Ning Liu; HuiLing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has evolved from a scientific problem into an economic and political problem of worldwide inter-est. National perspectives play a crucial role in addressing climate change. Mutual understanding of perspectives is nec-essary to result in rational policies and a consensus among stakeholders with divergent interests. Conceptual frameworks for understanding the problem of climate change in China, the largest developing country and the largest greenhouse gas emitter, are of great significance to national and international efforts to address the problems of climate change. Chinese perceptions of climate change as a sustainable development problem have recently been in tension with an emerging Western perspective that frames climate change as a security issue. This paper explores Chinese perceptions of climate change as expressed in recent governmental policy statements, public opinion surveys, and academic scholarship with a focus on publications in Chinese-language journals, often unfamiliar in the West. It looks at the relationship between Chinese research and policy and finds that the Chinese policy frame of climate change as a sustainable development problem draws from the body of domestic research and is reflective of the perspectives and multidisciplinary approach of Chinese researchers in areas of climate change.

  8. A quantitative analysis of the causes of the global climate change research distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Strange, Niels

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades of growing scientific, political and public attention to global climate change, it has become increasingly clear that the present and projected impacts from climate change, and the ability adapt to the these changes, are not evenly distributed across the globe. This paper...... is biased toward richer countries, which are more stable and less corrupt, have higher school enrolment and expenditures on research and development, emit more carbon and are less vulnerable to climate change. Similarly, the production of knowledge, analyzed by author affiliations, is skewed away from...... the poorer, fragile and more vulnerable regions of the world. A quantitative keywords analysis of all publications shows that different knowledge domains and research themes dominate across regions, reflecting the divergent global concerns in relation to climate change. In general, research on climate change...

  9. Climate Research by K-12 Students: Can They Do It? Will Anybody Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Starting from the premise that engaging students in authentic science research is an activity that benefits science education in general, it is first necessary to consider whether students, in collaboration with teachers and climate scientists, can do climate-related research that actually has scientific value. A workshop held in November 2010, co-sponsored by NSF and NOAA, addressed this question. It took as its starting point this "scientific interest" test: "If students conduct a climate-related research project according to protocols designed in collaboration with climate scientists, when they get done, will any of those scientists care whether they did it or not?" If the answer to this question is "yes," then the project may constitute authentic research, but if the answer is "no," then the project may have educational value, but it is not research. This test is important because only when climate scientists (and other stakeholders interested in climate and climate change) are invested in the outcomes of student research will meaningful student research programs with sustainable support be forthcoming. The absence of climate-related projects in high-level student science fair competitions indicates that, currently, the investment and infrastructure required to support student climate research is lacking. As a result, climate science is losing the battle for the "hearts and minds" of today's best students. The critical task for student climate research is to define projects that are theoretically and practically accessible. This excludes the "big questions" of climate science, such as "Is Earth getting warmer?", but includes many observationally based projects that can help to refine our understanding of climate and climate change. The characteristics of collaborative climate research with students include: 1. carefully drawn distinctions between inquiry-based "learning about" activities and actual research; 2. an identified audience of potential stakeholders

  10. Bringing New Ph.D.s Together for Interdisciplinary Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Liam; Jones, Holly; Marlon, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is complex and thus requires interdisciplinary research, and new scholars are rising to that challenge. The Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS (pronounced "discourse"); see http://www.disccrs.org) brings together select groups of recent PhD graduates to encourage interdisciplinary work on climate change. The DISCCRS Symposium VII held just outside of Colorado Springs, Colo., brought together 33 graduates from fields as diverse as climatology, ecology, anthropology, and political science for an intensive week of cross-disciplinary engagement in activities like facilitation and leadership training, collaborative research development, peer networking, communication training, and analysis of working group processes.

  11. The Research and Design for the Embedded System Based on ARM9%基于ARM9的嵌入式系统研究及设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛凌燕; 杨吉宏; 李凌云; 郑志新

    2009-01-01

    为适应嵌入式技术在现代工业及电子等更多领域的广泛应用,通过对ARM9嵌入式微处理器芯片S3C2410的研究,设计出基于S3C2410核心板的嵌入式系统开发底板,更多的需求及功能可在其底板上进行扩展与实现.首先对ARM9嵌入式微处理器S3C2410进行介绍,然后给出了基于S3C2410核心板的嵌入式系统开发底板的设计与功能扩展,包括开发板总体设计,电源模块设计,各种通信模块设计如串口、JTAG接口、网络接口、CAN总线通信接口等.该模板的设计实现了嵌入式系统在更多更广泛领域应用的灵活性.%To adapting for the embedded technology's application widely in the modern industry, electron and so on,it is the design for the embedded system exploitation motherboard based on S3C2410 core board through the research on ARM9 embedded microprocessor S3C2410. More demand and function can extend and come true on the motherboard. Firstly, introduce ARM9 embedded microprocessor S3C2410. Then introduce the design for the embedded system exploitation motherboard based on S3C2410 core board and the function extend, including exploitation motherboards' collectivity design, power supply design, all kinds of communication module design, such as serial interface, JTAG interface, network interface, CAN bus communication interface and so on. The motherboard's design has realized the embedded system application's flexibility.

  12. Climate change and infectious diseases in Australia: future prospects, adaptation options, and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, David; Bi, Peng; Hall, Gillian; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Tong, Shilu; Williams, Craig

    2011-03-01

    Climate change will have significant and diverse impacts on human health. These impacts will include changes in infectious disease incidence. In this article, the authors review the current situation and potential future climate change impacts for respiratory, diarrheal, and vector-borne diseases in Australia. Based on this review, the authors suggest adaptive strategies within the health sector and also recommend future research priorities.

  13. Research for assessment, not deployment, of Climate Engineering: The German Research Foundation's Priority Program SPP 1689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Klepper, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    The historical developments are reviewed that have led from a bottom-up responsibility initiative of concerned scientists to the emergence of a nationwide interdisciplinary Priority Program on the assessment of Climate Engineering (CE) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Given the perceived lack of comprehensive and comparative appraisals of different CE methods, the Priority Program was designed to encompass both solar radiation management (SRM) and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) ideas and to cover the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic realm. First, key findings obtained by the ongoing Priority Program are summarized and reveal that, compared to earlier assessments such as the 2009 Royal Society report, more detailed investigations tend to indicate less efficiency, lower effectiveness, and often lower safety. Emerging research trends are discussed in the context of the recent Paris agreement to limit global warming to less than two degrees and the associated increasing reliance on negative emission technologies. Our results show then when deployed at scales large enough to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2, even CDR methods such as afforestation—often perceived as "benign"—can have substantial side effects and may raise severe ethical, legal, and governance issues. We suppose that before being deployed at climatically relevant scales, any negative emission or CE method will require careful analysis of efficiency, effectiveness, and undesired side effects.

  14. The last decade in ecological climate change impact research: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Anja; Bittner, Torsten; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly affecting organisms and ecosystems. The amount of research and the number of articles in this field is overwhelming. However, single studies necessarily consider limited aspects. Hence, there is an increasing need for structuring the research approaches and findings in climate change research in order to direct future action in an efficient way towards research gaps and areas of uncertainty. Here, we review the current state of knowledge accumulated over the last 10 years (2003-2012) about impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems. Almost 1,200 articles of the scientific literature listed in the ISI Web of Science are analysed. We explore the geographical distribution of knowledge gain, the studied taxonomic groups, ecosystems and environmental parameters as well as the applied methods. Several knowledge gaps arise. Most of the first authors of the analysed articles are residents of North America, Australia or Europe. A similar pattern is found for the study areas. Vascular plants and therewith forests are the most studied taxonomic group and ecosystem. The use of models to estimate potential impacts of climate change is well established in climate change impact research and is continuously developing. However, there is a lack of empirical data derived from experimental climate change simulations. In a rapidly evolving research landscape, this review aims at providing an overview of the current patterns of knowledge distribution and research demands arising from knowledge gaps and biases. Our results should help to identify future research needs and priorities.

  15. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH:USING ARM OBSERVATIONS & ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE CAM3 CLOUDS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STOCHASTIC CLOUD-RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Richard

    2013-08-22

    The long-range goal of several past and current projects in our DOE-supported research has been the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global models. The main objective of the present project being reported on here has been to develop and apply advanced statistical techniques, including Bayesian posterior estimates, to diagnose and evaluate features of both observed and simulated clouds. The research carried out under this project has been novel in two important ways. The first is that it is a key step in the development of practical stochastic cloud-radiation parameterizations, a new category of parameterizations that offers great promise for overcoming many shortcomings of conventional schemes. The second is that this work has brought powerful new tools to bear on the problem, because it has been a collaboration between a meteorologist with long experience in ARM research (Somerville) and a mathematician who is an expert on a class of advanced statistical techniques that are well-suited for diagnosing model cloud simulations using ARM observations (Shen).

  16. The ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, W.E.; Barnes, F.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Tropical Western Pacific Program Office; Ackerman, T.P.; Mather, J.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology

    1998-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific, and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. This paper describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  17. ARM User Survey Report: Data Access, Quality, and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, JH; Roeder, LR; Sivaraman, C

    2012-06-28

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to determine how users of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Data Archive interact with the more than 2000 available types of datastreams. The survey also gathered information about data discovery and data quality. The Market and Competitive Analysis group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory worked with web administrators to develop a landing page from which users could access the survey. A survey invitation was sent by ARM via email to about 6100 users on February 22, 2012. The invitation was also posted on the ARM website and Facebook page. Reminders were sent via e-mail and posted on Facebook while the survey was open, February 22-March 23, 2012.

  18. Extending Lkn Climate Regionalization with Spatial Regularization: AN Application to Epidemiological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander; Gel, Yulia R.; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method) to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step) to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step) to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step) to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  19. EXTENDING LKN CLIMATE REGIONALIZATION WITH SPATIAL REGULARIZATION: AN APPLICATION TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Liss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  20. Gordon Research Conference on Radiation & Climate in 2009, July 5 -10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiang Fu

    2009-07-10

    The 2009 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on the outstanding issues in global climate change with focus on the radiative forcing and sensitivity of the climate system and associated physical processes. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, including grand challenges in radiation and climate, radiative forcing, climate feedbacks, cloud processes in climate system, hydrological cycle in changing climate, absorbing aerosols and Asian monsoon, recent climate changes, and geo-engineering. The invited speakers will present the recent most important advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists especially junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  1. Soil moisture and root water uptake in climate models. Research Programme Climate Changes Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.; Wipfler, E.L.; Feddes, R.A.; Meijgaard, van E.; Hurk, van den B.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate simulation of the energy and water balance near the Earth surface is important to improve the performance of regional climate models. We used a detailed ecohydrological model to rank the importance of vegetation and soil factors with respect to evapotranspiration modeling. The results

  2. ARM/GCSS/SPARC TWP-ICE CRM Intercomparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Petch, Jon; Field, Paul; Hill, Adrian; McFarquhar, Greg; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua

    2010-01-01

    Specifications are provided for running a cloud-resolving model (CRM) and submitting results in a standardized format for inclusion in a n intercomparison study and archiving for public access. The simulated case study is based on measurements obtained during the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) led by the U. S. department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The modeling intercomparison study is based on objectives developed in concert with the Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) program and the GEWEX cloud system study (GCSS) program. The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is a core project of the World Climate Research PRogramme (WCRP).

  3. Integrating solar energy and climate research into science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alan K.; Hamilton, James; Ligon, Sam; Mahar, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes multi-year records of solar flux and climate data from two solar power sites in Vermont. We show the inter-annual differences of temperature, wind, panel solar flux, electrical power production, and cloud cover. Power production has a linear relation to a dimensionless measure of the transmission of sunlight through the cloud field. The difference between panel and air temperatures reaches 24°C with high solar flux and low wind speed. High panel temperatures that occur in summer with low wind speeds and clear skies can reduce power production by as much as 13%. The intercomparison of two sites 63 km apart shows that while temperature is highly correlated on daily (R2=0.98) and hourly (R2=0.94) timescales, the correlation of panel solar flux drops markedly from daily (R2=0.86) to hourly (R2=0.63) timescales. Minimum temperatures change little with cloud cover, but the diurnal temperature range shows a nearly linear increase with falling cloud cover to 16°C under nearly clear skies, similar to results from the Canadian Prairies. The availability of these new solar and climate datasets allows local student groups, a Rutland High School team here, to explore the coupled relationships between climate, clouds, and renewable power production. As our society makes major changes in our energy infrastructure in response to climate change, it is important that we accelerate the technical education of high school students using real-world data.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3: Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the Environmental Sciences Division of OHER, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program continues DOE`s long-term commitment to understanding the local, regional, and global effects of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and analytical studies in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, photochemically produced oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The atmospheric studies in Complex Terrain Program applies basic research on atmospheric boundary layer structure and evolution over inhomogeneous terrain to DOE`s site-specific and generic mission needs in site safety, air quality, and climate change. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements, the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics, and Quantitative Links program to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized in two broad research areas: atmospheric research; and climate research. This report describes the progress in fiscal year 1993 in each of these areas. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  5. Climate Discovery: Integrating Research With Exhibit, Public Tours, K-12, and Web-based EPO Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Carbone, L.; Gardiner, L.; Johnson, R.; Russell, R.; Advisory Committee, S.; Ammann, C.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Climate Discovery Exhibit at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab provides an exciting conceptual outline for the integration of several EPO activities with other well-established NCAR educational resources and programs. The exhibit is organized into four topic areas intended to build understanding among NCAR's 80,000 annual visitors, including 10,000 school children, about Earth system processes and scientific methods contributing to a growing body of knowledge about climate and global change. These topics include: 'Sun-Earth Connections,' 'Climate Now,' 'Climate Past,' and 'Climate Future.' Exhibit text, graphics, film and electronic media, and interactives are developed and updated through collaborations between NCAR's climate research scientists and staff in the Office of Education and Outreach (EO) at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). With funding from NCAR, paleoclimatologists have contributed data and ideas for a new exhibit Teachers' Guide unit about 'Climate Past.' This collection of middle-school level, standards-aligned lessons are intended to help students gain understanding about how scientists use proxy data and direct observations to describe past climates. Two NASA EPO's have funded the development of 'Sun-Earth Connection' lessons, visual media, and tips for scientists and teachers. Integrated with related content and activities from the NASA-funded Windows to the Universe web site, these products have been adapted to form a second unit in the Climate Discovery Teachers' Guide about the Sun's influence on Earth's climate. Other lesson plans, previously developed by on-going efforts of EO staff and NSF's previously-funded Project Learn program are providing content for a third Teachers' Guide unit on 'Climate Now' - the dynamic atmospheric and geological processes that regulate Earth's climate. EO has plans to collaborate with NCAR climatologists and computer modelers in the next year to develop

  6. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  7. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukarenko Natalia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. Objective: To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender. Methods: A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords. Results: Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion. Conclusion: Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both

  8. The WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset: A new era in climate change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehl, G.A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Covey, C.; Taylor, K.E. [Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Livermore, CA (United States); Delworth, T.; Stouffer, R.J. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); Latif, M. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); McAvaney, B. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne (Australia); Mitchell, J.F.B. [Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    A coordinated set of global coupled climate model [atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM)] experiments for twentieth- and twenty-first-century climate, as well as several climate change commitment and other experiments, was run by 16 modeling groups from 11 countries with 23 models for assessment in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Since the assessment was completed, output from another model has been added to the dataset, so the participation is now 17 groups from 12 countries with 24 models. This effort, as well as the subsequent analysis phase, was organized by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Working Group on Coupled Models (WGCM) Climate Simulation Panel, and constitutes the third phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). The dataset is called the WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset, and represents the largest and most comprehensive international global coupled climate model experiment and multimodel analysis effort ever attempted. As of March 2007, the Program for Climate Model Diagnostics and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has collected, archived, and served roughly 32 TB of model data. With oversight from the panel, the multimodel data were made openly available from PCMDI for analysis and academic applications. Over 171 TB of data had been downloaded among the more than 1000 registered users to date. Over 200 journal articles, based in part on the dataset, have been published so far. Though initially aimed at the IPCC AR4, this unique and valuable resource will continue to be maintained for at least the next several years. Never before has such an extensive set of climate model simulations been made available to the international climate science community for study. The ready access to the multimodel dataset opens up these types of model analyses to researchers, including students, who previously could not obtain state

  9. Living with a Star: New Opportunities in Sun-Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, John Allen

    2003-01-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the last quarter century in all of these needed areas, covering the two essential halves of the Sun-Climate question: in what we know of solar variations and, equally important, in what we know of the climate system and of climatic changes. These research achievements allow us to examine all aspects of the question more directly and quantitatively than was ever possible before, and in the brighter light and more objective context of other known or suspected climate change mechanisms, including human-induced global greenhouse warming. Brief summaries of present status and current understanding are given below for nine facets of Sun-Climate science in which major progress has been made in recent years. At the same time it will be seen that in every instance, significant elements of uncertainty still remain, Some of the most important of these unanswered questions are considered later, in Section IV.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Climate Research Roadmap Workshop: Summary Report, May 13-14, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    In recognition of the ongoing advances and challenges of climate change research, DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) organized a workshop asking the scientific community to identify the current state of climate science. The goal of the workshop was to determine the research challenges important for developing a predictive understanding of global climate. Participants were asked to focus on interdisciplinary research that capitalized on BER's scientific strengths in Atmospheric System Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science, and Climate and Earth System Modeling. Approximately 50 scientists representing these three areas were asked to identify desired outcomes for the next 10 years. Goals were identified for the near (1--3 years), mid (4--7 years), and long term (8--10 years). Discussions were focused by discipline (atmospheric, terrestrial, and modeling) and by latitude (high, temperate, and tropical). In addition, opportunities and needs for integration across disciplines and latitudes were identified with a specific focus on crosscutting challenges and outcomes. BER will use this workshop output to update its strategic plan for climate research.

  12. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  13. Integrated web system of geospatial data services for climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets are currently actively used for modeling, interpretation and forecasting of climatic and ecosystem changes on different spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their huge size (up to tens terabytes for a single dataset) a special software supporting studies in the climate and environmental change areas is required. An approach for integrated analysis of georefernced climatological data sets based on combination of web and GIS technologies in the framework of spatial data infrastructure paradigm is presented. According to this approach a dedicated data-processing web system for integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced climatological and meteorological data is being developed. It is based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and involves many modern solutions such as object-oriented programming model, modular composition, and JavaScript libraries based on GeoExt library, ExtJS Framework and OpenLayers software. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Agreement #14.613.21.0037.

  14. Trends in research on global climate change: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2011-05-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the global scientific output of climate change research over the past 18 years and to assess the characteristics of the research patterns, tendencies, and methods in the papers. Data were based on the online version of Science Citation Index Expanded from 1992 to 2009. Articles referring to climate change were assessed by distribution of source countries, source institutes, paper titles, author keywords, KeyWords Plus, abstracts, and the most cited articles in these years. By synthetic analysis of the four kinds of keywords, it was concluded that the items "temperature", "environment", "precipitation", "greenhouse gas", "risk", and "biodiversity" will be the foci of climate change research in the 21st century, while "model", "monitoring", and "remote sensing" will continue to be the leading research methods. A novel method, "phylogeography", may have a strong application potential in the near future.

  15. Climate change: Opportunities for collaborative research in the Magellan and Antarctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaña, Ricardo; Ríos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the main points and ideas arising during the fourth session "Climate Change: Op-portunities for scientific cooperation in the Region of Magallanes and Antarctica" of the International Colloquium "Climate Change in Magellan and Antarctic regions: Evidence and Challenges for the Future" are presented. These explored the availability and data needs, gaps and lack of knowledge, suggestions for topics and objectives in the planning of new research associated to understanding of clim...

  16. Reconciling collaborative action research with existing institutions: insights from Dutch and German climate knowledge programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Buuren, van A.; Knieling, J.; Gottschick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers increasingly aim to set up collaborative research programmes to address the challenges of adaptation to climate change. This does not only apply for technical knowledge, but for governance knowledge also. Both the Netherlands and Germany have set up large scale collabora

  17. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    International Indoor Air Symposium in Copenhagen 1978--this research spread to many countries and today it is carried out globally by probably 2000 scientists. This paper recounts the history of Danish indoor climate research, focusing on the three decades from the early 1960s to the founding of the Indoor Air...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. NIST Infrared Blackbody Calibration Support for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Zeng, J.; Mekhontsev, S.; Khromchenko, V.

    2012-12-01

    The National Institute of Technology (NIST) Sensor Science Division has established measurement capabilities in support of various existing and planned satellite programs, which monitor key parameters for the study of climate change, such as solar irradiance, earth radiance, and atmospheric effects. These capabilities include the characterization of infrared reference blackbody sources and cavity radiometers, as well as the materials used to coat the cavity surfaces. In order to accurately measure high levels of effective emissivity and absorptance of cavities, NIST has developed a laser- and integrating-sphere-based facility (the Complete Hemispherical Infrared Laser-based Reflectometer (CHILR)). The system is used for both radiometer and blackbody cavity characterization. Multiple laser sources with wavelengths ranging from 1.5 μm to 23 μm are used to perform reflectance (1 - emissivity (or absorptance)) measurements of radiometer cavities. Measurements have been performed for numerous instruments including the Internal Calibration Target (ICT)) blackbody source used for calibration of the Cross track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) instrument on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), both for the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), as well as the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) instrument, and blackbodies constructed for prototyping of an infrared instrument on the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). For a more comprehensive understanding of the measurement results, NIST has also measured samples of the coated surfaces of the cavities and associated baffles. This includes several types of reflectance measurements: specular, directional-hemispherical (diffuse), and bi-directional distribution function (BRDF). The first two are performed spectrally and provide information that enables estimation of the cavity performance where laser sources for CHILR are not available

  20. The research of Polar sea ice and its role in climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As an important part of global climate system, the Polar sea ice is effecting on global climate changes through ocean surface radiation balance, mass balance, energy balance as well as the circulating of sea water temperature and salinity. Sea ice research has a centuries-old history. The many correlative sea ice projects were established through the extensive international cooperation during the period from the primary research of intensity and the bearing capacity of sea ice to the development of sea/ice/air coupled model. Based on these researches, the sea ice variety was combined with the global climate change. All research about sea ice includes: the physical properties and processes of sea ice and its snow cover, the ecosystem of sea ice regions, sea ice and upper snow albedo, mass balance of sea ice regions, sea ice and climate coupled model. The simulation suggests that the both of the area and volume of polar sea ice would be reduced in next century. With the developing of the sea ice research, more scientific issues are mentioned. Such as the interaction between sea ice and the other factors of global climate system, the seasonal and regional distribution of polar sea ice thickness, polar sea ice boundary and area variety trends, the growth and melt as well as their influencing factors, the role of the polynya and the sea/air interactions. We should give the best solutions to all of the issues in future sea ice studying.

  1. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Research to Facilitate Climate Communication Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Johnson, B. B.; Nackerman, C. J.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change represents the worst of wicked environmental problems, requiring collaborations among individuals and groups that cross public, private and voluntary sectors on a global scale to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for impacts. The Climate Communication Consortium of Maryland represents such a collaboration on a state level for the purpose of supporting governments, non-profits, businesses and universities in communicating with the public about climate and energy within the context of multiple frames, such as public health, extreme weather, and coastal resilience. The collaboration was developed using communication research as an organizational framework - providing data from yearly public opinion surveys on Marylanders' attitudes, behaviors and policy support, and a variety of other qualitative and quantitative studies. In this presentation, we will highlight four dimensions of the use of research within collaborative organizational climate communication that can lead to success, or impediments: 1) individual organizational ability and resources for using audience data; 2) the linking of research questions to programmatic development goals and processes; 3) the weighing of audience- versus communicator-oriented values and priorities; and 4) identification of overarching communication objectives that span individual organizational interests. We will illustrate these dimensions using findings from surveys of our member organizations describing the types of barriers organizations face in communicating about climate change effectively, including their use of formative and evaluative research, and will discuss some of the findings from our public opinion and experimental research, illustrating the ways in which these findings influenced programmatic development and were used by Consortium member organizations.

  2. Development of Distributed Research Center for analysis of regional climatic and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E.; Shiklomanov, A.; Okladnikov, I.; Prusevich, A.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach and first results of a collaborative project being carried out by a joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center UNH, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software platform prototype of a Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes in the Northern extratropical areas. The DRC should provide the specialists working in climate related sciences and decision-makers with accurate and detailed climatic characteristics for the selected area and reliable and affordable tools for their in-depth statistical analysis and studies of the effects of climate change. Within the framework of the project, new approaches to cloud processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) inherent to climate change studies are developed and deployed on technical platforms of both institutions. We discuss here the state of the art in this domain, describe web based information-computational systems developed by the partners, justify the methods chosen to reach the project goal, and briefly list the results obtained so far.

  3. Program on Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Bridging Policy Making and Science Research in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.; Chiang, W.; Sui, C.; Tung, C.; Ho, H.; Li, M.; Chan, S.; Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Program, National Science Council, Taiwan

    2010-12-01

    Climate changes adaptation needs innovative technological revolution on demand for transdisciplinary studies in various temporal and spatial scales. In our proposed program, a systematic and scientific framework will be developed to promote innovative adaptation technologies with respect to providing decision making information for government sectors, enhancing applicability of scientific research output, strengthening national research capabilities, and integrating both academic and non-academic resources. The objectives of this program are to identify key issues, required technologies, and scientific knowledge for climate change adaptations, and to build a transdisciplinary platform bridging science-supported technologies required by government sectors and demand-oriented scientific research conducted by academic communities. The approach proposed herein will be practiced in vulnerable regions, such as urban, rural, mountain, river basin, and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive to climate change. The first phase of 3-year (2011~2013) work is to deploy framework and strategies of climate change impact assessment and adaptation measures between related government sectors and researchers from academic communities. The proposed framework involves three principle research groups, namely Environmental System, Vulnerability Assessment, and Risk Management and Adaptation Technology. The goal of the first group, Environmental System, is to combine climate change projections with enhanced scientific and environmental monitoring technologies for better adaptations to future scenarios in different social, economic, and environmental sectors to support adaptation measures planning and to reduce uncertainties on assessing vulnerability. The goal of the second group, Vulnerability Assessment, is to identify interfaces and information structures of climate change vulnerably issues and to develop protocol, models, and indices for vulnerability assessment. The goal of

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  5. EdGCM: Research Tools for Training the Climate Change Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M. A.; Sohl, L. E.; Zhou, J.; Sieber, R.

    2011-12-01

    Climate scientists employ complex computer simulations of the Earth's physical systems to prepare climate change forecasts, study the physical mechanisms of climate, and to test scientific hypotheses and computer parameterizations. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report (2007) demonstrates unequivocally that policy makers rely heavily on such Global Climate Models (GCMs) to assess the impacts of potential economic and emissions scenarios. However, true climate modeling capabilities are not disseminated to the majority of world governments or U.S. researchers - let alone to the educators who will be training the students who are about to be presented with a world full of climate change stakeholders. The goal is not entirely quixotic; in fact, by the mid-1990's prominent climate scientists were predicting with certainty that schools and politicians would "soon" be running GCMs on laptops [Randall, 1996]. For a variety of reasons this goal was never achieved (nor even really attempted). However, around the same time NASA and the National Science Foundation supported a small pilot project at Columbia University to show the potential of putting sophisticated computer climate models - not just "demos" or "toy models" - into the hands of non-specialists. The Educational Global Climate Modeling Project (EdGCM) gave users access to a real global climate model and provided them with the opportunity to experience the details of climate model setup, model operation, post-processing and scientific visualization. EdGCM was designed for use in both research and education - it is a full-blown research GCM, but the ultimate goal is to develop a capability to embed these crucial technologies across disciplines, networks, platforms, and even across academia and industry. With this capability in place we can begin training the skilled workforce that is necessary to deal with the multitude of climate impacts that will occur over the coming decades. To

  6. New observational capabilities on atmospheric sciences of the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) Graciosa island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Kim; Ortega, Paul; Azevedo, Eduardo; Miller, Mark

    2016-04-01

    One source of uncertainty that thwarts accurate and comprehensive representation of the present and future climate in models is the response of shallow cloud systems to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols. Low clouds systems that prevail over subtropical oceans, in particular, play a critical role in boundary layer dynamics and in the global climate, despite being poorly represented in climate models. The Azores have been identified as an optimal site to conduct research aimed at better understanding the physical processes and life cycle of marine stratocumulus and other marine boundary layer clouds. The United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Program has been providing data to advance research from atmospheric observations at diverse climatic regimes around the world (http://www.arm.gov/) for over 20 years. Since 2009, the Azores has been included in this global program. The campaign of the ARM Mobile Facility at Graciosa Island, Azores, in the context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) project, added the most extensive and comprehensive dataset of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds to date. Solid preliminary findings from this valuable data set have been used to understand interactions between the cloud microphysical and macrophysical processes in marine boundary layer clouds that play a fundamental role in the cloud dynamics and precipitation, which in turn determine cloud radiative properties that impact on the energy balance of the Earth. Based upon the design and siting from the previous ARM Mobile Facility in support of CAP-MBL, the new Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) fixed site joined the global network of ARM Climate Research Facilities in October 2013. Since then, this user facility has augmented its baseline measurement capability to include a Ka-/W-Band scanning cloud radar, an X-Band precipitation radar and Raman and Doppler lidars. Coupled

  7. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, Bruce A. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  8. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...... changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research...

  9. Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Kokkalis, Alexandros; Bardarson, H.;

    2016-01-01

    representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social...... across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we...... evaluated the development of climate change related marine science by quantifying trends in number of publications, disciplinarity, and scientific focus of 1362 research articles published between 1990 and 2011. Our analysis showed a faster increase in publications within climate change related marine...

  10. [Advance to the research of the climate factor effect on the distribution of plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A P; Wei, R J; Xiong, H M; Wang, Z Y

    2016-05-01

    Plague is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis ,which developed by many factors including local climate factors. In recent years, more and more studies on the effects of climate on plague were conducted. According to the researches, climate factors (mainly the rainfall and temperature) affected the development and distribution of plague by influencing the abundance of plague host animals and fleas index. The climate also affected the epidemic dynamics and the scope of plague. There were significant differences existing in the influence of climate on the palgue developed in the north and south China. In the two different plague epidemic systems, the solitary Daurian ground squirrel-flea-plague and the social Mongolian gerbil-flea-plague, the obvious population differences existed among the responses of the host animal to the climate changes. Although the internal relationship between the rainfall, the flea index, the density of rodents and the plague supported the nutritional cascade hypothesis, it can not prove that there is a clear causality between the occurrence of plague and rainfall. So the influence of climate factors on plague distribution can only be used for early forecasting and warning of the plague.

  11. Research on Climate Change and Its Impacts Needs Freedom of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mölders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change captured my interest as a teenager when, at the dining table, my dad talked about potential anthropogenic climate changes. He brought up subjects such as “climate could change if the Siberian Rivers were to be deviated to the South for irrigation of the (semi arid areas of the former Soviet Union”. Other subjects were afforestation in the Sahel to enhance precipitation recycling, deforestation in the Tropics that could have worldwide impacts on climate, the local climate impacts of the Merowe High Dam in its vicinity and downstream, Atlantropa, a new ice age, and the increase in days with sunshine after the introduction of the high-chimney policy in the Rhein-Ruhr area, just to mention a few.

  12. ARCADE - Atmospheric Research for Climate and Astroparticle DEtection

    CERN Document Server

    Buscemi, M; Cilmo, M; Coco, M; Ferrarese, S; Guarino, F; Tonachini, A S; Valore, L; Wiencke, L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the optical properties of the atmosphere in the near UV, in particular the tropospheric aerosol stratification, clouds optical depth and spatial distribution are common in the field of atmospheric physics, due to aerosol effect on climate, and also in cosmic rays physics, for a correct reconstruction of energy and longitudinal development of showers. The goal of the ARCADE project is the comparison of the aerosol attenuation measurements obtained with the typical techniques used in cosmic ray experiments (side-scattering measurement, elastic LIDAR and Raman LIDAR) in order to assess the systematic errors affecting each method providing simultaneous observations of the same air mass with different techniques. For this purpose we projected a LIDAR that is now under construction: it will use a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser and will collect the elastic and the N2 Raman back-scattered light. For the side-scattering measurement we will use the Atmospheric Monitoring Telescope, a facility owned by the ...

  13. Enhancing and expanding intersectional research for climate change adaptation in agrarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hall, Mary; Carr, Edward R; Pascual, Unai

    2016-12-01

    Most current approaches focused on vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation to climate change frame gender and its influence in a manner out-of-step with contemporary academic and international development research. The tendency to rely on analyses of the sex-disaggregated gender categories of 'men' and 'women' as sole or principal divisions explaining the abilities of different people within a group to adapt to climate change, illustrates this problem. This framing of gender persists in spite of established bodies of knowledge that show how roles and responsibilities that influence a person´s ability to deal with climate-induced and other stressors emerge at the intersection of diverse identity categories, including but not limited to gender, age, seniority, ethnicity, marital status, and livelihoods. Here, we provide a review of relevant literature on this topic and argue that approaching vulnerability to climate change through intersectional understandings of identity can help improve adaptation programming, project design, implementation, and outcomes.

  14. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Sikka; P Sanjeeva Rao

    2000-06-01

    The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July-August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional observational systems to collect information about the coupled ocean-atmosphere system over the warm waters of the Bay of Bengal. The paper gives the background of the ICRP and the organisation and implementation of the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) in its field phase.

  15. Intersections of downscaling, the ethics of climate services, and regional research grand challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, B.; Jack, C. D.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Possibly the leading complication for users of climate information for policy and adaptation is the confusing mix of contrasting data sets that offer widely differing (and often times fundamentally contradictory) indications of the magnitude and direction of past and future regional climate change. In this light, the most pressing scientific-societal challenge is the need to find new ways to understand the sources of conflicting messages from multi-model, multi-method and multi-scale disparities, to develop and implement new analytical methodologies to address this difficulty and so to advance the interpretation and communication of robust climate information to decision makers. Compounding this challenge is the growth of climate services which, in view of the confusing mix of climate change messages, raises serious concerns as to the ethics of communication and dissemination of regional climate change data.The Working Group on Regional Climate (WGRC) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) oversees the CORDEX downscaling program which offers a systematic approach to compare the CMIP5 GCMs alongside RCMs and Empirical-statistical (ESD) downscaling within a common experimental design, and which facilitates the evaluation and assessment of the relative information content and sources of error. Using results from the CORDEX RCM and ESD evaluation experiment, and set against the regional messages from the CMIP5 GCMs, we examine the differing messages that arise from each data source. These are then considered in terms of the implications of consequence if each data source were to be independently adopted in a real world use-case scenario. This is then cast in the context of the emerging developments on the distillation dilemma - where the pressing need is for multi-method integration - and how this relates to the WCRP regional research grand challenges.

  16. The health effects of climate change: a survey of recent quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Margherita; Manera, Matteo; Chiabai, Aline; Markandya, Anil

    2012-05-01

    In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or long-run climate variations affect the occurrence of infectious diseases? Second, is it possible to build more accurate quantitative models which are capable of predicting the future effects of different climate conditions on the transmissibility of particularly dangerous infectious diseases? The primary goal of this paper is to review the most relevant contributions which have directly tackled those questions, both with respect to the effects of climate changes on the diffusion of non-infectious and infectious diseases, with malaria as a case study. Specific attention will be drawn on the methodological aspects of each study, which will be classified according to the type of quantitative model considered, namely time series models, panel data and spatial models, and non-statistical approaches. Since many different disciplines and approaches are involved, a broader view is necessary in order to provide a better understanding of the interactions between climate and health. In this respect, our paper also presents a critical summary of the recent literature related to more general aspects of the impacts of climate changes on human health, such as: the economics of climate change; how to manage the health effects of climate change; the establishment of Early Warning Systems for infectious diseases.

  17. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  18. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  19. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2015-12-01

    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  20. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Cinquini, L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  1. Some reflections on researches of Future Earth changes in air quality and climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiao-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of our current research and understanding of climate change,decisionmakers are particularly concerned with the extent of future climate change,its comprehensive impact,and the types of socioeconomic pathways available with respect to mitigation and adaptation.Among the factors contributing to these important issues,the role of air pollution in global and regional climate warming remains as one of the largest uncertainties.On the basis of understanding of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report,specifically,in the role of air pollution in climate change,scenarios establishment,and relationship between the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways(SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways(RCPs).Weaknesses and reflections were discussed here especially in strengthening impact,adaptation and mitigation research that related with changes in air pollution and climate.In the future,there are needs to in-depth understand how and why the air pollution in China is so serious and changing; to understand the likely future changes in air pollution and climate; to strengthen comprehensive impact research and selective reduction strategies related to changes in air pollution and climate.Furthermore,this study outlines the needs to develop strategies to close the loop of differential impacts and costs; to establish co-benefits and sustainable development goals,to identify the crucial risks and options for synergies/trade-offs; to integrate sector-specific details with macro-economics,and to integrate the assessments of the various policy instruments.All these focus areas will help to facilitate the transition of economic development patterns towards green and low-carbon development.

  2. Climate Change Science Teaching through Integration of Technology in Instruction and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Ozbay, G.; Robinson, L.; Klimkowski, V.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation demonstrates the importance of collaborations between the institutions with common focus on offering the academic program on climate change science. Virginia State University (VSU) developed and established the course on climate change and adaptation, AGRI 350 for undergraduates, in cooperation with two HBCUs, Delaware State University (DSU) and Morgan State University (MSU). This program was developed to enhance the science curriculum with funding from the USDA NIFA. The hands-on research opportunities for students were supported by the NSF HBCU UP Supplement Grant at VSU. The technical guidance and lesson plans were available through the courtesy of the AMS and faculty/student team training at the NCAR. In the initial stages, the faculty members participated in faculty development workshops hosted by the AMS and NCAR. This contributed to trained faculty members developing the courses on Climate Change at VSU, DSU, and MSU. To create awareness of global climate change and exposure of students to international programs, seven students from VSU, MSU, and DSU participated in the Climate Change course (ENS 320) at the University of Sunshine Coast (USC), Australia. This international experience included faculty members in using SimCLIM for climate change data into decision-making with regard to potential changes to cropping systems and tree growth. The Climate Change program at VSU, DSU, and MSU is emerging into comprehensive academic program which includes use of case studies and exchange of students' reflections with their peers through discussion board and videoconferencing, hands-on research on water quality monitoring and mapping the study sites, and integration of geospatial technologies and i-Tree. In addition, the students' engagement in intensive research was conducted through hands-on experience with Scanning Electron Microscopy in the Marine Science Department, University of Hawaii at Hilo in summer 2015.

  3. Some reflections on researches of Future Earth changes in air quality and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of our current research and understanding of climate change, decisionmakers are particularly concerned with the extent of future climate change, its comprehensive impact, and the types of socioeconomic pathways available with respect to mitigation and adaptation. Among the factors contributing to these important issues, the role of air pollution in global and regional climate warming remains as one of the largest uncertainties. On the basis of understanding of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, specifically, in the role of air pollution in climate change, scenarios establishment, and relationship between the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. Weaknesses and reflections were discussed here especially in strengthening impact, adaptation and mitigation research that related with changes in air pollution and climate. In the future, there are needs to in-depth understand how and why the air pollution in China is so serious and changing; to understand the likely future changes in air pollution and climate; to strengthen comprehensive impact research and selective reduction strategies related to changes in air pollution and climate. Furthermore, this study outlines the needs to develop strategies to close the loop of differential impacts and costs; to establish co-benefits and sustainable development goals, to identify the crucial risks and options for synergies/trade-offs; to integrate sector-specific details with macro-economics, and to integrate the assessments of the various policy instruments. All these focus areas will help to facilitate the transition of economic development patterns towards green and low-carbon development.

  4. Evaluating a 5 year climate change research teacher professional development program in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, P.; Rudd, L.; McAlister, J.; Bonde, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of a 5 yr NSF funded project, part of Nevada ';s Climate Change Research Education and Outreach EPSCoR award. Goals of the K-12 portion of the project included: a replicable professional development model of K-12 climate change science education for Nevada and other institutions; strengthened relationships between secondary school teachers and NSHE climate change researchers; and greater teacher pedagogical content knowledge in climate change science and greater confidence in ability to teach effectively. Two overarching research questions formed the foundation of our teacher professional development program: 1) How will climate change affect Nevada's baseline water resources (groundwater and surface water) and linked ecosystem services? 2) How will climate change affect natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., wildland fires, invasive species, and insect outbreaks)? All teachers participated in at least one (2-week long) summer institute and academic year follow up focused on one of two overarching research questions forming the basis of the award assisted by a disciplinary graduate student . An on-line class (ENV 794) was a 3 credit graduate credit bearing class from UNLV based on the fundamentals of climate change science was available free to participating teachers. A supplemental program in the final award year was added following advisory board recommendations to develop a cohort or "learning community" approach at an interested high school. The 'About Climate Change' Integrated Curriculum spans several subject areas and cuts across national standards for STEM English and Social Studies; a 2-week unit developed by Clark HS teachers for their classes. Our teachers increased their content knowledge about climate change science. This is indicated in student evaluations of the on-line course ENV 794, and in the summer institute post test of content knowledge which included about 25 questions. There was improvement for our one focus

  5. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research

  6. Communication and perception of uncertainty via graphics in disciplinary and interdisciplinary climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Bettina C.; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    Besides written and spoken language, graphical displays play an important role in communicating scientific findings or explaining scientific methods, both within one and between various disciplines. Uncertainties and probabilities are generally difficult to communicate, especially via graphics. Graphics including uncertainty sometimes need detailed written or oral descriptions to be understood. "Good" graphics should ease scientific communication, especially amongst different disciplines. One key objective of the Doctoral Programme "Climate Change: Uncertainties, Thresholds and Coping Strategies" (http://dk-climate-change.uni-graz.at/en/), located at the University of Graz, is to reach a better understanding of climate change uncertainties by bridging research in multiple disciplines, including physical climate sciences, geosciences, systems and sustainability sciences, environmental economics, and climate ethics. This asks for efforts into the formulation of a "common language", not only as to words, but also as to graphics. The focus of this work is on two topics: (1) What different kinds of uncertainties (e.g., data uncertainty, model uncertainty) are included in the graphics of the recent IPCC reports of all three working groups (WGs) and in what ways do uncertainties get illustrated? (2) How are these graphically displayed uncertainties perceived by researchers of a similar research discipline and from researchers of different disciplines than the authors of the graphics? To answer the first question, the IPCC graphics including uncertainties are grouped and analyzed with respect to different kinds of uncertainties to filter out most of the commonly used types of displays. The graphics will also be analyzed with respect to their WG origin, as we assume that graphics from researchers rooted in, e.g., physical climate sciences and geosciences (mainly IPCC WG 1) differ from those of researchers rooted in, e.g., economics or system sciences (mainly WG 3). In a

  7. Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlosser, Courtney [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Walter, Katey [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  8. Climate Engineering: avoiding Pandora's box through research and governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honegger, Matthias; Michaelowa, Axel; Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja

    2011-07-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise, and emission reduction efforts are increasingly seen as inadequate to stay below the 2 degrees C threshold agreed internationally, but countries shy away from shouldering the burden of emissions abatement. Therefore, in the next decades an increase in meteorological extreme events is increasingly likely to trigger public pressure to find quick solutions to halt climate change. Climate engineering (CE), especially Solar Radiation Management (SRM) proposals, will be attractive in this context. But SRM could turn into a Pandora's Box if not managed carefully. A sudden political demand for implementing CE could end in disaster if pressure leads to premature deployment. It is vital to establish a solid understanding of CE with all its indirect effects as well as significant acceptance and thus legitimacy. Since for many CE options, the risks seem negatively correlated to costs, a global research coordination effort is needed that is fully transparent and avoids biases introduced by interest groups. The IPCC would be the right forum to harness this research. Research should go hand in hand with the development of new norms and international approaches in monitoring, similar to the case of nuclear weapons or terrorism. It is time for climate engineering to enter the discourse on climate change mitigation - in a research-led, transparent and conscientiously governed manner.(Author)

  9. Enhancing the relevance of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B.J.; Levy, M.; Agrawal, A.; Biermann, F.; Birkmann, J.; Carter, T.R.; Ebi, K.L.; Garschagen, M.; Jones, B.; Jones, R.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Kok, M.; Kok, K.; Lemos, M.C.; Lucas, P.L.; Orlove, B.; Pachauri, S.; Parris, T.; Patwardhan, A.; Petersen, A.; Preston, B.L.; Ribot, J.; Rothman, D.S.; Schweizer, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role and relevance of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and the new scenarios that combine SSPs with representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability (IAV) research. It first provides an overview of uses of social–

  10. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered from anticipated climate change. How well do we understand these changes today, and what are implications for water resources management and for policy?

    With these questions in mind, a dozen researchers – most of them with experience in collaborating with water managers – from around the world assembled for a workshop in Göschenen, Switzerland on 16–19 September 2009 by invitation of the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI. Their goal was to develop an up-to-date overview of mountain water resources and climate change and to identify pressing issues with relevance for science and society.

    This special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences assembles contributions providing insight into climate change and water resources for selected case-study mountain regions from around the world. The present introductory article is based on analysis of these regions and on the workshop discussions. We will give a brief overview of the subject (Sect. 1, introduce the case-study regions (Sect. 2 and examine the state of knowledge regarding the importance of water supply from mountain areas for water resources in the adjacent lowlands and anticipated climate change impacts (Sect. 3. From there, we will identify research and monitoring needs (Sect. 4, make recommendations for research, water resources management and policy (Sect. 5 and finally draw conclusions (Sect. 6.

  11. Rancho Santiago College Climate Survey Report. Research, Planning and Resource Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie; And Others

    In February 1990, a study was conducted by the Rancho Santiago College (RSC) Research Committee and Planning Council to assess institutional effectiveness, using college climate as one correlate of RSC's success. A staff morale survey instrument, distributed to all full- and part-time faculty and staff, yielded an overall response rate of 36%, and…

  12. SOME ADVANCES IN CLIMATE WARMING IMPACT RESEARCH IN CHINA SINCE 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馥棠

    2001-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, which could lead to global climate warming and more other changes. China is a largely agricultural country with a large size of population and the relative shortages of farming lands and water resources, thus increasing the importance of climate warming for national economy development. Therefore. Chinese government and scientists have paid great attention to the impact-assessment of climate warming on national economy in China, especially during the past 10 years. This presentation will briefly describe some major issues of climate warming impact research on national vegetation, agriculture, forest, water resources, energy use and regional sea level for China, etc.As a result, all climate change scenarios derived by GCMs suggest a substantial change in thecharacteristic natural vegetation types. It is also shown that comparing with the distributionsimulated under thenormal time period 1951-1980 as the present climate, by 2050 large changesin cropping systems would occur almost everywhere in China. Climate warming would lead toincrease cropping diversification and multiplication. Unfortunately, the possible net balancebetween precipitation and evapotranspiration would be negativeand it would lead to reduce thegrain production in China significantly due to enhanced moisture stress in soil. The most evidentinfluence of climate warming on water resources would happen in Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe Basin andthe water supply-demand deficit would be substantially enhanced in this area. And also, a warmerclimate for China will alter the energy requirement for domestic heating and cooling, that is,reduce energy use for heating in northern China and increase energy consumption for cooling insouthern China.

  13. Design and research of warehouse management system based on ARM%基于ARM的仓储管理系统设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威; 高文华; 罗洪达; 张震震

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the applicable demands and features of warehouse, analyze and research has been done, then a new design proposal of warehouse management system is presented. The monitoring system was built based on ARM microprocessor Cortex-A8 and embedded Linux operating system, the warehouse control system was compiled by QT through using its various sources. The system realizes the smart management of warehouse.%针对仓库储藏货物的应用需求和特点,对仓储系统进行分析和研究,提出了一种仓储管理系统的整体设计方案,以ARM Cortex-A8为核心处理器,Linux嵌入式系统为仓储管理的控制系统,利用QT提供的各种资源建立仓储管理系统控制软件,实现了仓库的智能化管理.

  14. Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX): A Public-Private Partnership for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for

  15. MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, is a mid-infrared emission spectrometer which is part of the core payload of ENVISAT. It is a limb sounder, i.e. it scans across the horizon detecting atmospheric spectral radiances which are inverted to vertical temperature, trace species and cloud distributions. These data can be used for scientific investigations in various research fields including dynamics and chemistry in the altitude region between upper troposphere and lower thermosphere.

    The instrument is a well calibrated and characterized Fourier transform spectrometer which is able to detect many trace constituents simultaneously. The different concepts of retrieval methods are described including multi-target and two-dimensional retrievals. Operationally generated data sets consist of temperature, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, HNO3, and NO2 profiles. Measurement errors are investigated in detail and random and systematic errors are specified. The results are validated by independent instrumentation which has been operated at ground stations or aboard balloon gondolas and aircraft. Intercomparisons of MIPAS measurements with other satellite data have been carried out, too. As a result, it has been proven that the MIPAS data are of good quality.

    MIPAS can be operated in different measurement modes in order to optimize the scientific output. Due to the wealth of information in the MIPAS spectra, many scientific results have already been published. They include intercomparisons of temperature distributions with ECMWF data, the derivation of the whole NOy family, the study of atmospheric processes during the Antarctic vortex split in September 2002, the determination of properties of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, the downward transport of NOx in the middle atmosphere, the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, the influence of solar variability on the

  16. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Colagiuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i convened a workshop of academics (n = 25 from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  17. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  18. Do Regional Disparities in Research on Climate and Water Influence Adaptive Capacity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiparsky, M.; Brooks, C. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States); Gleick, P.H. [Pacific Institute, 654 13th Street, Oakland, CA, 94612 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    As part of a long-term effort to both improve access to information on climate change and freshwater resources, and to understand the state of the science, we compiled an electronic bibliography of scientific literature in that area. We analyzed the distribution of information on climatic impacts on freshwater resources, with an emphasis on differences between developed and developing regions as well as differences in the types and focus of research carried out among regions. There has been more research overall in developed countries than in the developing world. Proportionally more of the available research on natural and human systems pertains to developed regions, while most of the analysis done in developing countries is limited to higher-level climatology and hydrology. We argue that scientific information and understanding are important elements of the ability to adapt to potential climatic changes. The distribution of the scientific literature in our database suggests that the types of science most directly relevant to adaptive capacity are skewed towards developed countries, which may exacerbate existing disparities in adaptive capacity, and ultimately worsen the consequences of climatic impacts in developing countries.

  19. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  20. 嵌入式平台ARM-uClinux的构建与应用开发%The Research and Application of Embedded System Based on ARM & uClinux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勋; 唐慧强

    2006-01-01

    介绍了ARM处理器以及嵌入式操作系统uClinux的特点.将uClinux操作系统移植到ARM7上,构建了ARM-uClinux嵌入式平台.以此为基础完成了一种车载GPS接收机的软硬件设计.GP2015作为接收机的射频前端,内嵌ARM7核的GP4020作为接收机的数字基带处理器.此接收机消除以往处理器数据处理的瓶颈效应,解决了体积小,功耗低的问题.

  1. MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, is a mid-infrared emission spectrometer which is part of the core payload of ENVISAT. It is a limb sounder, i.e. it scans across the horizon detecting atmospheric spectral radiances which are inverted to vertical temperature, trace species and cloud distributions. These data can be used for scientific investigations in various research fields including dynamics and chemistry in the altitude region between upper troposphere and lower thermosphere.

    The instrument is a well calibrated and characterized Fourier transform spectrometer which is able to detect many trace constituents simultaneously. The different concepts of retrieval methods are described including multi-target and two-dimensional retrievals. Operationally generated data sets consist of temperature, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, HNO3, and NO2 profiles. Measurement errors are investigated in detail and random and systematic errors are specified. The results are validated by independent instrumentation which has been operated at ground stations or aboard balloon gondolas and aircraft. Intercomparisons of MIPAS measurements with other satellite data have been carried out, too. As a result, it has been proven that the MIPAS data are of good quality.

    MIPAS can be operated in different measurement modes in order to optimize the scientific output. Due to the wealth of information in the MIPAS spectra, many scientific results have already been published. They include intercomparisons of temperature distributions with ECMWF data, the derivation of the whole NOy family, the study of atmospheric processes during the Antarctic vortex split in September~2002, the determination of properties of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, the downward transport of NOx in the middle atmosphere, the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, the influence of

  2. ARM Data File Standards Version: 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehoe, Kenneth [University of Oklahoma; Beus, Sherman [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Cialella, Alice [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Collis, Scott [Argonne National Laboratory; Ermold, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Perez, Robin [State University of New York, Albany; Shamblin, Stefanie [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sivaraman, Chitra [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Jensen, Mike [Brookhaven National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; McCoy, Renata [Sandia National Laboratories; Moore, Sean [Alliant Techsystems, Inc.; Monroe, Justin [University of Oklahoma; Perkins, Brad [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shippert, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility performs routine in situ and remote-sensing observations to provide a detailed and accurate description of the Earth atmosphere in diverse climate regimes. The result is a diverse data sets containing observational and derived data, currently accumulating at a rate of 30 TB of data and 150,000 different files per month (http://www.archive.arm.gov/stats/storage2.html). Continuing the current processing while scaling this to even larger sizes is extremely important to the ARM Facility and requires consistent metadata and data standards. The standards described in this document will enable development of automated analysis and discovery tools for the ever-growing volumes of data. It also will enable consistent analysis of the multiyear data, allow for development of automated monitoring and data health status tools, and facilitate development of future capabilities for delivering data on demand that can be tailored explicitly to user needs. This analysis ability will only be possible if the data follows a minimum set of standards. This document proposes a hierarchy that includes required and recommended standards.

  3. Integrating research tools to support the management of social-ecological systems under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.

  4. MIDWESTERN REGIONAL CENTER OF THE DOE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University

    2014-02-28

    The goal of NICCR (National Institute for Climatic Change Research) was to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR Midwestern Regional Center (MRC) supported work in the following states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The MRC of NICCR was able to support nearly $8 million in climatic change research, including $6,671,303 for twenty projects solicited and selected by the MRC over five requests for proposals (RFPs) and $1,051,666 for the final year of ten projects from the discontinued DOE NIGEC (National Institute for Global Environmental Change) program. The projects selected and funded by the MRC resulted in 135 peer-reviewed publications and supported the training of 25 PhD students and 23 Masters students. Another 36 publications were generated by the final year of continuing NIGEC projects supported by the MRC. The projects funded by the MRC used a variety of approaches to answer questions relevant to the DOE’s climate change research program. These included experiments that manipulated temperature, moisture and other global change factors; studies that sought to understand how the distribution of species and ecosystems might change under future climates; studies that used measurements and modeling to examine current ecosystem fluxes of energy and mass and those that would exist under future conditions; and studies that synthesized existing data sets to improve our understanding of the effects of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. In all of these efforts, the MRC specifically sought to identify and quantify responses of terrestrial ecosystems that were not well understood or not well modeled by current efforts. The MRC also sought to better understand and model important feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry, and regional

  5. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local

  6. Progress in research and work of psychological health in U.S.Armed Forces%美军心理健康维护进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文娜; 楼铁柱; 刁天喜; 吴东

    2011-01-01

    With the United States still involved in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, psychological and cognitive injuries among those deployed are of growing concern, such as traumatic brain injury ( TBI ), suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). This paper reviews the main progress in the research and work of psychological health in the U. S. Armed Forces.%美军自2001年参加阿富汗战争和2003年参加伊拉克战争以来,创伤性脑损伤、自杀、创伤后应激障碍等成为其日益关注的问题.本文围绕目前美军心理健康维护的工作重点,介绍了其在心理健康维护方面的科研和工作进展.

  7. A Research Agenda for Bridging the Gap Between Climate Science, Media and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B.

    2012-12-01

    A large and widely noted gap exists between the urgent threats indicated by climate science, and the general lack of priority being assigned to climate change by the broader public, media and policy-makers in the United States. This gap has motivated many climate scientists to try to engage more with lay audiences. One pathway for doing so is to speak or write directly for these audiences—for example, via blogs. To succeed, however, this route generally demands development of entirely new and deceptively difficult skill sets, navigation of common important pitfalls, and a significant dedication of time outside of research. A second pathway instead builds on scientists' traditional strength in research: orienting and extending research to increase its interest and accessibility for wider audiences. A trivially simple but relevant example is using U.S. instead of metric units, even to the point of doing separate additional analyses based on round U.S. unit variable values. More fundamentally, scientists can (and increasingly do) resolve research results to the finest spatial and temporal scales possible, in order to deliver information that is of local and immediate interest. But for maximum effectiveness, research products must go beyond, for example, color scale maps—whatever their resolution—to summarizing and communicating findings for the units that people care about, such as individual states, counties or cities, whenever this is a legitimate and feasible exercise. In this talk, I will develop these and related themes, and draw heavily on my experience and lessons learned from Climate Central's Surging Seas project, a conceptually integrated research and communications program on sea level rise that has stimulated over 800 news stories, from small-town independent reporting to major national coverage, since its launch in March 2012.

  8. Comparison between waist and mid-upper arm circumferences in influencing systolic blood pressure in adolescence: the SHARP (Sardinian Hypertensive Adolescent Research Programme study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation between high blood pressure (BP and overweight in children is widely acknowledged, although the role of body fat distribution in this association remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of abdominal (central and mid-upper arm (peripheral adiposity in association with BP. Methods: 839 adolescents of both genders took part in the SHARP (Sardinian Hypertensive Adolescent Research Programme study. BP, waist circumference (WC, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, body mass index (BMI and heart rate were measured. Results: 89 out of 839 subjects were hypertensive (10.6%: 44 males and 45 females. Isolated systolic hypertension: 4.2%; isolated diastolic hypertension: 4.9%; combined systolic and diastolic hypertension: 1.5%. In univariate analysis, WC and MUAC correlated with systolic (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0007, respectively, but not with diastolic BP. In multiple longitudinal regression analysis, WC and MUAC were the strongest independent predictors of systolic BP over time. Furthermore, a significant increase of systolic BP was observed throughout all age-adjusted quintiles of WC (p < 0.001, while a similar increase was revealed only for the first four quintiles of MUAC (p < 0.001. Higher quintiles of central adiposity were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated systolic BP (p < 0.001, while no similar relationship was detected for MUAC. Conclusions: in adolescence, central and periph- eral distribution of body fat is associated with normal systolic BP, irrespective of BMI, with WC alone being correlated to hypertension. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  9. Standardized research protocols enable transdisciplinary research of climate variation impacts in corn production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The important questions about agriculture, climate, and sustainability have become increasingly complex and require a coordinated, multi-faceted approach for developing new knowledge and understanding. A multi-state, transdisciplinary project was begun in 2011 to study the potential for both mitigat...

  10. Exploring the Ocean Through Climate Indicators: What Do Research, Predictions, and Decision-makers Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are several new and ongoing efforts around communicating climate and global change and variability by developing Climate Indicators (e.g. the US Global Change Research Project's Pilot Indicators Program, the US EPA's Climate Change Indicators, and the Ocean Observations Panel for Climate State of the Ocean indicators). Indicators provide information tailored to identified stakeholders and facilitate monitoring status, trends, extremes and variability of important climate features or processes. NOAA's Climate Monitoring program is in the middle of a three-year initiative toward supporting research toward the development of Ocean Climate Indicators for research, prediction, and decision makers. These indices combine ocean observations, climate data and products from platforms like (but not limited to) the drifting buoy, Argo, satellite, and buoy arrays that provide fundamental observations that contribute towards climate understanding, predictions, and projections. The program is supporting eight distinct projects that focus on primarily regional indices that target varied stakeholders and outreach strategies - from public awareness and education to targeted model performance improvement. This presentation will discuss the diverse set of projects, initial results, and discuss possibilities for and examples of using the indicators and processes for developing them for broader science outreach and education, with an eye toward the aim of organizing the ocean climate and observing community around developing a comprehensive ocean monitoring and indicators system.

  11. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  12. Collaborative Research: Robust Climate Projections and Stochastic Stability of Dynamical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael; McWilliams, James; Neelin, J. David; Zaliapin, Ilya; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Simonnet, Eric

    2011-10-13

    The project was completed along the lines of the original proposal, with additional elements arising as new results were obtained. The originally proposed three thrusts were expanded to include an additional, fourth one. (i) The e ffects of stochastic perturbations on climate models have been examined at the fundamental level by using the theory of deterministic and random dynamical systems, in both nite and in nite dimensions. (ii) The theoretical results have been implemented first on a delay-diff erential equation (DDE) model of the El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. (iii) More detailed, physical aspects of model robustness have been considered, as proposed, within the stripped-down ICTP-AGCM (formerly SPEEDY) climate model. This aspect of the research has been complemented by both observational and intermediate-model aspects of mid-latitude and tropical climate. (iv) An additional thrust of the research relied on new and unexpected results of (i) and involved reduced-modeling strategies and associated prediction aspects have been tested within the team's empirical model reduction (EMR) framework. Finally, more detailed, physical aspects have been considered within the stripped-down SPEEDY climate model. The results of each of these four complementary e fforts are presented in the next four sections, organized by topic and by the team members concentrating on the topic under discussion.

  13. Asilomar moments: formative framings in recombinant DNA and solar climate engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Stefan; Low, Sean

    2014-12-28

    We examine the claim that in governance for solar climate engineering research, and especially field tests, there is no need for external governance beyond existing mechanisms such as peer review and environmental impact assessments that aim to assess technically defined risks to the physical environment. By drawing on the historical debate on recombinant DNA research, we show that defining risks is not a technical question but a complex process of narrative formation. Governance emerges from within, and as a response to, narratives of what is at stake in a debate. In applying this finding to the case of climate engineering, we find that the emerging narrative differs starkly from the narrative that gave meaning to rDNA technology during its formative period, with important implications for governance. While the narrative of rDNA technology was closed down to narrowly focus on technical risks, that of climate engineering continues to open up and includes social, political and ethical issues. This suggests that, in order to be legitimate, governance must take into account this broad perception of what constitutes the relevant issues and risks of climate engineering, requiring governance that goes beyond existing mechanisms that focus on technical risks. Even small-scale field tests with negligible impacts on the physical environment warrant additional governance as they raise broader concerns that go beyond the immediate impacts of individual experiments.

  14. Solar geoengineering could substantially reduce climate risks—A research hypothesis for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Irvine, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    We offer a hypothesis that if solar geoengineering (SG) were deployed to offset half of the increase in global-mean temperature from the date of deployment using a technology and deployment method chosen to approximate a reduction in the solar constant then, over the 21st century, it would (a) substantially reduce the global aggregate risks of climate change, (b) without making any country worse off, and (c) with the aggregate risks from side-effects being small in comparison to the reduction in climate risks. We do not set out to demonstrate this hypothesis; rather we propose it with the goal of stimulating a strategic engagement of the SG research community with policy-relevant questions. We elaborate seven sub-hypotheses on the effects of our scenario for key risks of climate change that could be assessed in future modeling work. As an example, we provide a defence of one of our sub-hypotheses, that our scenario of SG would reduce the risk of drought in dry regions, but also identify issues that may undermine this sub-hypothesis and how future work could resolve this question. SG cannot substitute for emissions mitigation but it may be a useful supplement. It is our hope that scientific and technical research over the next decade focuses more closely on well-articulated variants of the key policy-relevant question: could SG be designed and deployed in such a way that it could substantially and equitably reduce climate risks?

  15. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future; Forskningsprogram om klima- og ozonspoersmaal. Oppsummering av norsk klima- og ozonlagsforskning de siste ti aarene og viktige forskningsoppgaver i framtiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Elin [ed.

    1999-04-01

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research.

  16. 基于ARM9的机场应急救援拖车同步控制研究%Research of airport emergency rescue trailer synchronous control based on ARM9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积洪; 周同旭

    2012-01-01

    A synchronous electrical control system of airport emergency rescue trailer is designed. Based on the ARM-Linux platform, the GUI and programming design of host and master PC is completed by using Qt/Embedded and Ladder, and the host and the master computer take ARM9 and PLC as the core respectively, and they communicate through 485. By connecting the testing model and control system, the simultaneously turning function controlled by remote controller is achieved. The feasibility of the system has been confirmed by testing the model.%研究了一种机场应急救援拖车的同步电气控制系统.基于ARM-Linux平台,上位机以ARM9为核心,下位机以PLC为核心,使用Qt/Embedded和梯形图完成对上、下位机的GUI和程序设计,上下位机采用485通讯.连接试验模型和控制系统,实现了用遥控器控制机场应急救援拖车同步转向,通过对模型的测试,其可行性已被初步的实验证实.

  17. CSUB CREST Research on Climate Change and the San Joaquin Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugh, W. C.; Negrini, R. M.; Baron, D.; Gillespie, J.; Horton, R. A.; Montoya, E.; Cruz-Boone, C.; Andrews, G. D.; Guo, J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the NSF-supported Centers for Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST), student and faculty researchers at California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB) have been investigating the regional impacts of climate change as well as evaluating the potential of local contributions to its abatement. Highlights of this research include; 1) the development of a high-resolution climate record from Tulare Lake sediments that spans the past 20,000 years, 2) the quantitative analysis and prediction of climate change impacts on Sierra Nevada snowpack, 3) the detailed subsurface characterization of San Joaquin Valley oilfields targeted for CO2 sequestration, and 4) the evaluation of proposed host rock suitability under simulated CO2 injection conditions. To date, CSUB CREST supported research has resulted in 26 contributions to peer-reviewed journals (currently published or in-review). A primary goal of CSUB CREST is to improve the recruitment, retention, and success of students from the local community, the majority of whom are from backgrounds under-represented in STEM disciplines. More than 28 students have been directly involved in the basic and applied research projects supported by this program. The majority of these students have received, or are on track to receive, an M.S. degree and have ultimately gained employment in a STEM field or been accepted into a Ph.D. program. This presentation, and others in this session, will focus on the accomplishments, challenges, and strategies for success gleaned from CSUB CREST Phase 1.

  18. Developing research about extreme events and impacts to support international climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike; James, Rachel; Parker, Hannah; Boyd, Emily; Jones, Richard; Allen, Myles; Mitchell, Daniel; Cornforth, Rosalind

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have some of its most significant impacts through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. There is a pressing need for policy to support adaptation to changing climate risks, and to deal with residual loss and damage from climate change. In 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism was established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to address loss and damage in developing countries. Strategies to help vulnerable regions cope with losses from extreme events will presumably require information about the influence of anthropogenic forcing on extreme weather. But what kind of scientific evidence will be most useful for the Warsaw Mechanism? And how can the scientific communities working on extreme events and impacts develop their research to support the advance of this important policy? As climate scientists conducting probabilistic event attribution studies, we have been working with social scientists to investigate these questions. Our own research seeks to examine the role of external drivers, including greenhouse gas emissions, on the risk of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding, and drought. We use large ensembles of climate models to compute the probability of occurrence of extreme events under current conditions and in a world which might have been without anthropogenic interference. In cases where the models are able to simulate extreme weather, the analysis allows for conclusions about the extent to which climate change may have increased, decreased, or made no change to the risk of the event occurring. These results could thus have relevance for the UNFCCC negotiations on loss and damage, and we have been communicating with policymakers and observers to the policy process to better understand how we can develop our research to support their work; by attending policy meetings, conducting interviews, and using a participatory game developed with the Red Cross

  19. Quantifying loss and damage from anthropogenic climate change - Bridging the gap between two research communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F. E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The science of attribution of meteorological events to anthropogenic causes has for the first time been included in the latest assessment of the Physical Science Basis of the Climate, (WGI), of the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report AR5 (Stocker et al., 2013). At the same time there is a very rapidly growing body of literature on climate change and its impact on economy, society and environment but apart from very few exemptions no link is made to the causes of these changes. Observed changes in hydrological variables, agriculture, biodiversity and the built environment have been attributed to a changing climate, whether these changes are the result of natural variability or external forcings (Cramer et al., 2014). While the research community represented in WGI assesses whether, and to what extent, recent extreme weather events can be attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, the research community of impact specialists asks how climatic changes lead to different impacts largely independent of the causes of such changes. This distinction becomes potentially very relevant with respect to the 2013 established the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) to address loss and damage from the impacts of climate change in developing countries under the UNFCCC climate change negotiations. Currently there is no discussion what consists of loss and damage and the reasons for this inexistence of a definition are not primarily scientific but political however, the absence of a definition could potentially lead to absurd consequences if funds in the context of loss and damage would be redistributed, as e.g. suggested, for all low risk high impact events. Here we present the implications of discussed definitions of loss and damage (Huggel et al. 2015) and how scientific evidence could be included. Cramer et al. (2014) Detection and Attribution of Observed Impacts. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of WG 2 to AR5 of

  20. 基于ARM的手机位置采集及跟踪研究%Research of mobile phone location acquisition and tracking based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包理群; 吕林霞; 李祥林

    2016-01-01

    In view of the demand of real-time location data acquisition and location tracking for spe-cial groups, GPS location data acquisition algorithm and the update algorithm for data acquisition interval are studied in this paper. The mobile location tracking system based on ARM and Google Maps are de-signed and implemented. The users take GPS smart phones with them when they go out. The guardian can check their location in real-time on the map through portable embedded terminals. It send out alarm in-formation when users are close to or enter the danger zone. It can be widely used in the elderly, chil-dren, the disabled and other special groups of protection. The embedded location information database is created based on ARM platform, which is used to store all the time and location data when users are not at home. It can provide data support for big data research based on the smart phone positioning data. Ex-periments tests the reproducibility of the GPS data, the performance of location information database and ARM position tracking system,and verified the effectiveness of the algorithm and the feasibility of the de-sign.%针对特殊群体的实时位置跟踪需求,研究了GPS位置数据获取算法和数据采集时间间隔更新算法,设计实现了基于ARM和Google Maps的手机位置跟踪系统. 用户只需随身携带GPS手机,监护人即可通过嵌入式移动终端在地图上实时查看其位置信息,并在用户接近和进入危险区域时报警,可应用于老人、小孩、残疾人等特殊群体的保护. 基于ARM的嵌入式位置信息数据库保存了用户出行数据,为智能手机定位的大数据研究提供支持. 通过对GPS数据重复性、位置信息数据库以及ARM位置跟踪系统的性能测试,验证了算法的有效性及设计思路的可行性.

  1. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  2. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  3. How do we support informal educators teaching for climate literacy? Lessons from design-based research to improve climate science field trips through educator experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. B.; Steiner, M.; Crowley, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy is an important and timely aspect of students' and educators' scientific understanding. Climate science is a challenging topic to understand and communicate, given that factors affecting change in climate are spatially and temporally distant from one another, and include layers of understanding biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic factors. Some learning scientists describe complex processes such as these "constraint-based interactions" and consider them to be among the more difficult for learners to grasp. An additional challenge for climate education is the politicized nature of the issue of climate change among U.S. adults. Our goal is to create a climate literacy program that bridges informal and formal learning for middle school students by integrating tools and ideas from pre-field trip classroom activities into deep investigations on the floor of the natural history museum. In this presentation, we address the challenges and successes of an in-progress climate literacy project sponsored by NASA from the perspective of educator learning. A group of experienced natural history docents were asked to participate in an iteratively designed field trip program for climate education. The project challenged educators with both new content and a new pedagogical structure: using real NASA satellite data to visualize and explore earth's climate, while implementing student-centered, participatory learning on the floor of the museum. By engaging in an iterative, design-based research process of prototyping field trips at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, we collected observational and interview data from seven dedicated informal educators who were asked to change both the content and the format of their interactions with middle school field trip students. These docents have a wide variety of experiences and opinions around climate science, data, and student-centered teaching and learning pedagogies. Over the course of one semester of iteratively

  4. Impacts Of Global/Regional Climate Changes On Environment And Health: Need For Integrated Research And Education Collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluri, F.

    2013-12-01

    The realization of long term changes in climate in research community has to go beyond the comfort zone through climate literacy in academics. Higher education on climate change is the platform to bring together the otherwise disconnected factors such as effective discovery, decision making, innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, Climate change is a complex process that may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system, or to variations in natural or anthropogenic (human-driven) external forcing. Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for several decades or longer. This includes changes in average weather conditions on Earth, such as a change in average global temperature, as well as changes in how frequently regions experience heat waves, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather. It is important to examine the effects of climate variations on human health and disorders in order to take preventive measures. Similarly, the influence of climate changes on animal management practices, pests and pest management systems, and high value crops such as citrus and vegetables is also equally important for investigation. New genetic agricultural varieties must be explored, and pilot studies should examine biotechnology transfer. Recent climate model improvements have resulted in an enhanced ability to simulate many aspects of climate variability and extremes. However, they are still characterized by systematic errors and limitations in accurately simulating more precisely regional climate conditions. The present situations warrant developing climate literacy on the synergistic impacts of environmental change, and improve development, testing and validation of integrated stress impacts through computer modeling. In the present study we present a detailed study of the current status on the impacts of global/regional climate changes on environment and health with a view

  5. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Justice Climate Research in Organizational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jakopec

    2015-12-01

    climate research.

  6. LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson Jr., WI [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Vogelmann, AM [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understanding that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.

  7. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  8. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  9. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  10. Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoletti E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01. The IUFRO RG 7.01 deals with "Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems". Climate change and air pollution are closely linked, although in applied scientific research and even more in political negotiations they have been largely separated. Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have not only common sources, but may also interact physically and chemically in the atmosphere causing a variety of environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects of numerous climate change and air pollution factors may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects due to an array of various synergistic or antagonistic interactions. The net effect varies for different ecosystem types and geographic regions, and depends on magnitude of climate or air pollution drivers, and types of interactions between them. This paper reviews the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies and avoiding overlaps between two lines of traditional research. This could result in more effective research, monitoring and management as well as better integration of environmental policies.

  11. Climate change and marine benthos: a review of existing research and future directions in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birchenough, S.N.R.; Reiss, H.; Degraer, S.; Craeymeersch, J.A.M.; Mesel, de I.G.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change could affect marine benthic systems. This review provides information of climate change-related impacts on the marine benthos in the North Atlantic. We cover a number of related research aspects, mainly in connection to two key issues. First, is the rela

  12. The effects of climatic change on crop production. Results of a five-year research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T.; Carter, T.; Hakala, K.; Kaukoranta, T.; Laurila, H.; Niemi, K.; Saarikko, R.; Tiilikkala, K. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Hannukkala, A. [Agricultural Research Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland). Lapland Research Station

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research project, funded jointly by SILMU and by the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, was to evaluate the possible effects of changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth, development and yield of field crops and on crop pests and diseases in Finland. The study focused on two cereal crops (spring wheat and spring barley), a grass species (meadow fescue), some common pathogens of cereals and potato, insect pests of small fruits and nematode risk of potato and sugar beet. The results of this study indicate the following effects on crop production of the `best guess` climate change anticipated for Finland by 2050: A lengthening of the potential growing season of 3-5 weeks. A northward expansion of about 250-500 km in suitability for cereal production. Increased yields of adapted spring cereals. New, longer-season cultivars would benefit from both higher temperatures and elevated CO{sub 2}. Improved potential for the cultivation of higher-yielding winter sown cereals. Increased grass yields due to a lengthening growing season and increased growth rates, assuming that water and nutrient limitations are minor. However, there is a possibility of reduced winter hardening under higher autumn temperatures and an increased risk of winter damage. Potential for the successful cultivation of new crops like maize in southern Finland. Increased potential for yield losses due to crop pests and diseases under climatic warming. The range of many species is expected to expand northwards, additional generations of some species would develop successfully, and new species may become established in Finland. The research is continuing as part of a new European Community project, and will explore a wider range of crop types, focusing on the effects of climate change on agricultural risk at national scale

  13. Application of soil data in climate research; Anwendung von Bodendaten in der Klimaforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann-Boll, Carolin; Kappler, Wolfgang; Lazar, Silvia [ahu AG Wasser - Boden - Geomatik, Aachen (DE)] (and others)

    2011-10-15

    The German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change was adopted in 2008. The implementation of the strategy requires reliable data and time series on the long-term changes in soil condition and soil functions. Soil monitoring and soil survey are essential data bases for this purpose. In Germany there are permanently established monitoring programmes with representative locations and repeated soil surveys based on a regular grid of sites. The different programmes vary in respect to harmonization regarding agreed principles between the participating institutions. Information on soil measuring data is currently heterogeneous and distributed at many locations. Particularly the provision of (meta-)data should be improved. Here you can find the exceptional quality of BOKLIM. It evaluates the suitability of soil data for climate research across the different measuring programmes in Germany. The most important nation-wide and permanently operating programmes of soil monitoring and soil survey were taken into account. The main aspects were the changes in soil condition due to climate change. As a result, the programmes provide a variety of valuable data to assess the effects of climate change on soils. Depending on the problem and the resulting requirements, the data are suitable (1) for the long-term monitoring of changes in soil condition, (2) for detailed process studies and measurements at representative locations, e.g. for the calibration and validation of predictive models, and (3) for use in model scenarios predicting changes in soil condition. However, it is necessary to coordinate the programmes of soil monitoring and soil survey with the focus on precise questions. The programmes have to be optimized at certain points to improve for issues of climate change and adaptation. In addition to the evaluation of soil data, a first concept for an efficient data provision and data use was created. Recommendations for next steps to coordinate and optimize future monitoring

  14. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  15. Global climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  16. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas D. Flouris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth’s surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  17. Paradigms for Assessment of Organizational Climate in a Public Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Knupp Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors relevant to assessment of organizational climate of a Public Institute for Research in the area of C&T, with headquarters located in Vale do Paraiba Paulista considering their specific characteristics and the perception of its employers for the characteristics of this work environment. This is a quantitative, exploratory descriptive, taking the form of survey. The Institution research participant has 1.075 active employers and the sample used in data collection were 149 respondents in which a questionnaire was administered, whose data were statistically analyzed. It was found the stability of the instrument through Cronbach's Alpha Test, which indicated the reliability of the survey responses and the tests Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin – KMO and Bartlett’s Sphericity indicated that the factor analysis could be used in this mass data. The technique of factor analysis was applied and the results showed that 10 clusters of issues/indicators are suitable for this study. After analyzing the clusters were identified the following factors as relevant for climate study: Identity and Security, Autonomy, Achievement and Satisfaction with Work, Professional Development, Commitment and Teamwork, Leadership, Salary, Interaction, and Satisfaction with Institution Organizational Structure. This work reached its goal and its outcome encourages further studies on the subject, and provides subsidies for the development of a tool to search appropriate to the specific organizational climate of the institution concerned.

  18. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth's surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  19. Flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model. A modeling tool for the climate change research community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tianjun; Yu, Yongqiang; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Bin (eds.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2014-04-01

    First book available on systematic evaluations of the performance of the global climate model FGOALS. Covers the whole field, ranging from the development to the applications of this climate system model. Provide an outlook for the future development of the FGOALS model system. Offers brief introduction about how to run FGOALS. Coupled climate system models are of central importance for climate studies. A new model known as FGOALS (the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model), has been developed by the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (LASG/IAP, CAS), a first-tier national geophysical laboratory. It serves as a powerful tool, both for deepening our understanding of fundamental mechanisms of the climate system and for making decadal prediction and scenario projections of future climate change. ''Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: A Modeling Tool for the Climate Change Research Community'' is the first book to offer systematic evaluations of this model's performance. It is comprehensive in scope, covering both developmental and application-oriented aspects of this climate system model. It also provides an outlook of future development of FGOALS and offers an overview of how to employ the model. It represents a valuable reference work for researchers and professionals working within the related areas of climate variability and change.

  20. The Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) Second Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities (ARC3-2), and the UCCRN Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Ali Ibrahim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this session is to foster a dialogue between experts working on global-scale, climate change and cities assessments in order to simultaneously present state-of-the-art knowledge on how cities are responding to climate change and to define emerging opportunities and challenges to the effective placement of this knowledge in the hands of local stakeholders and decision-makers. We will present the UCCRN and the Second UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities (ARC3-2), the second in an ongoing series of global, interdisciplinary, cross-regional, science-based assessments to address climate risks, adaptation, mitigation, and policy mechanisms relevant to cities. This is an especially important time to examine these issues. Cities continue to act as world leaders in climate action. Several major climate change assessment efforts are in full swing, at a crucial stage where significant opportunities for the co-production of knowledge between researchers and stakeholders exist. The IPCC AR5 Working Group II and III Reports have placed unprecedented attention on cities and urbanization and their connection to the issue of climate change. Concurrently several major, explicitly city-focused efforts have emerged from the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN), ICLEI, the Durban Adaptation Charter (DAC), C40, Future Earth, and the Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC) Project, among others. The underlying rationale for the discussion will be to identify methods and approaches to further foster the development and dissemination of new climate change knowledge and information that will be useful for cities, especially in small and medium-sized cities and in the developing country context where the demand is particularly acute. Participants will leave this session with: · The latest scientific data and state-of-the-knowledge on how cities are responding to climate change · Emerging opportunities and challenges to the effective

  1. Rainfall variability over southern Africa: an overview of current research using satellite and climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, satellite-derived rainfall data are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art climate model, run at both high and low spatial resolution. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, a brief overview is given of the authors' research to date, pertaining to southern African rainfall. This covers (i) a description of present-day rainfall variability over southern Africa; (ii) a comparison of model simulated daily rainfall with the satellite-derived dataset; (iii) results from sensitivity testing of the model's domain size; and (iv) results from the idealised SST experiments.

  2. Building Interdisciplinary Research and Communication Skills in the Agricultural and Climate Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Maynard, J.; Borrelli, K.; Wolf, K.; Bernacchi, L.; Eigenbrode, S.; Daley Laursen, D.

    2015-12-01

    Preparing scientists and educators to create and promote practical science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation is a main focus of the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) project. Social, political and environmental complexities and interactions require that future scientists work across disciplines rather than having isolated knowledge of one specific subject area. Additionally, it is important for graduate students earning M.S. or Ph.D. degrees in agriculture and climate sciences to be able to communicate scientific findings effectively to non-scientific audiences. Unfortunately, university graduate curricula rarely adequately prepare students with these important skills. REACCH recognizes the need for graduate students to have thorough exposure to other disciplines and to be able to communicate information for outreach and education purposes. These priorities have been incorporated into graduate training within the REACCH project. The interdisciplinary nature of the project and its sophisticated digital infrastructure provide graduate students multiple opportunities to gain these experiences. The project includes over 30 graduate students from 20 different disciplines and research foci including agronomy, biogeochemistry, soil quality, conservation tillage, hydrology, pest and beneficial organisms, economics, modeling, remote sensing, science education and climate science. Professional develop workshops were developed and held during annual project meetings to enhance student training. The "Toolbox" survey (http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/toolbox/) was used to achieve effective interdisciplinary communication. Interdisciplinary extension and education projects were required to allow students to gain experience with collaboration and working with stakeholder groups. Results of student surveys and rubrics developed to gauge success in interdisciplinary research and communication may provide a helpful starting point for

  3. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  4. Introducing a New Concept Inventory on Climate Change to Support Undergraduate Instruction, Teacher Education, Education Research, and Project Evaluation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Monsaas, J.; Katzenberger, J.; Afolabi, C. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Concept Inventory on Climate Change (CICC) is a new research-based, multiple-choice 'test' that provides a powerful new assessment tool for undergraduate instructors, teacher educators, education researchers, and project evaluators. This presentation will describe the features and the development process of the (CICC). This includes insights about how the development team (co-authors) integrated and augmented their multi-disciplinary expertise. The CICC has been developed in the context of a popular introductory undergraduate weather and climate course at a southeastern research university (N~400-500 per semester). The CICC is not a test for a grade, but is intended to be a useful measure of how well a given teaching and learning experience has succeeded in improving understanding about climate change and related climate concepts. The science content addressed by the CICC is rooted in the national consensus document, 'Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science'. The CICC has been designed to support undergraduate instruction, and may be valuable in comparable contexts that teach about climate change. CICC results can help to inform decisions about the effectiveness of teaching strategies by 1) flagging conceptual issues (PRE-instruction); and 2) detecting conceptual change (POST-instruction). Specific CICC items and their answer choices are informed by the research literature on common misunderstandings about climate and climate change. Each CICC item is rated on a 3-tier scale of the cognitive sophistication the item is calling for, and there is a balance among all three tiers across the full instrument. The CICC development process has involved data-driven changes to successive versions. Data sources have included item statistics from the administration of progressively evolved versions of the CICC in the weather and climate course, group interviews with students, and expert review by climate scientists, educators, and project evaluators

  5. Climate indices over the last three decades in Tunisia using Weather Research and Forecasting Model:WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Meriem; Mkhinini, Nadia; Sadok Guellouz, Mohamed; Benjabrallah, Sadok

    2016-04-01

    Tunisia is a country situated in the south of the mediterannen basin. This region undergoes direct and indirect effects of climate change. Actually, we notice that summer temperatures have risen during the last decades. Nevertheless research on the tunisian climate are not well developed and are mainly based on observations; short and mid term forecast are not available for the tunisian case. In this context we have studied the climate properties of Tunisia over the last 30 years using Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF. Afterwards we compared our results to the observations that we have obteined on behalf of the National Institute of Meteorology. Results were then used to calculate different climate indices related to the air temperature such as extreme values during a specific period exceeding specific limits (Percentile), warm and cold spell duration and growing season length. We admit that we have created a reliable database for the Tunisian climate.

  6. Development and validation of the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R; Lauren Crain, A

    2013-09-01

    Development and targeting efforts by academic organizations to effectively promote research integrity can be enhanced if they are able to collect reliable data to benchmark baseline conditions, to assess areas needing improvement, and to subsequently assess the impact of specific initiatives. To date, no standardized and validated tool has existed to serve this need. A web- and mail-based survey was administered in the second half of 2009 to 2,837 randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows at 40 academic health centers in top-tier research universities in the United States. Measures included the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) as well as measures of perceptions of organizational justice. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded seven subscales of organizational research climate, all of which demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from 0.81 to 0.87) and adequate test-retest reliability (Pearson r ranging from 0.72 to 0.83). A broad range of correlations between the seven subscales and five measures of organizational justice (unadjusted regression coefficients ranging from 0.13 to 0.95) document both construct and discriminant validity of the instrument. The SORC demonstrates good internal (alpha) and external reliability (test-retest) as well as both construct and discriminant validity.

  7. Archive of information about geological samples available for research from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Polar Rock Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Rock Repository (PRR) operated by the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) at the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  8. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  9. The Svalbard REU Program: Undergraduates Pursuing Arctic Climate Change Research on Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Werner, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program sponsored by the Arctic Natural Sciences Program of the National Science Foundation has been successfully providing international field research experiences since 2004. Each year, 7-9 undergraduate students have participated in 4-5 weeks of glacial geology and climate change fieldwork on Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago in the North Atlantic (76- 80° N lat.). While we continue to learn new and better ways to run our program, we have learned specific management and pedagogical strategies that allow us to streamline our logistics and to provide genuine, meaningful research opportunities to undergraduate students. We select student participants after extensive nationwide advertising and recruiting. Even before applying to the program, students understand that they will be doing meaningful climate change science, will take charge of their own project, and will be expected to continue their research at their home institution. We look for a strong commitment of support from a student's advisor at their home institution before accepting students into our program. We present clear information, including participant responsibilities, potential risks and hazards, application procedures, equipment needed, etc on our program website. The website also provides relevant research papers and data and results from previous years, so potential participants can see how their efforts will contribute to growing body of knowledge. New participants meet with the previous years' participants at a professional meeting (our "REUnion") before they start their field experience. During fieldwork, students are expected to develop research questions and test their own hypotheses while providing and responding to peer feedback. Professional assessment by an independent expert provides us with feedback that helps us improve logistical procedures and shape our educational strategies. The assessment also shows us how

  10. ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders Climate Change and Cities: Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Mehrotra, S.; Dhakal, S.; Bowman, T.; Ibrahim, S. Ali

    2015-01-01

    ARC3.2 presents a broad synthesis of the latest scientific research on climate change and cities. Mitigation and adaptation climate actions of 100 cities are documented throughout the 16 chapters, as well as online through the ARC3.2 Case Study Docking Station. Pathways to Urban Transformation, Major Findings, and Key Messages are highlighted here in the ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders. These sections lay out what cities need to do achieve their potential as leaders of climate change solutions. UCCRN Regional Hubs in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Australia and Asia will share ARC3.2 findings with local city leaders and researchers. The ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders synthesizes Major Findings and Key Messages on urban climate science, disasters and risks, urban planning and design, mitigation and adaptation, equity and environmental justice, economics and finance, the private sector, urban ecosystems, urban coastal zones, public health, housing and informal settlements, energy, water, transportation, solid waste, and governance. These were based on climate trends and future projections for 100 cities around the world.

  11. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  12. Climate Change Research. Agencies Have Data-Sharing Policies but Could Do More to Enhance the Availability of Data from Federally Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements 39 Background 39 Applicability 40 Guidelines and Their Application 40 Suggested Data...the Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements, an interagency policy under the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), provides...Program Source: GAO analysis of survey responses. Note: The CCSP data-sharing policy, Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements

  13. Taking a Multi-pronged Approach to Expand the Reach of Climate Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R.; Unger, M.; Eastburn, T.; Rockwell, A.; Laursen, K. K.; National CenterAtmospheric Research

    2011-12-01

    Recognizing the importance of tailoring content to a variety of audiences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) takes a multi-pronged approach to expand the reach of climate research results. The center's communications and education and outreach teams leverage Web 1.0 and 2.0 functionality - Google searches, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube - as well as face-to-face interactions and traditional media outlets to ensure climate change messages effectively connect with multiple audiences. Key to these efforts, NCAR seeks to frame messages that emphasize cultural cognition, that is, in a manner that recognizes and resonates with different audiences' values and thus their identities. Among the basic communications approaches NCAR uses to engage the public are one-on-one interactions with the visiting public, which ranges from school children and tourists, to dignitaries and journalists. As an example, the NCAR Journalism Fellowship brings a competitively selected group of internatoinal journalists to NCAR. During a week-long visit and ongoing contact, journalists are provided with a close-up, nuanced view of the science and individuals working on the bigger-picture research that drives climate-related sound bites reported by the press. NCAR provides media training for its scientists, giving them tools and practice in effectively handling interviews for print, Web and radio outlets. The institution hosts public events like "Super Science Saturday," and NCAR staff participate in external activities such as school science fairs, community events and continuing education sessions. In addition to interactive displays that allow the public to "experience" science directly and informally, NCAR develops educational programs and curricula targeted to specific age groups and levels of expertise. We will explore the importance of analogies, images and anecdotes in explaining complicated subjects to such a varied set of audiences, and identify key concepts in simplifying

  14. EPA’s Environmental Justice Research Roadmap and Interagency Efforts on Climate Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressors associated with climate change are expected to be disproportionately greater for overburdened communities. This webinar will present activities of the Climate Impacts subcommittee of the Federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Stressors associated with climate chang...

  15. Climate engineering field research : The favorable setting of international environmental law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.(Jesse)

    2014-01-01

    As forecasts for climate change and its impacts have become more dire, climate engineering proposals have come under increasing consideration and are presently moving toward field trials. This article examines the relevant international environmental law, distinguishing between climate engineering r

  16. Research on BACnet Building Controller Based on ARM9 and Embedded Linux%基于ARM9和嵌入式Linux的BACnet楼宇控制器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健仓

    2012-01-01

    Application of BACnet/IP technology building controller, building control center via high-speed Ethernet connections in different floors, the application of different functional controller. In hardware, from the cost, performance and other aspects identified ARM9 hardware platform, according to the system need to design the various functional modules of hardware circuit; in software, embedded Linux system by transplantation, the controller provides a stable operating environment software and network environment. This paper focuses on the completion of the use of C language realization BACnet protocol stack, through the protocol stack, the controller with other BACnet devices for data exchange functions, proposes the application methods of controller in practical projects.%应用BACnet/IP技术的楼宇控制器,楼宇控制中心通过以太网高速连接位于不同楼层、不同功能的应用控制器.通过ARM9的硬件平台设计出硬件的各个功能模块电路,通过移植嵌入式Linux系统,为控制器提供了软件的稳定运行环境、网络环境.重点完成了BACnet协议栈,通过协议栈,控制器与其他BACnet设备进行数据交换.提出了控制器在具体工程中的应用方法.

  17. Software Analysis of New Space Gravity Data for Geophysics and Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deese, Rupert; Ivins, Erik R.; Fielding, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Both the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellites are returning rich data for the study of the solid earth, the oceans, and the climate. Current software analysis tools do not provide researchers with the ease and flexibility required to make full use of this data. We evaluate the capabilities and shortcomings of existing software tools including Mathematica, the GOCE User Toolbox, the ICGEM's (International Center for Global Earth Models) web server, and Tesseroids. Using existing tools as necessary, we design and implement software with the capability to produce gridded data and publication quality renderings from raw gravity data. The straight forward software interface marks an improvement over previously existing tools and makes new space gravity data more useful to researchers. Using the software we calculate Bouguer anomalies of the gravity tensor's vertical component in the Gulf of Mexico, Antarctica, and the 2010 Maule earthquake region. These maps identify promising areas of future research.

  18. Psychometric Principles in Measurement for Geoscience Education Research: A Climate Change Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.; McNeal, K.; Bowles, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding learning in geoscience classrooms requires that we use valid and reliable instruments aligned with intended learning outcomes. Nearly one hundred instruments assessing conceptual understanding in undergraduate science and engineering classrooms (often called concept inventories) have been published and are actively being used to investigate learning. The techniques used to develop these instruments vary widely, often with little attention to psychometric principles of measurement. This paper will discuss the importance of using psychometric principles to design, evaluate, and revise research instruments, with particular attention to the validity and reliability steps that must be undertaken to ensure that research instruments are providing meaningful measurement. An example from a climate change inventory developed by the authors will be used to exemplify the importance of validity and reliability, including the value of item response theory for instrument development. A 24-item instrument was developed based on published items, conceptions research, and instructor experience. Rasch analysis of over 1000 responses provided evidence for the removal of 5 items for misfit and one item for potential bias as measured via differential item functioning. The resulting 18-item instrument can be considered a valid and reliable measure based on pre- and post-implementation metrics. Consideration of the relationship between respondent demographics and concept inventory scores provides unique insight into the relationship between gender, religiosity, values and climate change understanding.

  19. Dynamical downscaling of present climate extremal episodes for the BINGO research site of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittis, George; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Besides global warming, climate change is expected to cause alterations in precipitation amounts and distribution than can be linked to extreme events such as floods or prolonged droughts. This will have a significant impact in strategic societal sectors that base their activities on water resources. While the global climate projections inform us about the long-term and weather forecasts can give useful information only for a few days or weeks, decision-makers and end-users also need guidance on inter-annual to decadal time scales. In this context, the BINGO (Bringing INnovation to onGOing water management - a better future under climate change) H2020 project aims both at reducing the uncertainty of near-term climate predictions and developing response strategies in order to better manage the remaining uncertainty. One of the project's main objectives is to develop improved decadal predictions, in adequate spatiotemporal scales, with a specific focus on extreme precipitation events. The projected rainfall will be eventually used to drive hydrological impact models. BINGO focuses on research sites that encompass river basins, watersheds and urban areas of six European countries including Norway, Cyprus, Germany, Portugal, The Netherlands and Spain. In this study we present the dynamical downscaling of the ERA-Interim dataset for validation purposes and for the research site of Cyprus. Five extreme rainfall periods were identified from the observed precipitation archives and were simulated in very high horizontal resolutions (4~1 km) using the WRF limited area atmospheric model. To optimize the performance of the model we have tested a combination of three cumulus and five microphysics parameterization schemes that resulted in 15 simulations for each extreme precipitation event. The model output was compared with daily or hourly (where available) representative rain gauge data. A set of statistical metrics was applied in order to objectively select the best

  20. Benefits of collaborative and comparative research on land use change and climate mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Gong, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The world's two largest economies are also the latest greenhouse gas emitters. The United States is committed to reduce the net greenhouse gas emission by 28% below the 2005 level by 2025. Similarly China also announced significant climate mitigation steps at the Paris climate convention. These policy plans will require actions including reduction of GHG emissions as well as protection of carbon stored in biologic pools and increase of carbon sequestration by the natural ecosystems. Major drivers of ecosystem carbon sequestration and protection of existing carbon resources include land use, disturbances, and climate change. Recent studies indicate that vegetated ecosystems in the United States remain as a carbon sink but the sink is weakening due to increased disturbances (such as wildfire and harvesting) and aging of forests. Unique land use policies in China such as large-scale afforestation in the recent decades have reportedly led to significant increase in total forest area and aboveground biomass, although it is not clear to what degree the increase has translated to strengthened net uptake of atmospheric CO2 and the rate of sequestration by vegetated ecosystems. What lessons can we draw from different land management and land use practices in the U.S. and China that can benefit scientific advances and climate mitigation goals? Research conducted collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey and China Ministry of Science and Technology has led to improved techniques for tracking and modeling land use change and ecosystem disturbances and improved understanding of consequences of different land use change and management practices on ecosystem carbon sequestration capacities.

  1. Management of climatic heat stress risk in construction: a review of practices, methodologies, and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, Steve; Yunyanjia, Andrea; Li, Baizhan; Chuanjingju, Carrie

    2014-05-01

    Climatic heat stress leads to accidents on construction sites brought about by a range of human factors emanating from heat induced illness, and fatigue leading to impaired capability, physical and mental. It is an occupational characteristic of construction work in many climates and the authors take the approach of re-engineering the whole safety management system rather than focusing on incremental improvement, which is current management practice in the construction industry. From a scientific viewpoint, climatic heat stress is determined by six key factors: (1) air temperature, (2) humidity, (3) radiant heat, and (4) wind speed indicating the environment, (5) metabolic heat generated by physical activities, and (6) "clothing effect" that moderates the heat exchange between the body and the environment. By making use of existing heat stress indices and heat stress management processes, heat stress risk on construction sites can be managed in three ways: (1) control of environmental heat stress exposure through use of an action-triggering threshold system, (2) control of continuous work time (CWT, referred by maximum allowable exposure duration) with mandatory work-rest regimens, and (3) enabling self-paced working through empowerment of employees. Existing heat stress practices and methodologies are critically reviewed and the authors propose a three-level methodology for an action-triggering, localized, simplified threshold system to facilitate effective decisions by frontline supervisors. The authors point out the need for "regional based" heat stress management practices that reflect unique climatic conditions, working practices and acclimatization propensity by local workers indifferent geographic regions. The authors set out the case for regional, rather than international, standards that account for this uniqueness and which are derived from site-based rather than laboratory-based research.

  2. Climate Impacts Mid-1800's Deforestation in New England using the Weather, Research, and Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakowski, E. A.; Chen, M.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Dibb, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    When colonists arrived in the New England region of the United States (US) in the 1600's, more than 90% of land area was forested. By the mid-1800's, half of the land area was deforested having been cleared extensively for timber, pasture, and to heat homes. Today, New Hampshire is one of the most forested states in the US, yet little is known about the local climate impacts resulting from reforestation. We hypothesize that the removal of forests in 1850 had a strong impact on wintertime climate through changes in surface albedo, roughness length, and other biogeophysical surface properties. This study investigates the climate impacts of historical deforestation on New England winter climate using the Weather, Research, and Forecasting model. The WRF simulations presented here utilize a triple-nested approach, with the innermost 4-km domain centered on the New England states for two land cover scenarios, (2) an historical 1850 deforested scenario derived from the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE3) land cover dataset and (2) present-day reforested scenario derived from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover data. ERA-Interim lateral boundary conditions are used to drive the model and results are compared for an above average snowfall winter (November 2008 through April 2009) and a below-average snowfall winter (November 2001 through April 2002). Simulations are ongoing but analysis of observational data suggests that nocturnal cooling is a dominant response to deforestation compared to forested areas. The results from the WRF modeling efforts in this study will help inform future land use decisions in the future.

  3. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are built and a 2-dimens...

  4. Application of the new scenario framework for climate change research: Future social vulnerability in large urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohat, Guillaume; Flacke, Johannes; Dao, Hy

    2016-04-01

    It is by now widely acknowledged that future social vulnerability to climate change depends on both future climate state and future socio-economic conditions. Nevertheless, while most of the vulnerability assessments are using climate projections, the integration of socio-economic projections into the assessment of vulnerabilities has been very limited. Up to now, the vast majority of vulnerability assessments has been using current socio-economic conditions, hence has failed to consider the influence of socio-economic developments in the construction of vulnerability. To enhance the use of socio-economic projections into climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability assessments, the climate change research community has been recently involved in the development of a new model for creating scenarios that integrate future changes in climate as well as in society, known under the name of the new scenario framework for climate change research. This theoretical framework is made of a set of alternative futures of socio-economic developments (known as shared socio-economic pathways - SSPs), a set of hypothesis about future climate policies (known as shared policy assumptions - SPAs) and a set of greenhouse gas concentration trajectories (known as representative concentration pathways - RCPs), which are all combined into a scenario matrix architecture (SMA) whose aim is to facilitate the use of this framework. Despite calls by the climate change research community for the use of this conceptual framework in impacts, adaptation and vulnerability research, its use and its assessment has been very limited. Focusing on case-studies (i.e. specific cities as well as specific climate impacts and their associated human exposures and vulnerabilities), the study presented here will attempt to operationalize this theoretical framework for the assessment of future social vulnerability in large urban areas. A particular attention will be paid to less advanced and more

  5. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Goldstein, J.; Duggan, B.; Xu, J.; Du, C.; Akkiraju, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The periodical National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [1] produces reports about findings of global climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States. Those findings are of great public and academic concerns and are used in policy and management decisions, which make the provenance information of findings in those reports especially important. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS), in which the NCA reports and associated provenance information are the primary records. We were modeling and developing Semantic Web applications for the GCIS. By applying a use case-driven iterative methodology [2], we developed an ontology [3] to represent the content structure of a report and the associated provenance information. We also mapped the classes and properties in our ontology into the W3C PROV-O ontology [4] to realize the formal presentation of provenance. We successfully implemented the ontology in several pilot systems for a recent National Climate Assessment report (i.e., the NCA3). They provide users the functionalities to browse and search provenance information with topics of interest. Provenance information of the NCA3 has been made structured and interoperable by applying the developed ontology. Besides the pilot systems we developed, other tools and services are also able to interact with the data in the context of the 'Web of data' and thus create added values. Our research shows that the use case-driven iterative method bridges the gap between Semantic Web researchers and earth and environmental scientists and is able to be deployed rapidly for developing Semantic Web applications. Our work also provides first-hand experience for re-using the W3C PROV-O ontology in the field of earth and environmental sciences, as the PROV-O ontology is recently ratified (on 04/30/2013) by the W3C as a recommendation and relevant applications are still rare. [1] http

  6. From the field to the classroom: Connecting climate research to classroom lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Steiner, S. M.; Coleman, L.

    2015-12-01

    Improving scientific literacy is a goal in the United States. Scientists from the United States are often expected to present research findings in ways that are meaningful and accessible to the general public, including K-12 students. PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program funded by the National Science Foundation, partners teachers with scientists in the Arctic and Antarctica. Teachers communicate the research to general audiences on a regular basis. After the field experience, they then create classroom-ready lessons to relay the science exploration into science curriculum. In this presentation, secondary level educators, will share their experiences with being part of field research teams in the Arctic and Antarctica, and their strategies for bringing current science research into the classroom and aligning lessons with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Topics include an overview on using polar science to teach about climate change, application of field research techniques to improve students' understanding of scientific investigation methodology, phenology observations, soil porosity and permeability, litter decomposition, effect of sunlight on release of carbon dioxide from thawing permafrost, and understanding early life on Earth by studying stromatolites in Antarctica.

  7. Global climate change: time to mainstream health risks and their prevention on the medical research and policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S; Mackenzie, J; Pitman, A J; FitzGerald, G; Nicholls, N; Selvey, L

    2008-06-01

    Climate change is unequivocal. The fourth assessment report of the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change has recently projected that global average surface temperature will increase by 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C by 2100. Anthropogenic warming during the twenty-first century would be much greater than that observed in the twentieth century. Most of the warming observed over the last six decades is attributable to human activities. Climate change is already affecting, and will increasingly have profound effects on human health and well-being. Therefore, there is an urgent need for societies to take both preemptive and adaptive actions to protect human populations from adverse health consequences of climate change. It is time to mainstream health risks and their prevention in relation to the effects of climate change on the medical research and policy agenda.

  8. Development of a Web-based visualization platform for climate research using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Wang, Panxing; Di, Liping; Lu, Mingyue

    2012-10-01

    Recently, it has become easier to access climate data from satellites, ground measurements, and models from various data centers. However, searching, accessing, and processing heterogeneous data from different sources are very time-consuming tasks. There is lack of a comprehensive visual platform to acquire distributed and heterogeneous scientific data and to render processed images from a single accessing point for climate studies. This paper documents the design and implementation of a Web-based visual, interoperable, and scalable platform that is able to access climatological fields from models, satellites, and ground stations from a number of data sources using Google Earth (GE) as a common graphical interface. The development is based on the TCP/IP protocol and various data sharing open sources, such as OPeNDAP, GDS, Web Processing Service (WPS), and Web Mapping Service (WMS). The visualization capability of integrating various measurements into GE extends dramatically the awareness and visibility of scientific results. Using embedded geographic information in the GE, the designed system improves our understanding of the relationships of different elements in a four-dimensional domain. The system enables easy and convenient synergistic research on a virtual platform for professionals and the general public, greatly advancing global data sharing and scientific research collaboration.

  9. Development of a Web-Based Visualization Platform for Climate Research Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Wang, Panxing; Di, Liping; Lu, Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has become easier to access climate data from satellites, ground measurements, and models from various data centers, However, searching. accessing, and prc(essing heterogeneous data from different sources are very tim -consuming tasks. There is lack of a comprehensive visual platform to acquire distributed and heterogeneous scientific data and to render processed images from a single accessing point for climate studies. This paper. documents the design and implementation of a Web-based visual, interoperable, and scalable platform that is able to access climatological fields from models, satellites, and ground stations from a number of data sources using Google Earth (GE) as a common graphical interface. The development is based on the TCP/IP protocol and various data sharing open sources, such as OPeNDAP, GDS, Web Processing Service (WPS), and Web Mapping Service (WMS). The visualization capability of integrating various measurements into cE extends dramatically the awareness and visibility of scientific results. Using embedded geographic information in the GE, the designed system improves our understanding of the relationships of different elements in a four dimensional domain. The system enables easy and convenient synergistic research on a virtual platform for professionals and the general public, gr$tly advancing global data sharing and scientific research collaboration.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  11. Climate changes Spatial Planning Introduction to the Dutch national research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, J.A.; Brinkman, S.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Kabat, P.

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with climate change and climate variability is one of the largest challenges for the coming years, both on a national and global scale. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presents increasing evidence of impacts of climate change and suggests that most of the warming observe

  12. Climate Change and Children’s Health—A Call for Research on What Works to Protect Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is affecting and will increasingly influence human health and wellbeing. Children are particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. An extensive literature review regarding the impact of climate change on children’s health was conducted in April 2012 by searching electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, as well as relevant websites, such as IPCC and WHO. Climate change affects children’s health through increased air pollution, more weather-related disasters, more frequent and intense heat waves, decreased water quality and quantity, food shortage and greater exposure to toxicants. As a result, children experience greater risk of mental disorders, malnutrition, infectious diseases, allergic diseases and respiratory diseases. Mitigation measures like reducing carbon pollution emissions, and adaptation measures such as early warning systems and post-disaster counseling are strongly needed. Future health research directions should focus on: (1 identifying whether climate change impacts on children will be modified by gender, age and socioeconomic status; (2 refining outcome measures of children’s vulnerability to climate change; (3 projecting children’s disease burden under climate change scenarios; (4 exploring children’s disease burden related to climate change in low-income countries; and (5 identifying the most cost-effective mitigation and adaptation actions from a children’s health perspective.

  13. Climate and Global Change: Programs and Services Reaching Public and K-12 Audiences at a National Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Munoz, R.; Lu, G.; Ammann, C.

    2004-05-01

    The study of climate and global change is an important on-going focal area for scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Programs overseen by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach (UCAR-EO) help to translate NCAR's scientific programs, methodologies, and technologies, and their societal benefits to over 80,000 visitors to the NCAR Mesa Laboratory each year. This is accomplished through the implementation of exhibits, guided tours, an audiotour, programs for school groups, and a teachers' guide to exhibits which is currently in development. The Climate Discovery Exhibit unveiled in July 2003 offers visitors a visually engaging and informative overview of information, graphics, artifacts, and interactives describing the Earth system's dynamic processes that contribute to and mediate climate change, the history of our planet's changing climate, and perspectives on geographic locations and societies around the world that have potential to be impacted by a changing climate. Climate Futures, an addition to this exhibit to open in the summer of 2004, will help visitors to understand why scientists seek to model the global climate system and how information about past and current climate are used to validate models and build scenarios for Earth's future climate, while clarifying the effects of natural and human-induced contributions to these predictions. UCAR-EO further strives to enhance public understanding and to dispel misconceptions about climate change by bringing scientists' explanations to visitors who learn about atmospheric sciences while on staff-guided tours and/or while using an audiotour developed in 2003 with a grant from the National Science Foundation. With advanced reservations, a limited number of visitors may experience demonstrations of climate models in the NCAR Visualization Laboratory. An instructional module for approximately 5,000 visiting school children and a teachers guide

  14. Links between the built environment, climate and population health: interdisciplinary environmental change research in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Sclar, Elliott D; Kinney, Patrick L; Knowlton, Kim; Crauderueff, Robert; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2007-10-01

    Global climate change is expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, placing greater stress and impacts on multiple social and biophysical systems, including population health, coastal development, urban infrastructure, energy demand, and water supplies. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanisation of poverty exists, with increased challenges for urban populations and local governance to protect and sustain the wellbeing of growing cities. In the context of these 2 overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritised for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive responses to climate change. This article discusses 2 recent initiatives of The Earth Institute at Columbia University (EI) as examples of research that integrates the methods and objectives of several disciplines, including environmental health science and urban planning, to understand the potential public health impacts of global climate change and mitigative measures for the more localised effects of the urban heat island in the New York City metropolitan region. These efforts embody 2 distinct research approaches. The New York Climate & Health Project created a new integrated modeling system to assess the public health impacts of climate and land use change in the metropolitan region. The Cool City Project aims for more applied policy-oriented research that incorporates the local knowledge of community residents to understand the costs and benefits of interventions in the built environment that might serve to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change and variability, and protect urban populations from health stressors associated with summertime heat. Both types of research are potentially useful for understanding the impacts of environmental change at the urban scale, the policies needed to address these

  15. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  16. Creative Climate: A global ten-year communications, research and learning project about environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative

  17. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  18. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998-): a climate change-related public health narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane; Lapaige, Véronique; Labbé, Yolaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec's new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human-environment interactions (for example, climate change), for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change) in multi-actors contexts has progressively been established during the last 13 years. The first of the two sections introduces the social context of a Quebec undergoing climate changes. Current climatic conditions and expected changes will be described, and attendant health risks for the Quebec population. The second section addresses the scientific, institutional and normative dimensions of the problem. It corresponds to a "public health narrative" presented in three phases: (1) problem identification (1998-2002) beginning in northern Quebec; (2) problem investigation (2002-2006) in which

  19. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see neespi.org) and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing

  20. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of bu

  1. Steps to overcome the North-South divide in research relevant to climate change policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharska, Malgorzata; Smithers, Richard J.; Kuchler, Magdalena; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Gutiérrez, José M.; Hassanali, Ahmed; Huq, Saleemul; Koller, Silvia H.; Marjit, Sugata; Mshinda, Hassan M.; Masjuki, Hj Hassan; Solomons, Noel W.; Staden, Johannes Van; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    A global North-South divide in research, and its negative consequences, has been highlighted in various scientific disciplines. Northern domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by Southern researchers in Southern countries, may hinder further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. Despite efforts to address the North-South divide, progress has been slow. In this Perspective, we illustrate the extent of the divide, review underlying issues and analyse their consequences for climate change policy development and implementation. We propose a set of practical steps in both Northern and Southern countries that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to span the North-South divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.

  2. C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N

    2012-11-13

    The C-band scanning ARM precipitation radar (C-SAPR) is a scanning polarimetric Doppler radar transmitting simultaneously in both H and V polarizations. With a 350-kW magnetron transmitter, this puts 125 kW of transmitted power for each polarization. The receiver for the C-SAPR is a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) -developed Hi-Q system operating in a coherent-on-receive mode. The ARM Climate Research Facility operates two C-SAPRs; one of them is deployed near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility near the triangular array of X-SAPRs, and the second C-SAPR is deployed at ARM’s Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea.

  3. Increasing Diversity in Global Climate Change, Space Weather and Space Technology Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.; Howard, A. M.; Boxe, C.; Jiang, M.; Tulsee, T.; Chow, Y. W.; Zavala-Gutierrez, R.; Barley, R.; Filin, B.; Brathwaite, K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes projects at Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York that contribute to the preparation of a diverse workforce in the areas of ocean modeling, planetary atmospheres, space weather and space technology. Specific projects incorporating both undergraduate and high school students include Assessing Parameterizations of Energy Input to Internal Ocean Mixing, Reaction Rate Uncertainty on Mars Atmospheric Ozone, Remote Sensing of Solar Active Regions and Intelligent Software for Nano-satellites. These projects are accompanied by a newly developed Computational Earth and Space Science course to provide additional background on methodologies and tools for scientific data analysis. This program is supported by NSF award AGS-1359293 REU Site: CUNY/GISS Center for Global Climate Research and the NASA New York State Space Grant Consortium.

  4. Initial phase of the Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research – A virtual centre at the interface of basic and applied weather and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weissmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research is a network of German universities, research institutes and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD. It has been established to trigger and intensify basic research and education on weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The performed research ranges from nowcasting and short-term weather forecasting to convective-scale data assimilation, the development of parameterizations for numerical weather prediction models, climate monitoring and the communication and use of forecast information. Scientific findings from the network contribute to better understanding of the life-cycle of shallow and deep convection, representation of uncertainty in ensemble systems, effects of unresolved variability, regional climate variability, perception of forecasts and vulnerability of society. Concrete developments within the research network include dual observation-microphysics composites, satellite forward operators, tools to estimate observation impact, cloud and precipitation system tracking algorithms, large-eddy-simulations, a regional reanalysis and a probabilistic forecast test product. Within three years, the network has triggered a number of activities that include the training and education of young scientists besides the centre's core objective of complementing DWD's internal research with relevant basic research at universities and research institutes. The long term goal is to develop a self-sustaining research network that continues the close collaboration with DWD and the national and international research community.

  5. From Researchers to Teachers to Students: Capturing the Ripple Effect of Climate Change Science Experience and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation funded program in which K-12 teachers spend 3-6 weeks participating in hands-on, transformative field research experiences in the polar regions which focus heavily on climate change and climate science. Administrated by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, the goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Since 2007, the PolarTREC program evaluation has been collecting deep and diverse sets of data from all audiences engaged in the project. Nearly all expeditions focus on at least one aspect of climate change science. Teacher and researcher participants are queried pre- and post- expedition on their knowledge and interested in polar science, K-12 education, and a critique of the PolarTREC program. A specific highlight is the thousands of students surveyed in regards to their knowledge gain, attitudes, and interest in science learning. Additionally, longitudinal studies expose the myriad of ways that the PolarTREC program influences teachers and their practice many years after program completion. The findings influence and shape the program every year, nearly perfecting the strategy for communicating climate change science to audiences around the world. This presentation will present the social science research findings in our extensive evaluation and provide best practices for program structure as well as evaluation methods to best capture the impact on audiences beyond participants.

  6. The Impact of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Organizational Climate on the Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Research-Intensive Universities in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, John

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on academics in research-intensive universities in the UK and explores their perceptions of organizational climate, role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the universities have multiple organizational climates. Three organizational climate types -- the Clan, the Hierarchy and the Adhocracy…

  7. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dangles

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most

  8. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from

  9. China: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030. A Commissioned Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    2006): 1–21. lvi X. Chen, B. Hu, R. Yu et al. “Spatial and temporal variation of phenological growing season and climate change impacts in...The simulated climatic belts, climatic seasons, and Yellow River ice phenology in China are compared between the present climate during 1975–1984 and...simulating the dominant variations of the mean temperature over China, but not the spatial distributions. The annual precipitation over East Asia exceeds

  10. Voluntary Field Data Collection for Landscape Phenology and Surface Water Essential Climate Variable Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. W.; Hudson-Dunn, A.; Aquino, K.; Pasa, M.; Paez, F.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing techniques to monitor vegetation and surface water condition for improved resource management. Educational materials and data forms that allow volunteer Citizen Scientists to collect information on vegetation and surface water extent to enhance satellite and web camera data analyses (http://egsc.usgs.gov/shenandoah.html) have been developed, tested, and refined. Collection is focused on supplementing landscape phenology and surface water extent (SWE) essential climate variable (ECV) research. Low cost instrumentation, subject education, and measurement calibration techniques all have utility for multiple remote sensing and biophysical studies. Trials have been conducted with subjects ranging from elementary school-aged summer camp children to science major undergraduate and graduate students. Experiments were replicated in several project study areas in Virginia that are also phenology and SWE-ECV research sites. Analysis of volunteer responses and their narrative feedback have improved the ability to request and assess data from volunteers. Children ages 12 and over were able to provide reliable supplemental information for phenology and aquatic research. Finally, trial observation and subject feedback both confirmed that participation furthered volunteer interest in science.

  11. University-Government Partnerships and High Risk Research: The Last Stronghold for New Thinking About Coping with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The repurposing of Bell Laboratories by new owner Lucent Technologies to become a mission-focused applied research facility effectively terminated fundamental, high-risk research everywhere but in research universities. The now almost ten year old NAS study that produced the watershed report Rising Above the Gathering Storm warned that the US research establishment encompassing industry, government, academia and nongovernment organizations has lost its way in promoting fundamental high-risk research of the kind that has historically led to the transformational scientific breakthroughs that radically changed and improved our quality of life for more than a century. Low-risk, incremental research dominates industry and most government funding agendas, including NSF (and including NSF's "transformational research" agenda!). Unprecedented challenges such as understanding and dealing with the consequences of climate change will require fundamental new ideas and technologies that do not exist. Adapting future ecosystems and human systems to climate variability and change needs new social models of cooperation, new biotechnologies and new environmental mangement strategies that do not now exist. A case can be made that history provides no strong templates for such a future. I argue that research universities, working in close partnerships with government, provides a fertile seedbed for the kinds of scientific knowledge and thinking that could produce "game changing" strategies for dealing with climate change. Government has the resources and the ability to convert and scale new ideas into usable knowledge, research universities have the ingenuity and disciplinary spectra to think up new ideas and test them for proof of concept. Co-locating a government presence within a research university has the potential to integrate a research enterprise that is not afraid to fail a few times before potentially hitting paydirt with an institution that can accelerate the translation of

  12. Adapting forest management to the impacts of climate change in Canada : a BIOCAP research integration program synthesis paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Williamson, T.; Price, D.; Wellstead, A. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network, Forest Sector (Canada); Spittlehouse, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada); Gray, P. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada); Scott, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Askew, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Webber, S. [Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network, Forest Sector (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The impact of climate change on human and economic systems was evaluated in relation to Canada's forest industry. Features and properties of various social systems, policy and institutional features were reviewed. The aim of the paper was to identify the regions and systems most vulnerable to climate change in order to help in the development of mitigation plans. Differences in forest management approaches and land ownership patterns mean that it is difficult to assess the vulnerability of Canada's forests to climate change. Canada's forest industry may be at risk due to its reliance on an export-based forest economy. Market impacts will be important for British Columbia and Quebec, where forest products make a significant contribution to provincial gross domestic product (GDP). Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism will also be impacted. It was observed that climate change has a number of important policy and planning implications for protected areas in Canada, and protected area managers will need to employ planned adjustments to moderate potential risks as well as benefit from the opportunities associated with climate change. While the use of climate, ecosystem and socio-economic models are integral to impacts and adaptation research, it was suggested that a more accurate understanding of the real long-term effects of climate change will be provided by integrated assessments that include both modelling and non-modelling approaches. It was concluded that it is critical to begin the process of developing adaptation strategies which address the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change. Recommendations included enhancing Canada's capacity to undertake integrated assessments of system vulnerabilities at various scales; increasing resources for basic climate change impacts and adaptation science; reviewing forest policies, planning and management approaches; and developing an enhanced capacity for risk management. 408 refs., 3

  13. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment: A New Challenge to Monsoon Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol and monsoon related droughts and floods are two of the most serious environmental hazards confronting more than 60% of the population of the world living in the Asian monsoon countries. In recent years, thanks to improved satellite and in-situ observations, and better models, great strides have been made in aerosol, and monsoon research respectively. There is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that interaction of aerosol forcing with water cycle dynamics in monsoon regions may substantially alter the redistribution of energy at the earth surface and in the atmosphere, and therefore significantly impact monsoon rainfall variability and long term trends. In this talk, I will describe issues related to societal needs, scientific background, and challenges in studies of aerosol-water cycle interaction in Asian monsoon regions. As a first step towards addressing these issues, the authors call for an integrated observation and modeling research approach aimed at the interactions between aerosol chemistry and radiative effects and monsoon dynamics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system. A Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX) is proposed for 2007-2011, with an enhanced observation period during 2008-09, encompassing diverse arrays of observations from surface, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and satellites of physical and chemical properties of aerosols, long range aerosol transport as well as meteorological and oceanographic parameters in the Indo-Pacific Asian monsoon region. JAMEX will leverage on coordination among many ongoing and planned national programs on aerosols and monsoon research in China, India, Japan, Nepal, Italy, US, as well as international research programs of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  14. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  15. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  16. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Brasil , February 20, 2001. 20 Arms Trafficking and Colombia chased, when and how they were transferred to the guerrillas or paramilitaries, or through...Mercado Blanco De Armas,” 1999, p. 44. 31Franco, Ilimar, “Pf to Block Farc Supply Routes in Amazon,” Jornal do Brasil , August 20, 1999. 26 Arms...Forces Mobilize in Response to Farc,” Sao Paulo Veja, November 10, 1999. 43“Arms Trafficking to Colombia Increases,” El Comercio , August 23, 2000

  17. Problems, Prescriptions and Potential in Actionable Climate Change Science - A Case Study from California Coastal Marsh Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. M.; Ambrose, R. F.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Brown, L. N.; Fejtek, S.; Gold, M.; Rosencranz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frustrations regarding the provision of actionable science extend to both producers and consumers. Scientists decry the lack of application of their research in shaping policy and practices while decision makers bemoan the lack of applicability of scientific research to the specific problems at hand or its narrow focus relative to the plethora of engineering, economic and social considerations that they must also consider. Incorporating climate change adds additional complexity due to uncertainties in estimating many facets of future climate, the inherent variability of climate and the decadal scales over which significant changes will develop. Recently a set of guidelines for successful science-policy interaction was derived from the analysis of transboundary water management. These are; 1 recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into the decision-making processes, 2 early establishment of conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among participants, 3 understanding that science-policy interactions are enhanced through greater collaboration and social or group-learning processes, 4 accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes, and 5 engaging boundary organizations and informal networks as well as formal stakeholders. Here we present as a case study research on California coastal marshes, climate change and sea-level that is being conducted by university and USGS scientists under the auspices of the Southwest Climate Science Center. We also present research needs identified by a seperate analysis of best practices for coastal marsh restoration in the face of climate change that was conducted in extensive consultation with planners and managers. The initial communication, scientific research and outreach-dissemination of the marsh scientfic study are outlined and compared to best practices needs identified by planners and the science-policy guidelines outlined above

  18. Research Project Entitled "The Dynamics and Physical Processes in The Weather and Climate System" --Part Ⅰ: A Brief Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云峰; 郑文静; 周小刚

    2004-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the Tenth Five-Year Priority Research Projects of the Earth Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) were initiated. After nearly a two-year long process to prepare, the first version of six Priority Research Projects of Earth Sciences was published in October 2001 by NSFC, viz., Local Response to Global Changes, Life Process and Environment,Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System, Continental Dynamics, Regional Sustainable Development, Solar-Terrestrial Environment and Space Weather. The process involved more than 200 renowned Chinese scientists and many departments and agencies in China. The six Priority Research Projects guide the research effort of the earth sciences for the NSFC from year 2001 to 2005.This paper provides a brief introduction to the Third Priority Research Project of the Department of Earth Sciences of NSFC-Dynamics and Physical Processes in the Weather and Climate System (DPWOS).

  19. Building Partnerships and Research Collaborations to Address the Impacts of Arctic Change: The North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J.; North, L. A.; Strenecky, B.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in Arctic warming influence the various atmospheric and oceanic patterns that drive Caribbean and mid-latitude climate events, including extreme events like drought, tornadoes, and flooding in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Recently, the establishment of the North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3) project at Western Kentucky University (WKU) in partnership with the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland Arctic Cooperation Network (IACN), and Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) provides a foundation from which to engage students in applied research from the local to global levels and more clearly understand the many tenets of climate change impacts in the Arctic within both a global and local community context. The NAC3 project encompasses many facets, including joint international courses, student internships, economic development, service learning, and applied research. In its first phase, the project has generated myriad outcomes and opportunities for bridging STEM disciplines with other fields to holistically and collaboratively address specific human-environmental issues falling under the broad umbrella of climate change. WKU and UNAK students desire interaction and exposure to other cultures and regions that are threatened by climate change and Iceland presents a unique opportunity to study influences such as oceanic processes, island economies, sustainable harvest of fisheries, and Arctic influences on climate change. The project aims to develop a model to bring partners together to conduct applied research on the complex subject of global environmental change, particularly in the Arctic, while simultaneously focusing on changing how we learn, develop community, and engage internationally to understand the impacts and find solutions.

  20. Architecture of the local spatial data infrastructure for regional climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets (meteorological databases, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are actively used in modeling and analysis of climate change for various spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their size which might constitute up to tens terabytes for a single dataset studies in the area of climate and environmental change require a special software support based on SDI approach. A dedicated architecture of the local spatial data infrastructure aiming at regional climate change analysis using modern web mapping technologies is presented. Geoportal is a key element of any SDI, allowing searching of geoinformation resources (datasets and services) using metadata catalogs, producing geospatial data selections by their parameters (data access functionality) as well as managing services and applications of cartographical visualization. It should be noted that due to objective reasons such as big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences of various datasets, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services turns out to be quite a complex task. Those circumstances were taken into account while developing architecture of the local spatial data infrastructure as a universal framework providing geodata services. So that, the architecture presented includes: 1. Effective in terms of search, access, retrieval and subsequent statistical processing, model of storing big sets of regional georeferenced data, allowing in particular to store frequently used values (like monthly and annual climate change indices, etc.), thus providing different temporal views of the datasets 2. General architecture of the corresponding software components handling geospatial datasets within the storage model 3. Metadata catalog describing in detail using ISO 19115 and CF-convention standards datasets used in climate researches as a basic element of the

  1. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  2. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  4. DOE Final Report on Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlosser, C. Adam [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Anthony, Katey Walter [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Kicklighter, David [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Gao, Xiang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  5. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  6. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  7. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

  8. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bernholdt, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Brown, D. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Cinquini, L. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fraser, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Halliday, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kesselman, C. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Middleton, J. E. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schwidder, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Su, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-07-13

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the U.S. role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET. At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading U.S. climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG. In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 250 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 280 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single signon of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  9. Research on Intelligent Energy Saving System based on ZigBee and ARM%基于ZigBee和ARM的智能节电系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜欣慧; 卢小茜; 白雪艳

    2012-01-01

    As for the disadvantages of traditional intelligent system,that is,the needs to be rewired whether it increases or decreases equipments, poor scalability and mobility of the system, high the cost of installation and maintenance, and lack of human-computer interaction,ZigBee and ARM were introduced into the intelligent power saving system. Based on CC2430-ZigBee and ARM chip microprocessor, intelligent power saving system was established. ARM human-computer interaction interface was designed,which was easy to operate and monitor. ZigBee protocol stack and each terminal module were compiled, debugged and bound, ZigBee networking test and the control of ARM were realized. System test shows that network was normal, data transmission was stable. ZigBee wireless communication system reduced wiring, increased system scalability and mobility. Operation-simple ARM interface realized human-machine interaction, and intelligent ization. The condition of electrical equipment, indoor temperature, security, real-time power, time-of-use electricity price, electricity ladder of alarm could also be remotely monitored.%针对传统智能系统增减设备都需要重新布线,系统的可扩展性和移动性比较差,安装和维护成本高,缺乏人机互动等问题,将ZigBee和ARM引入智能节电系统中.采用CC2430组建基于ZigBee的无线通信系统,选用ARM芯片为微处理器组建系统,并对其进行软件开发,设计出了易于操作和监控的ARM人机交互界面,对ZigBee协议栈和各个终端模块进行编译、调试和绑定,进行ZigBee组网测试和实现ARM控制.系统测试表明:组网正常,传输数据稳定,ZigBee无线通信系统能够减少布线,增加系统的可扩展性和移动性,操作简单的ARM界面能够实现人机互动,实现智能化.系统还可实现远程监控电气设备的使用情况、室内温度、安防、反映实时用电情况以及实施分时电价、阶梯电价的报警.

  10. Physical fundamentals of climate and climate models. Main research programme of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 1978-1985. Final report. Physikalische Grundlagen des Klimas und Klimamodelle. Forschungsschwerpunkt der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, 1978-1985. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wippermann, F.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the main point of research 'Physical Fundamentals of Climate and Climate Models' of the German Research Council (DFG) are summarized. Time series analyses, sensitivity of the global climate, blockings, variability of global pressure fields and geopotential fields, circulation models as well as statistical tests of theories are demonstrated by examples under the heading 'global climate'. In the second part (mesoscale climate) the regional field experiments MESOKLIP, DISKUS, PUKK and MERKUR are described and single phenomena and their numeric simulation are dealt with. This includes the canalization of the air flow in valleys, thermal wind systems as well as ground layer jet streams. A bibliography contains original papers, theses and reports written within the framework of the research progamme.

  11. Media Articles Describing Advances in Scientific Research as a Vehicle for Student Engagement Fostering Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    "Records of Global Climate Change" enables students to fulfill the science component of an undergraduate distribution requirement in "Critical Approaches" at IU Bloomington. The course draws students from all disciplines with varying levels of understanding of scientific approaches and often limited familiarity with climate issues. Its discussion sessions seek to foster scientific literacy via an alternating series of assignments focused on a combination of exercises that involve either examination and interpretation of on-line climate data or consideration and assessment of the scientific basis of new discoveries about climate change contained in recently published media articles. The final assignment linked to the discussion sessions requires students to review and summarize the topics discussed during the semester. Their answers provide direct evidence of newly acquired abilities to assimilate and evaluate scientific information on a range of topics related to climate change. In addition, student responses to an end-of-semester survey confirm that the vast majority considers that their knowledge and understanding of climate change was enhanced, and unsolicited comments note that the discussion sessions contributed greatly to this advancement. Many students remarked that the course's emphasis on examination of paleoclimate records helped their comprehension of the unprecedented nature of present-day climate trends. Others reported that their views on the significance of climate change had been transformed, and some commented that they now felt well equipped to engage in discussions about climate change because they were better informed about its scientific basis and facts.

  12. 1999 in review: An assessment of new research developments relevant to the science of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-03-31

    A synthesis of about 350 key scientific papers and reports dealing with the subject of climate change which appeared in the international peer-reviewed literature in 1999 is provided. The literature synthesized here deals with changes in atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, climate modelling, climate trends, climate impacts and adaptations, and climate change policy initiatives, especially the policy-science debate and mitigative response. With respect to the former, there are a number of scientists who continue to argue that there are significant discrepancies between observed trends in climate and trends projected by climate models, and suggest that there is cause for scepticism about the risk of climate change. They also suggest that mitigative action could be delayed until better technologies are developed. Others claim that the countries that are most vulnerable lack the resources to deal with the impacts of climate change and that the number of environmental refugees will increase six-fold by 2050 (estimated at 25 million in 1998). The references are classified under the broad topics used in the synthesis part of the review, with further subdivisions as appropriate. 348 refs.

  13. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  14. Statistics of Convective Cores Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers During the Oklahoma MC3E Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, S.; Dulaney, N.; Collis, S. M.; Jensen, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of vertical velocity and associated deep convective storm characteristics are observations of high priority for climate modelers. As part of an overall effort to improve our understanding of precipitating systems, the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) in Oklahoma recently reconfigured its existing 915 MHz wind profilers to operate in vertically-pointing modes for the sampling through deep convective storms. Unique UHF profiler modes were designed to allow these radar systems to act as anchors for ARM scanning radar observations as well as to evaluate the errors for scanning radar retrievals. The first demonstration of these reconfigured profiler systems took place during the Midlatitude Convective Clouds and Storms Experiment (MC3E). In this study, we explore the properties of convective updraft and downdraft core properties as revealed by standalone ARM profilers using standard definitions for diameter, intensity and mass flux. Observations are obtained under the umbrella of the ACRF scanning radar facilities that will provide additional insight and guidance for storm intensity, hydrometeor contributions to fall speed and storm translational motion.

  15. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An Investigation with ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qiang

    2013-10-22

    The overall objective of this project is to use the ARM observational data to improve our understanding of cloud-radiation effects in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which is crucial for improving the simulation and prediction of climate and climate change. In last four and half years, we have been concentrating on (i) performing the comparison of the ice cloud properties from the ground-based lidar observations with those from the satellite CALIPSO lidar observations at the ARM TWP sites; (ii) analyzing TTL cirrus and its relation to the tropical planetary waves; (iii) calculating the radiative heating rates using retrieved cloud microphysical properties by combining the ground-based lidar and radar observations at the ARM TWP sites and comparing the results with those using cloud properties retrieved from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations; (iv) comparing macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus clouds with small effective ice particle sizes; and (vi) evaluating the enhanced maximum warming in the tropical upper troposphere simulated by the GCMs. The main results of our research efforts are reported in the 12 referred journal publications that acknowledge the DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER64769.

  16. How to ensure that the results of climate risk analysis make a difference? - Experience from applied research addressing the challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Zebisch, Marc; Becker, Daniel; Pedoth, Lydia; Renner, Kathrin; Kienberger, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Changing climate conditions may have beneficial or adverse effects on the social-ecological systems we are living in. In any case, the possible effects result from complex and interlinked physical and social processes embedded in these systems. Traditional research addresses these bio-physical and societal issues in a separate way. Therefore, in general, studies on risks related to climate change are still mono-disciplinary in nature with an increasing amount of work following a multi-disciplinary approach. The quality and usefulness of the results of such research for policy or decision making in practice may further be limited by study designs that do not acknowledge appropriately the significance of integrating or at least mixing qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge. Finally, the acceptance of study results - particularly when containing some kind of assessments - is often endangered by insufficient and / or late involvement of stakeholders and users. The above mentioned limitations have often been brought up in the recent past. However, despite that a certain consensus could be achieved in the last years recognising the need to tackle these issues, little progress has been made in terms of implementation within the context of (research) studies. This paper elaborates in detail on reasons that hamper the application of - interdisciplinary (i.e. natural and social science), - trans-disciplinary (i.e. co-production of knowledge) and - integrative (i.e. combining qualitative and quantitative approaches) work. It is based on the experience gained through a number of applied climate change vulnerability studies carried out within the context of various GIZ-financed development cooperation projects, a consultancy project for the German Environment Agency as well as the workshop series INQUIMUS, which tackles particularly the issues of mixing qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Potentials and constraints of possible attempts for

  17. #ClimateEdCommunity : Field Workshops Bring Together Teachers and Researchers to Make Meaning of Science and Classroom Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Wood, J. H.; Steiner, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Seeing Understanding and Teaching: Climate Change in Denali is a four-day immersive teacher professional development course held in Denali National Park. Developed through three partner organizations, the course aims to develop teachers' skills for integrating climate change content into their classrooms. This presentation aims to share tangible best practices for linking researchers and teachers in the field, through four years of experience in program delivery and reported through a published external evaluation. This presentation will examine the key aspects of a successful connection between teachers, researchers, science, and classrooms: (1) Inclusion of teacher leaders, (2) dedicated program staff, (3) workshop community culture, and will expose barriers to this type of collaboration including (1) differences in learning style, (2) prior teaching experience, (3) existing/scaffolding understanding of climate change science, and (4) accessibility of enrollment and accommodations for the extended learning experience. Presentation Content Examples:Participants overwhelmingly value the deep commitment this course has to linking their field experience to the classroom attributing to the role of a teacher-leader; an expert science teacher with first-hand field research experience in the polar regions. The goal of including a teacher-leader is to enhance translatability between fieldwork and the classroom. Additionally, qualitative aspects of the report touches on the intangible successes of the workshop such as: (1) the creation of a non-judgmental learning atmosphere, (2) addressing accessibility to science learning tools in rural and under-served communities, (3) defining successful collaboration as making meaning together through exploratory questioning while in the field (4) discussed the social and cultural implications of climate change, and the difficulty of navigating these topics in educational and/or multicultural spaces. Next Steps? Create a #Climate

  18. Latest research related to climate change analysis with applications in impact studies over the territory of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Ana; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Djordjevic, Marija; Ruml, Mirjana; Rankovic-Vasic, Zorica; Przic, Zoran; Stojicic, Djurdja; Krzic, Aleksandra; Rajkovic, Borivoj

    2015-04-01

    Serbia is a country with relatively small scale terrain features with economy mostly based on local landowners' agricultural production. Climate change analysis must be downscaled accordingly, to recognize climatological features of the farmlands. Climate model simulations and impact studies significantly contribute to the future strategic planning in economic development and therefore impact analysis must be approached with high level of confidence. This paper includes research related to climate change and impacts in Serbia resulted from cooperative work of the modeling and user community. Dynamical downscaling of climate projections for the 21st century with multi-model approach and statistical bias correction are done in order to prepare model results for impact studies. Presented results are from simulations performed using regional EBU-POM model, which is forced with A1B and A2 SRES/IPCC (2007) with comparative analysis with other regional models and from the latest high resolution NMMB simulations forced with RCP8.5 IPCC scenario (2012). Application of bias correction of the model results is necessary when calculated indices are not linearly dependent on the model results and delta approach in presenting results with respect to present climate simulations is insufficient. This is most important during the summer over the north part of the country where model bias produce much higher temperatures and less precipitation, which is known as "summer drying problem" and is common in regional models' simulations over the Pannonian valley. Some of the results, which are already observed in present climate, like higher temperatures and disturbance in the precipitation pattern, lead to present and future advancement of the start of the vegetation period toward earlier dates, associated with an increased risk of the late spring frost, extended vegetation period, disturbed preparation for the rest period, increased duration and frequency of the draught periods, etc

  19. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  20. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: How is climate change research perceived in policy documents?

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2015-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric - a start-up providing publication level metrics - started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 percent (2341) out of 191276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the po...

  1. Scientist versus sceptic. Report of a weblog discussion between a climatic change researcher and a climatic change sceptic; Wetenschapper versus scepticus. Verslag van een weblogdiscussie tussen een klimaatonderzoeker en een klimaatscepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strengers, B.J.; Labohm, H.H.J.

    2010-05-15

    In the run up to the international climate conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, climate sceptic Hans Labohm and climate researcher Bart Strengers of the Environmental Assessment Agency entered into a debate on the website of the Dutch Broadcasting Foundation NOS. The blog discussion offers a good view on the dilemmas surrounding knowledge about climate change. [Dutch] In de aanloop naar de internationale klimaatconferentie in december 2009 in Kopenhagen gingen klimaatscepticus Hans Labohm en klimaatonderzoeker van het Planbureau voor de leefomgeving Bart Strengers met elkaar in debat op de website van de NOS. De blogdiscussie geeft een goed beeld van de dilemma's rond de kennis over klimaatverandering.

  2. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  3. Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda: scientific basis for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwerth, K.L.; Hodson, A.K.; Bloom, A.J.; Carter, M.R.; Cattaneo, A.; Chartres, C.; Leemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) addresses the challenge of meeting the growing demand for food, fibre and fuel, despite the changing climate and fewer opportunities for agricultural expansion on additional lands. CSA focuses on contributing to economic development, poverty reduction and

  4. Researching direct action against carbon emissions: a digital ethnography of climate agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pearse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Global warming poses very directly the question of human agency. In this video ethnography of climate agency we explore dimensions of subjectivity in climate activism. Through a longitudinal study we track activist strategising as a reflexive process of creating climate agency. Activist reflection is presented as a balance between involvement and detachment, and analysed drawing on videoed interviews and on our own participation in organisations and events. Visual artefacts are deployed to deepen insights into the interview process, and into the contexts for climate action. In terms of the analysis, there are three themes. First we look at trajectories – how people come to identify with the climate movement and engage in its direct action wing. Second, we explore the hopes and fears of climate activists in the face of profound challenges. Third, we address political antidotes, and the role of direct action in precipitating large-scale systemic change. Across these themes there is much diversity and debate: what unifies is a common engagement in the broad field of direct climate action. This visual documentation helps us reflect on the conflicts and possibilities that thereby arise in contexts of climate activist praxis.

  5. ASR Application in Climate Change Adaptation: The Need, Issues and Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on four key points: (a) Aquifer storage and recovery: a long-held practice offering a potential tool for climate change adaptation, (b) The drivers: 1) hydrological perturbations related to climate change, 2) water imbalance in both Qand Vbetween wat...

  6. Societal transformations in the face of climate. Research priorities for the next decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.J.; Behagel, J.H.; Hegger, D.; Mees, H.; Rijswick, M.; Termeer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change Creates new challenges for the global society. Responding to climate change is a complex process of societal transformations that should be studied as such. The contribution of the social sciences is crucial to the understanding of these processes of change. The growing body of knowle

  7. Mitigation and adaptation within a climate change policy portfolio: A research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is now recognized that optimal global climate policy is a portfolio of the two key responses for reducing the risks of climate change: mitigation and adaptation. Significant differences between the two responses have inhibited understanding of how to appropriately view these...

  8. Migration out of 1930s Rural Eastern Oklahoma: Insights for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The question of how communities and individuals adapt to changing climatic conditions is of pressing concern to scientists and policymakers in light of the growing evidence that human activity has modified the Earth's climate. A number of authors have suggested that widespread changes in human settlement and migration patterns may occur in…

  9. Trans- and Interdisciplinarity in K-14 Climate Change Education: Trends Emerging from Recent Reports by the National Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksdieck, M.

    2012-12-01

    A recent report by the National Research Council placed climate change or climate science education deeply into the curriculum of K-12 science education in the US (A Framework for K-12 Science Education). The NRC Framework is currently being translated into the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), an effort by 26 states, representing 57% of the US school-aged population, under the leadership of the educational nonprofit Achieve. A first draft version of the NGSS was made available to public audiences in June of 2012, and a revised draft will be available for a second round of reviews in later November of 2012; the final version of the NGSS which will likely feature climate change and climate science as part of Earth Systems Science, but also embedded in other areas of the science curriculum, is expected to be released in the spring of 2013. It has already become apparent, though, that successful implementation of the new standards down into effective classroom-based instruction will require a deep analysis of current and likely future barriers and opportunities for engaging K-14 students in climate change education. A recently released report on an NRC workshop conducted in 2011 summarizes these discussions (Climate Change Education in Formal Settings, K-14: A Workshop Summary). The proceedings of the workshop highlight the need to think in trans- or interdisciplinary ways about educating children in primary, secondary and early post-secondary education. This report builds on a 2010 workshop that addressed how to best reach general audiences on the issue of climate change education, particularly if the desired outcome is seen as building adaptive capacity in children and adults alike. This workshop was summarized in a report entitled Climate Change Education: Goals, Audiences, and Strategies. Opportunities for engaging students in trans- or interdisciplinary exploration of climate science or climate change-related topics, while available to K-12 students

  10. A Holistic Approach to Climate and Health Research: Respiratory and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.

  11. Disappearance of the glacier on Mama Cotacachi: ethnoecological research and climate change in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoades, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A first documented case study of a disappearing glacier in the snow capped volcano Cotacahi in Ecuador is presented with the studies belonging to the social sciences in relation to climate change and its impact on the population of the Equatorial Andes. With the use of multiple source methodology, including ethnographic analyzes, visual representations, repetitive photography, critical mapping by the local communities, longitudinal surveys, even archival research, as well as interviews to social actors and utilization of spatial data in a geographical information system (GIS. It is concluded that the documented disappearance of the glacier on the Cotacahi serves as an urgent call for action to the important dearth of social research related to global change from the ethnoecological perspective, with a cultural, local approach.

    Se presenta el primer estudio documentado de la desaparición del glaciar del nevado Cotacachi en el Ecuador, con los estudios que corresponden a las ciencias sociales en relación con el cambio climático y su impacto en la población de los Andes ecuatoriales. Mediante el uso de una metodología que incluye análisis etnográficos, representaciones visuales, fotografía repetitiva, mapeo crítico por parte de las comunidades locales, encuestas longitudinales e incluso investigación de archivos, así como también entrevistas a actores sociales, y utilización de los datos espaciales en un sistema de información geográfica (SIG. Se concluye que la desaparición documentada del glaciar del Cotacachi sirve como una llamada de atención urgente a la importante falta de investigaciones sociales relacionadas con el cambio global desde el punto de vista etnoecológico, con un enfoque cultural local.

  12. Título da página eletrónica: SVAC ‑ International Research Group “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Moura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A rede internacional Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict (SVAC, criada oficialmente em 2010, reúne um conjunto de investigadoras de diversas áreas científicas (historiadores/as, sociólogos/as, juristas, filósofos/as, psicólogos/as, especialistas das área da literatura e dos estudos culturais, etc. e de ativistas dos direitos humanos que trabalham sobre questões relacionadas com a violência sexual em conflitos armados. O projeto inicial partiu das investigadoras do Hamburger Institut für Sozia...

  13. An open-database of Grape Harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Daux

    2011-11-01

    not homogenous. Extremely late years all occur during a two-century long time-window from the early 17th to the early 19th century, while extremely early years are frequent during the 16th and since the mid-19th century.

    The dataset is made accessible for climate research through the Internet. It should allow a variety of climate studies, including reconstructions of atmospheric circulation over Western Europe.

  14. KLIMA 2050: a research-based innovation centre for risk reduction through climate adaptation of infrastructure and buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Anders; Time, Berit; Kvande, Tore; Sivertsen, Edvard; Cepeda, Jose; Lappegard Hauge, Åshild; Bygballe, Lena; Almås, Anders-Johan

    2016-04-01

    Klima 2050 - Risk reduction through climate adaptation of buildings and infrastructure is a Centre for Research based Innovation (SFI), funded jointly by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and the partners of the centre. The aim of Klima 2050 is to reduce the societal risks associated with climate changes, including enhanced precipitation and flood water exposure within the built environment. The Centre will strengthen companies' innovation capacity through a focus on long-term research. It is also a clear objective to facilitate close cooperation between Research & Development, performing companies, public entities, and prominent research groups. Emphasis will be placed on development of moisture-resilient buildings, storm-water management, blue-green solutions, mitigation measures for water-triggered landslides, socio-economic incentives and decision-making processes. Both extreme weather and gradual climatic changes will be addressed. The Centre consists of a consortium of 18 partners from three sectors: industry, public entities and research/education organizations. The partners from the industry/private sector include a variety of companies from the building industry. The public entities comprise the most important infrastructure owners in Norway (public roads, railroads, buildings, airports), as well as the directorate for water and energy. The research and education partners are SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, the Norwegian Business School, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. This contribution presents the main research plans and activities of this Centre, which was started in 2015 and will run for 8 years, until 2023. The presentation also includes options for international cooperation in the Centre via PhD and postdoctoral positions, MSc projects and guest-researcher stays with Klima 2050 partners.

  15. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  16. Climate Strength: Theoretical Foundation and Research Framework%气氛强度:理论基础及其研究框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽; 李永娟; 田晓明

    2012-01-01

    For more than half a century, scholars have sought to understand the antecedents and influences of climates. Climate strength, an emerging concept in climate research, received little empirical exploration and much less validation. Research adopted dichotomous perspective has limited climate strength as a scientific construct. The dichotomous view suggests that dispersion of individual - level perception represents error, rather than theoretically significant phenomenon. Within - unit dispersion of individual - level construets can be theoretically meaningful. During the application of multilevel theory in organizational and management research, climate strength, i.e. , within - unit agreement among unit members' climate perceptions, has received much attention from researchers. Two different literatures in organizational sciences, compositional models and culture strength, were useful as a basis for the development of the concept of climate strength. Based on the existing research, we develop the research framework of climate strength. There are three perspectives to explain the antecedents of climate strength, i.e. , organizational structure, Attraction - Selection - Attrition model, and social interaction approach. According to the organizational structure perspective, organizational forms that are clearly mechanistic or clearly organic have strong climates, with weaker climates emerging for organizations with more ambiguous forms. Research based on ASA model indicated average worksite tenure was positively related to climate strength such that higher average tenure was associated with stronger climates. Empirical research based on social interaction approach illustrated that climate strength is influenced both by leadership style and group social interaction. While concerning the effect of climate strength, studies have yielded contradictory and inconclusive results. In some research, climate strength has been shown to have a moderating effect on the

  17. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % (n = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  18. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research; Changement climatique et santeaux Etats-Unis: impacts, adaptations et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M

    2009-11-15

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  19. 创新气氛的概念形成、测量与影响因素%A Research Review of Innovative Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 石金涛

    2009-01-01

    创新气氛的研究是创造力研究领域和组织气氛研究领域在特定历史阶段的共同交集.关于创新气氛的定义,认知图式法和共享认知法这两种主要方法被广泛采用.创新气氛包括心理创新气氛、团队创新气氛和组织创新气氛等3种类型.通常使用的创新气氛的测量工具包括SSSI,KEYS,SOQ,TCI.%s:The concept of innovative climate comes from the converging of organizational climate research and creativity research at a special period.In terms of the definition of innovative climate,two approaches have been generally adopted,the cognitive schemata approach and the shared perception approach.In terms of the appropriate level of analysis,three units have been used in innovative climate research,the individual,group and organization.There are three kinds of Innovative climate,psychological innovative climate,team innovative climate and organizational innovative climate.Four tools have usually been used to measure innovative climate in research,they are SSSI,KEYS,SOQ and TCI.

  20. Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

    2008-11-28

    Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  6. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  7. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  8. Systems thinking methodology in researching the impacts of climate change on livestock industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen,Quan; Nguyen, Nam Cao

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on livestock production are complex problems, existing in the rela-tionship among this sector and others sectors such as environmental, social, economic and political systems. The complexity and dynamic of these impacts cannot be solved simply in isolation with the linear approach. A system thinking methodology is introduced in this paper to understand the impacts of climate change on livestock production, and identify effective interventions strategies to addres...

  9. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    middleton, Don [Co-PI; Haley, Mary

    2014-12-10

    ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

  10. Mapping and Modeling Web Portal to Advance Global Monitoring and Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G.; Malhotra, S.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathulla, S.; Goodale, C. E.; Ramirez, P.; Kim, R. M.; Rodriguez, L.; Law, E.

    2011-12-01

    principal investigators to share their research and analysis seamlessly. In addition, this extension will allow users to easily share their tools and data, and to enrich their mapping and analysis experiences. In this talk, we will describe the advanced data management and portal technologies used to power this collaborative environment. We will further illustrate how this environment can enable, enhance and advance global monitoring and climate research.

  11. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  12. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  13. The New Mexico EPSCoR Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program: Climate Change and Water in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, M. J.; Majkowski, L.

    2012-12-01

    The statewide NSF New Mexico EPSCoR Program sponsors a summer undergraduate research program. This program is open only to undergraduates attending the state's many Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs). Participants who are chosen for the program attend a week of workshops on climate change, hydrology, and water quality. Then, they spend the following eight weeks working with an EPSCoR-funded scientist at a research intensive university or related field site. The program culminates with a research conference and many of the participants later present their work at national and regional conferences. The program has shown to be effective at introducing students from non-research institutions to authentic research in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. The program is also successful at recruiting underrepresented minority students, mainly from Hispanic and Native American populations. Finally, many of the two-year college students in the program have transferred to four-year degree programs in a variety of fields.

  14. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  15. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  16. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2//sup -/ induced climate change: a research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    In adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, mankind is unintentionally conducting a great biological and geophysical experiment. This experiment can be expected to increase scientific understanding of ecological systems and of the processes in the ocean and the atmosphere that partially determine world climate. But from the standpoint of governments and peoples, the major problem to be solved is to understand the nature of the impacts on societies of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), with the objective of avoiding or ameliorating unfavorable impacts and gaining most benefit from favorable impacts. The research program proposed herein is designed to provide the understanding needed to achieve this objective. It is based on a recognition of the distinctive characteristics of the CO/sub 2/ problem. It is concluded that three kinds of research on the consequences of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and possible climatic changes are called for: assessment of risks; research to enhance beneficial effects and lessen harmful ones, where this is possible, and to slow down rates of carbon dioxide emission; and study of potential social and institutional responses to projected climatic changes.

  17. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs are built and a 2-dimensional dynamic model of the octopus arm is presented to explore possible strategies of the octopus movement control. And the CPGs’ signals treated as activation are added on the ventral, dorsal, and transversal sides, respectively. The effects of the octopus arm are discussed when the parameters of the CPGs are changed. Simulations show that the octopus arm movements are mainly determined by the shapes of three CPGs’ phase diagrams. Therefore, some locomotion modes are supposed to be embedded in the neuromuscular system of the octopus arm. And the octopus arm movements can be achieved by modulating the parameters of the CPGs. The results are beneficial for researchers to understand the octopus movement further.

  18. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  19. Polar cloud observatory at Ny-Ålesund in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi; Takano, Toshiaki; Shiobara, Masataka; Okamoto, Hajime; Koike, Makoto; Ukita, Jinro

    2016-04-01

    Cloud is one of the main processes in the climate system and especially a large feed back agent for Arctic warming amplification (Yoshimori et al., 2014). From this reason, observation of polar cloud has been emphasized and 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in 2013 as one of the basic infrastructure in the GRENE (Green Network of Excellence Program) Arctic Climate Change Research Project. The radar, "FALCON-A", is a FM-CW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar, developed for Arctic use by Chiba University (PI: T. Takano) in 2012, following its prototype, "FALCON-1" which was developed in 2006 (Takano et al., 2010). The specifications of the radar are, central frequency: 94.84 GHz; antenna power: 1 W; observation height: up to 15 km; range resolution: 48 m; beam width: 0.2 degree (15 m at 5 km); Doppler width: 3.2 m/s; time interval: 10 sec, and capable of archiving high sensitivity and high spatial and time resolution. An FM-CW type radar realizes similar sensitivity with much smaller parabolic antennas separated 1.4 m from each other used for transmitting and receiving the wave. Polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (PMPL, Sigma Space MPL-4B-IDS), which is capable to measure the backscatter and depolarization ratio, has also been deployed to Ny-Ålesund in March 2012, and now operated to perform collocated measurements with FALCON-A. Simultaneous measurement data from collocated PMPL and FALCON-A are available for synergetic analyses of cloud microphysics. Cloud mycrophysics, such as effective radius of ice particles and ice water content, are obtained from the analysis based on algorithm, which is modified for ground-based measurements from Okamoto's retrieval algorithm for satellite based cloud profiling radar and lidar (CloudSat and CALIPSO; Okamoto et al., 2010). Results of two years will be shown in the presentation. Calibration is a point to derive radar reflectivity (dBZ) from original intensity data

  20. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  1. Initial Results from the Survey of Organizational Research Climates (SOuRCe in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Martinson

    Full Text Available In service to its core mission of improving the health and well-being of veterans, Veterans Affairs (VA leadership is committed to supporting research best practices in the VA. Recognizing that the behavior of researchers is influenced by the organizational climates in which they work, efforts to assess the integrity of research climates and share such information with research leadership in VA may be one way to support research best practices. The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe is the first validated survey instrument specifically designed to assess the organizational climate of research integrity in academic research organizations. The current study reports on an initiative to use the SOuRCe in VA facilities to characterize the organizational research climates and pilot test the effectiveness of using SOuRCe data as a reporting and feedback intervention tool.We administered the SOuRCe using a cross-sectional, online survey, with mailed follow-up to non-responders, of research-engaged employees in the research services of a random selection of 42 VA facilities (e.g., Hospitals/Stations believed to employ 20 or more research staff. We attained a 51% participation rate, yielding more than 5,200 usable surveys.We found a general consistency in organizational research climates across a variety of sub-groups in this random sample of research services in the VA. We also observed similar SOuRCe scale score means, relative rankings of these scales and their internal reliability, in this VA-based sample as we have previously documented in more traditional academic research settings. Results also showed more substantial variability in research climate scores within than between facilities in the VA research service as reflected in meaningful subgroup differences. These findings suggest that the SOuRCe is suitable as an instrument for assessing the research integrity climates in VA and that the tool has similar patterns of results that

  2. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. Biennial report 1996 and 1997; Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung. Zweijahresbericht 1996 und 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, G.; Bruch, S. vom [comps.

    1998-12-31

    The Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research was founded in 1992, the year that the Rio Conference was expected to grind out the blue-print for global sustainable development. The Institute`s general philosophy and methodology have been described before (e.g., in the introduction to the first biennal report 1994/95). Here, it is emphasized that the heterogeneity of the scientific tasks to be solved by PIK (ranging from empirical time series analysis to paradigms for ecosphere management) and the complexity of the environmental systems to be investigated call for a specific research strategy, which generally compromises between high-precision analysis and educated guesswork. (orig./KWE)

  3. Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change

  4. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events, such as hurricanes and wildfires. These can cause death, injuries, stress, and mental health problems. Researchers are studying the best ways to lessen climate change and reduce its impact on our health. NIH: ...

  5. The quest for the bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2014-06-01

    The current state of research of upper extremity prosthetic devices is focused on creating a complete prosthesis with full motor and sensory function that will provide amputees with a near-normal human arm. Although advances are being made rapidly, many hurdles remain to be overcome before a functional, so-called bionic arm is a reality. Acquiring signals via nerve or muscle inputs will require either a reliable wireless device or direct wiring through an osseous-integrated implant. The best way to tap into the "knowledge" present in the peripheral nerve is yet to be determined.

  6. Research and design of swing arm system of two-dimensional geotechnical centrifugal shaker%土工二维振动离心机转臂的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉光斌; 余绍蓉; 刘小刚; 洪建忠; 胡杰

    2013-01-01

    土工二维振动离心机是岩土地震工程试验研究最有效的试验设备,转臂是支承和驱动吊篮、振动台、试验模型和配重等高速旋转并达到离心试验加速度要求的关键部件.常规土工离心机转臂结构已不满足二维振动试验工况要求.为了使离心机能在常规土工试验、一维振动试验和二维振动试验各工况下稳定运行,将其转臂设计成具有工字梁的焊接框架结构.在对该结构布局和工作原理介绍的基础上,针对某二维振动离心机技术指标,对转臂结构进行了优化设计,并对优化结构进行了力学分析.其结果表明,焊接的框架结构满足二维振动试验工况要求,是一种比较合理的土工二维振动离心机转臂结构.%The two-dimensional geotechnical centrifugal shaker is the most effective test equipment in researches for geotechnical earthquake engineering, and the swing arm is the key component, which supports suspended baskets, shaking table, test model and trim block etc, and drives them rotate to achieve centrifugal test acceleration. The conventional geotechnical centrifuge's swing arm structure cannot meet the two-dimensional vibration test conditions. In order to make the two-dimensional geotechnical centrifugal shaker operate stably under different working conditions such as conventional soil tests, one-dimensional vibration tests and two-dimensional vibration tests, the swing arm was designed as welded frame structure which had I-beams. Aiming at the qualifications of a certain two-dimensional geotechnical centrifugal shaker, the swing arm was optimum designed while its structure layout and operating principle had been introduced. The results of mechanical analysis show that the welded frame structure is reasonable because it meets all of the two-dimensional geotechnical centrifugal shaker's test condition requirements.

  7. Toward a New Era of Research in Aerosol/Cloud/Climate Interactions at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C,; Dignon, J.; Grant, K.; Connell, P.; Bergman, D.; Rotman, D.; Wright, D.; McGraw, R.; Schwartz, S.

    2000-09-27

    One of the largest uncertainties in simulations of climate change over the industrial period is the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget. Much of this uncertainty arises from the limited capability for either precisely linking precursor gases to the formation and size distribution of the aerosols or quantitatively describing the existing levels of global aerosol loading. This project builds on our aerosol and chemistry expertise to address each of these uncertainties in a more quantitative fashion than is currently possible. With the current LDRD support, we are in the process to implement an aerosol microphysics module into our global chemistry model to more fundamentally and completely describe the processes that determine the distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Using this new modeling capability, in conjunction with the most current version of NCAR climate model, we will examine the influence of these processes on aerosol direct and indirect climate forcing.

  8. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems — Emerging Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems “Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development”, September 1016, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  9. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  10. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet violations, the Pentagon and the White House ended up in mush . Nevertheless, armed with mush as evidence, the American secretary of...YORK TIMES calling anti-Soviet charges mush is out- numbered by thousands of statements on radio and television, speeches before various...audiences, and articles in newspapers and magazines where that same mush is used as a serious argument. USSR Complying Treaties LD120557 Moscow

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  14. A campaign to convey the scientific consensus about human-caused climate change: rationale, formative research, and campaign overview. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.; Gould, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large numbers of Americans mistakenly believe that there is disagreement among the experts about the reality of climate change. For example, in our nationally representative survey conducted in April 2013, only 42% of respondents reported 'most scientists think global warming is happening;' conversely, 33% reported 'there is a lot of disagreement among scientists about whether or not global warming is happening,' and an additional 20% responded they 'don't know enough to say.' Our research has also shown that this common misperception is highly consequential: people who misunderstand the scientific consensus are less convinced that climate change is occurring, is human-caused, serious, and solvable; they are also less likely to support societal responses to address the problem. In this paper, we will present the results of a series of randomized controlled message experiments conducted to determine the most effective means of conveying the extent of the scientific consensus about human-caused climate change. The variables tested include quantitative vs. qualitative consensus descriptions, more vs. less precise descriptions, contextualizing metaphors, graphical representations, and explanations regarding why people may have developed a misperception. The findings from this formative research are being used to create a communication campaign that will be launched in fall 2013 by a leading American scientific society prior to the AGU Annual Meeting. A full description of the campaign will be presented.

  15. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  16. Teachers, Researchers, and Students Collaborating in Arctic Climate Change Research: The Partnership Between the Svalbard REU and ARCUS PolarTREC programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Warburton, J.; Oddo, B.; Kane, M.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2004, the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) "TREC" program (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, now "PolarTREC") has sent four K-12 teachers to Svalbard, Norway to work alongside researchers and undergraduate students conducting climate change research as part of the Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program. The benefits of this scientist/educator/student partnership are many. Researchers benefit from teacher participation as it increases their understanding of student learning and the roles and responsibilities of K-12 teachers. The TREC teacher contributes to the research by making observations, analyzing data, and carrying heavy loads of equipment. In collaborating with K- 12 teachers, undergraduate student participants discover the importance of teamwork in science and the need for effective communication of scientific results to a broad audience. The questions that K-12 teachers ask require the scientists and students in our program to explain their work in terms that non-specialists can understand and appreciate. The K-12 teacher provides a positive career role model and several Svalbard REU undergraduate students have pursued K-12 teaching careers after graduating. TREC teachers benefit from working alongside the researchers and by experiencing the adventures of real scientific research in a remote arctic environment. They return to their schools with a heightened status that allows them to share the excitement and importance of scientific research with their students. Together, all parties contribute to greatly enhance public outreach. With ARCUS logistical support, TREC teachers and researchers do live web conferences from the field, reaching hundreds of students and dozens of school administrators and even local politicians. Teachers maintain web journals, describing the daily activities and progress of the researcher team. Online readers from around the world write in to ask questions, which the

  17. Uncertainty in climate science and climate policy

    CERN Document Server

    Rougier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay, written by a statistician and a climate scientist, describes our view of the gap that exists between current practice in mainstream climate science, and the practical needs of policymakers charged with exploring possible interventions in the context of climate change. By `mainstream' we mean the type of climate science that dominates in universities and research centres, which we will term `academic' climate science, in contrast to `policy' climate science; aspects of this distinction will become clearer in what follows. In a nutshell, we do not think that academic climate science equips climate scientists to be as helpful as they might be, when involved in climate policy assessment. Partly, we attribute this to an over-investment in high resolution climate simulators, and partly to a culture that is uncomfortable with the inherently subjective nature of climate uncertainty.

  18. Complex Challenges of Maintaining Whitebark Pine in Greater Yellowstone under Climate Change: A Call for Innovative Research, Management, and Policy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hansen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate suitability is projected to decline for many subalpine species, raising questions about managing species under a deteriorating climate. Whitebark pine (WBP (Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE crystalizes the challenges that natural resource managers of many high mountain ecosystems will likely face in the coming decades. We review the system of interactions among climate, competitors, fire, bark beetles, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, and seed dispersers that make WBP especially vulnerable to climate change. A well-formulated interagency management strategy has been developed for WBP, but it has only been implemented across <1% of the species GYE range. The challenges of complex climate effects and land allocation constraints on WBP management raises questions regarding the efficacy of restoration efforts for WBP in GYE. We evaluate six ecological mechanisms by which WBP may remain viable under climate change: climate microrefugia, climate tolerances, release from competition, favorable fire regimes, seed production prior to beetle-induced mortality, and blister-rust resistant trees. These mechanisms suggest that WBP viability may be higher than previously expected under climate change. Additional research is warranted on these mechanisms, which may provide a basis for increased management effectiveness. This review is used as a basis for deriving recommendations for other subalpine species threatened by climate change.

  19. The Climate Change Collection: A Case Study on Digital Library Collection Review and the Integration of Research, Education and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M.

    2005-05-01

    Designed as an pilot project to assess the scientific and pedagogical quality of selected digital resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), the Climate Change Collection is thematic collection of digital resources relating to the topic of global climate change. Developed through the collaborative efforts of an interdisciplinary review team made up of professionals from the fields of climate research, geoscience education, cognitive psychology, and evaluation, the findings of the project suggest that the user needs of the reviewers should be considered in any review process, that there is inherent value in the collaboration of scientists, teachers and related fields in determining the quality of particular resources, and that the process of preparing for and conducting such reviews and annotations is time-consuming and challenging. Drawing from the experience of prior collection development efforts associated with DLESE, including the Community Review System and the Digital Water Education Library, the Climate Change Collection was developed during the Fall of 2004 and Winter of 2005. Through a series of monthly meetings with the review team facilitated by the Principal Investigator acting as Editor for the collection, and assisted by an online workspace known as a SWIKI, the Climate Change Collection was designed as an experiment in streamlined collection development that may help inform future digital library review and collection-building efforts. The initial meetings focused on training the reviewers, setting context for the review process, and discussing the perspectives of the various participants in the review team. Each participant received a stipend for their involvement in the process. A rubric "scorecard" was developed, tested, and fine-tuned by the review team with a focus primarily on scientific accuracy and the potential for effective use in the classroom. Specific concepts relating to aspects of natural climate variability

  20. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Sediment Core Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Sediment Core Repository operated by the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine...

  1. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  2. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  3. Research on CAN Extension on ARM based Embedded System%ARM系统中对CAN控制扩展的实现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓林; 曲秀杰; 赵爱军; 杨德权

    2007-01-01

    基于ARM技术的处理器已经普遍应用于工业控制、汽车电子等各个领域.CAN总线也已广泛应用于这些领域,但大多数常用的ARM9系列芯片还没有在片内集成CAN总线的控制器,使得不得不在板级进行扩展.选用飞利浦的SJA1000器件作为CAN总线控制器在ARM系统中进行扩展,给出了两种通过总线扩展的实现方法,即通过CPLD转换时序的方法和双周期读写模拟方法,并对后者的实现方法做了详细论述.最后对CAN总线Linux下的驱动移植做了简要介绍.

  4. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Angevine, W. M.; Bates, T. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cairns, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Gouw, J. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hair, J. W.; Hardesty, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Langford, A. O.; McCauley, E.; McKeen, S. A.; Molina, L. T.; Nenes, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Parrish, D. D.; Pederson, J. R.; Pierce, R. B.; Prather, K.; Quinn, P. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Senff, C. J.; Sorooshian, A.; Stutz, J.; Surratt, J. D.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Williams, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

  5. Structural equation modeling facilitates transdisciplinary research on agriculture and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is representative of many of the “grand challenges” facing agriculture and the environment—it is complex, spans traditional disciplinary boundaries, and is both a consequence and driver of coupled physical, biological, and socioeconomic processes acting at multiple spatial and tempora...

  6. ICES and PICES strategies for coordinating research on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The social, economic, and ecological consequences of projected climate change on fish and fisheries are issues of global concern. In 2012, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) established a Strategic Initiative...

  7. How Students Rate the Quality Service Climate on Campus. National Research Report, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    How satisfied are students with the service they receive--and how important is it to them? This report documents significant strides that colleges and universities have made in recent years to improve service quality and their overall campus climate, yet also finds that campuses still have room for improvement. A few highlights: (1) While progress…

  8. How Students Rate the Quality Service Climate on Campus. National Research Report, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    How satisfied are students with the service they receive--and how important is it to them? This report documents significant strides that colleges and universities have made in recent years to improve service quality and their overall campus climate, yet also finds that campuses still have room for improvement. A few highlights: (1) While progress…

  9. Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Masters, G.J.; Hodkinson, I.D.; Awmack, C.; Bezemer, T.M.; Brown, V.K.; Butterfield, J.; Buse, A.; Coulson, J.C.; Farrar, J.; Good, J.E.G.; Harrington, R.; Hartley, S.; Jones, T.H.; Lindroth, R.L.; Press, M.C.; Symrnioudis, I.; Watt, A.D.; Whittaker, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This review examines the direct effects of climate change on insect herbivores. Temperature is identified as the dominant abiotic factor directly affecting herbivorous insects. There is little evidence of any direct effects Of CO2 or UVB. Direct impacts of precipitation have been largely neglected i

  10. Innovation in a warming world. Research tackling Europe's grand challenge of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usanov, A.; Gehem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is arguably the largest environmental challenge facing humankind. Though the impact will be gradual and difficult to predict, we slowly start to understand how this process will affect our planet. The study "Innovation in a Warming World" spells out these effects, specifically for Eur

  11. Rethinking the conceptual terrain of AIDS scholarship: lessons from comparing 27 years of AIDS and climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brklacich Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there has recently been significant medical advance in understanding and treating HIV, limitations in understanding the complex social dimensions of HIV/AIDS epidemics continue to restrict a host of prevention and development efforts from community through to international levels. These gaps are rooted as much in limited conceptual development as they are in a lack of empirical research. Methods In this conceptual article, the authors compare and contrast the evolution of climate change and AIDS research. They demonstrate how scholarship and response in these two seemingly disparate areas share certain important similarities, such as the "globalization" of discourses and associated masking of uneven vulnerabilities, the tendency toward techno-fixes, and the polarization of debates within these fields. They also examine key divergences, noting in particular that climate change research has tended to be more forward-looking and longer-term in focus than AIDS scholarship. Conclusion Suggesting that AIDS scholars can learn from these key parallels and divergences, the paper offers four directions for advancing AIDS research: (1 focusing more on the differentiation of risk and responsibility within and among AIDS epidemics; (2 taking (back on board social justice approaches; (3 moving beyond polarized debates; and (4 shifting focus from reactive to forward-looking and proactive approaches.

  12. Assessing simulated ecosystem processes for climate variability research at Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.D.; Running, S.W.; Thornton, P.E.; Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Fagre, D.B.; Key, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Glacier National Park served as a test site for ecosystem analyses than involved a suite of integrated models embedded within a geographic information system. The goal of the exercise was to provide managers with maps that could illustrate probable shifts in vegetation, net primary production (NPP), and hydrologic responses associated with two selected climatic scenarios. The climatic scenarios were (a) a recent 12-yr record of weather data, and (b) a reconstituted set that sequentially introduced in repeated 3-yr intervals wetter-cooler, drier-warmer, and typical conditions. To extrapolate the implications of changes in ecosystem processes and resulting growth and distribution of vegetation and snowpack, the model incorporated geographic data. With underlying digital elevation maps, soil depth and texture, extrapolated climate, and current information on vegetation types and satellite-derived estimates of a leaf area indices, simulations were extended to envision how the park might look after 120 yr. The predictions of change included underlying processes affecting the availability of water and nitrogen. Considerable field data were acquired to compare with model predictions under current climatic conditions. In general, the integrated landscape models of ecosystem processes had good agreement with measured NPP, snowpack, and streamflow, but the exercise revealed the difficulty and necessity of averaging point measurements across landscapes to achieve comparable results with modeled values. Under the extremely variable climate scenario significant changes in vegetation composition and growth as well as hydrologic responses were predicted across the park. In particular, a general rise in both the upper and lower limits of treeline was predicted. These shifts would probably occur along with a variety of disturbances (fire, insect, and disease outbreaks) as predictions of physiological stress (water, nutrients, light) altered competitive relations and hydrologic

  13. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of refugia has long been studied from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change ref...

  14. A review of downscaling procedures - a contribution to the research on climate change impacts at city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marek; Costa, Ana; Pebesma, Edzer; Granell, Carlos; Bhattacharya, Devanjan

    2016-04-01

    Human kind is currently predominantly urban based, and the majority of ever continuing population growth will take place in urban agglomerations. Urban systems are not only major drivers of climate change, but also the impact hot spots. Furthermore, climate change impacts are commonly managed at city scale. Therefore, assessing climate change impacts on urban systems is a very relevant subject of research. Climate and its impacts on all levels (local, meso and global scale) and also the inter-scale dependencies of those processes should be a subject to detail analysis. While global and regional projections of future climate are currently available, local-scale information is lacking. Hence, statistical downscaling methodologies represent a potentially efficient way to help to close this gap. In general, the methodological reviews of downscaling procedures cover the various methods according to their application (e.g. downscaling for the hydrological modelling). Some of the most recent and comprehensive studies, such as the ESSEM COST Action ES1102 (VALUE), use the concept of Perfect Prog and MOS. Other examples of classification schemes of downscaling techniques consider three main categories: linear methods, weather classifications and weather generators. Downscaling and climate modelling represent a multidisciplinary field, where researchers from various backgrounds intersect their efforts, resulting in specific terminology, which may be somewhat confusing. For instance, the Polynomial Regression (also called the Surface Trend Analysis) is a statistical technique. In the context of the spatial interpolation procedures, it is commonly classified as a deterministic technique, and kriging approaches are classified as stochastic. Furthermore, the terms "statistical" and "stochastic" (frequently used as names of sub-classes in downscaling methodological reviews) are not always considered as synonymous, even though both terms could be seen as identical since they are

  15. 全球气候研究计划(WCRP)中的气候与冰冻圈项目(CliC): 冰冻圈与气候的优先研究领域%The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Climate and Cryosphere Project (CliC): Priority Studies of the Cryosphere and Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system, however, many aspects of the cryosphere have not been fully covered within WCRP. Issues relating to potential changes in the climate cryosphere system become more and more important in order to describes research and coordination initiatives required to integrate fully studies of impact and response of the cryosphere to climate change. The article also indicates the recent progress of CliC, and its future plan.

  16. Sources, Composition, and Properties of Newly Formed and Regional Organic Aerosol in a Boreal Forest during the Biogenic Aerosol: Effects on Clouds and Climate Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Joel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Thornton Laboratory participated in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Biogenic Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) campaign in Finland by deploying our mass spectrometer. We then participated in environmental simulation chamber studies at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Thereafter, we analyzed the results as demonstrated in the several presentations and publications. The field campaign and initial environmental chamber studies are described below.

  17. PQF轧管机的摆臂焊接工艺研究与应用%Welding Process Research and Application for Swing Arm of PQF Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 张永明; 邢伏祥

    2012-01-01

    PQF轧管机的摆臂为厚板结构,材质Q345-D,质量达3.2 t,机加工面多、空间尺寸多、几何公差复杂,要求结构件组对焊接变形要控制到最小,一般焊接工艺无法保证焊接质量.本文探讨了采用整体组对,辅以拉撑刚性固定的优化焊接工艺,防止产生未焊透、裂纹等缺陷,选择多层多道对称交替施焊,有效地控制了焊接变形,且焊后进行去应力工艺,保证了机加工面合理的加工余量,满足了设计尺寸偏差及几何公差.%The swing arm of PQF rolling mill is the thick fabric with the materials Q345-D and weight 3 200 kg. There are many machine surfaces and complex geometric tolerance. The structure must have good fabricate quality and small welding distortion. It cannot ensure welding quality to commonly welding procedure. We have discussed that fitting whole and fix up rigidity with supports and optimize welding technic avoiding a few welding defects such as incomplete penetration et al. We have chosen effective means to control welding distortion that depends on multilayer symmetry welding by turns and carrying through heat treatment for release stress. All these assured logical excrescent machine measure, dimension warp and complex geometric tolerance.

  18. Reviews Book: The Babylonian Theorem Video Game: BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Book: Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book: Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Equipment: PAPERSHOW Equipment: SEP Steady State Bottle Kit Equipment: Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Equipment: USB Robot Arm Equipment: Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Good Practice in Science Teaching: What Research Has to Say Book explores and summarizes the research Steady State Bottle Kit Another gem from SEP Sciencescope Datalogging Balance Balance suits everyday use Sciencescope Spectrophotometer Device displays clear spectrum WORTH A LOOK The Babylonian Theorem Text explains ancient Egyptian mathematics BrainBox360 (Physics Edition) Video game tests your knowledge Teaching and Learning Science: Towards a Personalized Approach Book reveals how useful physics teachers really are PAPERSHOW Gadget kit is useful but has limitations Robotic Arm Kit with USB PC Interface Robot arm teaches programming WEB WATCH Simple applets teach complex topics

  19. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  20. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  1. Characteristic Features of Sea Level Series Analysis in the World Ocean Current Climatic Eustasy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, G.; Tsivtsivadze, N.; Tavartqiladze, K.; Dokhnadze, G.; Lagidze, L.; Motsonelidze, N.

    2012-04-01

    Climatic eustasy - sea level long-term rise or decrease, is the result of ocean waters thermal expansion and the freshwater balance between land and ocean. This phenomenon accompanies climate change with some delay and like air temperature changes is an ongoing process. It is positive in warm climatic cycles and vice versa. The global climate warming, has provoked current climatic eustasy, which is started in high Northern latitudes in second part of 1890 's, and in secondary ones (basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas)- in 1915-1923. In 2010 it caused the sea level raise at these latitudes at 0.3-0.4 m, but in the basins of these seas at 0.15 -0.20 m respectively. Climatic eustasy cycles and their continuity significantly influence on the comfortable environment forming process for living organisms in the sea and the coast. Therefore, the study of fundamental characteristics of this phenomena and its forecast in the near future (2025-2030) is highly topical issues. The solution of mentioned problems, with high precision and accuracy, is possible using "sea levels' long statistic series", combined with similar series of air and sea temperatures. The "long" is referred to as levels series if they are composed by two fragments of statistically sufficient length. First one contains information covering the period of negative eustasy, but the second- positive one. Before the using, from the fragments, the "noises", accompanying climatic fluctuations, various short-term trials and errors associated with data collection and processing have to be excluded. With special care the geological trend, caused by the altitude displacement of the coast, carried a data collection system, also should be excluded from them. Out of processed fragments, by the relevant methods, the amount of negative (Hn) and positive (Hp) eustasies, with precision of mm/year is determined. The sum of the absolute value of latter ones is the absolute eustasy (Ha), representing the local rate of

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  3. Existing climate data sources and Their Use in Heat IslandResearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Pon, Brian; Smith, Craig Kenton; Stamper-Kurn, Dan Moses

    1998-10-01

    Existing climate data sources can be used in two general types of analysis for the detection of urban heat islands. Historical analyses use long-term data records-preferentially from several locations in and around an urban area-to trace the gradual influence of urban development on its climate. Primary sources of such data include the cooperative network, first-order National Weather Service stations, and military weather stations. Analyses of short-term data use information from a dense urban weather station network to discern the location, extent, and magnitude of urban heat islands. Such analyses may use the aforementioned national networks or regional networks such as agricultural, air quality monitoring, or utility networks. We demonstrate the use of existing data sources with a historical analysis of temperature trends in Los Angeles, California, and an analysis of short-term data of the urban temperature profile for Phoenix, Arizona. The Los Angeles climate was examined with eleven long-term data records from the cooperative network. Statistically significant trends of rising temperature were detected at Los Angeles Civic Center and other stations over some parts of the year, although timing of the increase varied from station to station. Observed increases in temperatures maybe due to long-term climate changes, microclimate influences, or local-scale heat islands. The analysis of short-term data was made for Phoenix using the PRISMS station network. Mean diurnal temperature profiles for a month were examined and compared with those for adjacent rural areas. Data fi-om stations in the center of Phoenix showed clear and significant nighttime and daytime temperature differences of 1- 2K (3 - 4"F). These temperature increases maybe attributable to a local-scale heat island.

  4. Prediction Research of Climate Change Trends over North China in the Future 30 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanxiang; YAN Jinghui; WU Tongwen; GUO Yufu; CHEN Lihua; WANG Jianping

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of climate change trends over North China in the past 50 years and future 30 years was performed with the actual greenhouse gas concentration and IPCC SRES B2 scenario concentration by IAP/LASG GOALS 4.0 (Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land system coupled model), developed by the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modelling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG),Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In order to validate the model,the modern climate during 1951-2000 was first simulated by the GOALS model with the actual greenhouse gas concentration, and the simulation results were compared with observed data. The simulation results basically reproduce the lower temperature from the 1960s to mid-1970s and the warming from the 1980sfor the globe and Northern Hemisphere, and better the important cold (1950-1976) and warm (1977-2000)periods in the past 50 years over North China. The correlation coefficient is 0.34 between simulations and observations (significant at a more than 0.05 confidence level). The range of winter temperature departures for North China is between those for the eastern and western China's Mainland. Meanwhile, the summer precipitation trend turning around the 1980s is also successfully simulated. The climate change trends in the future 30 years were simulated with the CO2 concentration under IPCC SRES-B2 emission scenario.The results show that, in the future 30 years, winter temperature will keep a warming trend in North China and increase by about 2.5℃ relative to climate mean (1960-1990). Meanwhile, summer precipitation will obviously increase in North China and decrease in South China, displaying a south-deficit-north-excessive pattern of precipitation.

  5. Research on the Relationship between Internal Communication Climate and Job Satisfaction and Employee Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sušanj Šulentić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful organizations dedicate considerable attention to the quality of internal communications, which have a proven potential to contribute to creating competitive advantages in an increasingly demanding market. Internal communications have become a crucial prerequisite in creating new value to ensure customer and employee satisfaction. The purpose of this paper was to establish possible correlations between certain factors of the communication climate, and employee satisfaction and loyalty. The data used in this paper were collected by means of an employee survey, conducted in a pharmaceutical company immediately after it had undergone strategic changes, resulting from its new ownership structure and organizational culture. The factor analysis indicates five key factors of the communication climate: the availability of information about corporate activities as perceived by employees; satisfaction with co-workers; perceived job stability; perceived job importance within the organization and a perceived sense of injustice. The regression analysis confirmed a positive correlation between a good communication climate and the employee satisfaction and loyalty during strategic organizational changes. This is an important piece of information for all those having doubts about how to communicate strategic changes.

  6. Research of Interindividual Differences in Physiological Response under Hot-Dry and Warm-Wet Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatotype and habitus parameters may affect physiological control system, so the changes of physiological parameters are not the same when various people work in hot-dry and warm-wet climates. In this paper, a chamber built in Tianjin University was used to simulate comfortable, hot-dry and warm-wet climates. Sixty healthy university students were selected as subjects who were divided into four groups based on somatotype and habitus differences. The subjects were asked to exercise on a treadmill at moderate and heavy work intensities. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature and heart rate were measured after every 10-min work in the climate chamber. For different groups, the change trends of physiological parameters were different. With the enhancement of experimental conditions, the differences among four groups were weakened. Body surface area per unit of body mass (BSA/mass, percentage of body fat (%fat, and maximum oxygen consumption per unit of body mass (VO2max/mass were adopt to establish a revised body characteristic index (RBCI. RBCI was proved having significant correlation with physiological parameters, which means RBCI as the combined factors of somatotype and habitus parameters can be applied to evaluate the effect of individual characteristics on physiological systems.

  7. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Cadeddu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program operates a network of ground-based microwave radiometers. Data and retrievals from these instruments have been available to the scientific community for almost 20 yr. In the past five years the network has been expanded to include a total of 22 microwave radiometers deployed in various locations around the world. The new instruments cover a frequency range between 22 and 197 GHz and are consistently and automatically calibrated. The latest addition to the network is a new generation of three-channel radiometers currently in the early stage of deployment at all ARM sites. The network has been specifically designed to achieve increased accuracy in the retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV and cloud liquid water path (LWP with the long-term goal of providing the scientific community with reliable, calibrated radiometric data and retrievals of important geophysical quantities with well-characterized uncertainties. The radiometers provide high-quality, continuous datasets that can be utilized in a wealth of applications and scientific studies. This paper presents an overview of the microwave instrumentation, calibration procedures, data, and retrievals that are available for download from the ARM data archive.

  8. Action research for the development of the organizational climate in nuclear power plants. Review of the 6-year research and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Misumi, Jyuji; Misumi, Emiko; Kotani, Fumio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Sakurai, Yukihiro

    1998-09-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated and the Japan Institute for Group Dynamics have conducted action research for the development of the organizational climate in nuclear power plants. First, two types of scales were completed. One is for measuring the leadership behavior of leaders working at nuclear power plants and the other is for measuring the safety consciousness of workers. After having diagnosed the reality of actual nuclear power plants using those scales developed, leadership training courses were developed and implemented successfully. Analyses of the commitment to organization and self-efficacy and the relationship between leadership and personality were conducted as well. (author)

  9. 武警某部新兵艾滋病健康教育研究%Research of health education on AIDS in recruits of Armed Police Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏霞; 李浴峰; 曹春霞; 单学娴

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the influence of health education on AIDS related knowledge attitude and practice in CPAPF (Chinese People's Armed Police Forces). To provide scientific evidences for making health education mode of preventing AIDS in CPAPF. METHODS Cluster sampling was used to select 1 500 CPAPF recruits. Used the approach of expert lecture, making web page and materials, training pioneers for one year health education, compared the awareness rate of related knowledge attitude, practice to AIDS before and after intervention. RESULTS The awareness rate of AIDS related knowledge, attitude, practice after intervention was significantly higher than before (P< 0.05). CPAPF soldier's favorite education patterns were lectureship, video, handbook, games, discussion, folding. 69.2% of soldiers accepted the health education. CONCLU- ' SION Active health education can improve awareness rates of AIDS related knowledge and change attitude, practice.%目的 研究健康教育对武警战士艾滋病相关知识态度行为的影响,为探讨武警部队艾滋病健康教育模式提供科学依据.方法 采用整群抽样的方法抽取武警某部1 500名新兵,采取专家专题巡讲、网页与传播材科制作、规范培训骨干等方式进行为期1年的健康教育,比较干预前后战士艾滋病相关知识知晓率和相关态度、行为持有率.结果 干预后艾滋病基本知识知晓率、态度及行为持有率高于教育前,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05).战士最受欢迎的教育方式依次是讲座、录像、手册、活动或游戏、集体讨论、展板、折页.最佳受教育时间依次为平时加强、新兵入伍.69.2%的战士认为健康教育效果很好.结论 采取多样化的健康教育方式能积极促进战士艾滋病相关知识知晓率的提高和态度、行为的改变.

  10. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2013-04-08

    Primary activities are reported in these areas: climate system component studies via one-way coupling experiments; development of the Regional Arctic Climate System Model (RACM); and physical feedback studies focusing on changes in Arctic sea ice using the fully coupled model.

  11. Natural resource mitigation, adaptation and research needs related to climate change in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Debra L.; Busch, David E.; Davis, Scott; Finn, Sean P.; Caicco, Steve; Verburg, Paul S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report synthesizes the knowledge, opinions, and concerns of many Federal and State land managers, scientists, stakeholders, and partners from a workshop, held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, on April 20-22, 2010. Land managers, research scientists, and resource specialists identified common concerns regarding the potential effects of climate change on public lands and natural resources in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert and developed recommendations for mitigation, adaptation, and research needs. Water and, conversely, the effects of drought emerged as a common theme in all breakout sessions on terrestrial and aquatic species at risk, managing across boundaries, monitoring, and ecosystem services. Climate change models for the southwestern deserts predict general warming and drying with increasing precipitation variability year to year. Scientists noted that under these changing conditions the past may no longer be a guide to the future in which managers envision increasing conflicts between human water uses and sustaining ecosystems. Increasing environmental stress also is expected as a consequence of shifting ecosystem boundaries and species distributions, expansion of non-native species, and decoupling of biotic mutualisms, leading to increasingly unstable biologic communities. Managers uniformly expressed a desire to work across management and agency boundaries at a landscape scale but conceded that conflicting agency missions and budgetary constraints often impede collaboration. More and better science is needed to cope with the effects of climate change but, perhaps even more important is the application of science to management issues using the methods of adaptive management based on long-term monitoring to assess the merits of management actions. Access to data is essential for science-based land management. Basic inventories, spatial databases, baseline condition assessments, data quality assurance, and data sharing were identified as top

  12. The Role of Paleo-Drought Atlases in Climate Change Research Over the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hydroclimatic variability is a complex spatiotemporal process that requires the generation of long detailed climate field reconstructions to capture its full range of variability over the Common Era. While it is possible to generate these ‘paleo-drought atlases’ from complex multi-proxy arrays of paleoclimate indicators, the greatest success to date has come from simply using dense networks of exactly dated, moisture-sensitive, annual tree-ring chronologies for reconstruction. The ‘North American Drought Atlas’ (NADA) serves as an archetype in this regard. It has been used to identify the occurrence of unprecedented megadroughts over the past millennium in North America and map them out in a form that is useful for climate model experiments. Thus, the NADA has been used with great success in tests of forced and unforced causes of hydroclimatic variability over North America, especially those related to changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The NADA archetype has been successfully extended now to Asia in the form of the ‘Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas’ (MADA). Similar to the NADA, the MADA has revealed the occurrence of past megadroughts in areas affected by the Asian monsoon, including ones in the 14th and 15th centuries that are associated with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor located in present day Cambodia. Explicit forced model experiments, similar to those made for comparison with the NADA, have not yet been conducted, but empirical comparisons indicate once again that SSTs are likely to contribute greatly to hydroclimatic variability over Asia. A project to develop an ‘Old World Drought Atlas’ (OWDA) over Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor is now underway. When completed, it will allow for joint spatiotemporal comparisons to be made between the NADA, MADA, and OWDA over the Common Era and serve as the basis for climate modeling experiments over hemispheric spatial scales.

  13. Aerosol-Water Cycle Interaction: A New Challenge in Monsoon Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2006-01-01

    Long recognized as a major environmental hazard, aerosol is now known to have strong impacts on both regional and global climate. It has been estimated that aerosol may reduce by up to 10% of the seasonal mean solar radiation reaching the earth surface, producing a global cooling effect that opposes global warming (Climate Change 2001). This means that the potential perils that humans have committed to global warming may be far greater than what we can detect at the present. As a key component of the Earth climate system, the water cycle is profoundly affected by the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. Through the so-called "direct effect", aerosol scatters and/or absorbs solar radiation, thus cooling the earth surface and changing the horizontal and vertical radiational heating contrast in the atmosphere. The heating contrast drives anomalous atmospheric circulation, resulting in changes in convection, clouds, and rainfall. Another way aerosol can affect the water cycle is through the so-called "indirect effects", whereby aerosol increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei, prolongs life time of clouds, and inhibits the growth of cloud drops to raindrops. This leads to more clouds, and increased reflection of solar radiation, and further cooling at the earth surface. In monsoon regions, the response of the water cycle to aerosol forcing is especially complex, not only because of presence of diverse mix of aerosol species with vastly different radiative properties, but also because the monsoon is strongly influenced by ocean and land surface processes, land use, land change, as well as regional and global greenhouse warming effects. Thus, sorting out the impacts of aerosol forcing, and interaction with the monsoon water cycle is a very challenging problem. In this talk, I will offer some insights into how aerosols may impact the Asian monsoon based on preliminary results from satellite observations and climate model experiments. Specifically, I will

  14. Suitability of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 for Dance Research: A Think Aloud Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Jennie E; Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L

    2015-12-01

    The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2) adapted for dance has been employed in a variety of dance settings. However, the content validity of the measure and the relevance of particular subscales (e.g., Intra-Team Member Rivalry) have been questioned. Thus, the aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine the content validity of the PMCSQ-2 and identify problematic items and the nature and frequency of such problems experienced by dancers completing the measure; and second, to determine whether the content of task-involving and ego-involving climates, as captured in the subscales of the PMCSQ-2, are relevant and meaningful in dance contexts. Think aloud interviews were conducted with 21 dancers (10 male, 11 female) representing diverse types and levels of dance experience. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and segmented into text related to each item in the PMCSQ-2. Each participant's responses were individually analyzed, with the nature and frequency of problems encountered recorded in relation to five potential causes: errors in understanding, interpretation, retrieval, judgment, and responding. Think aloud interviews revealed that 72% of the participant responses presented no problem, indicating that the measure has an acceptable degree of content validity. However, the findings highlight a number of potentially problematic areas that warrant further attention. Implications for the interpretation of previous research and the conduct of future research employing the PMCSQ-2 in dance as well as other achievement contexts (e.g., sport) are discussed.

  15. Measurement of 26Al for atmospheric and climate research and the potential of 26Al/ 10Be ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, M.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Wagenbach, D.; Wallner, A.; Wild, E. M.

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of the paired cosmogenic radionuclides 26Al and 10Be in environmental samples has potential applications in atmospheric and climate research. For this study, we report the first measurements of the 26Al/10Be atomic ratio in tropospheric aerosol samples from sites in Europe and Antarctica performed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). These initial results show that the 26Al/10Be atomic ratio in tropospheric aerosols averages 1.78 × 10-3 and does not vary significantly between the different locations. We also report results of systematic investigations of the ionization and detection efficiency which we performed to improve the measurement precision for 26Al by AMS. Maximum detection efficiencies of up to 9 × 10-4 (in units of 26Al atoms detected/initial) were achieved for chemically pure Al2O3, while for atmospheric samples we reached efficiencies of up to 2.2 × 10-4.

  16. Procurement, Storage and Distribution of Foodstuff in the Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Sahasrabuddhe

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of procuring, storing and distributing foodstuffs to the Armed Forces in India is a stupendous task because of the wide variations interrains and climatic conditions and the varied food habits of the people. It is all the more exacting as the processed food industry is still in its infancy. Because of the stringent quality control requirements of the Armed Forces, the food processing industry in India is not willing to undertake supplies to the Defence services. The problems and how they are handled are briefly reviewed.

  17. Immersion in a Hudson Valley Tidal Marsh and Climate Research Community - Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A primary advantage of place-based research is the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research that can be applied to a single locale, with a depth of continued study through time. Through the last decade, Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program (SSFRP) has promoted scientific inquiry, mostly among groups under-represented in STEM fields, in Piermont Marsh, a federally protected marsh in the Hudson estuary. At the same time, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) scientists have become more involved, through mentoring by researchers, postdocs and graduate students, often paired with high school teachers. The sustained engagement of high school students in a natural environment, experiencing the Hudson River and its tidal cycles, protection of coastline, water quality improvement, native and invasive plant communities, is fundamental to their understanding of the importance of wetlands with their many ecosystem services. In addition, the Program has come to see "place" as inclusive of the Observatory itself. The students' work at Lamont expands their understanding of educational opportunities and career possibilities. Immersing students in a research atmosphere brings a level of serious inquiry and study to their lives and provides them with concrete contributions that they make to team efforts. Students select existing projects ranging from water quality to Phragmites removal, read papers weekly, take field measurements, produce lab results, and present their research at the end of six weeks. Ongoing results build from year to year in studies of fish populations, nutrients, and carbon sequestration, and the students have presented at professional scientific meetings. Through the Program students gain a sense of ownership over both their natural and the academic environments. Challenges include sustained funding of the program; segmenting the research for reproducible, robust results; fitting the projects to PIs' research goals, time

  18. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  19. Final Technical Report for Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models, DE-FG02-07ER64429

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, Padhraic [University of California, Irvine

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report for a DOE-funded research project describing the outcome of research on non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. The main results consist of extensive development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes.

  20. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow: Initialization, Forcing and Multiscale Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Xiao, H.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is developing a routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites, known as the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation" (LASSO) Workflow. The routine simulations will be assessed using comprehensive ARM observations of the atmosphere and land-surface states, particularly cloud observations. Since small changes in thermodynamic profiles can manifest large changes in cloud properties, successful simulations require careful initialization, appropriate forcing, and possibly suitable lateral boundary conditions. We use a multiscale data assimilation (MS-DA) system as a major methodology for producing forcing datasets required by the LES modeling. The MS-DA will be implemented in the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution (~1 km). MS-DA leverages existing reanalyses (e.g., the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) and operational forecasting products (e.g. the North American Mesoscale Forecast System, NAM; the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh, HRRR) products, and takes advantage of ARM observations to directly constrain the spectra of horizontal scales down to a few km. The analysis from the MS-DA allows deriving initial conditions and forcing datasets for a range of spatial and temporal scales, developing hydrometeor forcing, exploring time-varying boundary conditions, and diagnosing other needed thermodynamic variables. It is stressed that the datasets from the MS-DA are integrated with datasets from other sources to form ensembles to account for uncertainties. The methodologies, implementation and evaluations are presented.

  1. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  3. Quantifying the Relative Contributions of Forest Change and Climatic Variability to Hydrology in Large Watersheds: A Critical Review of Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest change and climatic variability are two major drivers for influencing change in watershed hydrology in forest–dominated watersheds. Quantifying their relative contributions is important to fully understand their individual effects. This review paper summarizes the progress on quantifying the relative contributions of forest or land cover change and climatic variability to hydrology in large watersheds using available case studies. It compared pros and cons of various research methods, identified research challenges and proposed future research priorities. Our synthesis shows that the relative hydrological effects of forest changes and climatic variability are largely dependent on their own change magnitudes and watershed characteristics. In some severely disturbed watersheds, impacts of forest changes or land use changes can be as important as those from climatic variability. This paper provides a brief review on eight selected research methods for this type of research. Because each method or technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, combining two or more methods is a more robust approach than using any single method alone. Future research priorities include conducting more case studies, refining research methods, and considering mechanism-based research using landscape ecology and geochemistry approaches.

  4. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how

  5. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  6. Learning-Based Research: The Re-Integration of Learning Styles into STEM Research Through the Context of Solar Energy and Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, L.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of a NASA NICE-T funded research project at the College of Menominee Nation, a small federally recognized Tribal College located in northern Wisconsin. One main objective of the research project is to provide an experiential learning opportunity for 4-6 STEM students to construct a user friendly solar energy system evaluation tool, incorporating the real-world performance of different solar modules at Argonne National Laboratory, NASA weather and solar irradiation data, and detailed cost analysis and investment payback period. A natural connection exists between Native Americans and renewable energy. The generally clean character of renewable energies provides a great synergy and complimentary attribute for Native Americans' respect and pride for the environment and the overarching concern for future generations (Council, Pierce et al. 2000). Furthermore, Native American cultures have a strong creative and artistic focus, often motivated by their respect and appreciation for nature. The purpose of this learning-based research is to apply a cross-disciplinary approach to integrate the humanities with STEM research within the context of solar energy and climate literacy. Using 7 different learning styles (visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social, and solitary), students have the opportunity to showcase their research efforts through a variety of modes and artifacts including graphic novel development (Visual), spoken word poetry (Aural), conference presentation (Verbal), experiential display and demonstration (Physical), debate (Logical), social media and viral messaging (Social), and article submission (Solitary).

  7. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  8. Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  9. Organizational Climates: An Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin

    1975-01-01

    The purposes of this essay are to (a) present some evidence about the importance of the climate concept as an aid in understanding employee behavior in work organizations and (b) provide a framework for guiding future climate research. (Author)

  10. From ships in the night to exchanges in the piazza: Renegotiating the researcher-stakeholder nexus in climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    A substantial divide remains between the communities of research, embedded largely in universities and science agencies, and the communities of practice, comprising the natural-resource managers and other decision-makers in diverse federal, state, local, and tribal agencies and in private-sector enterprises and organizations. In spite of clear needs and best intentions, engagement among the respective communities is imperfect; researchers and stakeholders are often like ships passing in the night, exchanging brief, cryptic signals. A variety of boundary organizations have been developed to facilitate the communications, and a number of successful models for researcher-stakeholder exchange and engagement have been applied. At least two substantial challenges remain. First, how can the successes be scaled up and proliferated to meet the vast demands posed by climate adaptation? Second, how can the various boundary organizations most effectively foster this expansion, individually and collectively? Meeting these challenges will require coordination among the respective organizations, changes in the cultures of research and management, and careful assessment of process and outcomes.

  11. Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA: structure, scientific advances and future prospects Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA: structure, scientific advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moraes Arraut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to create the necessary scientific knowledge for Brazil to understand and deal with the causes and consequences of climate change, the federal government created, in 2007, the Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA. Rede CLIMA needs to discuss issues, pose questions, develop methodologies and technological products, find answers, and suggest solutions that are relevant to society. In its first phase, it focused mainly on providing infrastructure and consolidating the sub-networks. Several scientific advances were also achieved, a selection of which are presented in sections focusing on climate modelling, agriculture, energy and water, human development and mobility, biodiversity and ecosystem services, and human health. Now, in its second phase, the objective is to straighten collaboration between sub-networks by means of interdisciplinary projects. It is argued that in order to succeed the Network needs to foster research whose merit is measured not exclusively by academic production.A fim de criar o conhecimento científico necessário para o Brasil entender e lidar com as causas e consequências das mudanças climáticas, o governo federal criou, em 2007, a Rede Brasileira de Pesquisa em Mudanças Climáticas Globais (Rede CLIMA. A Rede CLIMA precisa discutir questões, fazer perguntas, desenvolver metodologias e produtos tecnológicos, encontrar respostas e sugerir soluções que sejam relevantes para a sociedade. Em sua primeira fase, a Rede concentrou-se em fornecer infraestrutura e consolidar suas sub-redes. Houve também vários avanços científicos, alguns dos quais são apresentados em seções focadas em modelagem climática, agricultura, energia e água, desenvolvimento e mobilidade humana, biodiversidade e serviços dos ecossistemas, e saúde humana. Agora, em sua segunda fase, o objetivo é estabelecer colaborações entre sub-redes por meio de projetos interdisciplinares. Argumenta-se que, para

  12. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  13. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities. Appendixes A, B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    These appendices present research plans in the areas of air pollution, water contamination/consumption, habitat modification and waste management that are relevant to the EPA's cold regions program. (ACR)

  14. A Curriculum Experiment in Climate Change Education Using and Integrated Approach of Content Knowledge Instruction and Student-Driven Research to Promote Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. E.; Heinrichs, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the world is climate change. Coupled with this challenge is an under-informed population that has not received a rigorous education about climate change other than what is available through the media. Fort Hays State University is piloting a course on climate change targeted to students early in their academic careers. The course is modeled after our past work (NSF DUE-0088818) of integrating content knowledge instruction and student-driven research where there was a positive correlation between student research engagement and student knowledge gains. The current course, based on prior findings, utilizes a mix of inquiry-based instruction, problem-based learning, and student-driven research to educate and engage the students in understanding climate change. The course was collaboratively developed by a geoscientist and science educator both of whom are active in citizen science programs. The emphasis on civic engagement by students is reflected in the course structure. The course model is unique in that 50% of the course is dedicated to developing core knowledge and technical skills (e.g. critical analysis, writing, data acquisition, data representation, and research design), and 50% to conducting a research project using available data sets from federal agencies and research groups. A key element of the course is a focus on local and regional data sets to make climate change relevant to the students. The research serves as a means of civic engagement by the students as they are tasked to understand their role in communicating their research findings to the community and coping with the local and regional changes they find through their research.

  15. Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    Armed Conflict in Syria : Overview and U.S. Response Christopher M. Blanchard, Coordinator Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Carla E. Humud... Syria : Overview and U.S. Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Armed Conflict in Syria : Overview and U.S. Response Congressional Research Service Summary The summer 2014

  16. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  17. Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions: A challenging problem in regional environment and climate research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.C.S.Devara; M.G.Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols affect clouds in two broad ways:(i) presence of more number of aerosols leads to formation of more smaller droplets,and reduces coalescence,resulting in brighter clouds that reflect more solar energy back to space,hence they contribute to cooling of the Earth's surface and (ii) numerous smaller cloud droplets tend to reduce precipitation and change the extent of cloud cover and increase cloud lifetime and albedo.One of our recent studies on aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) relative to the pristine oceans to the south of Indian Ocean showed that highly absorbing aerosols could potentially lead to the revival of active condition preceded by long break.The absorption of solar radiation by aerosols such as black carbon and desert dust produces surface cooling and local stabilization of lower atmosphere.This stability effect is overcome by the enhanced moisture convergence due to the meridional gradient of aerosol-induced heating.In some other studies,we showed association between cloud thickness and cloud to sub-cloud ratio (SCR),aerosol variability (in terms of aerosol optical depth and aerosol index) and monsoon precipitation and climate over regional scale.This paper provides an overview of some salient results that have been obtained from the studies conducted,using the ground-and space-based active and passive remote sensing techniques,at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM),Pune,India in the recent decade.

  18. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  19. Development of a Three Dimensional Wireless Sensor Network for Terrain-Climate Research in Remote Mountainous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.; Robinson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Developing sensor networks that are robust enough to perform in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks compared to human-dominated areas. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. We aim to overcome these challenges by developing a three-dimensional sensor network arrayed across a topoclimatic gradient (1100-1800 meters) in a wilderness area in central Idaho. Development of this sensor array builds upon advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies coupled with experiences of the multidisciplinary investigators in conducting research in remote mountainous locations. The proposed gradient monitoring network will provide near real-time data from a three-dimensional (3-D) array of sensors measuring biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The network will monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, tree stem growth and leaf wetness at time intervals ranging from seconds to days. The long-term goal of this project is to realize a transformative integration of smart sensor networks adaptively communicating data in real-time to ultimately achieve a 3-D visualization of ecosystem processes within remote mountainous regions. Process models will be the interface between the visualization platforms and the sensor network. This will allow us to better predict how non-human dominated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems function and respond to climate dynamics. Access to the data will be ensured as part of the Northwest Knowledge Network being developed at the University of Idaho, through ongoing Idaho NSF-funded cyber infrastructure initiatives, and existing data management systems funded by NSF, such as

  20. Evaluating cloud retrieval algorithms with the ARM BBHRP framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlawer,E.; Dunn,M.; Mlawer, E.; Shippert, T.; Troyan, D.; Johnson, K. L.; Miller, M. A.; Delamere, J.; Turner, D. D.; Jensen, M. P.; Flynn, C.; Shupe, M.; Comstock, J.; Long, C. N.; Clough, S. T.; Sivaraman, C.; Khaiyer, M.; Xie, S.; Rutan, D.; Minnis, P.

    2008-03-10

    Climate and weather prediction models require accurate calculations of vertical profiles of radiative heating. Although heating rate calculations cannot be directly validated due to the lack of corresponding observations, surface and top-of-atmosphere measurements can indirectly establish the quality of computed heating rates through validation of the calculated irradiances at the atmospheric boundaries. The ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) project, a collaboration of all the working groups in the program, was designed with these heating rate validations as a key objective. Given the large dependence of radiative heating rates on cloud properties, a critical component of BBHRP radiative closure analyses has been the evaluation of cloud microphysical retrieval algorithms. This evaluation is an important step in establishing the necessary confidence in the continuous profiles of computed radiative heating rates produced by BBHRP at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites that are needed for modeling studies. This poster details the continued effort to evaluate cloud property retrieval algorithms within the BBHRP framework, a key focus of the project this year. A requirement for the computation of accurate heating rate profiles is a robust cloud microphysical product that captures the occurrence, height, and phase of clouds above each ACRF site. Various approaches to retrieve the microphysical properties of liquid, ice, and mixed-phase clouds have been processed in BBHRP for the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. These retrieval methods span a range of assumptions concerning the parameterization of cloud location, particle density, size, shape, and involve different measurement sources. We will present the radiative closure results from several different retrieval approaches for the SGP site, including those from Microbase,