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Sample records for aripiprazole metabolic adverse

  1. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine

    2016-01-01

    with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic......Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study...... [aripiprazole] AND all spontaneous reports since the introduction of aripiprazole in 2003 until December 31, 2015. Nineteen case reports were included in the study and included both patients with psychotic disorders (PS group) and nonpsychotic disorders (non-PS group). The PS group consisted of 5 patients...

  2. Aripiprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Aripiprazole is also used with an antidepressant to treat depression when symptoms cannot ... difficulty communicating and interacting with others). Aripiprazole may ...

  3. Relative bioavailability and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, a novel once-monthly, long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, following deltoid and gluteal administration in adult subjects with schizophrenia.

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    Turncliff, Ryan; Hard, Marjie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2014-11-01

    Aripiprazole lauroxil is a linker lipid ester of aripiprazole for extended-release intramuscular (IM) injection. This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), relative bioavailability, and tolerability of a single IM deltoid or gluteal injection of aripiprazole lauroxil in adult subjects with chronic stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forty-six subjects were randomized 1:1 to aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg IM in the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Samples were collected through 89 days post-dose to measure levels of aripiprazole lauroxil, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, aripiprazole, and dehydro-aripiprazole. Forty-three (93.5%) subjects completed all study assessments; most were CYP2D6 extensive or immediate metabolizers (96%); two (4%) were poor metabolizers. The PK of aripiprazole following aripiprazole lauroxil was characterized by a steady rise in plasma concentrations (Tmax 44-50 days), a broad peak, and prolonged exposure attributable to the dissolution of aripiprazole lauroxil and formation rate-limited elimination of aripiprazole (t1/2=15.4-19.2 days). Deltoid vs. gluteal administration resulted in slightly higher Cmax aripiprazole concentrations [1.31 (1.02, 1.67); GMR 90% CI]; total exposure (AUCinf) was similar between sites of administration [0.84 (0.57, 1.24)]. N-hydroxymethyl-aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole exposures were 10% and 33-36%, respectively, of aripiprazole exposure following aripiprazole lauroxil. The most common adverse events were injection site pain in 20 subjects (43.5%) and headache in 6 subjects (13.0%) of mild intensity occurring at a similar rate with deltoid and gluteal administration. Exposure ranges with deltoid and gluteal administration overlapped, suggesting that these sites may be used interchangeably. Despite a higher incidence of adverse events, deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site and could facilitate patient acceptance.

  4. Metabolic and adverse effects of diuretics.

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    Wilcox, C S

    1999-11-01

    Diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. They enjoy a very high clinical reputation for safety and efficacy. However, more than 3 decades of clinical investigation have disclosed a number of abnormalities in fluid electrolyte handling, metabolism, and other adverse effects that can complicate therapy with diuretic drugs. Some of these complications are a direct extension of the wanted action of the drug. These include extracellular fluid volume depletion, associated orthostatic hypotension, and prerenal azotemia. Others are not a direct action of the diuretic, but can be explained as an intranephronal compensation to the diuretic action. These include hypokalemia, in part to increased potassium secretion secondary to the enhanced tubular fluid flow and aldosterone secretion induced by diuretic administration. Metabolic abnormalities are usually mild. Hyperglycemia and carbohydrate intolerance have been related to diuretic-induced hypokalemia, which inhibits insulin secretion by the beta cells, and reductions in extracellular fluid volume and cardiac output. This is compounded by increases in catecholamines from sympathetic nerve activity which decrease peripheral glucose utilization. A mild increase in serum cholesterol concentration is seen frequently during initiation of diuretic therapy, but during steady state therapy after 6 to 12 months, values usually return to baseline. Knowledge of the more common adverse effects induced by diuretics helps the physician in predicting patients at risk and taking effective steps to anticipate or treat adverse responses.

  5. Antipsychotic treatments for the elderly: efficacy and safety of aripiprazole

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    Izchak Kohen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Izchak Kohen1, Paula E Lester2, Sum Lam31Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Zucker-Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA; 3Division of Pharmacy and Geriatrics, St. John’s University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Queens, NY, USAAbstract: Delusions, hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms can accompany a number of conditions in late life. As such, elderly patients are commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications for the treatment of psychosis in both acute and chronic conditions. Those conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and dementia. Elderly patients are at an increased risk of adverse events from antipsychotic medications because of age-related pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes as well as polypharmacy. Drug selection should be individualized to the patient’s previous history of antipsychotic use, current medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and potential side effects of the antipsychotic. Specifically, metabolic side effects should be closely monitored in this population. This paper provides a review of aripiprazole, a newer second generation antipsychotic agent, for its use in a variety of psychiatric disorders in the elderly including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression. We will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole as well as dosing, diagnostic indications, efficacy studies, and tolerability including its metabolic profile. We will also detail patient focused perspectives including quality of life, patient satisfaction and adherence.Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, elderly, adverse drug reaction

  6. Aripiprazole salts. II. Aripiprazole perchlorate.

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    Freire, Eleonora; Polla, Griselda; Baggio, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    The molecular structure of aripiprazole perchlorate (systematic name: 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-{4-[(2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy]butyl}piperazin-1-ium perchlorate), C(23)H(28)Cl(2)N(3)O(2)(+)·ClO(4)(-), does not differ substantially from the recently published structure of aripiprazole nitrate [Freire, Polla & Baggio (2012). Acta Cryst. C68, o170-o173]. Both compounds have almost identical bond distances, bond angles and torsion angles. The two different counter-ions occupy equivalent places in the two structures, giving rise to very similar first-order `packing motifs'. However, these elemental arrangements interact with each other in different ways in the two structures, leading to two-dimensional arrays with quite different organizations.

  7. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

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    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily

  8. Efficacy and adverse reactions of Aripiprazole and Risperidone in treatment of patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者的疗效及不良反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧双九

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察阿立哌唑、利培酮治疗精神分裂症患者的疗效、不良反应及安全性。方法:将60例符合CCMD-3诊断标准的精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,分别给予患者阿立哌唑、利培酮治疗8周,于治疗前以及治疗2、4和8周采用阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定患者的疗效,不良反应量表( TESS)评定患者的不良反应。结果:两组患者治疗的疗效相当。利培酮组患者的锥体外系反应、内分泌以及体重增加多于阿立哌唑组。结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症患者的疗效与利培酮相似,但不良反应更少。%Objective: To observe efficacy, adverse reactions and safety of Aripiprazole and Risperidone in treatment of pa-tients with schizophrenia. Methods: 60 cases meeting CCMD3 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were randomly divided into 2 groups. They were treated with Aripiprazole and Risperidone for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and 2, 4 and 8 weeks after the treat-ment, PANSS (positive and negative symptom scale) and TESS (treatment emergent symptom scale) were used to evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions. Results:The two groups had a similar efficacy;however, the extrapyramidal system reactions, endocrine, and weight gain in Risperidone group were more than those of Aripiprazole group. Conclusions:Aripiprazole in the treatment of the patients with schizophrenia has a similar efficacy with Risperidone, but has fewer adverse reactions.

  9. The effects of aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine administrated for schizophrenia treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism%阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达休; 李永华; 冉庆国; 陈大坤; 周琳钧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine used for treating schizophrenia on serum glucose and lipids of patients. Methods 270 patients with schizophrenia were divided randomly into 3 groups of 90 patients each; aripiprazole group, risperidone group and clozapine group, and aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine were administrated for 12 weeks,respectively. Levels of fast blood glucose (FBG) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglycericle(TG) and body mass index (BMX) before and after treatment were compared. Results FBG levels of patients in 3 groups after treatment were increased as compared to those before treatment(P0. 05) ,all those in risperidone and clozapine groups increased after treatment as compared with treatment before(P<0. 05) ,and those in clozapine group increased greater than in risperidone group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine used for schizophrenia treatment can lead to adverse effects of glucose and lipid metabolism which are relatively milder for aripiprazole.%目的 比较阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对患者血糖、血脂影响.方法 将270例精神分裂症患者随机分为3组:阿立哌唑组、利培酮组及氯氮平组(各90例),分别给予口服阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗12周.比较治疗前后空腹血糖(FBG)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG),体质量指数(BMI)的变化.结果 3组患者治疗后,FBG较治疗前增高(P<0.05),氯氮平组增高最明显;阿立哌唑组治疗后TC、TG,BMI值较治疗前差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);利培酮及氯氮平组治疗后TC、TG、BMI较治疗前均有升高(P<0.05),且氯氮平组增高大于利培酮组(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗精神分裂症均可导致糖脂代谢异常的不良反应,阿立哌唑的不良反应相对较小.

  10. Aripiprazole induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mustafa; Celik, Mustafa; Cakıcı, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic drug with partial dopamine agonistic activity. Although the adverse cardiovascular effects of both typical and atypical antipsychotics are well known, similar data on aripiprazole, which was recently introduced, are scarce. Herein we report a 35-year-old female that presented to our emergency department with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT showed pulmonary edema and bilateral pleural effusion. Anamnesis showed that she had been taking sertraline 200 mg d-1 for obsessive-compulsive disorder for a long time and that aripiprazole10 mg d-1 was added for augmentation 2 months prior to presentation. We think that the CYP 2D6 inhibitor sertraline might have played a role in increasing the plasma concentration and toxicity of aripiprazole in the presented patient.

  11. Long-term safety and tolerability of aripiprazole once-monthly in maintenance treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Sanchez, Raymond; Johnson, Brian; Jin, Na; Forbes, Robert A; McQuade, Robert; Baker, Ross A; Carson, William; Kane, John M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of aripiprazole once-monthly (ARI-OM) for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. This long-term, pivotal study had four phases: oral conversion (phase 1, 4-6 weeks); oral stabilization (phase 2, 4-12 weeks); ARI-OM stabilization with coadministration of oral aripiprazole in the first 2 weeks (phase 3, 12-36 weeks); and a 52-week, randomized [phase 4, ARI-OM vs. placebo (2 : 1)], double-blind, maintenance phase. Safety was assessed across study phases by the time of first onset of adverse events, as were objective measures of extrapyramidal symptoms, fasting metabolic parameters, and body weight. Patient enrollment was phase 1=633; phase 2=710, of whom 210 entered phase 2 directly; phase 3=576; and phase 4=403 (ARI-OM, n=269; placebo, n=134). Adverse events (>5%) in any phase were insomnia, headache, anxiety, akathisia, increase in weight, injection-site pain, and tremor. Headache, somnolence, and nausea had a peak first onset within 4 weeks of treatment initiation. The incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms was similar in all phases. There were no unexpected changes in weight or shifts in fasting metabolic parameters across all study phases. ARI-OM had a safety and tolerability profile comparable with oral aripiprazole in maintenance treatment of schizophrenia.

  12. Role of aripiprazole in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

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    Mossaheb N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nilufar Mossaheb,1 Rainer M Kaufmann21Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: About one third of patients with schizophrenia respond unsatisfactorily to antipsychotic treatment and are termed “treatment-resistant”. Clozapine is still the gold standard in these cases. However, 40%–70% of patients do not improve sufficiently on clozapine either. In the search for more efficacious strategies for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, drugs with different pharmacological profiles seem to raise new hopes, but are they valid? The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for aripiprazole as a potential strategy in monotherapy or combination therapy for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The evidence for aripiprazole monotherapy and for the combination of aripiprazole with psychotropics other than clozapine is scant, and no recommendation can be made on the basis of the currently available data. More effort has been made in describing combinations of aripiprazole and clozapine. Most of the open-label and case studies as well as case reports have shown positive effects of this combination on overall psychopathology and to some extent on negative symptoms. Several reports describe the possibility of dose reduction for clozapine in combination with aripiprazole, a strategy that might help so-called “treatment-intolerant” patients. The findings of four randomized controlled trials with respect to changes in psychopathology seem less conclusive. The most commonly found beneficial effects are better metabolic outcomes and indicators of the possibility of reducing the clozapine dose. However, other side effects, such as akathisia, are repeatedly reported. Further, none of the studies report longer-term outcomes. In the absence of alternatives, polypharmacy is a common strategy in clinical practice. Combining aripiprazole with clozapine in

  13. Usefulness of the dopamine system-stabilizer aripiprazole for reducing morphine-induced emesis.

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    Shiokawa, Mitsuru; Narita, Minoru; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Tadao; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2007-09-10

    In the management of pain, nausea and vomiting are some of the most distressing adverse effects induced by opioids. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the dopamine system-stabilizer aripiprazole on morphine-induced emesis. Morphine induced retching and vomiting in a dose-dependent manner in ferrets. The emetic effect of morphine was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with either the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol or aripiprazole. These results suggest that the co-administration of aripiprazole may be useful for reducing the severity of morphine-induced emesis.

  14. Adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Xianbin Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: POPULATION: adult patients presenting with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia diagnosed by prolactin level with or without prolactin-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: adjunctive aripiprazole vs. adjunctive placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: adverse events and efficacy of treatment. STUDIES: randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials with a total of 639 patients (326 adjunctive aripiprazole, 313 adjunctive placebo met the inclusion criteria. Adjunctive aripiprazole was associated with a 79.11% (125/158 prolactin level normalization rate. Meta-analysis of insomnia, headache, sedation, psychiatric disorder, extrapyramidal symptom, dry mouth, and fatigue showed no significant differences in the adjunctive aripiprazole treatment group compared with the placebo group (risk difference (Mantel-Haenszel, random or fixed -0.05 to 0.04 (95% confidence interval -0.13 to 0.16; I(2 =0% to 68%, P=0.20 to 0.70. However, sedation, insomnia, and headache were more frequent when the adjunctive aripiprazole dose was higher than 15 mg/day. Meta-analysis of the prolactin level normalization indicated adjunctive aripiprazole was superior to placebo (risk difference (Mantel-Haenszel, random 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85; I(2 =43%, P<0.00001. The subgroup analysis confirmed that the subjects who received adjunctive aripiprazole 5 mg/day showed a degree of prolactin normalization similar to that of all participants. No significant differences between groups in discontinuation and improvements of psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive aripiprazole is both safe and effective as a reasonable choice treatment for patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The appropriate dose of adjunctive aripiprazole may be 5 mg/day.

  15. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

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    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  16. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

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    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  17. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

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    Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322

  18. Aripiprazole-induced priapism

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    Satya K Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency representing a true disorder of penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual interest or stimulation. A variety of psychotropic drugs are known to produce priapism, albeit rarely, through their antagonistic action on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We report such a case of priapism induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg aripiprazole, a drug with the least affinity to adrenergic receptors among all atypical antipsychotics. Polymorphism of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene in schizophrenia patients is known to be associated with sialorrhea while on clozapine treatment. Probably, similar polymorphism of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor gene could contribute to its altered sensitivity and resultant priapism. In future, pharmacogenomics-based approach may help in personalizing the treatment and effectively prevent the emergence of such side effects.

  19. Study on metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients treated with aripiprazole%阿立哌唑对首发急性精神分裂症患者代谢风险的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 文飞; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑对首发急性期精神分裂症患者的代谢影响.方法:31例首发急性期精神分裂症患者入选病例组接受阿立哌唑治疗,治疗前后各测量一次体重、腰围、腰臀比、血清TC、TG、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)、载脂蛋白B(Apo B100)、脂蛋白a(LPa)、空腹血糖(FBS)、空腹胰岛素(INS)、C肽(C-P),并分别计算出BMI、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).另设健康对照组44例,同法测量上述指标.将病例组与健康对照组、病例组治疗前后各项指标进行比较分析.结果:病例组INS、C-P及HOMA-IR均高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组治疗后体重、BMI、腰围、腰臀比均较治疗前增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后:病例组TG、INS、C-P、HOMA-IR均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且aPOA1低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:精神分裂症患者本身可能存在有代谢异常;非典型抗精神病药物(APS)阿立哌唑对患者血糖、血脂代谢相对影响较小.%AIM: To study the metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients trea ted with aripiprazole.METHODS: 31 first-episode acute patients with schizophrenic were enrolled into case group and 44 healthy subjects were enrolled into controle group, all cases accepted treatment with oral aripiprazole.At the baseline and at the end, all patients were checked or tested for weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hipratio(WHR), TC, TG, high density lipoprotein(HDL), low density lipoprotein(LDL), apolipoprotein A1 ( Apo Al), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B100), lipoprotein a (LPa),fasting blood glucose (FBS), fasting insulin (INS)and c-peptide(C-P),respectively.The BMI and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated.All indexes were compared and analysed between the case group and controle group,pre and post treatment in the case group.RESULTS:The INS, C-P and HOMA

  20. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the management of schizophrenia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-02-01

    showed a favourable cardiovascular tolerability profile and its use was associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome than placebo or olanzapine. As a consequence, aripiprazole may provide a more cost-effective treatment option compared with other atypical antipsychotics. In conclusion, oral aripiprazole provides an effective and well tolerated treatment alternative for the acute and long-term management of patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Aripiprazole versus risperidone for treating children and adolescents with tic disorder: a randomized double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Haghighi, Alireza

    2014-10-01

    There are some uncontrolled studies about the efficacy and safety of both aripiprazole and risperidone for treating tic disorder. Moreover, the efficacy of these medications has never been compared. This is the first double blind randomized clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone for treating patients with tic disorder. Sixty children and adolescents with tic disorder were randomly allocated into one of the two groups to receive either aripiprazole or risperidone for 2 months. The primary outcome measure was the score of Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. In addition, health related quality of life and adverse events were assessed. Both aripiprazole and risperidone decreased the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale score during this trial. Moreover, both medications increased the health related quality of life score. Both aripiprazole and risperidone were tolerated well. Aripiprazole [3.22 (1.9) mg/day] decreased tic score as much as risperidone [0.6 (0.2) mg/day]. Their adverse effects and their effects on health related quality of life were comparable. However, risperidone increased the patients' social functioning more than aripiprazole in short term.

  2. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children & adolescents with autism: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria specifed for this review. All the double-blind, controlled, randomized, clinical trials examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for treating children and adolescents with autism were included. Results: From the 93 titles identified, 26 were irrelevant and 58 were evaluated for more details. Only five articles met the inclusive criteria. The evidence from precise randomized double blind clinical trials of aripiprazole for the treatment of autism in children and adolescents was convincing enough to recommend aripiprazole. Adverse effects were not very common and were usually mild. Interpretation & conclusions: Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for treating irritability in autism. However, further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required.

  3. Long-term safety and tolerability of open-label aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressant therapy in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman R

    2011-05-01

    discontinuation. Mean weight change was 4.4 kg; 36.6% experienced ≥7% increase in weight from baseline (observed case analysis, n = 303. No clinically relevant changes in other metabolic parameters were seen. At the end of open-label treatment, 221 patients (69.7% had a Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness score of 1 (not at all ill or 2 (borderline ill.Conclusion: Long-term adjunctive aripiprazole therapy was well tolerated with an acceptable long-term safety and tolerability profile in patients with major depressive disorder who had not responded to treatment with one or more antidepressant therapies. Clinically significant weight gain was observed in about one-third of patients. Overall, the adverse event profile was consistent with that reported in the short-term trials and readily managed clinically.Keywords: adjunctive aripiprazole, antidepressant therapy, major depressive disorder, long-term safety and tolerability

  4. Aripiprazole-induced oculogyric crisis (acute dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotik T Bhachech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the third generation atypical antipsychotic and a dopamine serotonin system stabilizer (DSS effective against positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It has a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects, causes minimal weight gain or sedation, produces no elevation in serum prolactin levels, and does not cause prolongation of QTc interval. This case report is of a patient suffering from schizophrenia (paranoid. The patient developed oculogyric crisis (acute dystonia with aripiprazole dose uptitration. Dystonic reaction resolved with promethazine administration. Naranjo′s causality assessment reveals probable association of aripiprazole with oculogyric crisis. A thorough workup and vigilance is required prior to initiation of aripiprazole in the case of schizophrenia.

  5. Worsened hypertension control induced by aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui-Furukori N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Norio Yasui-Furukori, Akira Fujii Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Abstract: Aripiprazole is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Although antipsychotics generally have hypotensive effects, two cases were identified that demonstrated hypertension during the switch from other antipsychotics to aripiprazole. The hypertensive state of these patients recovered after switching back to other antipsychotics, and these cases suggest that aripiprazole may lead to hypertension. Keywords: hypertension, aripiprazole, dopamine antagonist, 5-HT1a

  6. Worsened hypertension control induced by aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui-Furukori N; Fujii A

    2013-01-01

    Norio Yasui-Furukori, Akira Fujii Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Abstract: Aripiprazole is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Although antipsychotics generally have hypotensive effects, two cases were identified that demonstrated hypertension during the switch from other antipsychotics to aripiprazole. The hypertensive state of these patients recovered after switching back to other antipsychot...

  7. Covert dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Carrie N; Simpson-Khanna, Heather A; Catalano, Glenn; Catalano, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic agents are felt by many to have a lower risk of inducing the development of dyskinetic movements than the conventional antipsychotic agents agents such as haloperidol and fluphenazine. However, that does not mean that treatment with the atypical antipsychotic agents carries no risk of developing dyskinesias. To the contrary, all of the atypical antipsychotic agents, including aripiprazole, have been associated with the induction of dyskinetic movements. We will present the case of a patient who developed a covert dyskinesia that manifested shortly after the discontinuation of aripiprazole. We will review the use of aripiprazole and the adverse effects most commonly associated with its use. We will also discuss the risk factors associated with the development of tardive dyskinesia and review the different clinical variations (withdrawal dyskinesia, covert dyskinesia, tardive diskinesia) of medication-induced dyskinesias.

  8. 阿立哌唑联合氯氮平对精神分裂症患者糖脂代谢与睡眠及体重的影响%Effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on glucolipid metabolism, sleep and body mass in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏; 孙晓花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on glucolipid metabolism , sleep quality and body mass in patients with schizophrenia .Methods Seventy -six pa-tients with schizophrenia were divided into treatment group and control group , each group 38 cases.Control group was given clozapine 400-500 mg・ d -1 .Treatment group was given aripiprazole 30 mg・ d-1 combined clozapine 200-300 mg・ d-1 .The course of treatment was 6 months. The changes of blood glucose and lipid levels , sleep quality , body mass and clinical symptoms were compared in two groups before and after treatment.The clinical efficacy and adverse drug reactions in two groups were observed.Results After treatment, the self-rating scale of sleep ( SRSS ) and pittsburgh sleep quality index ( PSQI ) in treatment group were (15.74 ±3.21), (2.42 ±0.45), significantly lower than (20.45 ±4.67) ,(6.43 ±0.78) in control group(P<0.05).The levels of fasting blood glucose , postprandial 2 h blood glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in control group were (5.64 ±0.57), (9.75 ±0.66), (1.57 ±0.18), (5.67 ±0.53) mmol・ L-1, signifi-cantly higher than (4.57 ±0.45), (7.89 ±0.55), (1.03 ±0.13),(4.54 ±0.46) mmol・ L-1 in treatment group ( P <0.05 ) .Body mass and body mass index in control group were ( 68.32 ±4.12 ) kg and ( 26.17 ±4.05 ) kg・ m-2 , significantly higher than (57.56 ±3.63 ) kg and (22.07 ±3.44 ) kg・ m-2 in treatment group ( P<0.05 ) . The total effective rate of treatment group was 92.11%, significantly higher than 76.32%in control group ( P<0.05 ) . The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions in treatment group was 15.79%, obviously lower than 39.47%in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Aripiprazole combined with clozapine can be beneficial to glucose metabolism and body mass of patients in a stable state in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia , and can improve sleep condition and clinical symptoms of patients , and had

  9. Metabolic and renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Clàudia; Deyà-Martínez, Ángela; Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the benefits of combined antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in morbidity and mortality due to perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection are beyond question and outweigh the toxicity these drugs have been associated with in HIV-infected children and adolescents to date. In puberty, abnormal body fat distribution is stigmatizating and leads to low adherence to ARV treatment. The other metabolic comorbidities (mitochondrial toxicity, dyslipidemias, insulin resistance and low bone mineral density) and renal toxicity, albeit nonsymptomatic in most children, are increasingly being reported and potentially put this population at risk for early cardiovascular or cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease, diabetes, pathologic fractures or premature renal failure in the third and fourth decades of life. Evidence from available studies is limited because of methodological limitations and also because of several HIV-unrelated factors influencing, to some degree, the development of these conditions. Current recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of metabolic and renal adverse effects in HIV-children and adolescents are based on adult studies, observational pediatric studies and experts' consensus. Healthy lifestyle habits (regarding diet, exercise and refraining from toxic substances) and wise use of ARV options are the only preventive tools for the majority of patients. Should abnormal findings arise, switches in one or more ARV drugs have proved useful. Specific therapies are also available for some of these comorbidities, although the experience in the pediatric age is still very scarce. We aim to summarize the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of metabolic and renal adverse effects in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents.

  10. Augmentation of Clozapine with Aripiprazole in Severe Psychotic Bipolar and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Alessandra; Di Paolo, Antonello; Lastella, Marianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Candiracci, Chiara; Litta, Antonella; Ciofi, Laura; Danesi, Romano; Lattanzi, Lorenzo; Del Tacca, Mario; Cassano, Giovanni Battista

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the augmentation of clozapine with aripiprazole in patients with treatment-resistant schizoaffective and psychotic bipolar disorders in a retrospective manner. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between the two drugs were also investigated. Patients: Three men and 4 women (median age 36 and 40 years, respectively) who had mean scores at BPRS and CGI-Severity of 59.1±12.0 and 5.4±0.5, respectively, were treated with clozapine (mean dose 292.9±220.7 mg/day). Patients received an adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole (mean dose 6.8 ± 3.7 mg/day). Clozapine, norclozapine and aripiprazole plasma levels were measured by means of a high performance liquid chromatograpy with UV detection. Results: Total scores at BPRS decreased significantly (from 59.1±12.0 to 51.1±15.6, p=0.007) after aripirazole augmentation. In particular, the factors “thought disorder” (from 10.4±4.4 to 9.0±4.5, p=.047) and “anergia” (from 10.0±2.7 to 8.0±2.4, p=.018) significantly improved. Concomitant administration of aripiprazole and clozapine did not result in an increase in side effects over the period of treatment. Dose-normalized plasma levels of both clozapine and norclozapine and the clozapine/norclozapine metabolic ratio in all patients did not vary as well. Conclusion: The augmentation of clozapine with aripirazole was safe and effective in severe psychotic schizoaffective and bipolar disorders which failed to respond to atypical antipsychotics. A possible pharmacokinetic interaction between clozapine and aripiprazole does not account for the improved clinical benefit obtained after aripiprazole augmentation. PMID:20648219

  11. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in multifactorial adverse cardiac remodeling associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrih, Mohamed; Mach, François; Nencioni, Alessio; Dallegri, Franco; Quercioli, Alessandra; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been widely associated with an increased risk for acute cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence supports metabolic syndrome as a condition favoring an adverse cardiac remodeling, which might evolve towards heart dysfunction and failure. This pathological remodeling has been described to result from the cardiac adaptive response to clinical mechanical conditions (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia), soluble inflammatory molecules (such as cytokines and chemokines), as well as hormones (such as insulin), characterizing the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, these cardiac processes (resulting in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis) are also associated with the modulation of intracellular signalling pathways within cardiomyocytes. Amongst the different intracellular kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were shown to be involved in heart damage in metabolic syndrome. However, their role remains controversial. In this paper, we will discuss and update evidence on MAPK-mediated mechanisms underlying cardiac adverse remodeling associated with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Multifactorial Adverse Cardiac Remodeling Associated with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Asrih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been widely associated with an increased risk for acute cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence supports metabolic syndrome as a condition favoring an adverse cardiac remodeling, which might evolve towards heart dysfunction and failure. This pathological remodeling has been described to result from the cardiac adaptive response to clinical mechanical conditions (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, soluble inflammatory molecules (such as cytokines and chemokines, as well as hormones (such as insulin, characterizing the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, these cardiac processes (resulting in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are also associated with the modulation of intracellular signalling pathways within cardiomyocytes. Amongst the different intracellular kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs were shown to be involved in heart damage in metabolic syndrome. However, their role remains controversial. In this paper, we will discuss and update evidence on MAPK-mediated mechanisms underlying cardiac adverse remodeling associated with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Hypercapnia adversely affects postprandial metabolism in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of elevated CO2 partial pressure on the specific dynamic action (SDA) and ammonia excretion in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) following forced feeding. Two different hypercapnic scenarios were investigated; one inwhich pCO2 oscillated between 20 and 60 mm Hg...... constant hypercapnia. Under conditions of oscillating pCO2, the temporal and spatial postprandial increase in ammonia nitrogen excretion was significantly reduced. This group also excreted significantly less ammonia after ingesting a meal. No significant effects on the magnitude or duration of postprandial...... ammonia excretion were observed at high pCO2 or low Ph/normocapnia. The results demonstrate that despite an exceptional tolerance towards elevated pCO2 and acidosis, postprandial metabolic processes of the European eel are adversely affected by hypercapnia and low pH...

  14. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  15. Aripiprazole Can Improve Apraxia of Eyelid Opening in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokisato, Kaori; Fukunaga, Kimiko; Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Nakanishi, Ryoji; Yamanaga, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We herein report three cases of Parkinson's disease associated with difficulty in eyelid opening, referred to as apraxia of eyelid opening (AEO), which improved after aripiprazole treatment. In case 1, aripiprazole was administered as a psychiatric treatment. It proved to be effective in AEO with blepharospasm. In case 2 and case 3, the patients experienced AEO without blepharospasm, and a significant improvement was observed after aripiprazole treatment. In this study, the aripiprazole dosage ranged between 3 and 9 mg/day. This is the first report of aripiprazole as a potentially effective treatment for AEO in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Tardive Dyskinesia and Covert Dyskinesia with Aripiprazole: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Suravi

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole, a dopamine stabilizing atypical antipsychotic is used in treatment of tardive dyskinesia caused by other neuroleptics. Tardive dyskinesia is rarely caused by Aripiprazole and has only been documented in high risk patients i.e., female gender, advanced age, affective illness, coexisting neurological disorders. Here the author describes two atypical cases of tardive dyskinesia associated with Aripiprazole. First case of tardive dyskinesia was observed in a neuroleptic naïve young adult male with paranoid illness after six months of treatment with Aripiprazole upon addition of Fluoxetine and the second case was a middle aged female with affective illness where dyskinetic movements appeared after stopping Aripiprazole. The role of Fluoxetine in causing tardive dyskinesia with Aripiprazole and covert dyskinesia due to Aripiprazole with appropriate management is discussed.

  17. Aripiprazole improves associated comorbid Conditions in addition to Tics in adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gerasch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU, and quality of life (QoL. Moreover we were interested in the factors that influence a patient’s decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. 18 out of 44 patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1 aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2 aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend towards improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety and ADHD; (3 neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients’ decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4 most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5 patients’ QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  18. No negative symptoms in healthy volunteers after single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Keon-Hak; Huang, Guang-Biao; Tong, Zhao; Park, Myung-Sook; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-03-01

    Noncompliance and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia are closely related to the negative symptoms secondary to antipsychotics. No controlled study has evaluated whether amisulpride and aripiprazole induce negative symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. Seventy-eight young volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study of four antipsychotics: 400 mg amisulpride, 10 mg aripiprazole, 3 mg haloperidol, and 2 mg risperidone. Assessments of negative symptoms were done 4 h after administration using both subjective rating scales (Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale) and an objective rating scale (Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms). Risperidone only produced significant increases on the avolition score of the Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and blunted affect and alogia scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms compared with placebo. The effect on blunted affect persisted after controlling for mental sedation. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol did not induce negative symptoms. Aripiprazole and risperidone induced mild extrapyramidal symptoms. The most common adverse events were somnolence and cognitive slowing. These data indicate that a single risperidone dose induces negative symptoms in normal volunteers, whereas amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol do not. These characteristics of antipsychotics should be considered when choosing optimal drugs for patients with psychosis.

  19. Behandling af Tourettes syndrom med aripiprazol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Sindø, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    , due to TS. The initial treatment consisted of pimozide and risperidone, both of which had an unsatisfactorily efficacy on tics and side effects in the form of weight gain and sedation. The patient is now treated with aripiprazole and there is a marked reduction of tics and no side effects...

  20. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 3: Clinical Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. This column reviews clinical trial data to assess whether those data support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD when used as an augmentation strategy to treat MDD. To date, no randomized, placebo-controlled trials have established a definitive link between exposure to aripiprazole and TD in patients with MDD. One long-term, open-label, safety trial examined aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy in individuals with MDD and found a rare occurrence (4/987, 0.4%, the confidence interval of which overlaps with zero) of an adverse event termed TD. In all 4 cases, the observed movements resolved within weeks of aripiprazole discontinuation, suggesting that they were either amenable to treatment or represented an acute syndrome rather than TD. No cases of TD were reported in the registration trials for the MDD indication for aripiprazole. These data were presented in a pooled analysis of

  1. Add-on effects of a low-dose aripiprazole in resolving hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone or paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Chunbo; Guo, Qian; Wen, Hui; Zhu, Suoyu; Ouyang, Qiong; Shen, Weidi; Sheng, Jianhua

    2016-03-30

    This study investigated the effects of a low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment for risperidone- or paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in Han Chinese women with schizophrenia. After 4 weeks of risperidone or paliperidone treatment, 60 out of 66 patients improved significantly and experienced hyperprolactinemia. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (aripiprazole adjunctive treatment) (n=30) or control group (non-adjunctive treatment) (n=30). The dosage of risperidone and paliperidone were maintained; and aripiprazole was maintained at 5mg/day during the 8-week study period. The prolactin levels at the end of the 8th week were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The estradiol level correlated negatively with serum prolactin level both in the treatment group and the control group at the end of the 8th week and the 4th week respectively. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score improved significantly during the 8-week study period in both groups. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse event was similar in two groups. Low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment is effective in relieving risperidone- and paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in female schizophrenic patients without increasing adverse event.

  2. Two Cases of Hypersexuality Probably Associated with Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, EunJin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Sang Soo; Lee, Jun-Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect in patients treated with antipsychotics but significant differences exist across different compounds. We report hypersexuality symptoms in two female patients with schizophrenia who were receiving treatment with aripiprazole. The patients experienced more frequent sexual desire and greater sexual preoccupation after taking aripiprazole. We discuss the potential neuro-chemical mechanisms for this and argue that aripiprazole's unique pharmacological pr...

  3. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  4. Effect of lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia%较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 王艳婷; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯春兰; 侯凌峰; 董继学; 李俊福

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响.方法:选取2008年3月至2010年3月我院住院精神分裂症患者92例,随机分为研究组和对照组,研究组给予较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗,对照组给予单纯氯氮平治疗.两组观察疗程24周.两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗12周及24周对其体质量、身高、血糖、餐后2h血糖、三酰甘油及胆固醇进行测定,并做统计分析. 结果:与对照组相比,研究组治疗前后体质量及糖脂代谢变化显著较小(P均<0.01).研究组体质量、血糖及三酰甘油异常率明显低于对照组(P均<0.01). 结论:较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗与单用较高剂量氯氮平相比,对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢影响较小.%Objective: To investigate effect of the lower dose of clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight,glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Method:92 schizophrenic patients from our hospital March,2008 to March,2010 were randomly divided into study group and control group,the study group was given a low dose clozapine combined with aripiprazole and the control group was given clozapine treatment for 24 weeks. The body mass, height, blood glucose, postprandial 2 hour blood glucose, cholesterol and tri-glyceride were measured before treatment, week 12 and 24. Results: Compared with the control group, the study group showed fewer changes on body weight and metabolism of glucose and lipid between before and after the treatment (all P<0.01), and abnormal rates of body mass, glucose and triglyceride (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole have less impact on the body mass and glucose metabolism than only high doses clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  5. Comparison of Short-term Metabolic Risk in First-episode Young-adult Schizophrenia Treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内代谢风险的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 魏钦令; 钟智勇; 张晋碚

    2011-01-01

    摘要:[目的]比较阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险.[方法]采用开放对照的临床观察方法,对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)精神分裂症诊断标准的首发住院精神分裂症患者,分别使用阿立哌唑(21例)和奥氮平(42例)治疗,自然观察时间不低于2周,不大于4周,于治疗前后各检测一次体质量、腰围、空腹血脂血糖及胰岛素、C肽.[结果]观察结束时:阿立哌唑组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比均有增高(P<0.05),糖脂改变无统计学差异,男女患者间各项代谢指标的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05);奥氮平组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白AI和B100及脂蛋白LPa较治疗前增高(P<0.0l),且胰岛素(INS)水平和胰岛素抵抗指数(IR)增高(P<0.05),多元逐步回归分析显示胰岛素抵抗与甘油三脂的增高有关(R2 =0.107,P=0.007);奥氛平组男性患者的空腹胰岛素和C肽、胰岛素抵抗指数均增高(P<0.05),女性患者则没有.[结论]阿立哌唑和奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险即有差异,性别差异可能影响着非典型抗精神病药物的代谢风险.%[Objective] To compare the short-term metabolic risk in the first-episode young-adult schizophrenia treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. [ Methods] The open-lable, natural observed, compared method was designed for this study. All of these cases were diagnosed as first-episode schizophrenia in accordance with the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria and respectively allocated into two groups for either Aripiprazole or Olanzapine treatment. The natural observed period was from two weeks to four weeks. Weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and lipid concentration, fasting insulin and C peptide

  6. Treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: an update on the role of the dopaminergic receptors D2 partial agonist aripiprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Serroni, Nicola; Marini, Stefano; Piersanti, Monica; Cavuto, Marilde; Valchera, Alessandro; Mazza, Monica; Girinelli, Gabriella; Iasevoli, Felice; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect present in several typical and atypical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is a drug with partial agonist activity at the level of dopamine receptors D2, which may be effective for antipsychotic- induced hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, we analyzed the literature concerning the treatment of antipsychoticinduced hyperprolactinemia with aripiprazole by updating a previous paper written on the same topic. More recent studies were reviewed. They showed that there are two options for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia with aripiprazole. The safest strategy may require the addition of aripiprazole to ongoing treatments, in the case patients had previously responded to antipsychotic drugs and then developed hyperprolactinemia. However, it is advisable to monitor the patients in case relapses and/or side effect, although rare, might occur. Switching drugs should be considered when a patient does not appear to be responding to the previous antipsychotic, thus developing hyperprolactinemia. A cross-taper switch should always be considered, but the risk of a relapse in the disorder may occur more frequently and the patients should be closely monitored. However, limitations must be considered and further studies are needed to definitely elucidate this important issue. Some relevant patents are also described in this review.

  7. Adverse Metabolic Risk Profiles in Greenlandic Inuit Children Compared to Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, T.; Sorensen, K.; Andersen, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic p...

  8. Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: is it a rare or common occurrence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bouchard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals differ in the response to regular exercise. Whether there are people who experience adverse changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors has never been addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An adverse response is defined as an exercise-induced change that worsens a risk factor beyond measurement error and expected day-to-day variation. Sixty subjects were measured three times over a period of three weeks, and variation in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP and in fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and insulin (FI was quantified. The technical error (TE defined as the within-subject standard deviation derived from these measurements was computed. An adverse response for a given risk factor was defined as a change that was at least two TEs away from no change but in an adverse direction. Thus an adverse response was recorded if an increase reached 10 mm Hg or more for SBP, 0.42 mmol/L or more for TG, or 24 pmol/L or more for FI or if a decrease reached 0.12 mmol/L or more for HDL-C. Completers from six exercise studies were used in the present analysis: Whites (N = 473 and Blacks (N = 250 from the HERITAGE Family Study; Whites and Blacks from DREW (N = 326, from INFLAME (N = 70, and from STRRIDE (N = 303; and Whites from a University of Maryland cohort (N = 160 and from a University of Jyvaskyla study (N = 105, for a total of 1,687 men and women. Using the above definitions, 126 subjects (8.4% had an adverse change in FI. Numbers of adverse responders reached 12.2% for SBP, 10.4% for TG, and 13.3% for HDL-C. About 7% of participants experienced adverse responses in two or more risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adverse responses to regular exercise in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors occur. Identifying the predictors of such unwarranted responses and how to prevent them will provide the foundation for personalized exercise prescription.

  9. Postmortem Femoral Blood Reference Concentrations of Aripiprazole, Chlorprothixene, and Quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs aripiprazole, chlorprothixene and its metabolite, and quetiapine were determined by LC-MS-MS in 25 cases for aripiprazole and 60 cases each for chlorprothixene and quetiapine. For cases where the cause of death was not related to ...

  10. Aripiprazole: the evidence of its therapeutic impact in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Winlow

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available William Winlow, Louise Profit, Paul ChrispCore Medical Publishing, Knutsford, UKIntroduction: An ideal antipsychotic would rapidly stabilize acute psychotic symptoms and maintain the patient, without relapse, for prolonged periods in the absence of extrapyramidal, endocrine, diabetic, or cardiovascular side effects, and without weight gain. The dopamine partial agonist aripiprazole is compared with this ideal and with conventional antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, and with atypical antipsychotics.Aims: To review the evidence for the clinical impact of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Evidence review: There is clear evidence that aripiprazole is as effective as haloperidol in reducing the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. In patients with schizophrenia, aripiprazole has been shown to stabilize acute psychotic symptoms, prevent relapse in stabilized patients, and maintain patients with schizophrenia following acute relapse. Furthermore, in common with other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole appears to be associated with a lower incidence of side effects than typical antipsychotics and may reduce discontinuation of drug therapy. Evidence also suggests that aripiprazole may be associated with a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms than conventional antipsychotics, but further long-term studies concerning tardive dyskinesia are required. Studies on the cost effectiveness of aripiprazole, as well as the quality of life and general functioning of patients taking the drug are still required, although there is some evidence of improved quality of life. Further evidence comparing aripiprazole with other atypical antipsychotics would be welcome.Clinical value: In conclusion, aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic suitable for first-line use in patients with schizophrenia. Its clinical value in relation to other atypical antipsychotics remains to be elucidated.Key words

  11. Aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a critical review of the evidence and its dissemination into the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic medication, has been increasingly used in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in 2005. Given its widespread use, we sought to critically review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and examine how that evidence has been disseminated in the scientific literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder while excluding other types of studies, such as open-label, acute, and adjunctive studies. We then used a citation search to identify articles that cited these trials and rated the quality of their citations. Our evidence search protocol identified only two publications, both describing the results of a single trial conducted by Keck et al., which met criteria for inclusion in this review. We describe four issues that limit the interpretation of that trial as supporting the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance: (1 insufficient duration to demonstrate maintenance efficacy; (2 limited generalizability due to its enriched sample; (3 possible conflation of iatrogenic adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation with beneficial effects of treatment; and (4 a low overall completion rate. Our citation search protocol yielded 80 publications that cited the Keck et al. trial in discussing the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance. Of these, only 24 (30% mentioned adverse events reported and four (5% mentioned study limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A single trial by Keck et al. represents the entirety of the literature on the use of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Although careful review identifies four critical limitations to the trial's interpretation

  12. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patricia L; Karakach, Tobias K; Currie, Deborah L; McLeod, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/-) and LDLr(-/-) mice) we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area), was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix) supplementation in both apoE(-/-) (pCLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/-) strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (pCLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  13. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Orfeu M; Cain, Sean W; O'Connor, Shawn P; Porter, James H; Duffy, Jeanne F; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A; Shea, Steven A

    2012-04-11

    Epidemiological studies link short sleep duration and circadian disruption with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption, as can occur in people performing shift work, impairs glucose regulation and metabolism. Healthy adults spent >5 weeks under controlled laboratory conditions in which they experienced an initial baseline segment of optimal sleep, 3 weeks of sleep restriction (5.6 hours of sleep per 24 hours) combined with circadian disruption (recurring 28-hour "days"), followed by 9 days of recovery sleep with circadian re-entrainment. Exposure to prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption, with measurements taken at the same circadian phase, decreased the participants' resting metabolic rate and increased plasma glucose concentrations after a meal, an effect resulting from inadequate pancreatic insulin secretion. These parameters normalized during the 9 days of recovery sleep and stable circadian re-entrainment. Thus, in humans, prolonged sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption alters metabolism and could increase the risk of obesity and diabetes.

  14. Codeine Ultra-rapid Metabolizers: Age Appears to be a Key Factor in Adverse Effects of Codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, K; Fuchs, W

    2015-12-01

    Codeine is widely used as an analgesic drug. Taking into account the high consumption of codeine, only few fatal adverse events have been published. A number of reports, where neonates and children showed serious or fatal adverse reactions, led to a restriction of the use of codeine in this patient group. Therefore, we reviewed the safety of codeine in adults. PubMed was systematically searched for clinical studies and case reports, with a special focus on CYP2D6, the enzyme that converts codeine to morphine and exhibits genetic polymorphism.181 cases were identified in adults in conjunction with serious or lethal effects of codeine. In the vast majority of cases, codeine was used in combination with other drugs by drug-dependent individuals or with a suicidal intent. Only 2 cases were found where ultra-rapid metabolizers experienced severe non-lethal adverse events. This is far less than would be predicted from the number of cases reported in children. The discrepancy may be explained by developmental changes in the disposition of codeine.The strategy of regulatory authorities to restrict access to codeine for infants and young children, the apparent highest risk group, has a factual and pharmacological rationale. By the same standards, there is no need for restrictions for adult use of codeine.

  15. Two cases of hypersexuality probably associated with aripiprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eunjin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Sang Soo; Lee, Jun-Yeob

    2013-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect in patients treated with antipsychotics but significant differences exist across different compounds. We report hypersexuality symptoms in two female patients with schizophrenia who were receiving treatment with aripiprazole. The patients experienced more frequent sexual desire and greater sexual preoccupation after taking aripiprazole. We discuss the potential neuro-chemical mechanisms for this and argue that aripiprazole's unique pharmacological profile, partial agonism with high affinity at dopamine D2-receptor, may have contributed to the development of these symptoms.

  16. Safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of pediatric Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox JH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joanna H Cox,1 Stefano Seri,2,3 Andrea E Cavanna,2,4,5 1Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Aston University, 3Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, 5Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology and UCL, London, UK Abstract: Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset chronic tic disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics and often accompanied by specific behavioral symptoms ranging from obsessionality to impulsivity. A considerable proportion of patients report significant impairment in health-related quality of life caused by the severity of their tics and behavioral symptoms and require medical intervention. The most commonly used medications are antidopaminergic agents, which have been consistently shown to be effective for tic control, but are also associated with poor tolerability because of their adverse effects. The newer antipsychotic medication aripiprazole is characterized by a unique mechanism of action (D2 partial agonism, and over the last decade has increasingly been used for the treatment of tics. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders (age range: 4–18 years. Our search identified two randomized controlled trials (involving 60 and 61 participants and ten open-label studies (involving between six and 81 participants. The majority of these studies used two validated clinician-rated instruments (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and Clinical Global Impression scale as primary outcome measures. The combined results from randomized controlled trials and open-label studies showed that aripiprazole is an

  17. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/- and LDLr(-/- mice we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area, was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix supplementation in both apoE(-/- (p<0.05, n = 11 and LDLr(-/- mice (p<0.01, n = 10. Principal component analysis was utilized to delineate the influence of multiple plasma and tissue metabolites on the development of atherosclerosis. Group clustering by dietary supplementation was evident, with the t-10, c-12 CLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/- strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (p<0.05, n = 10, triglyceride (p<0.01, n = 10 and cholesterol ester content (p<0.01, n = 10. Furthermore, t-10, c-12 CLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  18. Treatment of refractory catatonic schizophrenia with low dose aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Tsuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case is of 54-year-old female with catatonic schizophrenia, characterized by treatment resistance to the pharmacotherapy with olanzapine, risperidone, flunitrazepam, and ECT. Olanzapine and risperidone and flunitrazepam did not improve her catatonic and psychotic symptoms, and induced the extrapyramidal symptoms. The effects of ECT did not continue even for a month. However, the treatment with low-dose aripiprazole dramatically improved the patient’s psychotic symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the effects of low-dose aripiprazole in this case remain unclear, but unlike other antipsychotics, aripiprazole is a dopamine D2 partial agonist. In this regard, our results suggest that aripiprazole has numerous advantages, especially in cases of stuporous catatonia and a defective general status.

  19. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  20. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  1. Adjunctive aripiprazole in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Xu; Su, Yun-Ai; Bian, Qing-Tao; Wei, Li-He; Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Hong; Correll, Christoph; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect associated with several antipsychotics. The addition of partial dopamine receptor agonist aripiprazole may attenuate antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia effectively. However, the ideal dosing regimen for this purpose is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on prolactin levels and hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Stable subjects 18-45 years old with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia (i.e., >24 ng/ml for females and >20 ng/ml for males) were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of placebo (n=30) or oral aripiprazole 5mg/day (n=30), 10mg/day (n=29), or 20mg/day (n=30) added on to fixed dose risperidone treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks; clinical symptoms and side effects were assessed at baseline and week 8 using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Severity scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale and UKU Side Effects Rating Scale. Of 119 randomized patients, 107 (89.9%) completed the 8-week study. At study end, all three aripiprazole doses resulted in significantly lower prolactin levels (beginning at week 2), higher response rates (≥30% prolactin reduction) and higher prolactin normalization rates than placebo. Effects were significantly greater in the 10 and 20mg/day groups than the 5mg/day group. No significant changes were observed in any treatment groups regarding psychopathology and adverse effect ratings. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment was effective and safe for resolving risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia, producing significant and almost maximal improvements by week 2 without significant effects on psychopathology and side effects.

  2. The cardiac safety of aripiprazole treatment in patients at high risk for torsade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sneider, Benjamin; Graff, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    prolongation risk was lower compared with placebo and active controls. Epidemiological studies linked aripiprazole to weak/moderate torsadogenicity. No studies were found associating aripiprazole with BrS suggesting low affinity for the fast sodium current. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole is a low-risk antipsychotic...

  3. [Hypersexuality associated with aripiprazole: a new case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrignaud, Laura; Aouille, Jerémie; Mallaret, Michel; Durrieu, Geneviève; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with hypersexuality while he was treated with aripiprazole since 6 months. Clinical manifestations were an increased libido, unusual frequent masturbation and sexual instincts. All have resolved upon discontinuation of aripiprazole, and recurred after it was restarted. The partial dopaminergic agonist effect of aripiprazole could probably explain the occurrence of this compulsive behaviour.

  4. Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer: a focus on metabolic and cardiovascular complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lauren Collins; Shehzad Basaria

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men.Prostate being an androgen responsive tissue,androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used in the management of locally advanced (improves survival) and metastatic (improves pain and quality of life) PCa.Over the past two decades,the use of ADT has significantly increased as it is also being used in patients with localized disease and those experiencing biochemical recurrences,though without any evidence of survival advantage.Hypogonadism resulting from ADT is associated with decreased muscle mass and strength,increased fat mass,sexual dysfunction,vasomotor symptoms,decreased quality of life,anemia and bone loss.Insulin resistance,diabetes and cardiovascular disease have recently been added to the list of these complications.As the majority of men with PCa die of conditions other than their primary malignancy,recognition and management of these adverse effects is paramount.Here we review data evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular complications of ADT.

  5. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ilse C A; Schubart, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs. Learning points Prolactinoma coinciding with psychosis can represent a therapeutic challenge. In contrast to many other antipsychotic drugs, aripiprazole is associated with a decrease in prolactin levels. Aripiprazole can be a valuable pharmaceutical tool to treat both prolactinoma and psychosis. PMID:27284453

  6. Biological conversion of aripiprazole lauroxil − An N-acyloxymethyl aripiprazole prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-acyloxyalkylation of NH-acidic compounds can be a prodrug approach for e.g. tertiary or some N-heterocyclic amines and secondary amides and have the potential to modify the properties of the parent drug for specific uses, for example its physicochemical, pharmacokinetic or biopharmaceutical properties. Aripiprazole lauroxil was prepared as a model compound for such prodrugs and its bioconversion was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Theoretically, N-acyloxyalkyl derivates of NH-acid compounds undergo a two-step bioconversion into the parent NH-acidic drug through an N-hydroxyalkyl intermediate. However, to our knowledge no published studies have investigated the formation of an intermediate in vivo. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the assumed N-hydroxymethyl intermediate was readily observed both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the observed plasma concentration of the intermediate was at the same level as the drug (aripiprazole. When prodrug intermediates are formed, it is important to make a proper pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of the intermediates to ensure patient safety; however, several challenges were identified when testing an N-acyloxyalkyl prodrug. These included the development of a suitable bioanalytical method, the accurate prediction of prodrug bioconversion and thereby the related pharmacokinetics in humans and the toxicological potential of the intermediate.

  7. Efficacy of aripiprazole in sulpiride-induced tardive oromandibular dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Noboru; Ikawa, Masako

    2011-01-01

    Tardive dystonia is a side effect of dopamine receptor-blocking agents, which are mainly used as antipsychotic drugs. The treatment of tardive dystonia is difficult and often unsuccessful. An 82-year-old woman experienced mandibular deviation to the left due to spasm of the masticatory muscles with involuntary chewing movement and Parkinsonism. She had been treated with sulpiride for motility disorder for 5 years. Parkinsonism almost disappeared after the withdrawal of sulpiride, but tardive oromandibular dystonia showed no improvement. Aripiprazole treatment at 3 mg/day improved tardive oromandibular dystonia without worsening Parkinsonism. Low-dosage aripiprazole may be effective for tardive oromandibular dystonia in patients with no other psychiatric disorder.

  8. The adverse effect of obesity/high fat diet on oocyte quality and metabolism is not reversible with resumption of regular diet in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kasey A Reynolds; Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Wang, Qiang; Kelle H Moley

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, which affects over one-third of reproductive-age women, has negative effects on reproduction and results in oocyte defects in both mice and humans. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine whether the adverse effects of an obesogenic diet, specifically abnormal oocyte spindle formation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid accumulation, can be reversed by return to normal weight and metabolic profile. Female C57BL6/J mice were placed on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 35.8% fat an...

  9. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Ilse C A; Schubart, Chris D; Zelissen, Pierre M J

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and

  10. Cognitive-enhancing effects of aripiprazole: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderisi Silvana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with schizophrenia often present mild to severe cognitive deficits which contribute to their social disability. Second-generation antipsychotics have shown only mild to moderate beneficial effects on cognition. The present case report suggests cognitive enhancing effects of aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, shown to increase dopamine release in prefrontal cortex in animal studies. The patient was in his first-episode of schizophrenia, and had no previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Before schizophrenia onset his cognitive functioning was poor and he could not attend regular courses to reach his high school degree; he started but was not able to attend the University courses for several years. After schizophrenia onset, he was treated, in sequence, with olanzapine, amisulpride and aripiprazole. During treatment with the first two second-generation antipsychotics, positive symptoms markedly improved while cognitive functioning remained poor. During treatment with aripiprazole, clinical remission was obtained and the patient was able to attend university courses and pass several examinations. Social functioning was markedly improved. Aripiprazole demonstrated cognitive enhancing effects in this patient. These effects were long-lasting and paralleled by a positive impact on social functioning.

  11. Studies of phase transitions in the aripiprazole solid dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaszcz, Marta; Witkowska, Anna

    2016-01-05

    Studies of the phase transitions in an active substance contained in a solid dosage form are very complicated but essential, especially if an active substance is classified as a BCS Class IV drug. The purpose of this work was the development of sensitive methods for the detection of the phase transitions in the aripiprazole tablets containing initially its form III. Aripiprazole exhibits polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism. Powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods were developed for the detection of the polymorphic transition between forms III and I as well as the phase transition of form III into aripiprazole monohydrate in tablets. The study involved the initial 10 mg and 30 mg tablets, as well as those stored in Al/Al blisters, a triplex blister pack and HDPE bottles (with and without desiccant) under accelerated and long term conditions. The polymorphic transition was not observed in the initial and stored tablets but it was visible on the DSC curve of the Abilify(®) 10 mg reference tablets. The formation of the monohydrate was observed in the diffractograms and Raman spectra in the tablets stored under accelerated conditions. The monohydrate phase was not detected in the tablets stored in the Al/Al blisters under long term conditions. The results showed that the Al/Al blisters can be recommended as the packaging of the aripiprazole tablets containing form III.

  12. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症疗效比较%Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效。方法将我院2012年10月-2013年6月收治的40例精神分裂症患者按随机数字表法随机分为阿立哌唑组和利培酮组各20例,分别使用阿立哌唑和利培酮对两组患者进行治疗,将两组治疗效果按照CCMD-3精神分裂症的诊断标准进行评价,依据副反应量表( TESS )评定副反应,以阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS)减分率对疗效进行评定。结果阿立哌唑组痊愈9例,7例显著好转,3例好转,1例无效;利培酮组痊愈10例,5例显著好转,3例好转,2例无效。两组间的疗效比较无显著性差异。阿立哌唑组5例出现不良反应,占25%;利培酮组出现不良反应的有12例,占60%,阿立哌唑组不良反应总发生率显著低于利培酮组(χ2=5.013, P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效显著,在治疗过程中,两种药物各有千秋,但在不良反应发生率方面,阿立哌唑低于利培酮,阿立哌唑的安全性高于利培酮。%Objective To analyze and compare aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia treatment .Methods 40 cases of patients with schizophrenia in hospital from October 2012 to June 2013 were randomly divided into aripiprazole group and the risperidone group,respectively,the two groups of patients were evaluated according to CCMD -3 diagnostic criteria,TESS and PANSS. Results In aripiprazole group ,9 cases recure ,7 cases were significantly improved ,3 cases improved ,and one case was invalid .In risper-idone group,10 cases cured,5 cases were significantly improved,3 cases improved,2 cases were ineffective.There was no significant difference in the efficacy between the two groups (P>0.05).Aripiprazole group had 5 cases of adverse reactions (25%),risperidone group had 12 cases of adverse reactions (60%),incidence of adverse reactions in aripiprazole group was

  13. Effect of aripiprazole on mismatch negativity (MMN in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of the schizophrenia. Cognitive function has been found to be a better predictor of functional outcome than symptom levels. Changed mismatch negativity (MMN reflects abnormalities of early auditory processing in schizophrenia. Up to now, no studies for the effects of aripiprazole on MMN in schizophrenia have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects included 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 26 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS at baseline, after 4- and 8-week treatments with aripiprazole. Auditory stimuli for ERP consisted of 100 millisecond/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 millisecond/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 millisecond/1000 Hz duration deviants. EEG was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from waveforms elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure ANOVA with sessions (i.e., baseline, 4- and 8-week treatments and MMN type (frequency vs. duration as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes. Session main effect was significant. LSD tests demonstrated significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline and 4 weeks. There was significant negative correlation between changes in amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN and changes in PANSS total scores at baseline and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole improved the amplitudes of MMN. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the aripiprazole may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.

  14. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method using diode array detection for the simultaneous quantification of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelin, Frédérique; Djebrani, Kayssa; Tabaouti, Khalid; Kraoul, Linda; Brovedani, Sophie; Paubel, Pascal; Piketty, Marie-Liesse

    2008-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for quantification of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole, in human plasma. After a simple liquid-liquid extraction, chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 reversed-phase column, using an ammonium buffer-acetonitrile mobile phase (40:60, v/v). The total run time was only 7 min at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. The precision values were less than 12% and the accuracy values were ranging from 98 to 113% and the lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/ml for both compounds. Calibration curves were linear over a range of 2-1000 ng/ml. The mean trough plasma concentrations in patients treated with aripiprazole were 157 and 29 ng/ml for aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole, respectively.

  15. Use of aripiprazole in clozapine induced enuresis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Ji; Kim, Chul-Eung

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the efficacy of combined use of aripiprazole in the treatment of a patient with clozapine induced enuresis. Aripiprazole acts as a potential dopamine partial agonist and the dopamine blockade in the basal ganglia might be one of the causes of urinary incontinence and enuresis. We speculate that aripiprazole functioned as a D2 agonist in hypodopaminergic state of basal ganglia caused by clozapine and maintained dopamine level that would improve enuresis ultimately.

  16. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症对比分析%Comparative analysis of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红远; 李义会

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia.Methods:120 patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups.They were treated with aripiprazole and risperidone respectively.The curative effects and adverse reactions of patients in two groups were compared.Results:The treatment total effective rate of the aripiprazole group and the risperidone group were respectively 83.3% and 81.7% .The incidence rate of adverse reaction(33.3%) in the aripiprazole group was significantly lower than 51.7% of the risperidone group(χ 2=4.126,P<0.01).Conclusion:The curative effects of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia are considerable.The adverse reaction of aripiprazole is low than that of risperidone.The safety of aripiprazole is good.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的临床效果及安全性。方法:将120例精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,分别给予阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗。对两组患者的疗效及不良反应进行比较。结果:阿立哌唑组和利培酮组的总有效率分别为83.3%和81.7%。阿立哌唑组不良反应发生率33.3%明显低于利培酮组的51.7%(χ2=4.126,P<0.01)。结论:阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效相当,不良反应比利培酮低,安全性好。

  17. The prescribing pattern of a new antipsychotic: A descriptive study of aripiprazole for psychiatric in-patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M.; Manniche, C.; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2008-01-01

    (range 0-8) psychoactive drugs parallel with aripiprazole. This study demonstrates reality in psychopharmacology and quote aripiprazole as example. In day-to-day practice, aripiprazole is used as part of highly individualized regimens comprising polypharmacy and excessive dosing. Although theoretically......In June 2004, aripiprazole was marketed as a second-generation antipsychotic with an entire new mechanism of action. The objective of this descriptive study is to examine the day-to-day prescriptions of aripiprazole to an unselected population of psychiatric in-patients. From 1 February to 1 May...... 2006, present and former in-patients treated with aripiprazole were identified. Prescriptions of aripiprazole and psychoactive comedication were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Seventy-one patients, mainly schizophrenic, received aripiprazole 2.5 to 55 mg/day for median 350 days...

  18. A 64-week, multicenter, open-label study of aripiprazole effectiveness in the management of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a general psychiatric outpatient setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Nan-Ying

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the overall long-term effectiveness of aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia in a general psychiatric practice setting in Taiwan. Methods This was a prospective, open-label, multicenter, post-market surveillance study in Taiwanese patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder requiring a switch in antipsychotic medication because current medication was not well tolerated and/or clinical symptoms were not well controlled. Eligible patients were titrated to aripiprazole (5-30 mg/day over a 12-week switching phase, during which their previous medication was discontinued. Patients could then enter a 52-week, long-term treatment phase. Aripiprazole was flexibly dosed (5-30 mg/day at the discretion of the treating physicians. Efficacy was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression scale Improvement (CGI-I score, the Clinical Global Impression scale Severity (CGI-S score, The Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale (BPRS, and the Quality of Life (QOL scale, as well as Preference of Medicine (POM ratings by patients and caregivers. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results A total of 245 patients were enrolled and switched from their prior antipsychotic medications, and 153 patients entered the 52-week extension phase. In all, 79 patients (32.2% completed the study. At week 64, the mean CGI-I score was 3.10 and 64.6% of patients who showed response. Compared to baseline, scores of CGI-S, QOL, and BPRS after 64 weeks of treatment also showed significant improvements. At week 12, 65.4% of subjects and 58.9% of caregivers rated aripiprazole as better than the prestudy medication on the POM. The most frequently reported adverse events (AEs were headache, auditory hallucinations and insomnia. A total of 13 patients (5.3% discontinued treatment due to AEs. No statistically significant changes were noted with respect to

  19. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  20. Aripiprazole-induced writer’s cramp: a case report

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    Priyajyoti Chakma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a movement disorder, which causes sustained muscle contractions, twisting movements, and abnormal postures. Writer’s cramp is the most commonly identified tasks-specific focal dystonia of writing, characterised by abnormal muscle spasm of hand and arm. Even in the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10, writer’s cramp is classified under idiopathic nonfamilial dystonias. Our case was a 20 years, Hindu, unmarried, literate of middle socioeconomic status, from urban part of Tripura. He presented with history of difficulty to write because of a stiffening of his right hand and also he noticed that prolonged period of writing caused cramping pain. He was a diagnosed case of paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0 as per ICD-10 for last three years and was on tablet aripiprazole. Diagnosis of writer’s cramp was made which developed after six months of treatment with aripiprazole 15 mg.

  1. Clinical effect observation of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 孙毅; 卓越; 吕治宇; 严卫国

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia.Methods:64 patients with schizophrenia were selected.32 cases treated with aripiprazole were as aripiprazole group.32 cases treated with risperidone were as risperidone group.The treatment effect and adverse reaction between groups were observed.Results:The headache,dry mouth,insomnia incidence in the aripiprazole group were higher than those in risperidone group(P<0.05).In risperidone group, increase the body weight,akathisia,menstrual changes or lactation and tremor of incidence were higher than those in aripiprazole group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia are relatively good, but the adverse reaction of aripiprazole is fewer and milder.%目的:观察阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的效果。方法:收治精神分裂症患者64例,采用阿立哌唑进行治疗的32例患者为阿立哌唑组,应用利培酮进行治疗的32例患者为利培酮组。观察两组的治疗效果和不良反应。结果:阿立哌唑组头痛、口干、失眠的发生率均高于利培酮组(P<0.05),利培酮组体重增加、静坐不能、月经改变或泌乳和震颤的发生率均高于阿立哌唑组(P<0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的效果均比较好,但阿立哌唑产生的不良反应少且轻。

  2. 利培酮与阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的效果比较%Clinical effects and security of aripiprazole and risperidone on the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正发

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone on the treatment of schizophrenia. Method 80 patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into risperidone group ( n = 40) and aripiprazole group( n= 40). According to random, controlled principles, all patients were treated for 8 weeks. The positive and negative syndrome scale ( PANSS ), clinical global impression ( CGI ), treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) and laboratory examinations were used to assess the effectiveness and the safety of the treatment. Results By the end of the 8 weeks treatment,the scores of PANSS in both groups decreased significantly compared to the baseline ( P 0. 05 ). Total clinical effective rates was 90% in risperidone group and 80% in aripiprazole group, without significant difference between two groups. Digestion adverse reactions in aripiprazole group were significantly more than in risperidone group (P 0.05).治疗后,利培酮组有效率90%,阿立哌唑组有效率80%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).阿立哌唑组消化道反应发生率明显高于利培酮组(P<0.05).结论 利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效较阿立哌唑略好,安全性高.

  3. Neurobehavioral and genotoxic parameters of antipsychotic agent aripiprazole in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaqueline Nascimento PICADA; Viviane Minuzzo PONTES; Patrícia PEREIRA; Bruna de Jesus Neto DOS SANTOS; Franciele CELSO; Jéssica Dias MONTEIRO; Kelly Morais DA ROSA; Leandro Rosa CAMACHO; Luciana Rodrigues VIEIRA; Taís Madelon FREITAS; Tatiana Grasiela DASILVA

    2011-01-01

    Aim:Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic agent to treat schizophrenia,which acts through dopamine D2 partial agonism,serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism and 5-HT2A antagonism.This study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects and genotoxic/mutagenic activities of the agent,as well as its effects on lipoperoxidation.Methods:Open field and inhibitory avoidance tasks were used.Thirty min before performing the behavioral tasks,adult male CF-1 mice were administered aripiprazole (1,3 or 10 mg/kg,ip) once for the acute treatment,or the same doses for 5 d for the subchronic treatment.Genotoxic effects were assessed using comet assay in the blood and brain tissues.Mutagenic effects were evaluated using bone marrow micronucleus test.Lipoperoxidation was assessed with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).Results:Acute and subchronic treatments significantly decreased the number of crossing and rearing in the open field task.Acute treatment significantly increased the step-down latency for both the short- and long-term memory in the inhibitory avoidance task.Subchronic treatments with aripiprazole (3 and 10 mg/kg) caused significant DNA strain-break damage in peripheral blood but not in the brain.Mutagenic effect was not detected in the acute and subchronic treatments.Nor TBARS levels in the liver were affected.Conclusion:Aripiprazole improved memory,but could impair motor activities in mice.The drug increased DNA damage in blood,but did not show mutagenic effects,suggesting that it might affect long-term genomic stability.

  4. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C A Bakker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs.

  5. Augmentation treatment in major depressive disorder: focus on aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Craig Nelson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available J Craig Nelson1, Andrei Pikalov2, Robert M Berman31University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA; 2Otsuka Pharmaceutical Inc., Rockville, MD, USA; 3Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, CT, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD is a disabling psychiatric condition for which effective treatment remains an outstanding need. Antidepressants are currently the mainstay of treatment for depression; however, almost two-thirds of patients will fail to achieve remission with initial treatment. As a result, a range of augmentation and combination strategies have been used in order to improve outcomes for patients. Despite the popularity of these approaches, limited data from double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are available to allow clinicians to determine which are the most effective augmentation options or which patients are most likely to respond to which options. Recently, evidence has shown that adjunctive therapy with atypical antipsychotics has the potential for beneficial antidepressant effects in the absence of psychotic symptoms. In particular, aripiprazole has shown efficacy as an augmentation option with standard antidepressant therapy in two, large, randomized, double-blind studies. Based on these efficacy and safety data, aripiprazole was recently approved by the FDA as adjunctive therapy for MDD. The availability of this new treatment option should allow more patients with MDD to achieve remission and, ultimately, long-term, successful outcomes.Keywords: major depression, antipsychotic, mood disorder, aripiprazole

  6. Aripiprazole for acute mania in an elderly person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New-onset bipolar disorder is rare in the elderly. Symptom profile is similar to that in young adults but the elderly are more likely to have neurological co-morbidities. There are no case reports of elderly mania being treated with aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic. A 78-year-old gentleman presented to us with symptoms suggestive of mania of 1 month′s duration. He had similar history 3 years ago and a family history of postpartum psychosis in his mother. There were no neurological signs on examination and work-up for an organic etiology was negative except for age-related cerebral atrophy. He improved with aripiprazole and tolerated the medications well. The use of psychotropic medications in the elderly is associated with side-effects of sedation, increased cardiovascular risk, and greater risk of extra-pyramidal side-effects. The use of partial dopaminergic antagonists like aripiprazole may be useful in the balancing of effects and side-effects.

  7. Aripiprazole-associated tic in a schizophrenia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2,* Dali Lu,3,* Yugang Jiang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tic disorder, characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics is common in adolescents and adults. Antipsychotics including typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are generally recognized by experts as the most effective pharmacological treatment for tics. However, previous studies suggest that tic-like symptoms might manifest during treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as clo­zapine, quetiapine, but not aripiprazole. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an adult schizophrenia patient who developed tics during treatment with aripiprazole. Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, tic, schizophrenia, side effect

  8. Switching to aripiprazole for the treatment of residual mutism resulted in distinct clinical courses in two catatonic schizophrenia cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Shou

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The efficacy of a partial agonist for the dopamine D2 receptor, aripiprazole, for catatonia in schizophrenia has been reported. Methods: We report distinct clinical courses in challenging aripiprazole to treat residual mutism after severe catatonic symptoms improved. Results: In the first case, mutism was successfully treated when the patient was switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole. In contract, switching to aripiprazole from risperidone aggravated auditory hallucinations in the second case. Conclusions: We will discuss the benefits and risks of using aripiprazole for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia and the possibility of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis. PMID:28255444

  9. Use of aripiprazole for delirium in the elderly: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    The effects and tolerability of antipsychotics in delirium treatment remain controversial. Compared to other antipsychotics, aripiprazole differs in pharmacological activity because it exerts its effect as a dopamine D2 partial agonist. The guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association rank aripiprazole highly among antipsychotics with regard to safety, and this drug is likely to be useful for delirium treatment. Here, we reviewed the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole for delirium. The results of our literature review on the efficacy and safety of delirium treatments suggest that aripiprazole is an effective treatment option for delirium in the elderly. Aripiprazole is as effective as other antipsychotics in improving delirium symptoms, and it is safer because it is less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms, excessive sedation, and weight gain. However, these findings are based on only a few clinical studies of elderly patients with delirium. Therefore, further investigations are necessary.

  10. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  11. Effects of aripiprazole on caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and neural activation in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luara A; Viana, Thércia G; Silveira, Vívian T; Aguiar, Daniele C; Moreira, Fabrício A

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. In addition to its antipsychotic activity, this compound blocks the effects of some psychostimulant drugs. It has not been verified, however, if aripiprazole interferes with the effects of caffeine. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and investigated the effects of these drugs on neural activity in the striatum. Male Swiss mice received injections of vehicle or antipsychotic drugs followed by vehicle or caffeine. Locomotion was analyzed in a circular arena and c-Fos protein expression was quantified in the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral striatum, and in the core and shell regions of nucleus accumbens. Aripiprazole (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) prevented caffeine (10 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion at doses that do not change basal locomotion. Haloperidol (0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/kg) also decreased caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion at all doses, although at the two higher doses, this compound reduced basal locomotion. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that aripiprazole increases c-Fos protein expression in all regions studied, whereas caffeine did not alter c-Fos protein expression. Combined treatment of aripiprazole and caffeine resulted in a decrease in the number of c-Fos positive cells as compared to the group receiving aripiprazole alone. In conclusion, aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases neural activation in the striatum. This latter effect is reduced by subsequent administration of caffeine. These results advance our understanding on the pharmacological profile of aripiprazole.

  12. Waterborne aripiprazole blunts the stress response in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Heloísa Helena De Alcantara; Kalichak, Fabiana; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Idalencio, Renan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Fagundes, Michele; Variani, Cristiane; Rossini, Mainara; Piato, Angelo L.; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2016-11-01

    Here we provide, at least to our knowledge, the first evidence that aripiprazole (APPZ) in the water blunts the stress response of exposed fish in a concentration ten times lower than the concentration detected in the environment. Although the mechanism of APPZ in the neuroendocrine axis is not yet determined, our results highlight that the presence of APPZ residues in the environment may interfere with the stress responses in fish. Since an adequate stress response is crucial to restore fish homeostasis after stressors, fish with impaired stress response may have trouble to cope with natural and/or imposed stressors with consequences to their welfare and survival.

  13. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Michel, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly. PMID:27818825

  14. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Heitzmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly.

  15. Reduced Perinatal Leptin Availability May Contribute to Adverse Metabolic Programming in a Rat Model of Uteroplacental Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Wohlfarth, Maria; Lippach, Gregor; Rauh, Manfred; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-05-01

    Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery. In the offspring, we took blood samples on E22 (n = 44), postnatal day (P) 1 (n = 29), P2 (n = 16), P7 (n = 30), and P12 (n = 30). Circulating leptin (ELISA) was significantly reduced in LIG (E22, P1, P2) and SOP offspring (E22). Postnatal leptin surge was delayed in LIG but was accelerated in SOP offspring. Placental leptin gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) was reduced in LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E20, E22). Hepatic leptin receptor (Lepr-a, mediating leptin degradation) gene expression was increased in LIG fetuses (E20, E22) only. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factors (Hif; Western blot) were unaltered in placentas and were reduced in the livers of LIG (Hif1a, E20; Hif2a, E19, E22) and SOP (Hif2a, E19) fetuses. Gene expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3, a factor expressed under hypoxic conditions contributing to Hif degradation, was increased in livers of LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E19) fetuses and in placentas of LIG and SOP (E19). In summary, reduced placental leptin production, increased fetal leptin degradation, and persistent perinatal hypoleptinemia are present in intrauterine growth restriction offspring, especially after uteroplacental insufficiency, and may contribute to perinatal programming of leptin resistance and adiposity in later life.

  16. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Edwige Heitzmann; Hervé Javelot; Luisa Weiner; Bruno Michel

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsi...

  17. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children & adolescents with autism: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Sylvie Tordjman; Nematollah Jaafari

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria speci...

  18. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder patients aged 6-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hall, Petrina; Curran, Sarah; Bird, Victoria; Taylor, David

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. Aripiprazole was found to be more effective in reducing irritability compared with placebo at 8 weeks, SMD -0.64 [-0.90 to -0.39, P autism. Long-term studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in autistic disorder in children.

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuto Oya, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of aripiprazole once monthly (AOM for schizophrenia.Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs on AOM, published until June 25, 2015, were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. Relative risk (RR, standardized mean difference (SMD, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, and numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH were calculated.Results: We identified four relevant RCTs (total n=1,860, two placebo-controlled trials, one noninferiority trial comparing AOM to oral aripiprazole (OA, and one including therapeutic doses of AOM and OA, as well as an AOM dose below therapeutic threshold (control arm. AOM was superior to placebo for decreasing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total scores (SMD =-0.65, 95% CI =-0.90 to -0.41, n=1,126. However, PANSS total scores did not differ significantly between pooled AOM and OA groups. The pooled AOM group showed significantly lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation (RR =0.54, 95% CI =0.41–0.71, n=1,139, NNH =4 and inefficacy (RR =0.28, 95% CI =0.21–0.38, n=1,139, NNH =5 than placebo, but was not superior to placebo regarding discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs or death. The AOM group exhibited a lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation than OA (RR =0.78, 95% CI =0.64–0.95, n=986, NNH =14, but there were no intergroup differences in discontinuation due to inefficacy, AEs, or death. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms scale scores between AOM and placebo or between AOM and OA. AOM resulted in higher weight gain than placebo (SMD =0.41, 95% CI =0.18–0.64, n=734 but lower than OA (SMD =-0.16, 95% CI =-0.29 to -0.02, n=847.Conclusion: AOM has antipsychotic efficacy and low risk of discontinuation due to AEs. Keywords: schizophrenia

  20. 阿立哌唑的药理作用及治疗精神分裂症的疗效观察%Observation of the Curative Effect of Pharmacological Effects and Treatment of Mental Aripiprazole Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽红

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿立哌唑的药理作用,探究其治疗精神分裂症疗效。方法将67例患者分为治疗组34例和对照组33例,分别经阿立哌唑、利培酮治疗。结果两组治疗效果、PANSS评分对比(P>0.05),治疗组不良反应低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑可有效治疗精神分裂症。%Objective Pharmacological analysis of aripiprazole, explore the treatment effect of schizophrenia. Methods 67 patients were divided into treatment group 34 cases and control group 33 cases, respectively, by aripiprazole risperidone in the treatment of. Results The effect of PANSS treatment, scores of two groups were compared (P>0.05), adverse reaction in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole is more effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  1. Dilemma of prescribing aripiprazole under the Taiwan health insurance program: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chien; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Refractory major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious problem leading to a heavy economic burden. Antipsychotic augmentation treatment with aripiprazole and quetiapine is approved for MDD patients and can achieve a high remission rate. This study aimed to examine how psychiatrists in Taiwan choose medications and how that choice is influenced by health insurance payments and administrative policy. Design Descriptive study. Outcome measures Eight questions about the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason to choose aripiprazole. Intervention We designed an augmentation strategy questionnaire for psychiatrists whose patients had a poor response to antidepressants, and handed it out during the annual meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Psychiatry in October 2012. It included eight questions addressing the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason whether or not to choose aripiprazole as the augmentation antipsychotic. Results Choosing antipsychotic augmentation therapy or switching to other antidepressant strategies for MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressants was common with a similar probability (76.1% vs 76.4%). The most frequently used antipsychotics were aripiprazole and quetiapine, however a substantial number of psychiatrists chose olanzapine, risperidone, and sulpiride. The major reason for not choosing aripiprazole was cost (52.1%), followed by insurance official policy audit and deletion in the claims review system (30.1%). Conclusion The prescribing behavior of Taiwanese psychiatrists for augmentation antipsy-chotics is affected by health insurance policy. PMID:25657586

  2. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  3. Aripiprazole in the acute and maintenance phase of bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupancic M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Zupancic1, Misty L Gonzalez2,31Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 2Division of Medicine Psychiatry, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 3Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Bipolar affective disorder is a disabling illness with substantial morbidity and many management challenges. Traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine are often inadequate in controlling symptoms both during the acute and maintenance phase of treatment. Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action. Evidence suggests that it is effective in acute manic and mixed states. There are limited data to suggest its efficacy as a maintenance agent. Future studies will be needed to better define the role of aripiprazole relative to other traditional pharmacologic agents.Keywords: aripiprazole, bipolar disorder, acute treatment, maintenance treatment

  4. Low dosage of aripiprazole induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome after interaction with other neuroleptic drugs

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    Albino Petrone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is a 2nd generation antipsychotic medication, atypical neuroleptic used for treatment of schizophrenia improving symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including aripiprazole. Rare cases of NMS occurred during aripiprazole treatment in the worldwide clinical database. The disease is characterized by a distinctive clinical syndrome of mental status change, rigidity, fever, and dysautonomia. We report on a 63-year old woman with depression syndrome who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome after twelve days of aripripazole 5 mg per day. Our case is added to the small number already described and suggests the need for caution when aripripazole is added to increase the effect of other antipsychotics.

  5. Add-on treatment of aripiprazole in an adult onychophagia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cemal Kaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting (onychophagia is a common disorder whichhas not been investigated yet. There are different opinionsabout to classify onychophagia, but according toDSM-IV-TR it is classified as impulse control disorder nototherwise specified. The knowledge about treatment ofonychophagia is limited. There are a few studies abouttreatment of onychophagia with psychotherapy and astudy with pharmacotherapy. Some studies suggest thatan atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole may have beneficialeffects in the treatment of impulse control disorders. Inthis study we report a case of onychophagia which hassuccessfully treated with aripiprazole add-on to escitalopramtreatment that has never reported before. J Clin ExpInvest 2012; 3(4: 545-547Key words: Onychophagia, aripiprazole, add-on treatment

  6. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  7. 阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪治疗精神分裂症的安全性系统评价%Systematic review the safety of aripiprazole versus clorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彪; 李庆平; 母波; 刘福; 周春阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪治疗精神分裂症的不良反应的差异.方法 检索国内阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪对照研究治疗精神分裂症的文献,用系统评价方法对10篇文献评估.结果 药物不良反应发生率2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).其中,发生头痛、失眠,阿立哌唑组明显比氯丙嗪组多(P<0.05);发生口干、震颤、静坐不能、肌强直、便秘、肝功能异常、心动过速、体重增加、直立性低血压、视物模糊、嗜睡、心电图异常、月经失调、溢乳不良反应,氯丙嗪组明显比阿立哌唑组多(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑组发生不良反应的总体风险低于氯丙嗪.%Objective To study the difference in adverse drug reaction ( ADR) between aripiprazole and clorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods A total of 10 paper about control study comparing aripiprazole with clorpromazine in treatment of schizophrenia retrieved were subjected to system evaluation. Results There was significant difference in ADR incidences between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of ADR ( such as headache insomnia) in aripiprazole group were significantly higher than in clorpromazine group (P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of ADR ( such as dry mouth, tremor, akathisia, rigidity, constipation, abnormal, liver function, tachycardia, weight gain, orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, drowsiness, menstruation disturbance syndrome) in clorpromazine group were significantly higher than in aripiprazole group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Aripiprazole has less overall risk of ADR than clorpromazine for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  8. Observation of the clinical efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效。方法:收治精神分裂症患者60例,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组采用利培酮治疗,观察组采用阿立哌唑治疗,比较两组治疗效果。结果:对照组总有效率86.7%,观察组总有效率90.0%,P>0.05;对照组出现不良反应18例(60.0%),观察组出现不良反应6例(20.0%),P<0.05。结论:在精神分裂症的治疗中利培酮与阿立哌唑均具有显著的疗效,然而相对于利培酮而言,阿立哌唑具有较低的不良反应发生率,因此其具有较高的安全性。%Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia.Methods:60 patients with schizophrenia were selected.They were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group.The control group was treated with risperidone,and the observation group was treated with aripiprazole.We compared the treatment effect of the two groups.Results:In the control group,the total efficiency was 86.7%;in the observation group,the total efficiency was 90%,P>0.05.In the control group,18 cases(60%) had adverse reactions;in the observation group,6 cases(20%) had adverse reactions,P<0.05.Conclusion:In the treatment of schizophrenia,risperidone and aripiprazole all had significant curative effect,but compared with risperidone,aripiprazole had low adverse reaction rate,so it had a high safety.

  9. Severe arrhythmia induced by orally disintegrating aripiprazole tablets (Bosiqing®: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Q

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Qing Shao,1,2,* Wei Quan,1,2,* Xiaoni Jia,1 Jianbo Chen,1 Shanbo Ma,3 Xiaohong Zhang11Xi’an Mental Health Center, Institute of Mental Health, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Psychotropic medications have been known to cause cardiac conduction disturbances. Not much is known about the cardiovascular side effects of newer atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole. A case of a 13-year-old girl with schizophrenia is presented. An analysis of the presented patient’s clinical history indicates the need for a detailed analysis of the severe arrhythmia induced by aripiprazole. This presented case report contains valuable guidelines that can be of assistance in the treatment of patients with aripiprazole.Keywords: schizophrenia, aripiprazole, arrhythmia, antipsychotics

  10. Pregnancy exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    To review available data on first-trimester exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. We performed a systematic literature search in accordance with PRISMA guidelines identifying studies containing original data on first-trimester expos......To review available data on first-trimester exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. We performed a systematic literature search in accordance with PRISMA guidelines identifying studies containing original data on first......-trimester exposure and pregnancy outcome with respect to congenital malformations. Cumulated data for olanzapine were 1090 first-trimester-exposed pregnancies with 38 malformations resulting in a malformation rate of 3.5%. The corresponding numbers for quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole were 443/16 (3.6%), 432....../22 (5.1%) and 100/5 (5.0%), respectively. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 1.0 (0.7-1.4) (olanzapine), 1.0 (0.6-1.7) (quetiapine), 1.5 (0.9-2.2) (risperidone) and 1.4 (0.5-3.1) (aripiprazole). First-trimester exposure to olanzapine is not associated with an increased risk...

  11. Aripiprazole blocks acute self-administration of cocaine and is not self-administered in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Sager, Thomas N; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2008-01-01

    doses (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg/infusion) even caused significant decreases in nose-poking activity, possibly due to extrapyramidal side effects. CONCLUSIONS: These data are consistent with a potential role for aripiprazole in treatment of cocaine addiction without abuse potential per se....

  12. Aripiprazole in the treatment of Huntington’s disease: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ciammola

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Ciammola1, Jenny Sassone1, Clarissa Colciago1, Niccolò E Mencacci1, Barbara Poletti1, Andrea Ciarmiello2, Ferdinando Squitieri3, Vincenzo Silani11Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroscience, “Dino Ferrari” Centre, University of Milan Medical School – IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milano, Italy; 2Unit of Nuclear Medicine, S. Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy; 3Neurogenetics Unit, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS, ItalyObjectives: The aim of the study was to describe the effects of aripiprazole, a new atypical antipsychotic drug that acts as a partial dopamine agonist on motor, behavioral and cognitive functions in patients with genetically confirmed Huntington’s disease (HD.Methods and results: Three HD patients were evaluated for Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale part I and II and Beck Depression Inventory at baseline, after two months and one-year treatment. Aripiprazole effectively controlled involuntary movements and psychiatric symptoms, with effects on cognitive functions.Conclusions: Our case reports suggest that aripiprazole is well tolerated, remarkably improving some of the motor and behavioral symptoms in patients affected by HD. Randomized, controlled, long-term studies are warranted.Keywords: Huntington’s disease, aripiprazole, treatment, chorea

  13. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

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    Kirino E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 3Juntendo Institute of Mental Health, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. Keywords: child, mania, mixed state

  14. Case Reports of Aripiprazole Causing False-Positive Urine Amphetamine Drug Screens in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Justin; Shah, Pooja; Faley, Brian; Siegel, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Urine drug screens (UDSs) are used to identify the presence of certain medications. One limitation of UDSs is the potential for false-positive results caused by cross-reactivity with other substances. Amphetamines have an extensive list of cross-reacting medications. The literature contains reports of false-positive amphetamine UDSs with multiple antidepressants and antipsychotics. We present 2 cases of presumed false-positive UDSs for amphetamines after ingestion of aripiprazole. Case 1 was a 16-month-old girl who accidently ingested 15 to 45 mg of aripiprazole. She was lethargic and ataxic at home with 1 episode of vomiting containing no identifiable tablets. She remained sluggish with periods of irritability and was admitted for observation. UDS on 2 consecutive days came back positive for amphetamines. Case 2 was of a 20-month-old girl who was brought into the hospital after accidental ingestion of an unknown quantity of her father's medications which included aripiprazole. UDS on the first day of admission came back positive only for amphetamines. Confirmatory testing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the blood and urine samples were also performed for both patients on presentation to detect amphetamines and were subsequently negative. Both patients returned to baseline and were discharged from the hospital. To our knowledge, these cases represent the first reports of false-positive amphetamine urine drug tests with aripiprazole. In both cases, aripiprazole was the drug with the highest likelihood of causing the positive amphetamine screen. The implications of these false-positives include the possibility of unnecessary treatment and monitoring of patients.

  15. Palmitic acid interferes with energy metabolism balance by adversely switching the SIRT1-CD36-fatty acid pathway to the PKC zeta-GLUT4-glucose pathway in cardiomyoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, V Vijaya; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic regulation is inextricably linked with cardiac function. Fatty acid metabolism is a significant mechanism for creating energy for the heart. However, cardiomyocytes are able to switch the fatty acids or glucose, depending on different situations, such as ischemia or anoxia. Lipotoxicity in obesity causes impairments in energy metabolism and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. We utilized the treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells palmitic acid (PA) as a model for hyperlipidemia to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in these processes. Our results show PA induces time- and dose-dependent lipotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Moreover, PA enhances cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and reduces glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) pathway protein levels following a short period of treatment, but cells switch from CD36 back to the GLUT4 pathway after during long-term exposure to PA. As sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) play important roles in CD36 and GLUT4 translocation, we used the SIRT1 activator resveratrol and si-PKCζ to identify the switches in metabolism. Although PA reduced CD36 and increased GLUT4 metabolic pathway proteins, when we pretreated cells with resveratrol to activate SIRT1 or transfected si-PKCζ, both were able to significantly increase CD36 metabolic pathway proteins and reduce GLUT4 pathway proteins. High-fat diets affect energy metabolism pathways in both normal and aging rats and involve switching the energy source from the CD36 pathway to GLUT4. In conclusion, PA and high-fat diets cause lipotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and adversely switch the energy source from the CD36 pathway to the GLUT4 pathway.

  16. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  17. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  18. Low-dose aripiprazole resolved complex hallucinations in the left visual field after right occipital infarction (Charles Bonnet syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Che; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    We reported a patient who suffered from complex visual hallucinations with left homonymous hemianopsia. Brain imaging showed an acute haemorrhage infarct at the right occipital lobe. Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) was suspected and aripiprazole was prescribed at 5 mg daily. After 3 weeks, the symptoms of hallucinations and anxiety were relieved. Although some CBS patients might be self-limited without discomfort, low-dose aripiprazole can be considered as a safe medication for significantly anxious patients with CBS.

  19. No difference in frontal cortical activity during an executive functioning task after acute doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol

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    Ingeborg eBolstad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is characterized by partial dopamine D2 receptor agonism. Its pharmacodynamic profile is proposed to be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment, which is prevalent in psychotic disorders. This study compared brain activation characteristics produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist, during a task targeting executive functioning.Methods: Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo before performing an executive functioning task while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was carried out. Results: There was a tendency towards reduced performance in the aripiprazole group compared to the two other groups. The image analysis yielded a strong task-related BOLD-fMRI response within each group. An uncorrected between-group analysis showed that aripiprazole challenge resulted in stronger activation in the frontal and temporal gyri and the putamen compared with haloperidol challenge, but after correcting for multiple testing there was no significant group difference. Conclusion: No significant group differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in frontal cortical activation were obtained when corrected for multiple comparisons.This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: 2009-016222-14; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  20. 阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性%Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占敏; 宓为峰; 王晓志; 卢天兰; 付艺; 王雪芹; 郝晓楠; 李玲芝; 张鸿燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was designed. One hundred and sixty - nine patients with schizophrenia were randomized into aripiprazole group (n = 79, 8 weeks, 10 -30 mg ? D-1) and quetiapine group (n = 90, 8 weeks, 400 - 750 mg ? D -1 ). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and response rate were mainly used to evaluate efficacy. The safety was assessed by using the laboratory examination, vital signs and electrocardiogram ( ECG) at the baseline, week 4, 8. Results Compared with the baseline, total scores of PANSS in both groups decreased significantly at week 4 and week 8 ( P < 0. 01 ). At week 8 of treatment the mean reduction scores of PANSS and the clinical response rates were approximate, there were no significant differences between both groups. The incidence of adverse drug reactions related to the drugs 25. 3% (20/79) in aripiprazole and 17. 7% ( 16/90) in quetiapine treatment was approximate in both groups, with lower liability for heart rate in aripiprazole than in quetiapine treatment. The triglyceride(TG) and QRS interval in aripiprazole group showed more significant differences at week 8 than the baseline ( P < 0. 05 ). But the heart rate, body mass, body mass index ( BMI) , hemoglobin ( HGB ) , total cholesterol ( TC ) and low density lipoprotein ( LDL) in quetiapine group different significantly when compared with those at baseline (P < 0. 01). Conclusion Aripiprazole and quetiapine both have good efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. They have similar incidence of adverse drug reaction related to the drugs.%目的 评价阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效及安全性.方法 169例符合DSM-Ⅳ(第4版)精神分裂症患者,阿立哌唑组79例,剂量10~30mg·d-1;喹硫平组90例,剂量400~ 750 mg·d-1,疗程均8周.治疗前,治疗第4,8周用阳性和阴性症状

  1. A clinical comparative study in first-onset schizophrenia patients treated with Aripiprazole and Quetiapine%阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗首发精神分裂症的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effects of Aripiprazole and Quetiapine in the treatment of first -onset schizophrenia. Methods 63 adult patients who were diagnosed as schizophreniain accordance with the CCMD-3 diagnosis standard were recruited in this study. All the cases were randomized into two groups and were treated with Aripiprazole and Quetiapine for 8 weeks. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and treatment emergent side effect scale (TESS) were used to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects respectively. Results The significant efficacy rates of Aripiprazole was 93.55%, Quetiapine was 90.63%, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Before and after treatment between Aripiprazole group and Quetiapine group, the PANSS score had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The level of LEP and TG was elevated which were treated by Aripiprazole, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The level of LEP, PRL, BG and TG was elevated which were treated by Quetiapine, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of first-onset schizophrenia between Aripiprazole and Quetiapine is quite, but the adverse reactions are different, the former is better than the latter.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效.方法 63例首发精神分裂症患者,符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准,随机分成两组,分别使用阿立哌唑和喹硫平治疗,疗程共8周.采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)和不良反应症状量表(TESS)进行副反应评定.结果 阿立哌唑组总有效率为93.55%,喹硫平组总有效率为90.63%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).阿立哌唑组和喹硫平组两组患者治疗前后PANSS量表评分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组治疗前后相比,瘦素和三酰甘油水平升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),喹硫平组治疗前后瘦素、催乳素、血糖和三酰甘油水平升

  2. Microbial metabolism shifts towards an adverse profile with supplementary iron in the TIM-2 in vitro model of the human colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortman, G.A.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Maathuis, A.J.H.; Engelke, U.F.; Boekhorst, J.; Keegan, K.P.; Nielsen, F.G.G.; Betley, J.; Weir, J.C.; Kingsbury, Z.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Venema, K.; Tjalsma, H.

    2016-01-01

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitr

  3. Association between the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and weight gain in a German sample of antipsychotic-treated schizophrenic patients: perturbation of SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-related metabolic adverse effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hellard, S; Theisen, F M; Haberhausen, M; Raeder, M B; Fernø, J; Gebhardt, S; Hinney, A; Remschmidt, H; Krieg, J C; Mehler-Wex, C; Nöthen, M M; Hebebrand, J; Steen, V M

    2009-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are nowadays the most widely used drugs to treat schizophrenia and other psychosis. Unfortunately, some of them can cause major metabolic adverse effects, such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The underlying lipogenic mechanisms of the antipsychotic drugs are not known, but several studies have focused on a central effect in the hypothalamic control of appetite regulation and energy expenditure. In a functional convergent genomic approach we recently used a cellular model and demonstrated that orexigenic antipsychotics that induce weight gain activate the expression of lipid biosynthesis genes controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors. We therefore hypothesized that the major genes involved in the SREBP activation of fatty acids and cholesterol production (SREBF1, SREBF2, SCAP, INSIG1 and INSIG2) would be strong candidate genes for interindividual variation in drug-induced weight gain. We genotyped a total of 44 HapMap-selected tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of 160 German patients with schizophrenia that had been monitored with respect to changes in body mass index during antipsychotic drug treatment. We found a strong association (P=0.0003-0.00007) between three markers localized within or near the INSIG2 gene (rs17587100, rs10490624 and rs17047764) and antipsychotic-related weight gain. Our finding is supported by the recent involvement of the INSIG2 gene in obesity in the general population and implicates SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-induced metabolic adverse effects.

  4. TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND OTHER EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE: A CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic introduced in 2004 for treatment of Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. It has partial agonist activity at dopamine D2 receptor and D2 antagonist activity under hyperdopaminergic condition. In addition, it is a partial agonist at serotonin 5HT1A receptor and antagonist at 5HT2A receptor. Because its pharmacological profile differs from other atypical antipsychotics, it was initially thought to produce lesser side effects and movement disorders. But over the years, there is a growing body of evidence in the form of case reports and case series of Aripiprazole induced movement disorders like Tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. Of late it has been advocated for irritability associated with autism and as an augmenter for depressive disorder. It has lower potential for weight gain and sedation, as it has relatively low affinity for H1 [Histamine] receptor compared to clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. Based on this unique mechanism, it is claimed to have minimal or non-significant motor side effects like Tardive dyskinesia. We document a case series of 8 patients who developed Tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism and akathisia following treatment with Aripiprazole (ARP. METHODS This is both retrospective and observational study. Patients from outpatient and inpatient department of a tertiary psychiatric teaching hospital with an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, who has experienced movement disorder while on treatment with Aripiprazole are included in this report. All these patients were under the care of authors as treating Psychiatrists. Rating scales like Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS, Naranjo’s Causality Scale, Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and Simpson Angus extrapyramidal Scale (SAS were used. RESULTS Total of eight patients presented with various movement disorders associated with Aripiprazole, out of which three patients with tardive

  5. METABOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the allele frequencies of genetic variants 373 Ala→Pro and 451 Arg→Gln of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and to explore their potential impacts on serum lipid metabolism. Methods: The genotypes in CETP codon 373 and 451 in 91 German healthy students and 409 an-

  6. A retrospective study of predictive factors for effective aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sugawara,1,2 Kaoru Sakamoto,1 Tsuyoto Harada,3 Satoru Shimizu,4 Jun Ishigooka1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, 2Support Center for Women Health Care Professionals and Researchers, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Arakawa-ku, 4Department of Research, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Several studies have evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole for augmentation of antidepressant therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD. Here, we investigated the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and the clinical predictors of treatment efficacy in a Japanese population.  Methods: Eighty-five depressed Japanese patients who underwent aripiprazole augmentation therapy after failing to respond satisfactorily to antidepressant monotherapy were included in the study. Treatment responses were evaluated based on Clinical Global Impression Improvement scores assessed 8 weeks after initiation of aripiprazole administration. We compared demographic and diagnostic variables, psychiatric medication variables, and clinical variables between remission and nonremission groups.  Results: The aripiprazole augmentation remission rate was 36.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that aripiprazole augmentation was significantly more effective for bipolar depression than for major depressive disorder, and both absence of comorbid anxiety disorders and current episode duration >3 months were significantly associated with the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation.  Conclusion: Polarity of depression, comorbidity of anxiety disorders, and current episode duration may predict the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and

  7. Maternal Food Restriction during Pregnancy and Lactation Adversely Affect Hepatic Growth and Lipid Metabolism in Three-Week-Old Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal malnutrition influences the early development of foetal adaptive changes for survival. We explored the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation and lactation on hepatic growth and function. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal or a food-restricted (FR diet during gestation and/or lactation. We performed analyses of covariance (adjusting for the liver weight/body weight ratio to compare hepatic growth and lipid metabolism among the offspring. Maternal FR during gestation triggered the development of wide spaces between hepatic cells and increased the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in three-week-old male offspring compared with controls (both p < 0.05. Offspring nursed by FR dams exhibited wider spaces between hepatic cells and a lower liver weight/body weight ratio than control offspring, and increased mTOR expression (p < 0.05. Interestingly, the significant decrease in expression of lipogenic-related genes was dependent on carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, despite the increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1 (p < 0.05. This study demonstrated increased expression of key metabolic regulators (mTOR and SREBP1, alterations in lipid metabolism, and deficits in hepatic growth in the offspring of FR-treated dams.

  8. 合用与换用阿立哌唑对已绝经女性精神分裂症患者催乳素水平影响的对照研究%Control Study of Combined with Aripiprazole or Switching to Aripiprazole on Prolactin Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪静; 戴兴海; 朱欣彦; 沈涛; 周颖; 田良辉; 咸晶; 徐颺

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of aripiprazole in prolactin ( PRL ) metabolism through comparing the PRL levels of the postmenopausal women with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia .Method:90 women with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia were randomly divided into 2 groups:group A with 45 cases, former drugs plus aripiprazole 5mg once a day for 12 weeks) and group B with 45 cases, Aripiprazole 14.78±4.76mg once a day for 12 weeks).Then examined the PRL levels at 5 time points:prior treatment, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and accomplished the PANSS scales at the time points stated above as well.Result:According to the result of repeated measures ANOVA , the PRL levels of the 2 groups had no significant differences ( F=3.507,P=0.064) and had interaction between the groups and time points ( P=0. 002), suggesting that PRL was influenced by different treatment of aripiprazole and time .The score of PAN-SS scales had no significant differences (F=0.145,P=0.705).Conclusion:Aripiprazole may down-regulate the expression of the PRL levels of women with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia .%目的:探讨已绝经女性精神分裂症合并高催乳素血症患者在合用与换用阿立哌唑时对其催乳素水平影响的对照研究。方法:对90例已绝经女性精神分裂症同时合并高催乳素血症的患者随机分为两组,合用组:45例,为原有药物联合阿立哌唑5mg/d治疗12周,换用组:45例,为原有药物更换为治疗剂量阿立哌唑(14.78±4.76mg/d)12周,治疗前和治疗后2、4、8、12周末分别测定催乳素水平并予以阳性和阴性量表(PANSS)和副反应量表(TESS)评定病情并进行比较。结果:根据重复测量结果,两组间PRL水平尚无统计学差异( F=3.507,P=0.064),但组间检验提示时间、研究组别有交互作用(P=0.002),即PRL的值受到时间和组别的共同影响。 PRL随着时间的推移逐渐下降,且

  9. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, So Young; Park, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myeon Woo; Choi, Ki Hwan; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2016-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are globally prescribed, exhibit mainly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects but also can cause adverse effects including gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration, bleeding, and perforation. The purpose of this study was to investigate surrogate biomarkers associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) damage caused by NSAID treatment using pattern recognition analysis of (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra of rat urine. Urine was collected for 5h after oral administration of the following NSAIDs at low or high doses: acetylsalicylic acid (10 or 200mgkg(-1)), diclofenac (0.5 or 15mgkg(-1)), piroxicam (1 or 10mgkg(-1)), indomethacin (1 or 25mgkg(-1)), or ibuprofen (10, or 150mgkg(-1)) as nonselective COX inhibitors and celecoxib (10 or 100mgkg(-1)) as a COX-2 selective inhibitor. The urine was analyzed using 500MHz (1)H NMR for spectral binning and targeted profiling and the level of gastric damage was examined. The nonselective COX inhibitors caused severe gastric damage while no lesions were observed in the celecoxib-treated rats. The (1)H NMR urine spectra were divided into spectral bins (0.04ppm) for global profiling, and a total of 44 endogenous metabolites were assigned for targeted profiling. Multivariate data analyses were performed to recognize the spectral pattern of endogenous metabolites related to NSAIDs using partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). The (1)H NMR spectra clustered differently according to gastric damage score in global profiling. In targeted profiling, the endogenous metabolites of citrate, allantoin, 2-oxoglutarate, acetate, benzoate, glycine, and trimethylamine N-oxide were selected as putative biomarkers for gastric damage caused by NSAIDs. These putative biomarkers might be useful for predicting the risk of adverse effects caused by NSAIDs in the early stage of drug development process.

  10. Validation of a genomics-based hypothetical adverse outcome pathway: 2,4-dinitrotoluene perturbs PPAR signaling thus impairing energy metabolism and exercise endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Gust, Kurt A; Atwa, Sahar; Sunesara, Imran; Johnson, David; Ang, Choo Yaw; Meyer, Sharon A; Perkins, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is a nitroaromatic used in industrial dyes and explosives manufacturing processes that is found as a contaminant in the environment. Previous studies have implicated antagonism of PPARα signaling as a principal process affected by 2,4-DNT. Here, we test the hypothesis that 2,4-DNT-induced perturbations in PPARα signaling and resultant downstream deficits in energy metabolism, especially from lipids, cause organism-level impacts on exercise endurance. PPAR nuclear activation bioassays demonstrated inhibition of PPARα signaling by 2,4-DNT whereas PPARγ signaling increased. PPARα (-/-) and wild-type (WT) female mice were exposed for 14 days to vehicle or 2,4-DNT (134 mg/kg/day) and performed a forced swim to exhaustion 1 day after the last dose. 2,4-DNT significantly decreased body weights and swim times in WTs, but effects were significantly mitigated in PPARα (-/-) mice. 2,4-DNT decreased transcript expression for genes downstream in the PPARα signaling pathway, principally genes involved in fatty acid transport. Results indicate that PPARγ signaling increased resulting in enhanced cycling of lipid and carbohydrate substrates into glycolytic/gluconeogenic pathways favoring energy production versus storage in 2,4-DNT-exposed WT and PPARα (-/-) mice. PPARα (-/-) mice appear to have compensated for the loss of PPARα by shifting energy metabolism to PPARα-independent pathways resulting in lower sensitivity to 2,4-DNT when compared with WT mice. Our results validate 2,4-DNT-induced perturbation of PPARα signaling as the molecular initiating event for impaired energy metabolism, weight loss, and decreased exercise performance.

  11. Clinical efficacy comparison of escitalopram treatment combined with aripiprazole on obsessive compulsive disorder%艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑治疗强迫症患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effectiveness and safety of escitalopram with or without aripi-prazole in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method;60 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram with or without aripiprazole. Effectiveness and adverse effect were assessed by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) and treatment emergent symptom scale ( TESS) , respectively. Results; Patients both received escitalopram and escitalopram with aripiprazole showed significant improvement by Y-BOCS scores after treatment,while the combination group showed a better outcome. There was no significant difference in TESS evaluation between the two groups. Conclusion; Escitalopram could effectively treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, while escitalopram combined with aripiprazole is more effective.%目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合治疗强迫症的疗效及不良反应.方法:对60例强迫症患者随机分为单用艾司西酞普兰组(单用组)及艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合用药组(合用组)治疗强迫症患者各30例进行开放、随机、对照研究,通过耶鲁布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)评定疗效,治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应. 结果:艾司西酞普兰治疗后显著改善强迫症状,艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑也能显著改善强迫症状,后者改善效果更好;两组不良反应轻微.结论:艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑较单用艾司西酞普兰的抗强迫效果更好.

  12. Successful treatment of catatonic syndrome in bipolar I disorder adding aripiprazole to ECT: A case report

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    Diego Hidalgo, MD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Catatonic syndrome is a condition presenting in multiple ways, sharing many of them with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and other diseases. This diagnostic challenge is the main cause of keep treating catatonic syndromes without neuroleptics. Methods: Review of the literature and a case report. Results: We present the case of a 19 years old bipolar I patient with a severe catatonic syndrome, with a torpid clinical evolution, partial response to benzodiazepines and ECT, which successfully resolved with intramuscular aripiprazole. We found through a systematic review (PubMed 2005-2010 that there are few but significant case reports of catatonic syndromes treated with new second generation antipsychotics for different reasons with good outcomes as ours. The pharmacological profile of aripiprazole and the low incidence of NMS reported make it a suitable option in treating this syndrome. Conclusions: We think that this case report could contribute to add more evidence for aripiprazole to be considered a good third-line option in the treatment of catatonic syndrome. However, this would require randomized controlled trials to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

  13. Effects of amisulpride and aripiprazole on progressive-ratio schedule performance: comparison with clozapine and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boon, F S; Body, S; Hampson, C L; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; de Bruin, N

    2012-09-01

    Clozapine and some other atypical antipsychotics (e.g. quetiapine, olanzapine) have been found to exert a characteristic profile of action on operant behaviour maintained by progressive-ratio schedules, as revealed by Killeen's Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement model of schedule-controlled behaviour. These drugs increase the value of a parameter that expresses the 'incentive value' of the reinforcer (a) and a parameter that is inversely related to the organism's 'motor capacity' (δ). This experiment examined the effects of two further atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole and amisulpride, on progressive-ratio schedule performance in rats; the effects of clozapine and a conventional antipsychotic, haloperidol, were also examined. In agreement with previous findings, clozapine (4, 8 mg kg⁻¹) increased a and δ, whereas haloperidol (0.05, 0.1 mg kg⁻¹) reduced a and increased δ. Aripiprazole (3,30 mg kg⁻¹) increased δ but did not affect a. Amisulpride (5, 50 mg kg⁻¹) had a delayed and protracted effect: δ was increased 3-6 hours after treatment; a was increased 1.5 hours, and reduced 12-24 hours after treatment. Interpretation based on Killeen's model suggests that aripiprazole does not share clozapine's ability to enhance reinforcer value. Amisulpride produced a short-lived enhancement, followed by a long-lasting reduction, of reinforcer value. Both drugs impaired motor performance.

  14. Aripiprazole once-monthly as treatment for psychosis in Turner syndrome: literature review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Cristiano; Pompili, Enrico; Silvestrini, Cristiana; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by partial or complete monosomy-X, usually resulting of a sporadic chromosomal nondisjunction. It is one of the most common sex chromosome abnormalities, affecting approximately 1 in 2,000 live born females. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant TS with schizophrenia worldwide. No defined psychiatric condition has been traditionally related to TS, and it is not mentioned in DSM-IV. Although it is not associated with any psychiatric syndrome, several case reports in the literature describe a similar constellation of symptoms in TS that may represent a biologically-based entity. Aripiprazole once-monthly is a second generation antipsychotic recently developed. Its efficacy and non-inferiority to oral aripiprazole have been demonstrated in preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. Experience with oral aripiprazole and the current availability of the long-acting formulation suggest a potential benefit in a variety of clinical scenarios and therefore consideration as a treatment option in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms in several disease like TS.

  15. Blood Biomarkers Predict the Cognitive Effects of Aripiprazole in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia

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    Hikaru Hori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole has been reported to exert variable effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated biological markers, clinical data, and psychiatric symptoms in order to identify factors that influence cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia undergoing aripiprazole treatment. We evaluated cognitive function in 51 patients with schizophrenia using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, as well as background information, psychiatric symptoms, plasma catecholamine metabolites—homovanillic acid (HVA, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG—, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, number of hospitalizations, and MHPG levels were associated with verbal memory and learning. Total hospitalization period and MHPG levels were associated with working memory. Age at first hospitalization and education were associated with motor speed. The number of hospital admissions, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative subscale scores (PANSS-N, MHPG levels, BDNF levels, and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS scores were associated with verbal fluency. Homovanillic acid and MHPG levels, duration of illness, and PANSS-N scores were associated with attention and processing speed. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and MHPG levels were associated with executive function. These results suggest that treatment of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive dysfunction may be improved in patients treated with aripiprazole by controlling for these contributing factors.

  16. 阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性%Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永桥; 杜波; 宓为峰; 王晓志; 施莹; 李玲芝; 马文斌; 金超; 杨勇峰; 张鸿燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of quetiapine and aripiprazole on patients with schizophrenia.Methods The random-ized, open, multi-center trial recruited 168 patients with schizophrenia , who received a 8-week treatment of aripiprazole (n=79, 10-30 mg· d -1 ) or quetiapine ( n=89 , 400-800 mg · d -1 ).The psychotic syn-dromes were rated with the positive and negative syndrome scale ( PAN-SS)at the baseline, the end of the fourth week and the eighth week.The disease severity was evaluated by the Clinical global impression -severity scale ( CGI-S ) and the Clinical global impression -improvement scale ( CGI-I).The safety was evaluated based on the incidences of adverse events and the comparison of laboratory or electrocardiography examina-tions prior and post the treatment.Results The response rates of aripi-prazole and quetiapine were 71.4%and 72.9%.There was no statistical difference ( P>0.05 ).The incidence rates of adverse events related to aripiprazole and quetiapine were 54.05% and 41.77%.The incidence rate of extrapyramidal symptoms ( EPS ) of the two groups were 36.7%and 4.6%( P<0.001 ).Conclusion Aripiprazole and quetiapine both show similar efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia.The incidence rates of adverse events are similar but with different profiles.%目的:评价阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性。方法用随机、开放、多中心的研究方法。入选精神分裂症患者168例,随机分入阿立哌唑组79例,剂量10~30 mg· d-1;喹硫平组89例,剂量400~800 mg· d-1,疗程均8周。在基线,4,8周末,用阳性症状与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价精神病性症状,以临床总体印象量表-严重程度(CGI-S)、疗效总评(CGI-I)评价疾病严重程度;以不良事件、实验室检查、心电图检查等评价安全性。结果阿立哌唑组与喹硫平组有效率分别为71.4%和72.9%,2组差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。

  17. 阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍对照研究%A control study of aripiprazole vs .olanzapine in the treatment of mental disorders due to alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 高营

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍的临床疗效和安全性。方法将66例酒精所致精神障碍患者随机分为两组,分别口服阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗,观察8周。治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗8周末阿立哌唑组显效率87.5%,总有效率96.9%,奥氮平组分别为88.2%、97.0%,两组显效率、总有效率比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.19、0.00,P>0.05)。两组不良反应较轻微,阿立哌唑组主要表现为头痛、失眠等;奥氮平组主要表现为嗜睡、体质量增加等。结论阿立哌唑与奥氮平均能快速改善酒精所致精神障碍的精神症状,总体疗效相当,安全性高,但不良反应表现形式有所不同,临床上可根据不同患者选用不同的药物治疗。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole vs .olanzapine in the treatment of mental disorders due to alcohol (MDA) .Methods Sixty-six MDA patients were randomly divided into two groups taking orally aripiprazole or olanzapine respectively for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Syndrome Scale (TESS) .Results At the end of the 8th week ,obvious and total ef-fective rate were respectively 87 .5% and 96 .9% in aripiprazole and 88 .2% and 97 .0% in olanzapine group ,which showed no significant differences (χ2 =0 .19 ,0 .00 ;P>0 .05) .Adverse reactions of both groups were mild ,mainly headache ,insomnia etc .in aripiprazole and hypersomnia and weight gain etc .in olanzapine group .Conclusion Both aripiprazole and olanzapine could improve mental symptoms of MDA quickly ,their total efficacy are equivalent ,both have higher safety ,but manifestations of adverse reactions are somew hat different ,so different pharmacotherapies

  18. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice.

  19. Aripiprazole Augmentation in the Treatment of Military-Related PTSD with Major Depression: a retrospective chart review

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    Fikretoglu Deniz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this chart review, we attempted to evaluate the benefits of adding aripiprazole in veterans with military-related PTSD and comorbid depression, who had been minimally or partially responsive to their existing medications. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients who received an open-label, flexible-dose, 12- week course of adjunctive aripiprazole was conducted in 27 military veterans meeting DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and comorbid major depression. Concomitant psychiatric medications continued unchanged, except for other antipsychotics which were discontinued prior to initiating aripiprazole. The primary outcome variable was a change from baseline in the PTSD checklist-military version (PCL-M and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Results PTSD severity (Total PCL scores decreased from 56.11 at baseline to 46.85 at 12-weeks (p Conclusions The addition of aripiprazole contributed to a reduction in both PTSD and depression symptomatology in a population that has traditionally demonstrated poor pharmacological response. Further investigations, including double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, are essential to confirm and further demonstrate the benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of military related PTSD.

  20. 博思清与氯氮平治疗单纯型精神分裂症疗效与安全性评价%Efficacy and safety evaluation of aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕见好; 高丽静

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripi-prazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schizophreni-a.METHODS:100 cases of simple type schizophrenia meeting ICD-10 criteria were analyzed in our hospital from November 2008 to December 2014,and they were divided randomly into two groups.Aripiprazole group was treated with aripiprazol,while clozapine group was treated with clozapine.PANSS reducing rates were used to evaluate the curative effect after 3 months and half a year,and the difference treatment effect and adverse reaction of two groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The total effective rate of two groups was comparative after 3 months (P >0.05);and the total effective rate of aripiprazole group was better than clozapine group after half a year (P <0.05).The incidence of adverse reac-tion of two groups had significant difference,and the incidence of adverse reaction of aripiprazole is lower than clozapine group's (P <0.05).CONCLUSION:The effect is relatively in recent of aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schiz-ophrenia,but aripiprazole has obvious advantages for the long-term efficacy and safety.Its security is greater,and is worthy of promotion.%目的:对博思清与氯氮平治疗单纯型精神分裂症疗效与安全性进行评价.方法:研究对象选取本院2008-11/2014-12收治的100例符合 ICD-10单纯型精神分裂症诊断标准的患者,按随机方法分为两组.博思清组患者采用博思清治疗,氯氮平组患者给予氯氮平治疗.治疗3个月和6个月分别采用 PANSS 量表减分率评价疗效,对比分析两组患者治疗效果和不良反应的差异性.结果:经过3个月治疗后氯氮平组患者总有效率与博思清组相当(P >0.05);而治疗6个月后博思清组治疗总有效率明显优于氯氮平组(P <0.05);两组患者治疗期间不良反应发生率有显著差异,博思清组发生率明显低于氯氮平组(P <0.05)

  1. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性对比分析%Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程道猛; 刘靖雯; 黄鹏; 徐世超; 王春江

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的收益和风险,优化临床治疗效果与安全性,指导临床合理治疗。方法:将60例符合入组标准的精神分裂症按随机数字表分为阿立哌唑组与利培酮组,各30例,分别给予阿立哌唑与利培酮,8周为1个疗程,治疗前、后观察患者症状,进行阳性症状量表和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评分及不良反应量表(T ESS )评分,评价两组患者的临床疗效与安全性。结果:阿立哌唑组和利培酮组的总有效率均为93.33%,P>0.05;阿立哌唑组和利培酮组的阳性症状量表(PANSS)评分、阴性症状量表(PANSS)评分及量表总评分差异均无统计学意义,均 P>0.05;阿立哌唑组和利培酮组头痛、口干、血压降低、失眠差异无统计学意义,均 P>0.05,但阿立哌唑组锥体外系反应、体质量增加、闭经溢乳的发生率明显低于利培酮,差异具有统计学意义,均 P<0.05。结论:阿立哌唑起效速度、安全性、依从性明显优于利培酮,尤其能明显降低现锥体外系反应、体质量增加、闭经溢乳的副反应,是治疗精神分裂症的首选药物。%Objective :To investigate benefits and risks of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizophreni-a ,to optimize clinical efficacy and safety ,guide clinical treatment .Methods :60 schizophrenia patients met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into aripiprazole group and risperidone group ,30 cases of each group ,each group were given aripiprazole and risperidone ,8 weeks for an effect ,observed symptoms ,made a positive and negative symptom scale symptom scale (PANSS) scores and adverse reactions scale (TESS) scores ,to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety .Results:The total effective rate of aripiprazole group and risperidone group was 93 .33% ,P>0 .05 ;the positive symptom scale (PANSS) score ,negative

  2. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J. Angelopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01, triglycerides (TGs (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01. The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant.

  3. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm) in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01), triglycerides (TGs) (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01), and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant. PMID:27023594

  4. Microbial metabolism shifts towards an adverse profile with supplementary iron in the TIM-2 in vitro model of the human colon

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    Guus A.M. Kortman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO’s in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2. The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 µmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 µmol/L ferric citrate, or 50 µmol/L hemin. High resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing, microarray analysis, and metagenomic sequencing. The metabolome was assessed by fatty acid quantification, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Cultured intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to assess fecal water toxicity. Microbiome analysis showed, among others, that supplementary iron induced decreased levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while it caused higher levels of Roseburia and Prevotella. Metagenomic analyses showed an enrichment of microbial motility-chemotaxis systems, while the metabolome markedly changed from a saccharolytic to a proteolytic profile in response to iron. Branched chain fatty acids and ammonia levels increased significantly, in particular with ferrous sulfate. Importantly, the metabolite-containing effluent from iron-rich conditions showed increased cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our explorations indicate that in the absence of host influences, iron induces a more hostile environment characterized by a reduction of microbes that are generally beneficial, and increased levels of bacterial metabolites that can impair the barrier function of a cultured intestinal epithelial monolayer.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Risperidone and Aripiprazole in the treat-ment of outpatients with schizophrenia%利培酮、阿立哌唑治疗门诊精神分裂症患者成本-效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇杰; 李君; 杜鹏; 饶顺曾; 吴彦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare therapeutic cost-effects and safety between Risperidone and Aripiprazole in treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods The schizophrenia patients, who were going on treating with Risperidone or Aripiprazole at discharge, were followed-up 1 year in outpatient. While economic cost-effectiveness and adverse reaction were observed and analyzed. Results Comparing the efficacy between the two groups, it was better in Risperidone group than Aripiprazole group, but there was no statistically significant difference (字2= 0.804, P= 0.84). Drug costs in the Risperidone group was slightly lower than the Aripiprazole group, but there was no statistically significant difference (t = 0.39, P=0.69). The cost-effectiveness of Risperidone was better than Aripiprazole (62.41 v s 64.40). The incidence of high prolactin was up to 26.19% (11/42) in Risperidone group, while in Aripiprazole group had no high prolactin occurring. Conclusion The expenses and efficacy are considerably between Risperidone and Aripiprazole, but the adverse reaction of high prolactin often appears in Risperidone treatment, must be cause caution, for young female patients chosen Risperidone is better.%目的:比较单用利培酮或阿立哌唑治疗门诊精神分裂症患者的经济效果及安全性。方法对出院时使用利培酮治疗方案或阿立哌唑治疗方案的精神分裂症患者门诊随访1年,运用经济学成本-效果分析比较两组优劣,观察治疗不良反应。结果两组在疗效方面比较,利培酮组较阿立哌唑组差,但差异无统计学意义(字2=0.804,P=0.84);利培酮组药物费用略低于阿立哌唑组,但差异无统计学意义(t=0.39,P=0.69);成本-效果方面利培酮组优于阿立哌唑组(62.41比64.40);利培酮组高泌乳素发生率高达26.19%(11/42),而阿立哌唑无高泌乳素发生。结论使用利培酮及阿立哌唑费用及疗效相当,而利培酮引起的高泌乳素副作用发生率较高,

  6. Clinical studies of aripiprazole in child and adolescent tic dis-order%阿立哌唑治疗儿童青少年抽动障碍临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蓉; 周渊东; 黄自勇; 金婷婷

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑治疗儿童青少年抽动障碍患者的临床疗效和安全性。方法对25例应用其他药物治疗效果不佳或耐受性较差的儿童青少年抽动障碍患者换用阿立哌唑治疗,观察10周。于治疗前后采用耶鲁抽动量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果本组患者治疗10周末耶鲁抽动量表总分及运动抽动、发声抽动、功能损害评分均较基线显著下降(P<0.01);不良反应较轻微,主要表现为失眠、激越、头痛等。结论阿立哌唑治疗儿童青少年抽动障碍疗效显著,安全性高,依从性好。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in child and adolescent tic disorder . Methods Twenty-five tic disorder children and adolescents who had poor treatment effectiveness or toler-ance with other drugs were treated with aripiprazole for 10 weeks .Efficacies with assessed with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) before and after treatment and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results At the end of the 10th week total ,motor tic ,vocal tic and functional lesion score of the YGTSS lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P<0 .01);adverse reactions were mild and mainly insomnia ,agitation ,headache and so on .Conclusion Aripiprazole has an evident effect ,higher safety and better compliance in child and adolescent tic disorder .

  7. Clinical Usefulness of Aripiprazole and Lamotrigine in Schizoaffective Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, In Goo; Kim, Jung Jin

    2016-08-31

    Tuberous sclerosis is not as rare as once thought and has high psychiatric comorbidities. However, bipolar or psychotic features associated with tuberous sclerosis have been rarely reported. This report first presents a tuberous sclerosis patient, resembling a schizoaffective disorder of bipolar type. A patient with known tuberous sclerosis displayed mood fluctuation and psychotic features. Her symptoms did not remit along with several psychiatric medications. After hospitalization, the patient responded well with lamotrigine and aripiprazole without exacerbation. As demonstrated in this case, tuberous sclerosis may also encompass bipolar affective or psychotic features. We would like to point out the necessity to consider bipolarity in evaluating and treating tuberous sclerosis.

  8. Study on the Efficacy of Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Type II Schizophrenia Spirit%阿立哌唑治疗Ⅱ型精神分裂症疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林虎; 侯连凤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical ef ects of aripiprazole in type II schizophrenia therapy. Methods Our hospital in January 2013 ~ January 2014 treated 60 patients with type IIschizophrenic patients as research subjects, using a random list of numbers divided into study group and control group, 30 cases in each. In the control group were treated with risperidone treatment, the study group were treated with aripiprazole treatment, 6 weeks of treatment, both groups of patients with clinical ef icacy and adverse reactions. Results The comparison of the clinical ef icacy of the study group and the control group, the dif erence was not statistical y significant ( >0.05);adverse reactions in the study group extrapyramidal reactions and weight gain was significantly lower than the control group, the dif erence was statistical y significant ( 0.05);研究组不良反应中锥体外系反应和体重增加反应明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论通过采用阿立哌唑对Ⅱ型精神分裂症患者进行治疗,可以取得良好的临床疗效,并且锥体外系反应少,患者体重变化少,安全性也比较高,非常值得在临床上进行推广。

  9. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  10. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponson L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ponson,1,2 Frédéric Andersson,1 Wissam El-Hage1,2 1Université François-Rabelais de Tours, Inserm, Imagerie et Cerveau UMR U930, Tours, France, 2CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France Background: The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown.Case presentation: Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA.Conclusion: Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. Keywords: supplementary motor area, antipsychotics, fMRI

  11. Effects of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment on choice between cocaine self-administration and food under a concurrent schedule of reinforcement in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Woldbye, David

    2008-01-01

    the hypothesis that aripiprazole, both as acute and as chronic treatment, would preferentially decrease cocaine self-administration while sparing behavior maintained by a natural reinforcer, resulting in a shift in the allocation of behavior from cocaine-taking towards the alternative reinforcer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine in a concurrent choice procedure, with a palatable food as the competing reinforcer, under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 FR 5 chain schedule. Aripiprazole was then administered as continuous infusion by osmotic minipumps for 5 days, during which...... performance in the choice procedure was assessed daily. RESULTS: An intermediate dose of aripiprazole decreased cocaine self-administration and shifted the cocaine choice curve to the right as an acute treatment. However, as a chronic treatment, aripiprazole failed to decrease cocaine self...

  12. 地西泮联合小剂量阿立哌唑治疗酒依赖患者的疗效观察%The clinical effect observation of diazepam combined with aripiprazole in patients with alcohol dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓奇; 冯芳; 刘艳江; 石秀华; 李克松; 张国辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察地西泮联合小剂量阿立哌唑治疗酒依赖患者的临床效果。方法将144例酒依赖患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各72例。2组均接受常规治疗,治疗组在常规治疗基础上加服阿立哌唑治疗,对比2组治疗前后戒断症状评分。结果2组治疗前戒断症状评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗后2组戒断症状评分均低于治疗前,且观察组低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论地西泮联合小剂量阿立哌唑治疗酒依赖患者疗效较好,且起效时间短,不良反应轻微,值得推广应用。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of diazepam combined with aripiprazole in patients with alcohol dependence .Methods 144 cases patients with alcohol dependence were divided into treatment group and control group ,each of 72 cases.The 2 groups were treated by conventional treatment .Treatment group,on the basis of conventional treatment ,was treated by diazepam combined with aripiprazole .After treatment,compared the withdrawal symptoms score of 2 groups.Results Before treatment,the withdrawal symptoms score of 2 groups was no statistically significant (P>0.05).After treatment,the with-drawal symptoms score of 2 groups were less than that of control group ,and the withdrawal symptoms score of treatment group was less than that of control group ,the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05) .Conclusion Diazepam combined with arip-iprazole in patients with alcohol dependence has an good efficacy ,less adverse reactions ,and worthy of application .

  13. A control study of duloxetine combined with aripiprazol in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression%度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓良华; 莫翠英; 吴廷娟; 杨子民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of duloxetine combined with aripiprazol in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) .Meth-ods Ninety-three TRD patients were randomly divided into two groups ,research group (n=47) was trea-ted with oral duloxetine plus aripiprazol and control group (n=46) with single duloxetine for 8 weeks . Clinical efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results At the end of the 8th week ,obvious effective and effective rate were respectively 59 .1% and 77 .3% in research and 31 .1% and 42 .2% in control group , the former was significantly than the latter (χ2 = 7 .04 ,11 .35 ;P0 .05) .Conclusion Duloxetine plus aripiprazol takes effect more rapidly and has an evident effect and higher safety compared with single duloxetine in the treatment of T RD .%目的:探讨度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将93例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为两组,研究组口服度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗,对照组单用度洛西汀治疗,观察8周。采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗8周末研究组显效率59.1%、有效率77.3%,对照组分别为31.1%、42.2%,研究组显效率、有效率均显著高于对照组(χ2=7.04、11.35,P<0.01)。两组不良反应较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症起效快,疗效显著,安全性高,显著优于单用度洛西汀治疗。

  14. A systematic review of quality of life and weight gain-related issues in patients treated for severe and persistent mental disorders: focus on aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gentile

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore GentileDepartment of Mental Health, ASL Salerno 1, ItalyAbstract: Aripiprazole is a relatively novel second-generation antipsychotic belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole derivatives and is characterized by a unique pharmacological profile which suggests that the drug acts as a dopamine-serotonin system stabilizer. Whereas all previously available antipsychotics are antagonists at D2 receptors, aripiprazole is the only available partial agonist at these receptors. Thus, it has been suggested that aripiprazole could be associated with a relatively neutral impact on bodyweight, possibly reducing risks of a detrimental impact on the quality of life that often complicates management for a large number of patients diagnosed with severe and persistent mental disorders (SPMDs treated chronically with antipsychotic medications. However, data from short- and long-term reviewed studies indicate that the prevalence rate of clinically relevant weight gain during therapy with this drug is similar to that occurring during treatments with other antipsychotic agents, either typical or atypical. Moreover, information on the impact of aripiprazole therapy on the quality of life of patients diagnosed with SPMDs is scarce and characterized by conflicting results. Given these results, further, large, well-designed studies are needed before confirming potential advantages of aripiprazole over first-generation antipsychotics and other SGAs.Keywords: aripiprazole, effectiveness, quality of life, safety, weight gain

  15. Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation. Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. Besides, severe adverse effects exist; perhaps they are very rare, but it might be that other cases were underestimated or ignored. It is important to take into account that COCs, as all medications, have some contraindications, which is mandatory to consider. The „pill“ could be not for everyone. In any case, also mild or moderate adverse effects of COCs may impair the woman’s quality of life. It is well known that even small increases in frequency of adverse effects, in COCs-users, could have a general critical health impact because of their widespread use, which is currently expanding to potential risk groups. To avoid adverse events by COC use the exclusion of patients with known risk factors including patient history and family history is necessary. Furthermore the patient should be informed about possible side effects and side effects during OC use should be carefully monitored. Finally the risk benefit analysis for oral contraceptive pills which are worldwide used since more than 50 years for healthy patients is positive. Most women will benefit from additional noncontraceptive benefits such as improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhoea, stabilization of menstrual bleeding pattern, less ovarian cysts and finally a lower risk for ovarian and breast cancer, which persists even after withdrawl of COC for several years.

  16. Efficacy observation of Aripiprazole and Risperidone in treatment of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲秀颖

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的疗效及安全性。方法:选取76例符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准的患者随机分为阿立哌唑组和利培酮组,每组38例。两组患者分别给予阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗,6周后进行临床疗效评价及不良反应评定。结果:阿立哌唑组患者总有效率为89.47%,利培酮组患者总有效率为86.84%,两组患者总体疗效相当(P>0.05)。两组患者治疗前后PANSS评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。治疗6周,阿立哌唑组患者不良反应发生率低于利培酮组(P0. 05). There was a statistical difference in the PANSS score between the two group before and after the treatment (P0. 05). Six weeks after the treatment, the inci-dence rates of adverse reactions of Aripiprazole group were lower than those of Risperidone group (P<0. 05). Conclusions: In the treatment of schizophrenia, Aripiprazole has a similar efficacy with Risperidone, but is superior in influences on extrapyramidal reac-tions, endocrine and weight than Risperidone.

  17. Dilemma of prescribing aripiprazole under the Taiwan health insurance program: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chien Hsu,1,2 Yu-Ching Chou,3 Hsin-An Chang,1,2,4 Yu-Chen Kao,1,2,5 San-Yuan Huang,1,2 Nian-Sheng Tzeng1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, 3School of Public Health, 4Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Song-Shan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: Refractory major depressive disorder (MDD is a serious problem leading to a heavy economic burden. Antipsychotic augmentation treatment with aripiprazole and quetiapine is approved for MDD patients and can achieve a high remission rate. This study aimed to examine how psychiatrists in Taiwan choose medications and how that choice is influenced by health insurance payments and administrative policy.Design: Descriptive study.Outcome measures: Eight questions about the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason to choose aripiprazole.Intervention: We designed an augmentation strategy questionnaire for psychiatrists whose patients had a poor response to antidepressants, and handed it out during the annual meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Psychiatry in October 2012. It included eight questions addressing the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason whether or not to choose aripiprazole as the augmentation antipsychotic.Results: Choosing antipsychotic augmentation therapy or switching to other antidepressant strategies for MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressants was common with a similar probability (76.1% vs 76.4%. The most frequently used antipsychotics were aripiprazole and quetiapine, however a substantial number of psychiatrists chose olanzapine, risperidone, and sulpiride. The major reason for not choosing aripiprazole was cost (52.1%, followed by insurance official policy audit and deletion in the claims review system (30.1%.Conclusion: The prescribing

  18. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  19. Switching to Aripiprazole as a Strategy for Weight Reduction: A Meta-Analysis in Patients Suffering from Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Barak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain is one of the major drawbacks associated with the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Existing strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity amongst these patients are disappointing. Switching the current antipsychotic to another that may favorably affect weight is not yet fully established in the psychiatric literature. This meta-analysis focused on switching to aripiprazole as it has a pharmacological and clinical profile that may result in an improved weight control. Nine publications from seven countries worldwide were analyzed. These encompassed 784 schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients, 473 (60% men and 311 (40% women, mean age 39.4±7.0 years. The major significant finding was a mean weight reduction by −2.55±1.5 kgs following the switch to aripiprazole (<.001. Switching to an antipsychotic with a lower propensity to induce weight gain needs be explored as a strategy. Our analysis suggests aripiprazole as a candidate for such a treatment strategy.

  20. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾天成

    2014-01-01

    incidence of adverse effect in experimental group was less than that in the control group(P <0.05).Conclusion Both aripiprazole and risperidone can improve the negative symptoms of schizophrenia with the similar efficacy;however,aripi-prazole is adept in treating the symptoms of affection and cognition,compared with the advantage of risperidone in treating the symptoms of af-fection and behavior.Aripiprazole is generally safer than risperidone.

  1. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 4: Case Report Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-05-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and reviewed preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. The third column in this series reviewed the registration trial data for aripiprazole across all of its indications and found a raw incidence of TD ranging from 0.004 (4 out of 987) in long-term studies of the drug as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder to 0.0016 (19 out of 11,897) based on all short-term (ie, weeks to causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD exists.

  2. Effects of dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic aripiprazole on dopamine synthesis in human brain measured by PET with L-[β-11C]DOPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ito

    Full Text Available Dopamine D(2 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic drugs can modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission as functional agonists or functional antagonists. The effects of antipsychotics on presynaptic dopaminergic functions, such as dopamine synthesis capacity, might also be related to their therapeutic efficacy. Positron emission tomography (PET was used to examine the effects of the partial agonist antipsychotic drug aripiprazole on presynaptic dopamine synthesis in relation to dopamine D(2 receptor occupancy and the resulting changes in dopamine synthesis capacity in healthy men. On separate days, PET studies with [(11C]raclopride and L-[β-(11C]DOPA were performed under resting condition and with single doses of aripiprazole given orally. Occupancy of dopamine D(2 receptors corresponded to the doses of aripiprazole, but the changes in dopamine synthesis capacity were not significant, nor was the relation between dopamine D(2 receptor occupancy and these changes. A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline dopamine synthesis capacity and changes in dopamine synthesis capacity by aripiprazole, indicating that this antipsychotic appears to stabilize dopamine synthesis capacity. The therapeutic effects of aripiprazole in schizophrenia might be related to such stabilizing effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission responsivity.

  3. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method for sensitive and rapid determination of aripiprazole in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daxesh P; Sharma, Primal; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-04-15

    An improved and rugged UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for sensitive and rapid determination of aripiprazole in human plasma using aripiprazole-d8 as the internal standard (IS). The analyte and IS were extracted from 100 μL of human plasma by solid-phase extraction using Phenomenex Strata-X (30 mg, 1 cc) cartridges. Chromatography was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) analytical column using methanol: 10mM ammonium formate (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase with isocratic elution. Quantitation was done using multiple reaction monitoring in the positive ionization mode. The linearity of the method was established in the concentration range 0.05-80 ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery was greater than 96% across QC levels, while intra- and inter batch accuracy and precision (% CV) values ranged from 97.4 to 101.9% and from 1.20 to 3.72% respectively. The relative matrix effect in eight different lots of plasma samples, expressed as % CV for the calculated slopes of calibration curves was 1.08%. The stability of aripiprazole was studied under different storage conditions. The validated method was used to support a bioequivalence study of 10mg aripiprazole formulation in 36 healthy Indian subjects.

  4. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for them, such as increased sexual urges or behaviors, excessive shopping, and binge eating. Call your doctor if you have intense urges to shop, eat, have sex, or gamble, or if you are unable to control your behavior. Tell your family members about this risk so ...

  5. Escitalopram combined with aripiprazole in the treatment of 46 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder%艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑治疗强迫症46例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合治疗强迫症临床效果及安全性.方法 强迫症患者97例,随机分为两组,其中对照组51例,采用艾司西酞普兰口服治疗,观察组46例,在上述基础上加用阿立哌唑口服治疗;治疗结束后评价临床疗效及不良反应发生情况.结果 观察组患者治疗总有效率为89.1%明显优于对照组68.6%(x2=12.32,P<0.05);观察组患者治疗后Y-BOCS评分(21.82 ±2.88)分亦明显优于对照组患者的(23.68±2.74)分(t=2.64,P<0.05);而两组患者治疗结束后TESS评分及不良反应发生率均差异无统计学意义(t=0.61;x2 =0.03,均P>0.05).结论 艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑治疗强迫症临床效果显著,且不良反应少,具有临床推广使用价值.%Objective To observe and explore the clinical efficacy and safety of escitalopram combined with aripiprazole in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.Methods 97 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomly divided into two groups,control group of 51 patients were given oral administration of escitalopram treatment,46 patients in the experimental group received escitalopram and oral aripiprazole treatment.At the end of treatment,the clinical efficacy and adverse events were evaluated.Results In control group and experimental group patients overall effective rate was 68.6%,89.1% ;The experimental group the total effective rate was higher than the control group,the difference between two groups was statistically significant( x2 =12.32,P <0.05 ),The control group and experimental group after treatment Y-BOCS scores were (23.68 ± 2.74 ) points,( 21.82 ± 2.88 ) points ; The experimental group after treatment Y-BOCS score was significantly better than the control group,between the two groups the difference was statistically significant ( t =2.64,P < 0.05 ) ; While after treatment the TESS score and incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups were

  6. 研究阿立哌唑与奋乃静联合治疗酒精中毒性精神障碍的临床效果%Clinical Study on the Effect of Aripiprazole and Perphenazine Combined Treatment of Alcoholism Mental Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖开提; 苏理旦

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探讨阿立哌唑与奋乃静联合应用治疗酒精中毒性精神障碍的临床效果。方法选取我院2010年9月~2013年5月间就诊的酒精中毒性精神障碍患者60例,随机分为观察组和对照组。对照组单用奋乃静片进行治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上联用阿立哌唑片进行治疗。结果观察组总有效率为93.3%,对照组总有效率为73.3%,两组相比,差异显著;治疗一段时间后,观察组患者不良反应的发生率为20.0%,对照组患者不良反应的发生率为46.7%,两组相比差异显著。结论采用阿立哌唑与奋乃静联合使用对酒精中毒性精神障碍进行治疗,不良反应少,临床疗效较好。%Objective To explore clinical curative effect of aripiprazole and perphenazine combination in the treatment of alcoholism mental disorder. Methods 60 cases of patients with mental disorders were selected in our hospital in 2010 September~2013 May between the treatment of alcoholism, were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control treatment group with single Perphenazine Tablets, on the basis of the observation group in the control group were treated with AripiprazoleTablets. Results the total effective rate of observation group was 93.3%, the control group the total effective rate was 73.3%, compared to the two groups, significant difference;after a period of treatment, patients in the observation group the incidence rate of adverse reactions of 20%patients in the control group, the incidence rate of adverse reactions was 46.7%, difference between the two groups was significant. Conclusion the use of aripiprazole and perphenazine combined use of treatment for alcoholic psychosis, less adverse reaction, good clinical curative effect.

  7. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性比较%Comparison of Efifcacy and Safety of Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过临床试验对阿立哌唑和利培酮对于痴呆精神行为的疗效和安全性进行观察和探讨。方法将本科室近来收治的有痴呆精神行为症状的患者72人进行随机分组,每组36人,并分别用阿立哌唑(A组)和利培酮来(B组)对患者进行为期8 w的治疗,在治疗之前以及治疗的第2、4以及第8周的最后一天对72名患者采用BEHAV-AD对患者的病理行为进行评定,以此来对两种药物的有效性进行对比;同时采用TESS(不良反应检测表)来对药物的安全性进行分析和比较。结果通过阿立哌唑和利培酮进行治疗的两组患者在治疗后BEHAV-AD评分较治疗之前有了明显的降低,A、B两组患者的治疗之前与治疗之后的BEHAV-AD评分相比较具有较为明显的统计学差异(P<0.05)。另外服用阿立哌唑的A组患者的不良反应发生率明显比服用利培酮的B组患者的不良反应发生率低,通过对差异进行分析发现,此差异同样具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论阿立哌唑和利培酮对于痴呆精神行为都具有较为明显的疗效,但是利培酮的安全性相比阿立哌唑较差。%Objective Observe and investigate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone for spirit behavior of dementia. Methods 72 patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were randomly assigned into two groups, 36 people in each group , they were treated with aripiprazole (A group) and risperidone to (group B) respectively for a period of 8 w, assessed the behavior of the patients by BEHAV-AD at the points of prior to treatment, treatment of 2, 4 and 8 weeks , and the last day, compared the effectiveness of the two drugs, at the same time using the TESS (adverse reaction detection table) to assess the safety of the drugs. Results After the treatment of aripiprazole and risperidone, BEHAV-AD score signiifcantly reduced in two groups, there were

  8. Reduction of Severity of Recurrent Psychotic Episode by Sustained Treatment with Aripiprazole in a Schizophrenic Patient with Dopamine Supersensitivity: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Shigenori; Nonomura, Naho; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is a type of acute exacerbation of recurrent psychosis caused by long-term treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. Although DSP is exceedingly troublesome for clinicians, effective treatment has not yet been established. Based on clinical research and our animal study, we hypothesize that aripiprazole, an atypical anti-psychotic, may reduce the exacerbation of recurrent psychotic episodes. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from schizophrenia with DSP. In this case, sustained treatment with a high dose of aripiprazole gradually reduced the severity of her recurrent psychotic episodes. In conclusion, sustained treatment with aripiprazole may reduce the exacerbation of recurrent psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients with DSP, and may be an effective treatment of DSP. PMID:28138118

  9. The antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine increase plasma glucose and corticosterone levels in rats: comparison with aripiprazole, ziprasidone, bifeprunox and F15063.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Carilla-Durand, Elisabeth; Bardin, Laurent; Maraval, Mireille; Aliaga, Monique; Malfètes, Nathalie; Barbara, Michèle; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2008-09-11

    Several novel antipsychotics activate serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as well as antagonising dopamine D2/3 receptors. Such a pharmacological profile is associated with a lowered liability to produce extrapyramidal side effects and enhanced efficacy in treating negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, 5-HT1A receptor agonists increase plasma corticosterone and many antipsychotics disturb the regulation of glucose. Here, we compared the influence on plasma glucose and corticosterone of acute treatments with 'new generation' antipsychotics which target dopamine D2/3 receptors and 5-HT1A receptors, with that of atypical antipsychotics, and with haloperidol. Olanzapine and clozapine, antipsychotics that are known to produce weight gain and diabetes in humans, both at 10 mg/kg p.o., substantially increased plasma glucose (from 0.8 to 1.7 g/l) at 1 h after administration, an effect that returned to control levels after 4 h. In comparison, F15063 (40 mg/kg p.o.) was without effect at any time point. Olanzapine and clozapine dose-dependently increased plasma glucose concentrations as did SLV313 and SSR181507. Haloperidol and risperidone had modest effects whereas aripiprazole, ziprasidone and bifeprunox, antipsychotics that are not associated with metabolic dysfunction in humans, and F15063 had little or no influence on plasma glucose. The same general pattern of response was found for plasma corticosterone levels. The present data provide the first comparative study of conventional, atypical and 'new generation' antipsychotics on glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. A variety of mechanisms likely underlie the hyperglycemia and corticosterone release observed with clozapine and olanzapine, whilst the balance of dopamine D2/3/5-HT1A interaction may contribute to the less favourable impact of SLV313 and SSR181507 compared with that of bifeprunox and F15063.

  10. Aripiprazole loaded poly(caprolactone) nanoparticles: Optimization and in vivo pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Krutika; Pandey, Abhijeet; Patel, Sneha

    2016-09-01

    In the present investigation, a Quality by Design strategy was applied for formulation and optimization of aripiprazole (APZ) loaded PCL nanoparticles (APNPs) using nanoprecipitation method keeping entrapment efficiency (%EE) and particle size (PS) as critical quality attributes. Establishment of design space was done followed by analysis of its robustness and sensitivity. Characterization of optimized APNPs was done using DSC, FT-IR, PXRD and TEM studies and was evaluated for drug release, hemocompatibility and nasal toxicity. PS, zeta potential and %EE of optimized APNPs were found to be 199.2±5.65nm, -21.4±4.6mV and 69.2±2.34% respectively. In vitro release study showed 90±2.69% drug release after 8h. Nasal toxicity study indicated safety of developed formulation for intranasal administration. APNPs administered via intranasal route facilitated the brain distribution of APZ incorporated with the AUC0→8 in rat brain approximately 2 times higher than that of APNPs administered via intravenous route. Increase in Cmax was observed which might help in dose reduction along with reduction in dose related side effects. The results of the study indicate that intranasally administered APZ loaded PCL NPs can potentially transport APZ via nose to brain and can serve as a non-invasive alternative for the delivery of APZ to brain.

  11. Adverse outcomes after colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damery Sarah L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colposcopy is an essential part of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP. It is used for both diagnosis and treatment of pre-cancerous cells of the cervix. Despite colposcopy being a commonly performed and relatively invasive procedure, very little research has explored the potential long-term impacts of colposcopic examination upon patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify any potential reduction in women's quality of life following a colposcopy procedure. More specifically, the degree of female sexual dysfunction and the excess risk of adverse events in those undergoing colposcopy will be explored. If such risks are identified, these can be communicated to women before undergoing colposcopy. It will also assist in identifying whether there are particular sub-groups at greater risk and if so, this may lead to a re-evaluation of current recommendations concerning colposcopically directed treatments. Methods/design Cohort study using postal surveys to assess sexual function and quality of life in women who have attended for colposcopy (cases, compared with those who have not attended colposcopy (controls. The prevalence and excess risk of female sexual dysfunction will be determined. Logistic regression will identify the predictors of adverse outcomes. Discussion There are more than 400,000 colposcopy appointments each year in England, of which 134,000 are new referrals. There is some evidence that there may be long-term implications for women treated under colposcopy with respect to adverse obstetric outcomes, persisting anxiety, increased rates of sexual dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Reliably establishing whether such adverse outcomes exist and the excess risk of adverse events will facilitate informed decision-making and patient choice.

  12. Aripiprazole combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症的临床疗效及安全性。方法:将68例难治性精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,组34例,研究组口服阿立哌唑联合氯氮平治疗,对照组单用氯氮平治疗,观察8周,于治疗前及治疗第2周,第4周,第8周末采用阳性与阴性症状量表及副反应量表评定临床疗效和不良反应。结果:两组治疗2周末起阳性与阴性症状量表评分均较治疗前有显著下(P<0.05),研究同期两组间比较均无显著性差异(P>0.05),治疗8周末研究组有效率为63.48%,对照组为51.73%,两组无显著性差异(P>0.05),研究组不良反应发生率为31.23%,对照组为57.27%,研究组显著低于对照组(P<0.05),研究组主要表现为静坐不能、震颤、体重增加。对照组主要为流涎、心电图异常、肝功能异常、白细胞减少、嗜睡、头昏、体重增加等。结论:阿立哌唑联合氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症疗效显著,安全性高,依从性好。%ObjectiveThe clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia.Methods68 patients with refractory schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups, each group have 34 cases,the study group use aripiprazole combined with clozapine to treatment, the control group used clozapine treatment, observe 8 weeks, before treatment and second weeks, fourth weeks and eighth weeks using the positive and negative symptoms scale and side effects scale to evaluated the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions.Results The positive and negative symptom scale scores of the two groups after 2 weeks treatment were significantly lower (P 0.05), after 8 weeks the studygroup effective rate was 63.48%, the control group is 51.73%, the two groups was not statistically significant difference (P> 0.05), the incidence of adverse reactions was 31.23% in

  13. A control study of aripiprazole vs .risperidone in type II schiz-ophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗Ⅱ型精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐烨; 何益群

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗Ⅱ型精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和安全性。方法将120例Ⅱ型精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,观察组口服阿立哌唑治疗,对照组口服利培酮治疗,观察12周。于治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,采用韦氏成人智力量表、韦氏记忆量表及韦斯康星卡片分类测验评定认知功能,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表总分及各因子分均较治疗前有显著下降,言语量表、操作量表、全量表和记忆量表评分均较治疗前显著升高( P<0.01);治疗12周末,观察组有效率为85.0%,对照组为88.3%,两组比较差异无显著性( P>0.05)。两组不良反应均轻微,但观察组锥体外系反应、泌乳/闭经、体质量增加、血糖升高发生率显著低于对照组( P<0.05或0.01)。结论阿立哌唑治疗Ⅱ型精神分裂症疗效显著,总体疗效与利培酮相当,但阿立哌唑治疗安全性更高,依从性更好。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole vs .risperidone in type II schizo-phrenia .Methods A total of 120 patients with type Ⅱ schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups ,observation group took orally aripiprazole and control group did risperidone for 12 weeks .Before and after treatment efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ,cog-nitive fundions with the WAIS-R ,WMS and WCST and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the total and each factor scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pre-treatment ,verbal ,performance ,full and memory scale score height-ened (P 0 .05) .Adverse reactions of both groups were mild ,but the incidence of extrapyramidal reaction ,lactation/amenorrhea ,weight gain ,blood glu-cose elevation were

  14. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  15. 帕罗西汀联合不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症临床疗效观察%Observation on effect and safety of paroxetine combined with different doses of aripiprazole in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真; 李雪铮

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and safety of paroxetine combined with different doses of aripiprazole in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods One hundred and ten patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder admitted in our hospital from May 2013 to May 2015 were randomly divided into 5 groups with 22 cases in each group and respectively given single paroxetine(40 mg/d) and paroxetine(40 mg/d) combined 2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0 mg/d of aripiprazole. The effects and adverse effect oc-currence situation were assessed after 8 weeks. Results After treatment,the total score of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) in 5 groups were significantly decreased,the score-reducing rate of Y-BOCS in the 2.5,5.0 mg/d groups was sig nificantly higher than that in the single drug group,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05) and the occurrence rate of adverse reactions in the 7.5 ,10.0mg/d groups was significantly higher than that in the single drug group ,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05),7.5、10.0 mg/d组不良反应发生率明显高于单药组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论帕罗西汀联合阿立哌唑用药剂量为2.5、5.0 mg/d时治疗强迫症的临床疗效优于单用帕罗西汀的临床疗效,而安全性无明显差异。

  16. Is aripiprazole the only choice of treatment of the patients who developed anti-psychotic agents-induced leucopenia and neutropenia? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Demet Ozen; Goka, Erol; Aydemir, M Cigdem; Kisa, Cebrail

    2008-05-01

    Leucopenia and neutropenia could be side effects of anti-psychotic drugs, especially clozapine. However, there is evidence that other anti-psychotics can cause leucopenia and neutropenia. We present the clinical follow-up and treatment process of a patient, who had initially developed quetiapine and amisulpride related neutropenia, but not with aripiprazole.

  17. Aripiprazole loaded poly(caprolactone) nanoparticles: Optimization and in vivo pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Krutika; Pandey, Abhijeet; Patel, Sneha

    2016-09-01

    In the present investigation, a Quality by Design strategy was applied for formulation and optimization of aripiprazole (APZ) loaded PCL nanoparticles (APNPs) using nanoprecipitation method keeping entrapment efficiency (%EE) and particle size (PS) as critical quality attributes. Establishment of design space was done followed by analysis of its robustness and sensitivity. Characterization of optimized APNPs was done using DSC, FT-IR, PXRD and TEM studies and was evaluated for drug release, hemocompatibility and nasal toxicity. PS, zeta potential and %EE of optimized APNPs were found to be 199.2 ± 5.65 nm, − 21.4 ± 4.6 mV and 69.2 ± 2.34% respectively. In vitro release study showed 90 ± 2.69% drug release after 8 h. Nasal toxicity study indicated safety of developed formulation for intranasal administration. APNPs administered via intranasal route facilitated the brain distribution of APZ incorporated with the AUC{sub 0→8} in rat brain approximately 2 times higher than that of APNPs administered via intravenous route. Increase in C{sub max} was observed which might help in dose reduction along with reduction in dose related side effects. The results of the study indicate that intranasally administered APZ loaded PCL NPs can potentially transport APZ via nose to brain and can serve as a non-invasive alternative for the delivery of APZ to brain. - Highlights: • It explores intra-nasal route for treatment of schizophrenia. • Quality by Design strategy has been used for optimization and assessesment of design space robustness. • PCL nanoparticles enhance penetration of drug into brain leading to increased C{sub max} and decrease in T{sub max}. • It can act as potential platform for treatment of schizophrenia with decreased dose related toxicities.

  18. A control study of influence of amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole on electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia%氨磺必利与氯氮平、阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者心肌酶和心电图影响的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常学润; 张敬悬; 何云鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole on electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia.Methods 180 schizophrenic patients were randomly divided into amisulpride group (n =60),clozapine group (n =60)and aripiprazole group (n =60)treated with amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole respectively.The electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram including AST,CK,CK-MB, LDH,α-HBDH were measured at baseline and at the end of the 2nd ,4th ,8th and 12th week of the treatment.Results (1)At the end of the 8th week,serum level of AST in aripiprazole group,as well as serum levels of CK-MB and LDH in amisulpride group were significantly higher than those at baseline (P <0.05 ).Serum levels of CK and α-HBDH in 3 groups were significantly higher at the 4th,8th and 12th week of the treatment than those at baseline (P <0.05).(2)There was significant difference in incidence of abnormal T wave among 3 groups at the 12th week (P <0.05).The incidence of abnormal T wave in clozapine group was significantly higher than that in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group (P <0.05).(3)The incidence rate of abnormal electrocardiogram showed significant difference among 3 groups at the 12th week (P <0.01 ),and was significantly higher in clozapine group than that in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group (P <0.05).Inner-group comparison showed that incidence rates of abnormal electrocardiogram in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group were significantly lower at the end of the 12th week than that at the end of the 2nd week respectively (P <0.05).Conclusion Amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole can cause a certain adverse effects on electrocardiogram and myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia. The influence on electrocardiogram is relatively more obvious in clozapine treated patients and is likely to be more serious with the progress of treatment.%目的:比较氨磺必利与氯

  19. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  20. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Anwikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization′s Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetany-related symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1, muscle spasm (1, muscle cramps (1, lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4, and hypertonia (1, with hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium metabolism. Resorption of bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

  1. The effect of antipsychotic medication on sexual function and serum prolactin levels in community-treated schizophrenic patients: results from the Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole (STAR study (NCT00237913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pans Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia in a community based study on sexual function and prolactin levels comparing the use of aripiprazole and standard of care (SOC, which was a limited choice of three widely used and available antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone (The Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole [STAR] study [NCT00237913]. Method This open-label, 26-week, multi-centre, randomised study compared aripiprazole to SOC (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone in patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria. The primary effectiveness variable was the mean total score of the Investigator Assessment Questionnaire (IAQ at Week 26. The outcome research variables included the Arizona Sexual Experience scale (ASEX. This along with the data collected on serum prolactin levels at week 4, 8, 12, 18 and 26 will be the focus of this paper. Results A total of 555 patients were randomised to receive aripiprazole (n = 284 or SOC (n = 271. Both treatment groups experienced improvements in sexual function from baseline ASEX assessments. However at 8 weeks the aripiprazole treatment group reported significantly greater improvement compared with the SOC group (p = 0.007; OC. Although baseline mean serum prolactin levels were similar in the two treatment groups (43.4 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group and 42.3 mg/dL in the SOC group, p = NS at Week 26 OC, mean decreases in serum prolactin were 34.2 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group, compared with 13.3 mg/dL in the SOC group (p Conclusion The study findings suggest that aripiprazole has the potential to reduce sexual dysfunction, which in turn might improve patient compliance.

  2. 阿立哌唑合并康复训练改善精神分裂症患者生活质量的临床研究%Clinical Study of Aripiprazole Combined with Rehabilitation Training to Improve the Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程闯; 张新风

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of aripiprazole combined with rehabilitation training in patients with schizophrenia quality of life of the spirit.Method:Met the Chinese classification and diagnostic criteria of mental disorders Third Edition(CCMD-3)criteria for the diagnosis of 90 patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups,aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of,a total of 8 weeks,two groups were psychiatric rehabilitation training. The positive and negative symptoms scale before and after treatment(PANSS)was introduced in June to assess the efficacy,the side effects scale(TESS)assessment of adverse reactions,the WHO quality of life scale(WHOQOL-100)assessment of quality of life.Result:Aripiprazole group and clozapine group markedly effective rate were 73.3%and 75.6%,with no significant difference between two groups(P>0.05);4,8 weeks after treatment,two groups of PANSS scale scores were decreased than that before treatment(P0.05);治疗后4、8周,两组PANSS量表各项因子分均较治疗前下降(P<0.05),但治疗后8周阿立哌唑组阴性症状及一般精神病理分较氯氮平组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);阿立哌唑组不良反应发生率显著低于氯氮平组(P<0.05);治疗6个月后两组在(WHOQOL-100)量表各领域均较治疗前有统计学意义(P<0.05),但阿立哌唑组在生理领域、心理领域、社会关系领域、精神支柱、生活质量方面较氯氮平组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症疗效与氯氮平相仿,不良反应少,合并精神康复治疗可显著改善精神分裂症患者的生活质量。

  3. Efeitos adversos metabólicos de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor Metabolic side effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Ribeiro Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    use of lithium and valproic acid once again directed the attention to their metabolic effects. This study aims to review the medical literature with regard to metabolic side effects associated with the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. METHOD: Research was carried out at MEDLINE and LILACS through October 2005. CONCLUSION: Metabolic side effects remain a major concern for psychopharmacology. Clinically relevant weight gain occurs frequently in patients taking antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, particularly clozapine, olanzapine, lithium, and valproic acid. Clozapine and olanzapine are also associated with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, either due to weight gain or because of a direct deleterious action on glucose metabolism. Incidence of obesity and other metabolic disorders is lower with risperidone when compared to olanzapine or clozapine. Carbamazepine is associated with lower weight gain when compared to lithium or valproic acid. Drugs such as haloperidol, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and lamotrigine are not associated with significant weight gain or with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus. They are alternatives for patients more likely to develop these adverse effects.

  4. 八种抗精神病药物治疗女性精神分裂症患者的疗效及不良反应分析%Effectiveness and adverse reactions of eight kinds of antipsychotics in the treatment of female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘薇; 熊吉东; 唐月; 卢艳华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe antipsychotic efficacy and adverse reactions of eight kinds of drugs to female patients with schizophrenia .Methods Participants included 685 female pa-tients with schizophrenia , accepted olanzapine (10~30 mg/day), quetiapine (500~750 mg/day), risperidone (2~5.5 mg/day), aripiprazole azole (15~30 mg/day), haloperidol (10 to 30 mg/day), clozapine (150~450 mg/day), sulpiride (0.6~1.2/day), and ziprasidone (80~160 mg/day) respectively, and curative effect and adverse reactions were observed .Re-sults The effects of eight antipsychotic drugs in female schizophrenic patients had no signifi-cant difference .The effect on metabolism from large to small were as clozapine , olanzapine , quetiapine , haloperidol , risperidone , ziprasidone , sulpiride , aripiprazole;And risperidone and sulpiride had the most obvious effect on endocrine , while the highest rate of drug-induced anxi-ety appeared in which with risperidone , and dysuria was the most common in which with aripi-prazole.Conclusion Individualized medication should be adopted according to the age , indi-vidual differences of effectiveness and adverse reactions in female patients with schizophrenia .%目的:观察八种抗精神病药对女性精神分裂症患者的疗效及不良反应。方法共纳入685例女性精神分裂症患者,分别接受奥氮平(10~30 mg/天)、喹硫平(500~750 mg/天)、利培酮(2~5.5 mg/天)、阿立哌唑(15~30 mg/天)、氟哌啶醇(10~30 mg/天)、氯氮平(150~450 mg/天)、舒必利(0.6~1.2/天)、齐拉西酮(80~160 mg/天)治疗,观察疗效和不良反应。结果八种抗精神病药对女性精神分裂症患者的疗效无显著性差异,对女性患者代谢的影响从大到小依次为氯氮平、奥氮平、喹硫平、氟哌啶醇、利培酮、齐拉西酮、舒必利、阿立哌唑;对女性患者内分泌影响最明显的是利培酮和舒必利;药源性焦虑以利培酮出现的

  5. 糖耐量异常对冠心病支架植入术后主要心脏事件的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose metabolism on major adverse cardiac event in patients after coronary artery gent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪军; 何胜虎

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨糖耐量异常对冠心病支架植入术后冠心病患者主要心脏事件的影响.方法 215例冠状动脉造影资料齐全的支架术后的患者,分为合并2型糖尿病(2-DM)组(A组)、糖耐量异常组(B组)、糖代谢正常组(NDM)(C组),比较三组在住院期间和随访期间发生典型心绞痛、非致死性心肌梗死、心源性死亡和靶血管重建等主要心脏事件(MACE)的发生率.结果 A组与B组主要心脏事件发生率显著高于C组(P<0.01);A组与B组间差异无统计学意义;A组再狭窄发生率高于B组(P<0.01).结论 冠心病合并糖耐量异常患者与冠心病合并糖尿病患者一样,有较高的心脏事件发生率,故对合并糖耐量异常的冠心病患者应及早干预,积极控制血糖.%Objective To investigate impact of abnormal slucose metabolism on major adverse cardiac event in patients after coronary artery stent implantation.Methods Two hundred and fifteen patients whose data were available were enrolled in this study,and the patients were divided into 3 groups,diabetes group(group A),abnormal glucose metabolism group(group B),normal glucose tolerance group(group C).The clinica,coronary artery lesion characteristics and major adverse cardiac event(MACE)rate during in hospital and follow up periods were compared.Resuits There was a higher occurrence of MACE in group A and group B than that in group C(P<0.01).There was no significant difference between group A and group B.Conclusion The patients of coronary heart disease with abnormal slucose metabolism have higher MACE rate than abnormal slueese metabolism.

  6. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  7. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性比较%Comparison of efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗克勇; 刘克祥; 王瑞超; 付华斌

    2013-01-01

    by patients in risperidone group with a starting dose of 0.5 mg/d and less than the maximum dose 3 mg/d.Two groups were treated for 8 weeks.BEHAVE-AD and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were used to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effect respectively before and at the ends of 8 weeks treatment.The levels of blood glucose,total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and weight were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks.Results After 8 weeks treatment,the scores of BEHAVE-AD in both groups significantly reduced [aripiprazole group:(14.8 ± 4.2),(10.2 ± 3.6),(6.8 ± 2.6) scores vs (16.4 ± 4.6) scores ; risperidone group:(15.2 ±3.9),(11.8 ±3.8),(7.2 ±3.0)scores vs (17.2 ±5.0)scores,P<0.05 or P<0.01],but there were no significantly differences between the two groups (P > 0.05) ; there were few side effects in both groups [both 8.8% (3/34)],but the weight gaining,TC and LDL-C in risperidone group were higher than those before treatment [(71-±6)kg vs (66 ±6)kg,(1.62 ± 0.46) mmol/L vs (0.96 ± 0.29) mmol/L,(3.82±0.86)mmol/L vs (3.08 ± 0.74)mmol/L,all P < 0.05].Conclusion The results suggest that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for the treatment of BPSD,but aripiprazole has less effect on blood glucose,lipids and weight than risperidone.

  8. 阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆精神行为症状的效果观察%Effect observation on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and olanzapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the clinical efficacy on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. Methods 84 patients with senile dementia associated with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms were selected in the hospital from March 2009 to December 2011, who were divided into two groups randomly. 42 patients who used Olanzapine treatment were as the control group. 42 patients who used Aripiprazole in the treatment were as the observation group. The course of treatment was 8 weeks. After treatment of 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, AD behavioral pathology In scale (BEHAVE-AD), treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) of patients were performed. Before the treatment and after treatment of 8 weeks, minimum mental state examination was performed. Results After treatment, AD behavioral pathology in scale total score and each factor scores in the control group and observation group decreased significantly. The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions (19.0%) in the observation group was significantly lower than that In the control group (45.2%), the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Minimum mental state examination scores in the control group and observation group evaluated. Total efficiency of AD behavioral pathology In scale score and minimum mental state examination score In the observation group was slightly higher than those In the control group, while there were no significant differences between them (P > 0.05}. Conclusion Aripiprazole and Olanzapine in the treatment of senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms have equivalent clinical efficacy. But Aripiprazole has better security, which is more suitable for clinical use.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆的精神行为症状的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2009年3月~2011年12月收治的老年期痴呆伴精神行为症状患者84例,随机分为两

  9. 舒肝解郁胶囊联合阿立哌唑治疗老年精神分裂症阴性症状的临床研究%Clinical research of Shugan Jieyu capsule and aripiprazole in the treatment of senile schizophrenia negative symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨舒肝解郁胶囊联合阿立哌唑治疗老年精神分裂症阴性症状的临床效果。方法选取本院2011年1月~2013年1月老年精神分裂症阴性症状患者84例,随机分为两组,42例患者采用阿立哌唑治疗为对照组,42例患者采用舒肝解郁胶囊联合阿立哌唑治疗为观察组,治疗前后行阳性与阴性症状量表评定,比较两组患者治疗效果和不良反应情况。结果治疗后,两组患者阳性症状评分、阴性症状评分、一般精神病理症状评分、总分均显著降低。观察组阳性症状评分、阴性症状评分、一般精神病理症状评分、总分均明显低于对照组,观察组治疗总有效率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组不良反应发生率高于对照组,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论舒肝解郁胶囊联合阿立哌唑可明显改善老年精神分裂症阴性症状,提高治愈率,且安全性较高。%Objective To investigate clinical effect of Shugan Jieyu capsule and aripiprazole in the treatment of senile schizophrenia negative symptoms. Methods 84 elderly patients with schizophrenia negative symptoms were selected in hospital from January 2010 to January 2013, who were randomly divided into two groups.42 patients treated with aripiprazole as control group.42 patients treated with Shugan Jieyu capsule and aripiprazole as observation group. Therapeutic effect and adverse reaction were compared by positive and negative symptom scale before and after treatment between the two groups. Results Positive symptoms score, negative symptoms score, general psychopathology symptoms score, total score in two groups decreased significantly after treatment. Positive symptoms score, negative symptoms score, general psychopathology symptoms score, total score in observation group were significantly lower than control group. Total effective rate in observation group was significantly

  10. Clinical observation of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in the improvement of women's weight,prolactin increase caused by risperidone,sulpiride,olanzapine%阿立哌唑口腔崩解片改善利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平致女性体重、泌乳素增加的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓子禄; 王群英; 熊英; 胡俊英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑口腔崩解片改善利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平等精神类药物所致体重、泌乳素增加的临床效果。方法:收治因服用利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平等精神类药物后引起体重增加及高催乳素血症患者60例,所有患者均维持原抗精神类药物的治疗方案,根据随机数字表将患者分为阿立哌唑口腔崩解片组(观察组)30例和安慰剂组(对照组)30例,两组患者干预12周后测量患者体质指数(BMI)变化及催乳素(PRI)的水平,同时采用不良反应量表(TESS)评定阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗的不良反应。结果:与对照组相比,观察组治疗后 BMI 及PRL 显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。观察组总有效率93.33%,对照组总有效率76.67%,两组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05)。TESS 评分观察组(5.12±1.12)分,对照组(4.98±1.08)分,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑口腔崩解片能有效改善利培酮、舒必利、奥氮平等抗精神病药所致体重、泌乳素增加症状,且安全、可靠,值得临床应用和推广。%Objective:To explore the clinical effect of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in the improvement of women's weight,prolactin increase caused by sulpiride,risperidone,olanzapine.Methods:60 cases of weight gain and hyperprolactinemic patients caused by sulpiride,risperidone,olanzapine were selected.All patients maintained antipsychotic drug treatment scheme of the original.According to the random number table,they were divided into the aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group(observation group) with 30 cases and the placebo group(control group) with 30 cases.After 12 weeks of treatment,we measured body mass index patients(BMI) changes and prolactin(PRI) level.At the same time,we evaluated the adverse reactions of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets treatment using side effects scale

  11. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  12. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study of amisulpride vs aripiprazole in the first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride and aripi‐prazole in the treatment of first‐episode schizophrenia .Methods Using randomized ,double‐blind ,double‐dummy parallel controlled method 124 first‐episode schizophrenics were assigned to two groups taking o‐rally amisulpride and aripiprazole respectively for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the PANSS and CGI scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) .Ad‐verse reactions were mild ,there were no group significant difference in incidence of adverse reaction (P>0 .05) .Conclusion Both amisulpride and aripiprazole have an equivalent evident effect in first‐episode schizophrenia ,take effect rapidly ,and have higher safety and better compliance .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及安全性。方法将124例首发精神分裂症患者按随机数字表分为两组,采用双盲、双模拟平行对照的方法分别口服氨磺必利和阿立哌唑治疗,观察8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表、临床疗效总评量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表和临床疗效总评量表评分均较治疗前显著性下降( P<0.05或0.01);治疗8周末氨磺必利组显效率63.3%、总有效率88.3%,阿立哌唑组分别为64.4%、91.5%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.01、0.33,P>0.05)。不良反应均较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症疗效显著,总体疗效相当,起效快,安全性高,依从性好。

  13. 阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study on aripiprazole combined with risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永秀; 陈斌华; 徐小杰; 陶云海; 施剑飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 212例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为阿立哌唑联合利培酮组(治疗组,105例)和利培酮组(对照组,107例).分别于治疗前及治疗后第2,4,8周末用阳性症状和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评价药物不良反应.结果 治疗组完成105例,对照组完成104例.治疗组有效率为92.38%,显著率为77.14%;对照组有效率为85.58%,显著率为66.35%,2组疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PANSS总分减分及PANSS阴性因子减分在第2,4,8周末治疗组均优于对照组(P <0.05或P<0.01).2组药物不良反应均较轻微,经对症处理大多能缓解,其中在震颤、静坐不能、体重增加及泌乳、月经紊乱等发生率,治疗组明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 利培酮联合阿立哌唑治疗慢性精神分裂症疗效良好,不良反应小,患者治疗依从性好.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole combined risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia.Methods A total of 212 patients diagnosed as chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into aripiprazole combined risperidone group (treatment group,n =105) and risperidone group (control group,n =107).Clinical effectiveness was assessed with the positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS)and adverse reactions with the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of the 2,4,8 week.Results One hundred and five patients of the treatment group and 104 patients of the control group had completed the course.The effective rate and the apparent effect rate in treatment group was 92.38% and 77.14%,whereas that was 85.58% and 66.35% in control group.There was no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05).Effectiveness of treatment group was superior to control group at the end of the 2,4,8 week by PANSS total scores'subtraction and

  14. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Preclinical and Early Phase Human Proof of Concept Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients treated with antipsychotics. The first column in this series began with the case of a 76-year-old man with major depressive disorder who developed orofacial dyskinesias while being treated with aripiprazole as an antidepressant augmentation strategy. It was alleged that a higher than intended dose of aripiprazole (ie, 20 mg/d for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/d for 4 wk instead of the intended dose of 2 mg/d) was the cause of the dyskinetic movements in this man, and the authors were asked to review the case and give their opinion. The principal basis for this theory of causation was the class warning about TD in the package insert for aripiprazole. The rationale for concluding aripiprazole caused TD in the 76-year-old man led to this series of columns about aripiprazole, its potential--if any--to cause TD, and the presence of a class warning about TD in its package insert. The central point is to illustrate why class warnings exist and their implications for practice. The first column in this series focused on the historical background, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias and concluded with a discussion of diagnostic considerations explaining why clinicians should avoid making a diagnosis of TD until a thorough differential diagnosis has been considered. This second column in the series reviews the pharmacology of aripiprazole and the preclinical and phase I translational human studies that suggest aripiprazole should have a low to nonexistent risk of causing TD compared with other antipsychotics. The third column in the series

  15. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak

    2015-03-01

    Limited options are available for clozapine-resistant schizophrenia and intolerable side effects of clozapine. We conducted a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine for schizophrenia. Electronic databases searched included PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science. This review synthesized the data of four short-term (8-24 weeks), placebo-controlled trials (N = 347). The overall relative risk (RR, 95% confidence interval) of discontinuation rates was not significantly different between groups (RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.56). The pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs, 95% CIs) (Z-test; number of study; I(2)-index) suggested trends of aripiprazole augmentation benefits on overall psychotic [-0.40 (-0.87 to 0.07) (n = 3; Z = 1.68, p = 0.09; I(2) = 68%)], positive [-1.05 (-2.39 to 0.29) (n = 3; Z = 1.54, p = 0.12; I(2) = 94%)], and negative [-0.36 (-0.77 to 0.05) (n = 3; Z = 1.74, p = 0.08; I(2) = 54%)] symptoms. Despite of no benefit on three cardiometabolic indices (i.e., fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein), aripiprazole augmentation was superior for weight change with a mean difference (95% CI) of -1.36 kg (-2.35 to -0.36) (n = 3; Z = 2.67, p = 0.008; I(2) = 39%) and LDL-cholesterol with a mean difference of -11.06 mg/dL (-18.25 to -3.87) (n = 3; Z = 3.02, p = 0.003; I(2) = 31%). Aripiprazole augmentation was not correlated with headache and insomnia but significantly associated with agitation/akathesia (RR = 7.59, 95% CI = 1.43 to 40.18) (n = 3; Z = 2.38, p = 0.02; I(2) = 0%) and anxiety (RR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.02 to 7.15) (n = 1; Z = 2.00, p = 0.05). The limited short-term data suggested that aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine can minimize the cardiometabolic risk, causes agitation/akathesia, and may be effective in

  16. Partial agonist properties of the antipsychotics SSR181507, aripiprazole and bifeprunox at dopamine D2 receptors: G protein activation and prolactin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosi, Cristina; Carilla-Durand, Elisabeth; Assié, Marie Bernadette; Ormiere, Anne Marie; Maraval, Mireille; Leduc, Nathalie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-03-27

    Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists induce hyperprolactinemia depending on the extent of D2 receptor blockade. We compared the effects of the new antipsychotic agents SSR181507 ((3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2 s)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine monohydrochloride), bifeprunox (DU127090: 1-(2-Oxo-benzoxazolin-7-yl)-4-(3-biphenyl)methylpiperazinemesylate) and SLV313 (1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine) with those of aripiprazole (7-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-butyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2(1 H)-quinolinone), clozapine and haloperidol, on functional measures of dopamine D2 receptor activity in vitro and in vivo: [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membranes from Sf9 insect cells expressing human dopamine D2 Long (hD2 L) receptors, and serum prolactin levels in the rat. All compounds antagonized apomorphine-induced G protein activation at dopamine hD2 L receptors. Antagonist potencies of aripiprazole, bifeprunox and SLV313 were similar to haloperidol (pK(b) = 9.12), whereas SSR181507 (8.16) and clozapine (7.35) were less potent. Haloperidol, SLV313 and clozapine were silent antagonists but SSR181507, bifeprunox and aripiprazole stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding by 17.5%, 26.3% and 25.6%, respectively, relative to 100 microM apomorphine (Emax = 100%). pEC50s were: SSR181507, 8.08; bifeprunox, 8.97; aripiprazole, 8.56. These effects were antagonized by raclopride. Following oral administration in vivo, the drugs increased prolactin release to different extents. SLV313 and haloperidol potently (ED50 0.12 and 0.22 mg/kg p.o., respectively) stimulated prolactin release up to 86 and 83 ng/ml. Aripiprazole potently (ED50 0.66 mg/kg p.o.) but partially (32 ng/ml) induced prolactin release. SSR181507 (ED50 4.9 mg/kg p.o.) also partially (23 ng/ml) enhanced prolactin release. Bifeprunox only weakly increased prolactin at high doses (13 ng/ml at 40 mg/kg) and clozapine only

  17. Effect of Aripiprazole on Hyperprolactinemia in Patients with Senile Schizophrenia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs%阿立哌唑对抗精神病药物所致的老年精神分裂症患者高催乳素血症的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 马世发; 高天飞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑对抗精神病药物所致的老年精神分裂症患者高催乳素血症的影响。方法根据治疗方法对该院于2012年5月-2014年10月收治的患者进行分组,两组患者均继续沿用原有抗精神病药物,在此基础上给予观察组患者阿立哌唑。分别测定两组治疗前、治疗4、8周末血清催乳素水平,同时采用精神病评定量表(BPRS)对精神病症状进行评定,比较两组药物不良反应。结果观察组患者治疗4周、8周末血清催乳素水平显著降低,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);两组患者药物不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论阿立哌唑能够有效降低抗精神病药物所致的老年精神分裂症患者高催乳素血症状,且未出现严重药物不良反应,具有有效性和安全性,可作为治疗用药。%Objective To investigate the effect of aripiprazole on hyperprolactinemia in patients with senile schizophrenia induced by antipsychotic drugs. Methods The patients from 2012 May to 2014 October in our hospital were divided according to the meth-ods of treatment. All the patients continued to use original antipsychotic drugs, based on which patients in the observation group were given aripiprazole. Serum prolactin level before the operation, four weeks after operation, 8 weeks after operation of the two groups was detected respectively;and psychiatric symptoms were assessed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and adverse drug reaction of the two groups was compared. Results In the observation group, serum prolactin level after 4 weeks treatment and that after 8 weeks treatment both decreased significantly, and compared with those of the control group, there were significant dif-ferences (P0.05; No obvious sig-nificant difference was found in the rate of adverse drug reactions of the two groups,P>0.05. Conclusion Without serious adverse drug reactions, and with efficacy and

  18. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  19. Usability of a novel digital medicine system in adults with schizophrenia treated with sensor-embedded tablets of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters-Strickland T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Peters-Strickland,1 Linda Pestreich,1 Ainslie Hatch,2 Shashank Rohatagi,1 Ross A Baker,1 John P Docherty,2 Lada Markovtsova,1 Praveen Raja,3 Peter J Weiden,4 David P Walling5 1Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., 2ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 3Proteus Digital Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 5CNS Network, LLC, Long Beach, CA, USA Objective: Digital medicine system (DMS is a novel drug–device combination that objectively measures and reports medication ingestion. The DMS consists of medication embedded with an ingestible sensor (digital medicine, a wearable sensor, and software applications. This study evaluated usability of the DMS in adults with schizophrenia rated by both patients and their health care providers (HCPs during 8-week treatment with prescribed doses of digital aripiprazole.Methods: Six US sites enrolled outpatients into this Phase IIa, open-label study (NCT02219009. The study comprised a screening phase, a training phase (three weekly site visits, and a 5-week independent phase. Patients and HCPs independently rated usability of and satisfaction with the DMS.Results: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, and 49 (73.1% patients completed the study. The mean age (SD of the patients was 46.6 years (9.7 years; the majority of them were male (74.6%, black (76.1%, and rated mildly ill on the Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale (70.1%. By the end of week 8 or early termination, 82.1% (55/67 of patients had replaced the wearable sensor independently or with minimal assistance, based on HCP rating. The patients used the wearable sensor for a mean (SD of 70.7% (24.7% and a median of 77.8% of their time in the trial. The patients contacted a call center most frequently at week 1. At the last visit, 78% (47/60 of patients were somewhat satisfied/satisfied/extremely satisfied with the DMS.Conclusion: A high proportion of patients with

  20. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  1. Factors modifying stress from adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Roland, R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The adverse effects of immunosuppression appear in the majority of patients with a negative impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The group of adverse symptoms manifested as changes in appearance, mood and energy are often more stressful than serious metabolic changes bec

  2. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症的临床疗效分析%Effective analysis of aripiprazole and risperidone for patients with first-episode female Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张加明

    2014-01-01

    目的:对阿立哌唑与利培酮对女性首发精神分裂症的临床疗效以及对患者认知功能的影响进行观察和分析。方法:将我院2010年4月~2013年11月收治的128例女性首发精神分裂患者随机分为阿立哌唑组和利培酮组,每组各64例。2组患者分别于治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)、临床总体印象量表(CGI)以及副反应量表(TESS)对患者的临床疗效和副反应进行评定和比较。结果:2组患者治疗后其阳性症状、阴性症状、一般病理、PANSS总分以及CGI总分均较治疗前显著降低(P<0.01),但组间比较并无明显差异(P>0.05)。治疗后阿立哌唑组和利培酮组的临床显效率和有效率分别为73.44%、96.88%和70.31%、90.62%,差异均不具有统计学意义( P>0.05),而TESS评定结果显示,阿立哌唑组患者评分8.31±4.20分明显低于利培酮组患者评分9.29±4.16分。结论:阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗女性首发精神分裂症上均可有效改善患者的阳性症状、阴性症状、一般病理而起到良好的临床疗效,但相比而言阿立哌唑在治疗过程中副反应更小,因而更加安全有效。%Objective:To explore the efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of first -episode female schizophrenia . Methods:To select 128 cases of patients with first-episode female schizophrenia who were treated in our hospital from April 2010 to No-vember 2013,and were randomly divided into the saripiprazole group and the risperidone group ,each group was 64 cases.Two groups of patients were take the positive and negative symptoms scale ( PANSS) , the clinical general impression scale (CGI) and the treatment e-mergent symptom scale ( TESS) respectively before and after treatment to evaluated the clinical efficacy and the adverse event .Results:The positive symptoms , negative symptoms , general pathology , PANSS

  3. 阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗以阴性症状为主精神分裂症临床对照观察%Aripiprazole vs Sulpiride in Treatment of Schizophrenia with Negative Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雪刚; 郭丽春; 刘祖松; 曾德志

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treatment of schizophrenia with negative symptoms .Methods:All 80 patients with negative schizophrenia were randomly assigned to study group and control group ,each 40 cases.The patients were treated with aripiprazole or sulpiride re-spectively for 12 weeks.The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS) and Treatment Emergent Side effect Scale ( TESS ) were used to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effect respectively .Results:①The scores of PANSS were significantly lower after treatment than those before treatment in the both group .②Contrast comparing:in the 4th,8th,12th weekend after treatment ,the scores of PANSS with negative and general mental pathological symptoms factors in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group(t=-2.014,-4.359,-6.162,-2.180,-3.042,-6.810;P<0.05).So as the total score of PANSS in the 8th,12th weekend after treatment(t=-3.235,-6.080;P<0.01).But the scores of PANSS with positive factor in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group in the 8th, 12th weekend after treatment(t=4.630,6.142;P<0.01).③The clinical efficacy in the study group in the 12 th weekend after treatment was significantly better than that in the control group .④The incidence of adverse effect in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group .Conclusion:Aripiprazole is rather effective and safe in treatment of schizophrenia with negative symptoms .It is much better than sulpiride .%目的:探讨阿立哌唑治疗以阴性症状为主精神分裂症的疗效与安全性。方法:将80例以阴性症状为主精神分裂症患者随机分入研究组和对照组,每组40例,分别使用阿立哌唑和舒必利治疗12周,用阳性与阴性综合征量表( PANSS)和副反应量表( TESS)评定临床疗效和安全性。结果:①两组治疗后PANSS评分均较治疗前下降(P<0.01或0.05

  4. Adverse effects of statins - myths and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimić, Iveta; Reiner, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Statins reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as cardiovascular events in patients with a very high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and also in subjects with high or moderate risk by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although they are considered to be drugs with a very good safety profile, because of their wide use there are many concerns that their adverse effects might compromise their proven beneficial effects. Therefore this article reviews all the data and provides an evidence- based insight what are the proven adverse effects of statins and what are the "myths" about them. The most important side effects include myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Another side effect is increased activity of liver tests which occurs occasionally and is reversible. However, recent studies even suggest that statin therapy can improve hepatic steatosis. It is beyond any doubt that statins do slightly increase the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with two or more components of metabolic syndrome but the cardiovascular benefits of such a treatment by far exceed this risk. Statin therapy has also been associated with some adverse renal effects, eg. acute renal failure, but recent data suggest even a possible protective effect of these drugs on renal dysfunction. Concerns that statins might increase cancer have not been proven. On the contrary, several studies have indicated a possible benefit of these drugs in patients with different types of cancer. Early concerns about cognitive dysfunction and memory loss associated with statins use could not be proven and most recent data even suggest a possible beneficial effect of statins in the prevention of dementia. Systematic reviews and clinical guidelines suggest that the cardiovascular benefits of statins by far out-weight non-cardiovascular harms in patients with cardiovascular risk.

  5. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pregnancy affects both the maternal and fetal metabolism and even in nondiabetic women exerts a diabetogenic effect. Among pregnant women, 2 to 17.8% develop gestational diabetes. Pregnancy can also occur in women with preexisting diabetes, that can predispose the fetus to many alterations in organogenesis, growth restriction and the mother to some diabetes-related complications like retinopathy and nephropathy or accelerate the course of these complications if they are already present. Women with gestational diabetes generally start their treatment with diet and lifestyle modification; when these changes fail in keeping an optimal glycemic control, then insulin therapy must be considered. Women with type 2 diabetes in use of oral hypoglycemic agents are advised to change to insulin therapy. Those with preexisting type 1 diabetes must start an intensive glycemic control, preferably before conception. All these procedures are performed aiming to keep glycemic levels normal or near-normal as possible to avoid the occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes to the mother and to the fetus. The aim of this review is to reinforce the need to improve the knowledge on reproductive health of women with diabetes during gestation and to understand what are the reasons for them failing to attend for prepregnancy care programs, and to understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse fetal and maternal outcomes, which in turn may lead to strategies for its prevention.

  6. Antidepressant Effects of Aripiprazole Augmentation for Cilostazol-Treated Mice Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress after Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Hong, Ki Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of aripiprazole (APZ) augmentation for cilostazol (CLS)-treated post-ischemic stroke mice that were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Compared to treatment with either APZ or CLS alone, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in depressive behaviors, including anhedonia, despair-like behaviors, and memory impairments. This treatment also significantly reduced atrophic changes in the striatum, cortex, and midbrain of CMS-treated ischemic mice, and inhibited neuronal cell apoptosis, particularly in the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Greater proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells was also observed in the ipsilateral striatum of the mice receiving combined treatment compared to mice receiving either drug alone. Phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) was increased in the striatum, hippocampus, and midbrain of mice receiving combined treatment compared to treatment with either drug alone, particularly in the neurons of the striatum and hippocampus, and dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. Our results suggest that APZ may augment the antidepressant effects of CLS via co-regulation of the CREB signaling pathway, resulting in the synergistic enhancement of their neuroprotective effects. PMID:28208711

  7. Prostate Cancer; Metabolic Risk Factors, Drug Utilisation, Adverse Drug Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmark, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Increased possibilities during the last decades for early detection of prostate cancer have sparked research on preventable or treatable risk factors and on improvements in therapy. Treatments of the disease still entail significant side effects potentially affecting men during the rest of their lives. The studies of the present thesis concern different aspects of prostate cancer from etiological risk factors and factors influencing treatment to an improved methodology for the detection of tr...

  8. 阿立哌唑治疗利培酮所致高催乳素血症75例疗效观察%Observation on Effect of Aripiprazole in Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia Caused by Risperidone in Schizophrenic Patients in 75 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐萍; 冯婧; 夏南

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness and safety of the combined use of small dose of aripiprazole in the treatment of hyper-prolactinemia caused by risperidone. Methods 150 schizophrenic patients with risperidone caused hyperprolactinemia were randomly as-signed to the research group ( n=75 ) and the control group ( n=75 ) . The two groups maintained the original risperidone treatment. The research group was combined with the use of aripiprazole 5-10 mg/d. Serum prolactin levels at the base line, and the ends of 4, 8 and 12 weeks were measured and the scores of PANSS, CGI-S and UKU at the base line and the end of 12 weeks were as-sessed. Results Serum prolactin level at the end of 12 weeks in the research group was ( 17. 01 0 4. 27 )μg/L, which was significantly reduced compared with ( 95. 73 0 48. 77 )μg/L at the baseline ( P ﹤ 0. 05 ) , the effective rate was 84. 00%. However serum prolactin lev-el in the control group had no statistically significant difference between before and after treatment ( P ﹥ 0. 05 ) . The scores of PANSS and CGI-S and the incidence rate of adverse reactions in the two groups had no statistical differences between before and after treat-ment ( P ﹥ 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Aripiprazole can effectively decrease risperidone caused hyperprolactinemia with few adverse reactions. But the long-term effect needs to be further observed.%目的:探讨利培酮所致高催乳素血症的精神分裂症合并应用小剂量阿立哌唑的有效性和安全性。方法将150例患者随机分为研究组和对照组,各75例。对照组维持原有利培酮治疗不变,研究组在对照组基础上合并用阿立哌唑5~10 mg/d;两组于基线及治疗4,8,12周末检测血清催乳素水平,于基线及治疗12周末评定阳性和阴性综合征量表( PANSS )、临床总体印象量表( CGI-S )、UKU副作用评定量表。结果研究组在第12周末催乳素水平为(17.0104.27)μg/L,较基线(95.73048.77)

  9. 喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性研究%Efficacy and safety of quetiapine,aripiprazole and amisulpride in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智勇; 谢玲银; 黄伟波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the antipsychotic efficacy and safety of three kinds of drugs on patients with schizophrenia. Methods Patients with schizophrenia in our hospital from January to October in 2014 were selected and randomly divided into three groups,quetiapine group (n=98)accepted quetiapine 400 ~800 (512 ± 128)mg/d,aripi-prazole group (n=100) accepted aripiprazole 10~30 (20 ±6) mg/d,amisulpride group (n=102) accepted amisul-pride 400~800(635 ± 147) mg/d respectively for eight weeks. The efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated by PANSS and TESS,and the social function was evaluated by PSP before and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Results The total effective rate of quetiapine group,aripiprazole group and amisulpride group was 68. 4%,70.0% and 69. 6%respectively,there was no significant difference among the three groups(P>0.05). The score of CGI and PSP of each group increased significantly. Conclusion Quetiapine,aripiprazole and amisulpride have similar efficiency in the treat-ment of schizophrenic patients,but the adverse reactions features are different.%目的 研究喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性. 方法 选择2014年1-10月在我院精神科住院的300例精神分裂症患者,随机分为喹硫平组、阿立哌唑组、氨磺必利组,分别给予喹硫平[400~800 mg/d,平均(512 ±128)mg/d]、阿立哌唑[10~30 mg/d,平均(20 ±6)mg/d]、氨磺必利[400~800 mg/d,平均(635 ± 147)mg/d]治疗8周. 于分组前及治疗后4、8周用评估阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)、不良反应量表( TESS)评定疗效和不良反应,用社会功能量表( PSP)评定患者的社会功能. 结果 喹硫平组总有效率为68. 4%,阿立哌唑组总有效率为70.0%,氨磺必利组总有效率为69. 6%,三组总有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);三组患者CGI评分及PSP评分均显著增加. 结论 喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效相当,但不良反应特点不同.

  10. Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making.

  11. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  12. Medication adherence and utilization in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder receiving aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Ariel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are chronic debilitating disorders that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic agents, such as aripiprazole, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. While patients who are hospitalized for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often receive these agents at discharge, comparatively little information exists on subsequent patterns of pharmacotherapy. Methods Using a database linking hospital admission records to health insurance claims, we identified all patients hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 295.XX or bipolar disorder (296.0, 296.1, 296.4-296.89 between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2008 who received aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at discharge. Patients not continuously enrolled for 6 months before and after hospitalization (“pre-admission” and “follow-up”, respectively were excluded. We examined patterns of use of these agents during follow-up, including adherence with treatment (using medication possession ratios [MPRs] and cumulative medication gaps [CMGs] and therapy switching. Analyses were undertaken separately for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. Results We identified a total of 43 patients with schizophrenia, and 84 patients with bipolar disorder. During the 6-month period following hospitalization, patients with schizophrenia received an average of 101 therapy-days with the second-generation antipsychotic agent prescribed at discharge; for patients with bipolar disorder, the corresponding value was 68 therapy-days. Mean MPR at 6 months was 55.1% for schizophrenia patients, and 37.3% for those with bipolar disorder; approximately one-quarter of patients switched to another agent over this period. Conclusions Medication compliance is poor in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who initiate treatment with aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge.

  13. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon; Flynn, Alexandra; Macaluso, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This series of columns has 2 main goals: (1) to explain the use of class warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration and (2) to increase clinicians' awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications and why it is appropriate and good practice to refrain from immediately assuming the diagnosis is tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD). This first column in the series will focus on the second goal, which will then serve as a case example for the first goal. Clinicians should refrain from jumping to a diagnosis of TD because a host of other causes need to be ruled out first before inferring iatrogenic causation. The causal relationship between chronic treatment with dopamine antagonists and TD is based on pharmacoepidemiology (ie, the prevalence of such movement disorders is higher in individuals receiving chronic treatment with such agents than in a control group). There is nothing pathognomonic about movement disorders, nor is there any test that can currently prove a drug caused a movement disorder in a specific individual. Another goal of this series is to describe the types of research that would be needed to establish whether a specific agent has a meaningful risk of causing TD. In this first column of the series, we present the case of a patient who developed orofacial dyskinesia while being treated with aripiprazole. In this case, the movement disorder was prematurely called TD, which led to a malpractice lawsuit. This case highlights a number of key questions clinicians are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice. We then review data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for 2 movement disorders, TD and spontaneous dyskinesia. Subsequent columns in this series will review: (1) unique aspects of the psychopharmacology of aripiprazole, (2) the limited and inconsistent data in the literature concerning the causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD, (3) the use of

  14. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  15. Movement Behaviors in Children and Indicators of Adverse Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    to promote a healthy lifestyle. Thirdly, short sleep duration and a high variability in sleep duration, as well as sleep problems, were associated with an obesity-promoting diet. Short sleep duration was also associated with a higher fat mass index and increased cardio-metabolic risk. Furthermore, a decline...... among children. Early puberty is a period characterized by rapid changes in body composition and movement behaviors. As movement behaviors, obesity, and cardio-metabolic risk appear to track from childhood to adulthood, this may be a critical period for implementing preventive strategies aimed...... at reducing obesity and its associated metabolic complications in adulthood. In my PhD thesis I assessed objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children and related these movement behaviors to indicators of adverse health (dietary intake, adiposity...

  16. MR imaging evaluation of cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roos, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has become an important public health problem and has reached epidemic proportions globally. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities in an individual, with insulin resistance as the main characteristic. The major adverse consequence of metabolic

  17. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  18. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  19. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  20. 阿立哌唑治疗抗精神病药所致高催乳素血症的疗效观察%A control study of aripiprazole in the treatment for antipsychotics-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诏薄; 曹波; 焦峰; 李多聪; 陈海波; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole in long term treatment for schizophrenia patients with antipsychotics-induced hyperprolactinemia. METHODS 180 schizophrenia patients with antipsychotics-induced hyperprolactinemia were randomly assigned to aripiprazole group(n = 90) and control group(n = 90),which were observed more than 26 weeks. Aripiprazole group patients were additionally treated with aripiprazole(5 mg·d-1). Clinical global impression scale(CGIS) and the extrapyramidal symptoms rating scale(ESES) were administered, also prolactin(PRL), treatment discontinuation ratio and time to discontinuation(TTD) were recorded at the baseline time and the end of 2,4,12,26 weeks. RESULTS PRL of aripiprazole group showed significant decline at the end of 4 weeks,and arrived a stable state at the end of 8 weeks. PRL of control group there was no change. At the end of 26 weeks, the treatment discontinuation ratio of aripiprazole group was 11.1 %, of control group was 31. 1 %. At the end of 52 weeks, the treatment discontinuation ratio of aripiprazole group was 57. 8%,of control group was 76. 7%. There was significant difference of TTD between aripiprazole group and control group [ (297. 3 ± 92. 6) d vs ( 193. 5 ± 103. 1 )d, t = 6. 86, P = 0. 001]. CONCLUSION Combined a low dose aripiprazole to long term treatment for schizophrenia patient antipsychotics-induced hyperprolactinemia is effective and safe.%目的:验证合并使用小剂量阿立哌唑治疗抗精神病药(APS)所致高催乳素(PRL)血症的长期疗效及安全性.方法:对APS所致高PRL患者随机分为2组,一组继续使用APS治疗,一组在APS基础上合并使用5 mg·d-1阿立哌唑治疗.观察时间至少为26周.在基线及第4,8,12,26周末进行临床总体印象量表--严重程度(CGI-S)、锥体外系症状评定量表(ESRS)、血清PRL水平测定,记录停药率及停药前服药时间(TTD).结果:阿立哌唑组PRL在第4周末即明显下降,到第8

  1. Metabolic disorders in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance - IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus - T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  2. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  3. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  4. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  5. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....... develop a model that captures how principals differentially obtain information on agents. We show that principals that combine conventional data collection techniques with mentalizing benefit from a synergistic effect that impacts both the amount of information that is accessed and the overall cost...

  6. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  7. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  8. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-06-22

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess.

  9. 帕罗西汀合并不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的临床观察%Observing the effect of Paroxetine combined with different doses of ariPiPrazole on obsessive-comPulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立毛; 舒菊红; 戴升太

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effectiveness and safety of paroxetine combined with different doses of aripiprazole on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method:One hundred and sixty-four patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomly divided into 2 groups:the paroxetine only group( n = 33),the 2. 2 mg/ d group(n = 32),the 2 mg/ d group(n = 34),the 7. 2mg group(n = 32),the 10 mg/ d group(n = 33). Each group was treated with paroxetine 40 mg/ d combined with corresponding doses of aripiprazole for 8 weeks. Effectiveness and adverse effect were assessed respectively by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale( Y-BOCS)and treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS). Results:After 8 weeks treatment,in the five groups, the scores of Y-BOCS significantly decreased(P ﹤ 0. 02 or P ﹤ 0. 01),the 2. 2 mg/ d group and the 2 mg group were more obvious(all P ﹤ 0. 01). The decreased score rate of Y-BOCS were significantly different between the paroxetine only group and the 2. 2 mg/ d group or the 2 mg group(all P ﹤ 0. 02). After 8 weeks treatment,no significant difference was found in the rates of adverse effect in 2. 2 mg/ d group and 2 mg/ d group compared with paroxetine only group;but in 7. 2 mg/ d group and 10 mg/ d group were sifnificantly higher than paroxetine only group(P ﹤ 0. 02 or P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion:The paroxetine combined the 2. 2-2 mg/ d aripiprazole trea-ting patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is more effective than the paroxetine combined the 7. 2-10 mg/d aripiprazole and paroxetine only.%目的:探讨盐酸帕罗西汀联合不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的疗效及安全性。方法:164例强迫症患者随机分为帕罗西汀治疗(单药)组及帕罗西汀+阿立哌唑2.2 mg/ d 组、2 mg/ d 组、7.2 mg/d 组及10 mg/ d 组,每组给予帕罗西汀40 mg/ d 及相应剂量的阿立哌唑治疗8周。治疗前后进行耶鲁布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)及治疗过程中出现的症状量表

  10. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  11. Quetiapine versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with psychosis--protocol for the randomised, blinded clinical Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Jeppesen, Pia; Klauber, Dea Gowers

    2014-01-01

    aripiprazole in children and adolescents with psychosis in order to inform rational, effective and safe treatment selections. METHODS/DESIGN: The TEA trial is a Danish investigator-initiated, independently funded, multi-centre, randomised, blinded clinical trial. Based on sample size estimation, 112 patients...... about head-to-head differences in efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotics are scarce in children and adolescents. The TEA trial aims at expanding the evidence base for the use of antipsychotics in early onset psychosis in order to inform more rational treatment decisions in this vulnerable......BACKGROUND: The evidence for choices between antipsychotics for children and adolescents with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is limited. The main objective of the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial is to compare the benefits and harms of quetiapine versus...

  12. Rationale and design of an independent randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole or haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piantato Ennio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One third to two thirds of people with schizophrenia have persistent psychotic symptoms despite clozapine treatment. Under real-world circumstances, the need to provide effective therapeutic interventions to patients who do not have an optimal response to clozapine has been cited as the most common reason for simultaneously prescribing a second antipsychotic drug in combination treatment strategies. In a clinical area where the pressing need of providing therapeutic answers has progressively increased the occurrence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, despite the lack of robust evidence of its efficacy, we sought to implement a pre-planned protocol where two alternative therapeutic answers are systematically provided and evaluated within the context of a pragmatic, multicentre, independent randomised study. Methods/Design The principal clinical question to be answered by the present project is the relative efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole compared with combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with an incomplete response to treatment with clozapine over an appropriate period of time. This project is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial that follow patients over a period of 12 months. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months is the primary outcome. Discussion The implementation of the protocol presented here shows that it is possible to create a network of community psychiatric services that accept the idea of using their everyday clinical practice to produce randomised knowledge. The employed pragmatic attitude allowed to randomly allocate more than 100 individuals, which means that this study is the largest antipsychotic combination trial conducted so far in Western countries. We expect that the current project, by generating evidence on whether it is clinically useful to combine clozapine with aripiprazole

  13. Rationale and design of an independent randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole or haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Accordini, Simone; Artioli, Paola; Barale, Francesco; Barbui, Corrado; Beneduce, Rossella; Berardi, Domenico; Bertolazzi, Gerardo; Biancosino, Bruno; Bisogno, Alfredo; Bivi, Raffaella; Bogetto, Filippo; Boso, Marianna; Bozzani, Alberto; Bucolo, Piera; Casale, Marcello; Cascone, Liliana; Ciammella, Luisa; Cicolini, Alessia; Cipresso, Gabriele; Cipriani, Andrea; Colombo, Paola; Dal Santo, Barbara; De Francesco, Michele; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Di Munzio, Walter; Ducci, Giuseppe; Erlicher, Arcadio; Esposito, Eleonora; Ferrannini, Luigi; Ferrato, Farida; Ferro, Antonio; Fragomeno, Nicoletta; Parise, Vincenzo Fricchione; Frova, Maria; Gardellin, Francesco; Garzotto, Nicola; Giambartolomei, Andrea; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Grassi, Luigi; Grazian, Natalia; Grecu, Lorella; Guerrini, Gualtiero; Laddomada, Francesco; Lazzarin, Ermanna; Lintas, Camilla; Malchiodi, Francesca; Malvini, Lara; Marchiaro, Livio; Marsilio, Alessandra; Mauri, Massimo Carlo; Mautone, Antonio; Menchetti, Marco; Migliorini, Giuseppe; Mollica, Marco; Moretti, Daniele; Mulè, Serena; Nicholau, Stylianos; Nosè, Flavio; Occhionero, Guglielmo; Pacilli, Anna Maria; Pecchioli, Stefania; Percudani, Mauro; Piantato, Ennio; Piazza, Carlo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Pycha, Roger; Quartesan, Roberto; Rillosi, Luciana; Risso, Francesco; Rizzo, Raffella; Rocca, Paola; Roma, Stefania; Rossattini, Matteo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Giovanni; Sala, Alessandra; Santilli, Claudio; Saraò, Giuseppe; Sarnicola, Antonio; Sartore, Francesca; Scarone, Silvio; Sciarma, Tiziana; Siracusano, Alberto; Strizzolo, Stefania; Tansella, Michele; Targa, Gino; Tasser, Annamarie; Tomasi, Rodolfo; Travaglini, Rossana; Veronese, Antonio; Ziero, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Background One third to two thirds of people with schizophrenia have persistent psychotic symptoms despite clozapine treatment. Under real-world circumstances, the need to provide effective therapeutic interventions to patients who do not have an optimal response to clozapine has been cited as the most common reason for simultaneously prescribing a second antipsychotic drug in combination treatment strategies. In a clinical area where the pressing need of providing therapeutic answers has progressively increased the occurrence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, despite the lack of robust evidence of its efficacy, we sought to implement a pre-planned protocol where two alternative therapeutic answers are systematically provided and evaluated within the context of a pragmatic, multicentre, independent randomised study. Methods/Design The principal clinical question to be answered by the present project is the relative efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole compared with combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with an incomplete response to treatment with clozapine over an appropriate period of time. This project is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial that follow patients over a period of 12 months. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months is the primary outcome. Discussion The implementation of the protocol presented here shows that it is possible to create a network of community psychiatric services that accept the idea of using their everyday clinical practice to produce randomised knowledge. The employed pragmatic attitude allowed to randomly allocate more than 100 individuals, which means that this study is the largest antipsychotic combination trial conducted so far in Western countries. We expect that the current project, by generating evidence on whether it is clinically useful to combine clozapine with aripiprazole rather than with haloperidol

  14. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  15. Genetic determinants for metabolic abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients often use psychotropic drugs. Apart from frequent problems regarding lack of efficacy, use of these drugs also often results in (severe) adverse effects. The use of (atypical) antipsychotic drugs in particular can give rise to weight gain and metabolic deregulation regarding glu

  16. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  17. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  18. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  19. Asymmetric Information – Adverse Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an introduction in the contract theory starting with the definitions of asymmetric information and some of the problems that generate: moral hazard and adverse selection. We provide an insight of the latest empirical studies in adverse selection in different markets. An adverse selection model, based on Rothchild and Stiglitz is also present to give a perspective of the theoretical framework.

  20. Interaction of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in treatment of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与氯氮平联合治疗精神分裂症的交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 黄华利; 李玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the interaction of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in treatment of schizo-phrenia ,in order to make suitable dose of this combination therapy explicit .Methods A total of 97 cases of schizo-phrenia diagnosed in our hospital between Oct .,2011 and May ,2013 were divided into 4 groups(low dose of aripi-prazole combined with low dose of clozapine ,low dose of aripiprazole combined with high dose of clozapine ,high dose of aripiprazole combined with low dose of clozapine ,high dose of aripiprazole combined with high dose of clozapine ) . The results of efficacy and side effects were all recorded and analyzed .Results In treatment efficacy ,high dose of aripiprazole and clozapine was the best ,when compared with other 3 groups(P<0 .05) ,low dose of aripiprazole and clozapine was the worst (P<0 .05) .On the other hand ,the incidence of side effects was highest in group of high dose of aripiprazole and clozapine ,group of high dose of aripiprazole combined with low dose of clozapine and group of low dose of aripiprazole and clozapine were better than others in safety .Conclusion The efficacy and side effects of aripi-prazole and clozapine are dose dependent ,when using these two medicines to treat schizophrenia ,the doses should be suitable to make good efficacy and avoid side effects .If the side effects are obvious ,the dose of clozapine should be de-creased ,however ,the dose of aripiprazole can be decreased extenuatorily ;If the patients can tolerate the treatment ,the doses of these two medicine can be increased .%目的:探讨阿立哌唑与氯氮平联合治疗精神分裂症的交互作用,以明确两种药物联合治疗精神分裂症时的合适剂量。方法将2011年10月至2013年5月于重庆市黔江中心医院诊治为精神分裂症的97例患者随机分为4组(低剂量阿立哌唑+低剂量氯氮平组、低剂量阿立哌唑+高剂量氯氮平组、高剂量阿立哌唑+低剂量氯氮平组、高剂量阿立

  1. Long-term adverse effects of novel antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, P S; Gupta, S

    2000-11-01

    The introduction of novel antipsychotics for the treatment of patients with serious psychiatric illness has alleviated the burden of managing some of the side effects of conventional agents. However, the novel agents may also cause adverse events. The long-term adverse events of concern include weight gain, diabetes, tardive dyskinesia (TD), and those associated with hyperprolactinemia. Recent studies with the novel agents have prompted clinicians to revisit antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Clinically significant weight gain puts patients at risk for coronary heart disease, hypertension, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and some types of cancer. More recently, case reports of glucose abnormalities and diabetes have emerged, indicating that some novel antipsychotics may be associated with altered glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity. The novel antipsychotics may also have a lower propensity for causing TD than the conventional antipsychotics. Side effects associated with hyperprolactinemia include galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and menstrual and sexual dysfunction. All of these adverse events can cause patients to become non-compliant and may thus predispose them to relapse. In this review, the authors summarize the literature on the long-term side effects of the novel antipsychotics and examine the severity of the problem, with recommendations for management. When selecting treatments, clinicians should consider the side-effect profiles of the various antipsychotic agents.

  2. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A Comparative Study of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the Treatment of First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇红杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将75例首发精神分裂症患者按照随机数字表法分成两组,氨磺必利组37例,阿立哌唑组38例,治疗8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,采用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:氨磺必利组的治疗总有效率为89.19%,阿立哌唑组为92.11%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗第4、6、8周PANSS总分及各因子评分两组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症均有良好效果,不良反应均较少。%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia. Method:75 patients of first opisode schizoprenia were randomly divided into two groups(amisulpride 37,aripiprazole 38).Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole were administered to two groups respectively for 8 weeks. Their symptoms were assessed with PANSS and their side effects were assessed with TESS before and after the treatment. Result:The total cure rates were 89.19%in amisulpride group and 92.11%in aripiprazole group,with no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). PANSS score and each factor score in treatment of 4,6,8 weeks between the two groups had no statistical significance(P>0.05). Conclusion:Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole have notable curative effect with less side-effect in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia.

  3. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  4. 乌鸡白凤丸与阿立哌唑治疗利培酮所致闭经临床对比研究%Comparative clinical study on effect of Wuji Baifeng pills and aripiprazole in the treatment of risperidone induced amenorrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许勤伟; 刘向来; 黄胜; 黄兹高

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore clinical therapeutic effect and adverse reaction of Wuji Baifeng pills on risperidone induced amenorrhea.Methods:85 female schizophrenia patients with amenorrhea induced by risperidone were randomly divided into the treatment group of Wuji Baifeng pills (43 cases) and risperidone for aripiprazole contrast group (42 cases),90 days was a course.Results:Wuji Baifeng pills in the treatment of risperidone induced amenorrhea total clinical curative effect was obviously superior to risperidone,there was significant difference in effective rate between two groups (P < 0.05).Common adverse reactions were mild in two groups,and there was no significant difference in the score of TESS scale between the two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion:Wuji Baifeng pills in the treatment of amenorrhea induced by risperidone has good clinical curative effect and adverse reaction is mild.%目的:探讨乌鸡白风丸治疗利培酮所致闭经的临床疗效及不良反应.方法:对85例利培酮治疗出现闭经的女性精神分裂症患者随机分为乌鸡白凤丸治疗组(43例)及停利培酮换用阿立哌唑的对比组(42例),以90天为一疗程.结果:乌鸡白凤丸治疗利培酮所致闭经的临床总疗效明显优于利培酮换用阿立哌唑的治疗,两治疗组有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两治疗组常见不良反应均较轻微,两组治疗不良反应采用TESS量表定期跟踪测评比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:乌鸡白凤丸治疗利培酮所致闭经的临床疗效好,不良反应轻.

  5. 阿立哌唑联合奥氮平治疗老年阿尔茨海默病伴精神障碍的临床疗效及安全性评价%Clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole combined with olanzapine in the treatment of elderly Alzheimer’ s disease with mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付旭; 秦晓霞

    2016-01-01

    ) score, Alzheimer’ s disease assess-ment form-cognitive subscale ( ADAS-cog) score, spirit of neurology questionnaire ( NPI) score, agonistic questionnaire ( CMAI) score, and the incidence of adverse drug reactions.Results After treatment, the total efficiency of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group ( 97.50% vs 47.50%, P <0.05 ).MMSE score of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of control group ( P<0.05).CDR, ADL, ADAS -cog, NPI, CMAI score of thetreatment group was significantly lower than that of control group ( P<0.05 ).The incidence of adverse drug reactions of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group ( 7.50% vs 40.00%, P <0.05 ).Conclusion Aripiprazole combined with olanzapine has a definitive clinical efficacy for the treatment of elderly Alzheimer’ s disease with the exact mental disorders, which can help the recovery neurological function with less adverse drug reactions.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  7. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The BMP checks your blood sugar, calcium, and ... as creatinine to check your kidney function. The CMP includes all of those tests, as well as ...

  8. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  10. Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-05-01

    Metabolic acidosis is characterized by a primary reduction in serum bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) concentration, a secondary decrease in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) of approximately 1 mmHg for every 1 mmol/l fall in serum HCO(3)(-) concentration, and a reduction in blood pH. Acute forms (lasting minutes to several days) and chronic forms (lasting weeks to years) of the disorder can occur, for which the underlying cause/s and resulting adverse effects may differ. Acute forms of metabolic acidosis most frequently result from the overproduction of organic acids such as ketoacids or lactic acid; by contrast, chronic metabolic acidosis often reflects bicarbonate wasting and/or impaired renal acidification. The calculation of the serum anion gap, calculated as [Na(+)] - ([HCO(3)(-)] + [Cl(-)]), aids diagnosis by classifying the disorders into categories of normal (hyperchloremic) anion gap or elevated anion gap. These categories can overlap, however. Adverse effects of acute metabolic acidosis primarily include decreased cardiac output, arterial dilatation with hypotension, altered oxygen delivery, decreased ATP production, predisposition to arrhythmias, and impairment of the immune response. The main adverse effects of chronic metabolic acidosis are increased muscle degradation and abnormal bone metabolism. Using base to treat acute metabolic acidosis is controversial because of a lack of definitive benefit and because of potential complications. By contrast, the administration of base for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis is associated with improved cellular function and few complications.

  11. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  12. Interventions to prevent adverse fetal programming due to maternal obesity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-10-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring.

  13. [Metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which is consisted of hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, is one of the most significant lifestyle-related disorders that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Among many upstream factors that are related to metabolic syndrome, obesity, especially visceral obesity, plays an essential role in its pathogenesis. In recent studies, possible mechanisms which connect obesity to metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, such as inflammation, abnormal secretion of adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome; and illustrate how visceral obesity contributes to, and how the treatments for obesity act on metabolic syndrome.

  14. [Muscle-related adverse effects of statins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola-Sintonen, Sinikka; Julkunen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects on muscles occur in approximately 5 to 10% of patients taking statins. Drug interactions, associated diseases, agedness, low body weight, high statin dose and hereditary factors increase the risk of adverse effects. In most cases the muscle effects are mild and disappear upon discontinuation of the medication. Rhabdomyolysis is a severe though rare complication that can possibly result in renal damage. A totally different muscle-related adverse effect, necrotizing myopathy, has recently been linked to the use of statins. Its characteristic feature is progression of the symptoms in spite of discontinuation of the statin.

  15. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  16. [Allergies and adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Y; Andrey, D; Emonet, S; Harr, T; Spoerl, D

    2015-04-08

    The prescription ot fluoroquinolones has been constantly increasing over the past decade. consequently, an increasing number of hyper-sensitivity reactions and adverse events have been reported. The aim of the review is to discuss the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions either IgE (immediate) or T cells mediated (delayed). We will make an overview ofthe diagnostic tools available to detect such hypersensitivity reactions. Finally, the specific adverse events associated with fluoroquinolones, including tendinopathy, chondrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy or retinal detachment will be discussed.

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbron, Jorge; Khandaker, Golam M; Toschi, Chiara; Jones, Peter B; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic complications are commonly found in people treated with clozapine. Reviews on the management of this problem have generally drawn conclusions by grouping different types of studies involving patients treated with various different antipsychotics. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. Two researchers independently searched PubMed and Embase for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. All other types of studies were excluded. We only included RCTs where more than 50% of participants were taking clozapine. We identified 15 RCTs. Effective pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome include metformin, aripiprazole, and Orlistat (in men only). Meta-analysis of three studies showed a robust effect of metformin in reducing body mass index and waist circumference but no effects on blood glucose, triglyceride levels, or HDL levels. In addition, there is limited evidence for combined calorie restriction and exercise as a non-pharmacological alternative for the treatment of clozapine-induced obesity, but only in an in-patient setting. Rosiglitazone, topiramate, sibutramine, phenylpropanolamine, modafinil, and atomoxetine have not shown to be beneficial, despite reports of efficacy in other populations treated with different antipsychotics. We conclude that randomised-controlled trial data support the use of metformin, aripiprazole, and Orlistat (in men only) for treating clozapine-induced obesity. Calorie restriction in combination with an exercise programme may be effective as a non-pharmacological alternative. Findings from trials in different populations should not be extrapolated to people being treated with clozapine.

  18. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  19. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  20. 阿立哌唑治疗利培酮所致精神分裂症女性患者高催乳素血症的研究%Aripiprazole in treatment of female schizophrenics with risperidone induced hyperprolactinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪菊英; 宋梓祥; 徐乐平; 孙剑; 施建安; 赵汉清; 王焕林

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprasole in treatment of female schizophrenics with risperidone induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods All 117 female schizophrenics with hyperprolactinemia after fixed dose risperidone treatment were randomly assigned to aripiprazole group (n=60) and control group (n=57), and received additional aripiprazole 5 nag daily or placebo for 6 weeks respectively. The plasma prolactin (PBL) level was measured at weeks 0 and 6, and the Brief Psychiatric Bating Scale (BPBS) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were assessed. Results (1)Plasma prolactin levels were significantly reduced after the study compared with the baseline [(26±6) μg/L vs. (112±40)μg/L] in aripiprazole group (P= 0.000), however there were no significant difference between pre- and post treatment in control group (P =0.180). (2) At weeks 6, the decline rate and the normal ratio of plasma prolactin levels were significantly higher in aripiprazole group [(75±8) % vs. 82%]than in control group [(5±30) % vs. 4%] respectively (beth P = 0.000 ). (3) Compared with the baseline, the BPRS score showed significant reduction in both groups at the end of the study (both P=0.045). The incidence of side effects showed no significant difference between aripiprazole and control group(P =0.553). Conclusion The results indicate that aripiprazole may be effective and safe for the treatment of female schizophrenics with risperidone induced hyperprolactinemis.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑治疗利培酮所致女性患者高催乳素血症的疗效及安全性.方法 117例利培酮所致高催乳素血症的女性患者,随机分为治疗组(60例)和对照组(57例).维持原有利培酮治疗不变,治疗组加用阿立哌唑5 mg,对照组加用安慰剂治疗,疗程均为6周.于治疗第0,6周末检测催乳素,评定简明精神病量表(BPRS)、治疗中需处理的不良反应症状量表(TESS).结果 (1)治疗第6周末,治疗组催乳素[(26±6)

  1. 氟西汀合并阿立哌唑对强迫症疗效的对照研究%Fluoxetine combined with Aripiprazole in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of fluoxetine combined with Aripiprazole in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD).Method :64 patients with OCD were randomly treated with fluoxetine only and fluoxetine combining with Aripiprazole .The efficacy wad measured with Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale(Y-BOCS),Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA) and Hamilton depression scale(HAMD).Results :There were significant differences between two groups in overall response showed by the reducation rate of Y-BOCS,HAMA and HAMD total scores.Conclusion: It is suggested that fluoxetine combining with Aripiprazole wave a superior effectiveness in the treatment of OCD.%目的探讨氟西汀合并阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的疗效。方法64例强迫症患者随机分为氟西汀组和氟西汀合并阿立哌唑组,疗程8周,采用强迫症量表(Y-BOCS),汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA),汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD),评定疗效。结果治疗结束时两组Y-BOCS,HAMA,HAMD的评分均显著下降,而合并阿立哌唑组更明显。结论氟西汀合并阿立哌唑治疗强迫症可以提高疗效。

  2. Rationale and Baseline Characteristics of PREVENT: A Second-Generation Intervention Trial in Subjects At-Risk (Prodromal) of Developing First-Episode Psychosis Evaluating Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Aripiprazole, and Placebo for the Prevention of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Hendrik; Stützer, Hartmut; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; de Millas, Walter; Janssen, Birgit; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Michel, Tanja Maria; Schneider, Frank; Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter; Brüne, Martin; Krüger-Özgürdal, Seza; Wobrock, Thomas; Riedel, Michael; Klosterkötter, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and omega-3-fatty acids have been found superior to control conditions as regards prevention of psychosis in people at-risk of first-episode psychosis. However, no large-scale trial evaluating the differential efficacy of CBT and antipsychotics has been performed yet. In PREVENT, we evaluate CBT, aripiprazole, and clinical management (CM) as well as placebo and CM for the prevention of psychosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with regard to the antipsychotic intervention and a randomized controlled trial with regard to the CBT intervention with blinded ratings. The hypotheses are first that CBT and aripiprazole and CM are superior to placebo and CM and second that CBT is not inferior to aripiprazole and CM combined. The primary outcome is transition to psychosis. By November 2010, 156 patients were recruited into the trial. The subjects were substantially functionally compromised (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale mean score 52.5) and 78.3% presented with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition axis I comorbid diagnosis. Prior to randomization, 51.5% of the participants preferred to be randomized into the CBT arm, whereas only 12.9% preferred pharmacological treatment. First, assessments of audiotaped treatment sessions confirmed the application of CBT-specific skills in the CBT condition and the absence of those in CM. The overall quality rating of the CBT techniques applied in the CBT condition was good. When the final results of the trial are available, PREVENT will substantially expand the current limited evidence base for best clinical practice in people at-risk (prodromal) of first-episode psychosis. PMID:21860040

  3. Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzmiller JP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph P Kitzmiller,1 Eduard B Mikulik,1 Anees M Dauki,2 Chandrama Murkherjee,1 Jasmine A Luzum3 1Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, 2College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy. Statin-associated muscle symptoms occur in ~10% of patients on statins and constitute the most commonly reported adverse effect associated with statin pharmacotherapy. Substantial clinical and nonclinical research effort has been dedicated to determining whether genetics can provide meaningful insight regarding an individual patient’s risk of statin adverse effects. This contemporary review of the relevant clinical research on polymorphisms in several key genes that affect statin pharmacokinetics (eg, transporters and metabolizing enzymes, statin efficacy (eg, drug targets and pathways, and end-organ toxicity (eg, myopathy pathways highlights several promising pharmacogenomic candidates. However, SLCO1B1 521C is currently the only clinically relevant pharmacogenetic test regarding statin toxicity, and its relevance is limited to simvastatin myopathy. Keywords: cholesterol, myopathy, lipids, muscle toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics

  4. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child.

  5. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  6. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies.

  7. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J.; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J.; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  8. Optimization and pharmacokinetics of the sustained release microspheres of aripiprazole%阿立哌唑缓释微球的工艺优化及体内药动学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 彭博; 王明新; 刘津爱; 王毅飞; 王东凯

    2012-01-01

    目的:制备阿立哌唑缓释微球,使用星点设计-效应面法优化工艺,并对其体内血药浓度进行分析.方法:采用乳化溶剂挥发法制备阿立哌唑微球;以油相二氯甲烷体积、水相聚乙烯醇质量分数及乳化转速为自变量,以微球的平均粒径、跨距、载药量、包封率、产率及突释量为因变量,对制备工艺进行优化,并对优化后的工艺进行验证.采用HPLC法测定家兔血浆中药物浓度.结果:最佳工艺为二氯甲烷体积1.62mL,聚乙烯醇质量分数1.91%,乳化转速2161 r·min-1;按优化工艺制备的微球外观圆整、流动性好;平均粒径为41.54μm,跨距为1.01,载药量为18.82%,包封率为75.39%,产率为85.17%,突释为1.68%.自制徽球制剂在家兔体内d1有少量的突释,d5 ~d20维持较稳定的血药浓度,缓慢释放,之后浓度开始下降.结论:所优化的制备工艺重现性好,简单易行;星点设计-效应面法优化微球制备工艺预测性良好,所制备的微球具有较好的体外缓释特性;阿立哌唑缓释微球在家兔体内缓慢释放,该释药行为达到了预期的目的.%Objective: To prepare the sustained release microspheres of aripiprazole, to optimize the formulation by central composite design-response surface methodology, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in rabbits. Methods: Emulsification-solvent evaporation method was used to prepare aripiprazole micro-spheres. The volume of CH2CI2 .polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration and speed of mechanical stirring were listed as three independent variables; the dependent variables were mean diameter, span, durg content, encapsulation efficiency, yield and initial release. The central composite design-response surface methodology was constructed to optimize the formulations, and the optimized formulation was validated. HPLC method was used for the determination of aripiprazole in rabbit plasma. Results: The optimized preparation

  9. Different effects of taking aripiprazole and risperidone on spontaneous brain activity in schizophrenics%阿立哌唑和利培酮对精神分裂症患者自发脑活动的不同影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常鑫; 罗程; 侯昌月; 陈琳; 陈曦; 贺辉; 段明君; 蒋宇超; 尧德中

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the difference in effects of taking two different kinds of drugs aripiprazole and risperidone on spontaneous brain activity among schizophrenics. Methods Nineteen patients(9 patients taking aripiprazole and 10 patients taking risperidone),who were recruited in the Fourth Peopleˊs Hospital of Chengdu were underwent a resting - state scanning at the Center for Information in Medicine of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. Two groupsˊfractional amplitude of low - frequency (fALFF)value were calculated and compared using two sample t - test. Results Compared with the aripiprazole group,risperidone group showed significantly decreasing areas of fALFF,including bilateral putamen,olfactory,caudate,orbitofrontal and right palli-dum;left middle temporal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus where also shown to have increasing areas. Conclusion Indeed,there are different effects of taking aripiprazole and risperidone on spontaneous brain activity in schizophrenics,which is consistent with the pharmacological mechanism of two drugs.%目的:探究临床常用抗精神病药物阿立哌唑和利培酮对精神分裂症患者自发性脑活动的不同影响。方法纳入就诊于成都市第四人民医院的长期服用阿立哌唑进行单药治疗的精神分裂症患者9例,服用利培酮单药治疗的精神分裂症患者10例,进行静息态功能磁共振(fMRI)扫描。分析两组患者 fMRI 信号的分数低频振幅(fALFF)的组间差异。结果与阿立哌唑组比较,利培酮组 fALFF 显著降低的脑区有双侧壳核、嗅皮质、尾状核、眶部额下回和右侧苍白球;fALFF 显著增高脑区有左侧颞中回和左侧缘上回(P <0.05)。结论阿立哌唑和利培酮会对大脑产生不同影响,差异脑区符合两种药物的不同药理机制。

  10. Metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Salim

    2007-01-01

    Acute metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids that consumes bicarbonate (high anion gap metabolic acidosis) or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis). The cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis includes lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, renal failure and intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylate and less commonly with pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline), propylene glycole or djenkol bean (gjenkolism). The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis, in particular organic form of acidosis such as lactic acidosis, has been very controversial. The only effective treatment for organic acidosis is cessation of acid production via improvement of tissue oxygenation. Treatment of acute organic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the morbidity and mortality despite improvement in acid-base parameters. Further studies are required to determine the optimal treatment strategies for acute metabolic acidosis.

  11. PXR antagonists and implication in drug metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Sridhar; Dou, Wei; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Adopted orphan nuclear receptor (NR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), plays a central role in the regulation of xeno- and endobiotic metabolism. Since the discovery of the functional role of PXR in 1998, there is evolving evidence for the role of PXR agonists in abrogating metabolic pathophysiology (e.g., cholestasis, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation). However, more recently, it is clear that PXR is also an important mediator of adverse xeno- (e.g., enhances acetaminophen toxicity) and endob...

  12. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  13. Adverse motor effects induced by antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccara, G; Cincotta, M; Borgheresi, A; Balestrieri, F

    2004-09-01

    Cognitive effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have been already extensively reported. In contrast, motor disturbances, frequently induced by these drugs, have not received similar attention. We review subjective and objective adverse motor effects of traditional and new AEDs. We discuss the methodological issues caused by the heterogeneous sources of information on drug adverse effects (controlled clinical studies, open studies, and case reports). We describe specific disturbances (vestibulocerebellar, dyskinesias, parkinsonism, tics, myoclonus, and tremor) as the effects of different AEDs on distinct motor circuitries. Finally, we summarize the role of sophisticated technical studies which provide a valuable insight into the specific or subtle effects of AEDs on the central nervous system.

  14. An adverse drug event manager facilitates spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Klarskov, Pia; Borgeskov, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is used for continuous risk-benefit evaluation of marketed pharmaceutical products and for signal detection. The Adverse Drug Event Manager (ADEM) is a service offered to clinicians employed at hospitals in the Capital Region...

  15. [Laser trabeculoplasty: therapeutic options and adverse effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, T; Eckert, S

    2010-01-01

    Laser trabeculoplasty is a simple method for treating glaucoma and ocular hypertension and has few adverse effects. There are different laser systems for reducing the intraocular pressure of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Complications include transient intraocular pressure elevation, iritis, and anterior synechiae.

  16. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of the goods traded. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse-selection problem: The market

  17. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of traded goods. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse selection problem: The market ten

  18. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable...

  19. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  20. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues.

  1. Adverse skin reactions following intravitreal bevacizumab injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, S; Entabi, M; Lee, N; Stavrakoglou, A

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe two separate cases of skin eruption following intravitreal bevacizumab injection with evidence to suggest that these were adverse drug reactions to bevacizumab. The authors also discuss how each case was treated and report on the final outcome. PMID:22715260

  2. Metabolic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Michael J; Young, G Bryan

    2011-11-01

    Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure. This article focuses on common causes of metabolic encephalopathy, and reviews common causes, clinical presentations and, where relevant, management.

  3. The comparison of blood prolactin in the female patients with psychosis treated by aripiprazole and Sulpiride%阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素影响的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素的影响。方法:将64例精神分裂症女性患者随机分为阿立哌唑组和舒必利组,比较两组治疗前后的血清催乳素变化。结果:阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素的影响有显著差异。结论:阿立哌唑对女性患者血清催乳素的影响较舒必利不明显。%Objective:To investigate the change of blood prolactin in female patients with p sychosis treated by aripiprazole and Sulpiride .Methods:64 female patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia form psychosis were randomized to aripiprazole and Sulpiride .The blood prolactin at the baseline and after treatment were compared.Results:There were significant differences in the blood prolactin after treatment between aripiprazole and Sulpiride groups . Conclusions:The change of blood prolactin in the female patients with psychosis caused by aripiprazole was little then Sulpiride .

  4. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA.

  5. Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotic drugs (quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone compared with placebo or typical antipsychotic drugs for treating refractory schizophrenia: overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: According to some cohort studies, the prevalence of refractory schizophrenia (RS is 20-40%. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone for treating RS. METHODS: This was a critical appraisal of Cochrane reviews published in the Cochrane Library, supplemented with reference to more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs on RS. The following databases were searched: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline (1966-2009, Controlled Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration (2009, Issue 2, Embase (Excerpta Medica (1980-2009, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs (1982-2009. There was no language restriction. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating atypical antipsychotics for treating RS were included. RESULTS: Seven Cochrane systematic reviews and 10 additional RCTs were included in this review. The data generally showed minor differences between the atypical antipsychotics evaluated and typical antipsychotics, regarding improvement in disease symptoms, despite better adherence to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Risperidone was specifically evaluated in patients with RS in one of the systematic reviews included, with favorable outcomes, but without definitive superiority compared with other drugs of proven efficacy, like amisulpride, clozapine and olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the difficulty in treating these patients, with high dropout rates and treatment patterns of modest improvement in assessments of effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics have advantages over typical antipsychotics mainly through their better safety profile, which leads to better adherence to treatment. A combination of antipsychotics may also be an option for some refractory patients.

  6. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.

  7. Metabolic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as porphyria Severe infection throughout the body ( sepsis ) Thyroid disease Vitamin deficiencies (including vitamins B12 , B6 , E , and B1 ) Some metabolic disorders are passed down through families (inherited), while others ...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance syndrome, low HDL cholesterol, Metabolic Syndrome, overweight, syndrome x, type 2 diabetes Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women January 2005 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  9. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but ef

  10. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  11. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  12. Obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J.Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of obesity in both developed and developing countries has increased dramatically in recent years.1Many people who are obese develop metabolic changes that increase the risk of diabetes mellitus and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obesity leads to the development of insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities and increased blood pressure.

  13. Possible adverse effect of chromium in occupational exposure of tannery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Carlos; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Nava, Laura Eugenia; Gómez, Leobardo; González, Rita

    2002-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the adverse effects of occupational exposure to trivalent chromium. We measured chromium and iron levels in serum and urine and hemoglobin levels in tannery workers and unexposed persons. We studied three groups of subjects. Group 1 included 15 non-smoking male tannery workers highly exposed to chromium from tanning and retanning departments. Group 2 included 14 non-smoking male tannery workers with moderate chromium exposure from dying, drying and finishing departments. Group 3 included 11 healthy, non-smoking male subjects without direct chromium exposure. Higher serum chromium levels were observed in groups 1 and 2 with respect to group 3 (mean values respectively: 0.43; 0.25 and 0.13 microg x l(-1)). Urine chromium levels in group 1 were higher than those in controls (mean values: 1.78 and 1.35 microg x l(-1)). In group 1 an inverse association was found between serum chromium and urine iron (-0.524), urine chromium and hemoglobin (-0.594) and between the urine chromium to iron ratio and hemoglobin (-0.693, p<0.05). The results suggest a chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism, possibly associated with excessive body chromium accumulation. In conclusion, chromium urine test could be recommended for diagnosis of chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism. Further studies are needed to quantify the relationship between urine chromium and hemoglobin metabolism.

  14. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  15. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  16. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, S.W.; Friis-Moller, N.; Bruyand, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Reiss, P.; El-Sadr, W.; Phillips, A.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  17. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Worm; N. Friis-Møller; M. Bruyand; A. d'Arminio Monforte; M. Rickenbach; P. Reiss; W. El-Sadr; A. Phillips; J. Lundgren; C. Sabin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  18. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  19. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome Print A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  20. Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica; Rickels, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain and an increased incidence of metabolic diseases. The metabolic impairments are assumed a consequence of increased body adiposity secondary to central nervous system-associated increases in food intake. We have previously reported that, independent of weight gain, 9 days of olanzapine administration to control subjects is associated with insulin resistance and increases in postprandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 to a mixed meal challenge. This current report describes previously unpublished data on the effects of the SGAs olanzapine and aripiprazole compared with placebo on detailed hunger and satiety responses over the 12-day inpatient evaluation as well as postprandial ghrelin and leptin responses prior to and following administration of the 2 SGAs. We found no changes in hunger, fullness, or in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin or satiety hormone leptin, consistent with our previous report indicating no change in weight during this study. The results indicate that the SGAs are associated with metabolic changes prior to changes in hunger, satiety, and food intake, and this temporal separation suggests that there are differential mechanisms mediating SGA-associated changes in metabolism and food intake.

  1. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  2. Adverse selection model regarding tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of introducing a tax on tobacco consumption can be studied trough an adverse selection model. The objective of the model presented in the following is to characterize the optimal contractual relationship between the governmental authorities and the two type employees: smokers and non-smokers, taking into account that the consumers’ decision to smoke or not represents an element of risk and uncertainty. Two scenarios are run using the General Algebraic Modeling Systems software: one without taxes set on tobacco consumption and another one with taxes set on tobacco consumption, based on an adverse selection model described previously. The results of the two scenarios are compared in the end of the paper: the wage earnings levels and the social welfare in case of a smoking agent and in case of a non-smoking agent.

  3. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VM Morais

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism as: anaphylactic reactions mediated by IgE, anaphylactoid reactions caused by complement system activation, and pyrogenic reactions produced mainly by the presence of endotoxins in the final product. In the future, antivenoms may be replaced by humanized antibodies, specific neutralizing compounds or vaccination. Meanwhile, improvements in antivenom quality will be focused on the obtainment of a more purified and specific product in compliance with good manufacturing practices and at an affordable cost.

  4. Clinical effect and influence in cognitive function of aripiprazole and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮对精神分裂症患者的临床疗效及认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 程哲; 杨芳; 程传宝

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia, and the influence in cognitive function of patients. [ Methods] 156 schizophrenia patients were randomly divided into two groups, 78 cases in each group. The research group was treated with aripiprazole orally, and the control group was given risperidone, for 8 weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the 4th and 8th week of treatment, the clinical effect was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression ( CGIS) , and the adverse reactions were evaluated with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). Before treatment and at the end of the 8th week of treatment, the cognitive functions of patients was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) , the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The evaluation results of two groups were analyzed and compared. [ Results] At the end of 4th week of treatment, the total and each factors scores of PANSS, as well as CGIS score decreased significantly as compared with those before treatment (P 0.05). At the end of 8th week of treatment, the obvious effective rate and effective rate in the research group was 73.08% and 96.15% respectively, and that in the control group was 71. 79% and 92. 31% respectively, which showed no significantly difference (X2 = 0. 032, 0. 806,P >0.05). At the end of 8th week, the error answers and non-persistent error of WCST of two groups decreased significantly than those before treatment, while factor scores of WMS in the recognition, regeneration, comprehension, memory quotient were significantly higher than those before treatment (P 0.05). Adverse reactions of both groups were mild, and appeared at the beginning of treatment. The incidence rates of extrapyramidal reactions, menstrual disorders, lactation and weight gain in the research group were significantly lower than those in the

  5. The Role of Leasing under Adverse Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Igal Hendel; Alessandro Lizzeri

    2002-01-01

    Leasing contracts specify a rental rate and an option price at which the used good can be bought at the termination of the lease. This option price cannot be controlled when the car is sold. We show that in a world with symmetric information this additional control variable is useless; equilibrium allocations and profits to lessors are unaffected by the option prices. In contrast, under adverse selection, leasing contracts affect equilibrium allocations in a way that matches observed behavior...

  6. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed.

  7. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  8. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    OpenAIRE

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue-Mei; Park, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was de...

  9. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee: Recommended ("Best") Practices for Determining, Communicating, and Using Adverse Effect Data from Nonclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Roy; Bolon, Brad; Burkhardt, John; Francke, Sabine; Greaves, Peter; Meador, Vince; Popp, James

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations (best practices) are provided by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Adversity Working Group for making consistent interpretations of test article-related effects as "adverse" and assigning a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) in nonclinical toxicity studies. Adverse is a term indicating "harm" to the test animal, while nonadverse indicates lack of harm. Adverse findings in the study reports should be defined in relation to effects on the test species used and within the context of the given study. Test article-related effects should be described on their own merits, and decisions to consider them as adverse or nonadverse should be justified. Related effects may be discussed together; in particular, markers of toxicity that are not in and of themselves adverse ideally should be discussed in conjunction with the causal toxicity to determine adversity. Adverse findings should be identified in subreports (clinical data, pathology data, etc.) if sufficient information is available, and/or in the final study report as individual or grouped findings, but study NOAELs should be established at the level of the overall study report. Interpretations such as "not biologically relevant" or "not toxicologically important" should be avoided unless defined and supported by scientific rationale. Decisions defining adverse findings and the NOAEL in final study reports should combine the expertise of all contributing scientific disciplines. Where possible, use of NOAELs in data tables should be linked to explanatory text that places them in context. Ideally, in nonclinical summary documents, NOAELs from multiple studies are considered together in defining the most important adverse responses in the most sensitive species. These responses are then considered along with an understanding of their likely mechanisms, as well as other information such as variability in species sensitivity, comparative pathology, reversibility and progression, kinetics, and

  10. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  11. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  12. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  13. Deep body composition phenotyping during weight cycling: relevance to metabolic efficiency and metabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Skurk, T; Müller, M J

    2015-02-01

    Weight cycling may lead to adverse effects on metabolic efficiency (i.e. adaptive thermogenesis or 'metabolic slowing') and metabolic risks (e.g. increased risk for insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome). In order to investigate these topics, the partitioning of fat and lean mass (i.e. the change in the proportion of both compartments) needs to be extended to the organ and tissue level because metabolic risk differs between adipose tissue depots and lean mass is metabolically heterogeneous being composed of organs and tissues differing in metabolic rate. Contrary to data obtained with severe weight loss and regain in lean people, weight cycling most likely has no adverse effects on fat distribution and metabolic risk in obese patients. There is even evidence for an increased ability of fat storage in subcutaneous fat depots (at the trunk in men and at the limbs in women) with weight cycling that may provide a certain protection from ectopic lipid deposition and thus explain the preservation of a favourable metabolic profile despite weight regain. On the other hand, the mass-specific metabolic rate of lean mass may increase with weight gain and decrease with weight loss mainly because of an increase and respective decrease in the proportion (and/or activity) of metabolically active organ mass. Obese people could therefore have a higher slope of the regression line between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat-free mass that leads to an overestimation of metabolic efficiency when applied to normalize REE data after weight loss. Furthermore, in addressing the impact of macronutrient composition of the diet on partitioning of lean and fat mass, and the old controversy about whether a calorie is a calorie, we discuss recent evidence in support of a low glycaemic weight maintenance diet in countering weight regain and challenge this concept for weight loss by proposing the opposite.

  14. Pharmacogenetics of olanzapine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Mao Mao; Dahl, Marja-Liisa

    2013-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine, display large interindividual variation leading to multiple-fold differences in drug exposure between patients at a given dose. This variation in turn gives rise to the need for individualized dosing in order to avoid concentration-dependent adverse effects or therapeutic failure. Genetically determined differences in olanzapine metabolism represent a less studied source of variability in comparison to environmental and physiological factors. In this review, we summarize available in vitro and in vivo data addressing the influence of polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes on olanzapine serum exposure. The polymorphic CYP2D6 enzyme appears to have no significant influence on olanzapine steady-state serum concentrations. The formation of the various olanzapine metabolites is influenced by polymorphisms in the genes coding for CYP1A2, CYP1A expression regulator AHR, UGT1A4 and UGT2B10, as well as FMO3. An impact on steady-state olanzapine serum concentrations has been suggested for variants of CYP1A2 and UGT1A4, with somewhat conflicting findings. The potential involvement of FMO1 and CYP3A43 in olanzapine disposition has also been suggested but needs future validation.

  15. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  16. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned.

  17. Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, Jacoline C; De Bruin, Marie L; Koopmanschap, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause considerable mortality and morbidity but no recent reviews are currently available for the European region. Therefore, we performed a review of all epidemiological studies quantifying ADRs in a European setting that were published between 1 January 2000 and 3...... September 2014. Included studies assessed the number of patients who were admitted to hospital due to an ADR, studies that assessed the number of patients who developed an ADR during hospitalization, and studies that measured ADRs in the outpatient setting. In total, 47 articles were included in the final...

  18. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy.

  19. A control study of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablet vs . sulpiride in the treatment of childbearing-age female schizo-phrenia characterized by negative symptoms%阿立哌唑口崩片与舒必利治疗以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨银; 杨晶

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨阿立哌唑口崩片与舒必利治疗以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和安全性。方法将120例以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组和对照组,每组60例,分别口服阿立哌唑口崩片、舒必利治疗,观察8周。采用阴性症状量表、临床总体印象量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果研究组显效率为70.7%、总有效率为91.4%,对照组分别为66.7%、89.5%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.22、0.12,P>0.05)。研究组未出现月经失调、泌乳及体质量增加等不良反应,不良反应发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.01)。结论阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的育龄期女性精神分裂症患者疗效显著且与舒必利相当,但阿立哌唑口崩片治疗安全性更高,依从性更好。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablet (AODT ) vs .sulpiride in the treatment of childbearing-age female schizophrenia characterized by negative symptoms .Methods A total of 120 childbearing age female schizophrenics characterized by negative symptoms were randomly divided into research and control group of 60 ones each ,they respectively took o-rally AODT and sulpiride for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Nega-tive Symptoms (SANS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and adverse reactions with the Treatment E-mergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results The obvious and total effective rate were respectively 70 .7%and 91 .4% in research and 66 .7% and 89 .5% in control group ,which showed no significant group differ-ences (χ2 =0 .22 ,0 .12 ,P>0 .05) .Research group had no such adverse reactions as menstrual disorder , lactation ,weight gain and so on ,incidences of adverse reactions were significantly lower in research than control group (P<0 .01

  20. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (PConsumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P=0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (Preporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity.

  1. Development of a Pediatric Adverse Events Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Kirkendall, Eric S; Gumbs-Petty, Brenda; Quinn, Theresa; Steen, A; Hicks, Amanda; McMahon, Ann; Nicholas, Savian; Zhao-Wong, Anna; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Turner, Mark; Herreshoff, Emily; Jones, Charlotte; Davis, Jonathan M; Haber, Margaret; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) established the Pediatric Terminology Harmonization Initiative to establish a core library of terms to facilitate the acquisition and sharing of knowledge between pediatric clinical research, practice, and safety reporting. A coalition of partners established a Pediatric Terminology Adverse Event Working Group in 2013 to develop a specific terminology relevant to international pediatric adverse event (AE) reporting. Pediatric specialists with backgrounds in clinical care, research, safety reporting, or informatics, supported by biomedical terminology experts from the National Cancer Institute's Enterprise Vocabulary Services participated. The multinational group developed a working definition of AEs and reviewed concepts (terms, synonyms, and definitions) from 16 pediatric clinical domains. The resulting AE terminology contains >1000 pediatric diseases, disorders, or clinical findings. The terms were tested for proof of concept use in 2 different settings: hospital readmissions and the NICU. The advantages of the AE terminology include ease of adoption due to integration with well-established and internationally accepted biomedical terminologies, a uniquely temporal focus on pediatric health and disease from conception through adolescence, and terms that could be used in both well- and underresourced environments. The AE terminology is available for use without restriction through the National Cancer Institute's Enterprise Vocabulary Services and is fully compatible with, and represented in, the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. The terminology is intended to mature with use, user feedback, and optimization.

  2. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  3. Development of a Pediatric Adverse Events Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S.; Kirkendall, Eric S.; Gumbs-Petty, Brenda; Quinn, Theresa; Steen, A.; Hicks, Amanda; McMahon, Ann; Nicholas, Savian; Zhao-Wong, Anna; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Turner, Mark; Herreshoff, Emily; Jones, Charlotte; Davis, Jonathan M.; Haber, Margaret; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) established the Pediatric Terminology Harmonization Initiative to establish a core library of terms to facilitate the acquisition and sharing of knowledge between pediatric clinical research, practice, and safety reporting. A coalition of partners established a Pediatric Terminology Adverse Event Working Group in 2013 to develop a specific terminology relevant to international pediatric adverse event (AE) reporting. Pediatric specialists with backgrounds in clinical care, research, safety reporting, or informatics, supported by biomedical terminology experts from the National Cancer Institute’s Enterprise Vocabulary Services participated. The multinational group developed a working definition of AEs and reviewed concepts (terms, synonyms, and definitions) from 16 pediatric clinical domains. The resulting AE terminology contains >1000 pediatric diseases, disorders, or clinical findings. The terms were tested for proof of concept use in 2 different settings: hospital readmissions and the NICU. The advantages of the AE terminology include ease of adoption due to integration with well-established and internationally accepted biomedical terminologies, a uniquely temporal focus on pediatric health and disease from conception through adolescence, and terms that could be used in both well- and underresourced environments. The AE terminology is available for use without restriction through the National Cancer Institute’s Enterprise Vocabulary Services and is fully compatible with, and represented in, the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. The terminology is intended to mature with use, user feedback, and optimization. PMID:28028203

  4. Adverse drug reactions in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Dhriti K; Wahlang, Julie B; Marak, Maxilline D; Ch Sangma, Marlina

    2013-04-01

    Medications probably are the single most important health care technology in preventing illness, disability, and death in the geriatric population. Age-related changes in drug disposition and pharmacodynamic responses have significant clinical implications; increased use of a number of medications raises the risk that medicine-related problems may occur. The relationship between increased use of drugs including the prescription medication and elderly is well established. Majority of ADRs (80%) causing admission or occurring in hospital are type A reactions. Although less common occurring in elderly, type B ADRs may sometimes cause serious toxicity. Studies have correlated the integral association between old age and increased rate of adverse drug reactions arising out of confounding association between age and polypharmacy contributed by age-related changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics at least for some medical conditions. A drug combination may sometimes cause synergistic toxicity which is greater than the sum of the risks of toxicity of either agent used alone. But, strategies to increase opportunities for identifying ADRs and related problems have not been emphasised in current international policy responses especially in India to the increase in elderly population and chronic conditions. Careful epidemiological studies that encompass large numbers of elderly drug users are required to obtain this information as increased knowledge of the frequency and cost of adverse drug reactions is important in enabling both more rational therapeutic decisions by individual clinicians and more optimal social policy.

  5. Adverse drug reactions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti K Brahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medications probably are the single most important health care technology in preventing illness, disability, and death in the geriatric population. Age-related changes in drug disposition and pharmacodynamic responses have significant clinical implications; increased use of a number of medications raises the risk that medicine-related problems may occur. The relationship between increased use of drugs including the prescription medication and elderly is well established. Majority of ADRs (80% causing admission or occurring in hospital are type A reactions. Although less common occurring in elderly, type B ADRs may sometimes cause serious toxicity. Studies have correlated the integral association between old age and increased rate of adverse drug reactions arising out of confounding association between age and polypharmacy contributed by age-related changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics at least for some medical conditions. A drug combination may sometimes cause synergistic toxicity which is greater than the sum of the risks of toxicity of either agent used alone. But, strategies to increase opportunities for identifying ADRs and related problems have not been emphasised in current international policy responses especially in India to the increase in elderly population and chronic conditions. Careful epidemiological studies that encompass large numbers of elderly drug users are required to obtain this information as increased knowledge of the frequency and cost of adverse drug reactions is important in enabling both more rational therapeutic decisions by individual clinicians and more optimal social policy.

  6. Control study of Wujibaifeng pills and aripiprazole in the treatment of female schizophrenia patients with hyperprolactinemia split caused by risperidone%乌鸡白凤丸与阿立哌唑治疗利培酮所致女性精神分裂症患者高催乳素血症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽燕; 丁良; 李玉欣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乌鸡白凤丸与阿立哌唑对女性精神分裂症患者服用利培酮所致高催乳素血症的影响及其安全性。方法将应用利培酮治疗导致高催乳素血症的67例女性精神分裂症患者随机分为乌鸡白凤丸组和阿立哌唑组,疗程4周。结果乌鸡白凤丸组完成28例,阿立哌唑组完成30例,乌鸡白凤丸组血清催乳素明显低于入组前(t=7.624,P=0.000),阿立哌唑组血清催乳素明显低于入组前(t=8.278,P=0.000),两组血清催乳素水平无明显差异(t=1.965,P=0.054)。结论乌鸡白凤丸与阿立哌唑均能降低利培酮所致高催乳素水平,安全性好。%Objective To explore the efifcacy and safety of Wujibaifeng pills and aripiprazole in the treatment of female hyperprolactinemia caused by risperidone.Methods 67 female schizophrenia patients with hyperprolactinemia caused by risperidone and aripiprazole were randomly assigned into Wujibaifeng pills group and aripiprazole group treated for 4 weeks. Results In Wujibaifeng pills group 28 cases were completed the treatment,in aripiprazole group 30 cases completed. In Wujibaifeng pills group, the serum prolactin was significantly lower than before treatment (t=7.624,P=0.000), serum prolactin in aripiprazole group was signiifcantly lower than that before treatment (t=8.278,P=0.000). The serum prolactin levels in the two groups had no significant difference (t=1.965,P=0.054) .Conclusion Wujibaifeng pills and aripiprazole can reduce risperidone induced hyperprolactinemia level with good safety.

  7. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  8. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Lauenborg, Jeannet; Breum, Birger Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery.......The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery....

  9. The influence of thyroid disorders on adverse pregnancy outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissenberg, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the association between thyroid disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the underlying pathophysiology and treatment possibilities. The association between thyroid disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes is investigated in a systematic review and two retrospective cohort stud

  10. Auditory hallucinations in childhood : associations with adversity and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; van de Willige, G.; Jenner, J. A.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous work suggests that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with the combination of delusions and hallucinations. In the present study, associations between (severity of) auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and (i) social adversity [traumatic experiences (TE) and stressful

  11. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  12. FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): Latest Quartely Data Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. The database...

  13. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  14. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  15. 非水反相高效液相色谱法测定阿立哌唑的含量%Determination of Aripiprazole by Nonaqueous Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红菊; 蒋晔; 郝晓花

    2005-01-01

    阿立哌唑(aripiprazole, 7-[4-[4-(2,3-二氯苯基)-1-哌嗪基]丁氧基]-3,4-二氢化喹喏啉酮)是日本Otsuka公司于1988年开发的第二代非典型性抗精神病药,于2002年由美国食品药品管理局(FDA)批准上市,商品名为Abilify,用于精神分裂症的治疗.阿立哌唑的含量测定方法尚未见报道.

  16. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  17. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-01-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the developm...

  18. To observe the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症的临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚日东; 黄书梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of female spirit admitted in our hospital in 2012 January to 2014 January between the schizophrenia patients for clinical research,The patients were randomly divided into aripiprazole group and risperidone group, compared two groups of patients with clinical curative effect. Results In the two groups before treatment PANSS clinical psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and score of contrast was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05), the clinical treatment for 2 weeks, 4 weeks of treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment, PANSS psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and total score compared with the statistically significant difference (P0.05),临床治疗2周、治疗4周和治疗8周后PANSS精神病理、阴性症状、阳性症状和总分对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组女性精神分裂症患者临床治疗的总有效率和不良反应发生率对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论该次医学研究结果证实,阿立哌唑用于女性精神分裂症的临床治疗,具有更高的有效率和安全性,因而临床推广和应用价值更高。

  19. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  20. Consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. Since 2003 in Denmark, consumers have been able to report ADRs directly to the authorities. The objective of this study was to compare ADRs reported by consumers with ADRs...... reported from other sources, in terms of their type, seriousness and the suspected medicines involved. METHODS: The number of ADRs reported to the Danish ADR database from 2004 to 2006 was analysed in terms of category of reporter, seriousness, category of ADRs by system organ class (SOC) and the suspected...... medicines on level 1 of the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. ADR reports from consumers were compared with reports from other sources (physicians, pharmacists, lawyers, pharmaceutical companies and other healthcare professionals). Chi-square and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated...

  1. Periodontal treatment for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Karimbux, Nadeem; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Periodontal treatment might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. The efficacy of periodontal treatment to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality was evaluated using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. METHODS: An existing systematic review was updated...... risk of random errors. RESULTS: Thirteen randomized clinical trials evaluating 6283 pregnant women were meta-analyzed. Four and nine trials had low and high risk of bias, respectively. Overall, periodontal treatment had no significant effect on preterm birth (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.......79 [0.57-1.10]) or low birth weight (0.69 [0.43-1.13]). Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that futility was not reached for any of the outcomes. For populations with moderate occurrence (periodontal treatment was not efficacious for any of the outcomes...

  2. Seamless prevention of adverse events from tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The boom in tattooing has been paralleled by more frequent adverse events, which may be localised in the skin or systemic and manifested clinically or latent. Infections, allergic reactions from red-coloured tattoos and papulo-nodular reactions from black tattoos dominate. Mild complaints are very...... strategy that emphasises the customer-tattooist interaction, which is the 'engine' of tattoo safety. This strategy amalgamates the range of narrow-scope preventive instruments and shall ensure that any relevant instrument is used actively and without deficiency or drop out, thus resulting in a complete...... orchestration of a multi-targeted strategy. High-priority elements of this strategy shall facilitate a qualified 'go' or 'no go' decision by the customer before the tattoo is made and should involve informed consent, qualification of the tattooist and the parlour, including supplies of inks etc., and attention...

  3. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  4. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications…

  5. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  6. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  7. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  8. Comparison of Efficacy and Prolactin Concentrations between Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treat-ments in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马筠; 李轶琛; 李毅; 房茂胜; 钟宝亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prolactin concentrations between aripiprazole and risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight schizophrenic patients with hy-perprolactinemia were randomly divided into risperidone group and aripiprazole group. Patients in the risperidone group were treated with risperidone and in the aripiprazole group were treated with aripiprazol instead of risperidone for 8 weeks. The prolactin concentrations were assessed and compared between two groups at weeks 0, 1,2, 4, 6, and 8. The clinical status was assessed by using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the clinical global impressions scale (CGIS) atweeks0 and 8. Results: Fifty-three in the risperidone group and 48 in the aripiprazole group were available for analyzing. Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels. The serum prolactin levels in the risperidone group was significantly lower than that in the aripiprazole group at week 8 (P<0.001). No significant changes was found in the PANSS and CGI-S scores between the two groups. Conclusion: Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels of schizophrenia patients with hyperprolactinemia.%目的:研究阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响.方法:伴有高催乳素血症的精神分裂症患者128 例,随机分为利培酮组(维持利培酮治疗)和阿立哌唑(阿立哌唑替代利培酮治疗)组,治疗8 周.于第0、1、2、4、6 及8 周测血清催乳素水平及身体质量指数(BMI);在入组时和治疗8 周时采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)和临床总体印象量表(CGIS)测定疗效.结果:可用于评估的数据101 例,利培酮组53 例,阿立哌唑组48 例.阿立哌唑组替换治疗后第1 周血清催乳素水平即明显下降,第8 周时,显著低于利培酮组(P<0.001);2 组BMI 、PANSS 及CGIS 评分及变化差异无统计

  9. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse...

  10. Lipidomics reveals early metabolic changes in subjects with schizophrenia: effects of atypical antipsychotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph McEvoy

    Full Text Available There is a critical need for mapping early metabolic changes in schizophrenia to capture failures in regulation of biochemical pathways and networks. This information could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms, trajectory of disease progression, and diagnostic biomarkers. We used a lipidomics platform to measure individual lipid species in 20 drug-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FE group, 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia that had not adhered to prescribed medications (RE group, and 29 race-matched control subjects without schizophrenia. Lipid metabolic profiles were evaluated and compared between study groups and within groups before and after treatment with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and aripiprazole. Finally, we mapped lipid profiles to n3 and n6 fatty acid synthesis pathways to elucidate which enzymes might be affected by disease and treatment. Compared to controls, the FE group showed significant down-regulation of several n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, including 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 within the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid classes. Differences between FE and controls were only observed in the n3 class PUFAs; no differences where noted in n6 class PUFAs. The RE group was not significantly different from controls, although some compositional differences within PUFAs were noted. Drug treatment was able to correct the aberrant PUFA levels noted in FE patients, but changes in re patients were not corrective. Treatment caused increases in both n3 and n6 class lipids. These results supported the hypothesis that phospholipid n3 fatty acid deficits are present early in the course of schizophrenia and tend not to persist throughout its course. These changes in lipid metabolism could indicate a metabolic vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia that occurs early in development of the disease.

  11. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  12. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  13. 阿立哌唑联用氯氮平维持治疗对慢性精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响%Influence of Aripiprazole combined with Clozapine on cognitive function in maintenance treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜; 汪富军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑联用氯氮平维持治疗对慢性精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响。方法:入组40例维持期的慢性精神分裂症患者,均为阿立哌唑联用氯氮平治疗(联用组),与同期住院的40例单用氯氮平治疗的慢性精神分裂症患者(单用组)对照。分别于入组时、入组后6个月、12个月采用重复性成套神经心理状态测验( RBANS)评定患者的认知功能,并同时用PANSS量表评定患者的临床疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评定药物不良反应。结果:PANSS总评分入组时、入组后12个月两组患者之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),各组患者治疗前后差异也无统计学意义(P>0.05)。认知功能评定联用组患者入组后6个月开始注意功能因子分,即刻记忆因子分与入组前相比差异有统计学意义(P0.05),单用组患者5项因子分入组前后差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。总不良反应两组患者间差异有统计学意义(P0. 05). There were no statistical differences for the two groups before and after the treatment (P>0. 05). In the assessment of cognitive function, the combination group began to pay attention to functional factor scores, and the immediate memorial factor score difference had the statisti-cal significance before and after admission (P0. 05). 5 factor scores of single group all had no statistical differences before and after admission (P>0. 05). The differences in the total adverse reactions between the two groups had the statistical significance (P<0. 05). Conclusions:Aripiprazole combined with Clozapine for the maintenance treatment is a safe and effective method, which can improve the patients' cognitive functional disorder with little adverse reactions.

  14. The adverse effects of hormonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, T L

    1986-02-01

    Estrogen therapy must be cycled with progestin therapy in women with intact uteri in order to prevent uterine cancer. However, these women cannot be expected to benefit (with regard to cardiovascular disease) from any estrogen-induced changes in the lipoprotein profile, as progestins will either negate or overwhelm any estrogen effects. However, such women will definitely benefit from estrogen's effects with regard to menopausal symptoms and bone loss. These clearly beneficial effects of estrogen-progestin therapy are not outweighed by any known risks. However, in women without uteri (approximately 30 per cent of women), unopposed estrogen therapy in the menopause may protect against cardiovascular disease, as well as have beneficial effects on bone metabolism and menopausal symptoms. In this special case, the beneficial effects of unopposed estrogen therapy clearly outweigh any known risk.

  15. Infliximab in patients with psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases: evaluation of adverse events in the treatment of 168 patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, João Roberto; Sanmiguel, Jessica; Cagnon, Giovana Viotto; Augusto, Marília Silveira Faeda; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Pozetti, Eurides Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with preference for skin and joints. The skin involvement occurs by hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. It is associated with comorbidities, mainly related to the clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Increased TNF-alpha expression (TNF-α) is related to its pathophysiology. Infliximab is an intravenous drug that acts neutralizing the biological activity of TNF-α and prevents the binding of the molecule to the target cell receptor, inhibiting cell proliferation of psoriasis and other diseases mediated by TNF-α. A lot of infusion reactions have been described in the literature. Objective To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous treatment with infliximab, analyzing patients with psoriasis compared to those with other chronic inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Method Analysis of medical records and adverse events of 168 patients undergoing infliximab infusion for psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases treatment. Results 168 patients who have used infliximab were evaluated, 24 had psoriasis and 144 had chronic inflammatory diseases. Only 2 (8.3%) patients with psoriasis showed adverse events requiring treatment discontinuation, and just 6 (4.2%) female patients with chronic inflammatory diseases experienced adverse events. Conclusion Infliximab is a safe drug, with a low percentage of adverse events and there were more adverse events in women with chronic inflammatory diseases and in patients who received more infliximab infusions. PMID:27438197

  16. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young.

  17. Serum tryptase levels in adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoqui, E; Zubeldia, J M; Aranzábal, A; Rubio, M; Herrero, T; Tornero, P; Rodríguez, V M; Prieto, A; Baeza, M L

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of individual tryptase levels and variations after adverse drug reactions in 64 patients. Our aim was to find a tool for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Thirty-seven subjects were confirmed to have drug allergy, 12 had nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions, five had negative controlled drug challenges (NAAR), and 10 had symptoms after placebo intake (PLA). Serum tryptase levels greatly increased after anaphylactic shocks (2242%) and anaphylaxis (710.5%). Patients with allergic urticaria and those with idiosyncratic responses to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) exhibited a small increase in serum tryptase (49.5% and 38.2%, respectively). In the other two groups (NAAR and PLA), no variation in this serum protease was observed. The time of appearance of the serum tryptase peak differed considerably among patients with similar clinical reactions (from 30 min to 6 h) and was independent of the latent period, severity of symptoms, or the amount of tryptase released. We conclude that serum tryptase determinations are helpful in the diagnosis of anaphylactic shock and anaphylaxis, but serial measurements may be needed to confirm mast-cell participation in milder reactions.

  18. Metabolic Effect Level Index Links Multivariate Metabolic Fingerprints to Ecotoxicological Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Schreiber, René; Otto, Matthias; Heilmeier, Hermann; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-07-07

    A major goal of ecotoxicology is the prediction of adverse outcomes for populations from sensitive and early physiological responses. A snapshot of the physiological state of an organism can be provided by metabolic fingerprints. However, to inform chemical risk assessment, multivariate metabolic fingerprints need to be converted to readable end points suitable for effect estimation and comparison. The concentration- and time-dependent responsiveness of metabolic fingerprints to the PS-II inhibitor isoproturon was investigated by use of a Myriophyllum spicatum bioassay. Hydrophilic and lipophilic leaf extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and preprocessed with XCMS. Metabolic changes were aggregated in the quantitative metabolic effect level index (MELI), allowing effect estimation from Hill-based concentration-response models. Hereby, the most sensitive response on the concentration scale was revealed by the hydrophilic MELI, followed by photosynthetic efficiency and, 1 order of magnitude higher, by the lipophilic MELI and shoot length change. In the hydrophilic MELI, 50% change compares to 30% inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency and 10% inhibition of dry weight change, indicating effect development on different response levels. In conclusion, aggregated metabolic fingerprints provide quantitative estimates and span a broad response spectrum, potentially valuable for establishing adverse outcome pathways of chemicals in environmental risk assessment.

  19. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two...... of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome are related to greater initial ECG LVH in hypertensive patients with value of blood pressure similar to individuals without metabolic abnormalities, and are associated with less reduction of ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy......, potentially contributing to the reported adverse prognosis of metabolic syndrome....

  20. CYP2C9 polymorphism in patients with epilepsy: genotypic frequency analyzes andphenytoin adverse reactions correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Twardowschy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: CYP2C9 is a major enzyme in human drug metabolism and the polymorphism observed in the corresponding gene may affect therapeutic outcome during treatment. The distribution of variant CYP2C9 alleles and prevalence of phenytoin adverse reactions were hereby investigated in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. METHOD: Allele-specific PCR analysis was carried out in order to determine frequencies of the two most common variant alleles, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in genomic DNA isolated from 100 epileptic patients. We also analyzed the frequency of phenytoin adverse reactions among those different genotypes groups. The data was presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: The mean age at enrollment was 39.6±10.3 years (range, 17-72 years and duration of epilepsy was 26.5±11.9 years (range 3-48 years. The mean age at epilepsy onset was 13.1±12.4 years (range, 1 month-62 years. Frequencies of CYP2C9*1 (84%, CYP2C9*2 (9% and CYP2C9*3 (7% were similar to other published reports. Phenytoin adverse reactions were usually mild and occurred in 15% patients, without correlation with the CYP2C9 polymorphism (p=0.34. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an overall similar distribution of the CYP2C9 alleles in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy in the South of Brazil, compared to other samples. This sample of phenytoin users showed no drug related adverse reactions and CYP2C9 allele type correlation. The role of CYP2C9 polymorphism influence on phenytoin adverse reaction remains to be determined since some literature evidence and our data found negative results.

  1. Concomitant use of clopidogrel and statins and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events following coronary stent implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten; Johansen, Martin B; Mæng, Michael

    2012-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • The CYP3A4 inhibition by lipophilic statins may attenuate the effectiveness of clopidogrel. • No studies have measured drug exposure in a time-varying manner that detects discontinuation and restart of clopidogrel and statin therapy, allowing clinical...... quantification of the interaction effect. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS • Clopidogrel and CYP3A4-metabolizing statin use were each associated with a substantially reduced rate of major adverse cardiovascular events within 12 months after coronary stent implantation. • Although we observed an interaction between use...... of clopidogrel and statins, statin use vs. non-use was not associated with an increased rate of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients using clopidogrel after coronary stent implantation. AIMS To examine whether CYP3A4-metabolizing statin use modified the association between clopidogrel use and major...

  2. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  3. [Disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism. Long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, N; Goebel, F D

    2002-04-09

    In addition to readily controllable short-term side effects, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) also has long-term side effects: lipodystrophy syndrome, hyperlipoproteinemia, insulin resistance, elevated glucose tolerance sometimes leading to diabetes mellitus and lactic acidosis. The pathogenesis remains uncertain although various hypotheses have been advanced. A number of approaches for the treatment of lipodystrophy are available, the effects of which, however, have not been confirmed by study results. Hyperlipoproteinemia probably means an increased cardiovascular risk, but a final pronouncement on this is not yet possible. Fibrates and statins are currently applied for treatment, but interactions with HAART medicaments have to be considered. HAART-induced diabetes mellitus presents clinically as type 2 diabetes, and is treated accordingly.

  4. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related adverse events: general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) represents a monumental advance in the management of patients with pancreaticobiliary diseases, but is a complex and technically demanding procedure with the highest inherent risk of adverse events of all routine endoscopic procedures. Overall adverse event rates for ERCP are typically reported as 5-10%. The most commonly reported adverse events include post-ERCP pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, infection (cholangitis), and cardiopulomary or "sedation related" events. This article evaluates patient-related and procedure-related risk factors for ERCP-related adverse events, and discusses strategies for the prevention, diagnosis and management of these events.

  5. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  6. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  7. An upside to adversity?: moderate cumulative lifetime adversity is associated with resilient responses in the face of controlled stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Mark D; Leo, Raphael J; Lupien, Shannon P; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Almonte, Jessica L

    2013-07-01

    Despite common findings suggesting that lack of negative life events should be optimal, recent work has revealed a curvilinear pattern, such that some cumulative lifetime adversity is instead associated with optimal well-being. This work, however, is limited in that responses to specific stressors as they occurred were not assessed, thereby precluding investigation of resilience. The current research addressed this critical gap by directly testing the relationship between adversity history and resilience to stressors. Specifically, we used a multimethod approach across two studies to assess responses to controlled laboratory stressors (respectively requiring passive endurance and active instrumental performance). Results revealed hypothesized U-shaped relationships: Relative to a history of either no adversity or nonextreme high adversity, a moderate number of adverse life events was associated with less negative responses to pain and more positive psychophysiological responses while taking a test. These results provide novel evidence in support of adversity-derived propensity for resilience that generalizes across stressors.

  8. Uncertainty quantification of adverse human health effects from continuously released contaminant sources in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    We propose a computationally efficient probabilistic modeling methodology to estimate the adverse effects on humans of exposure to contaminated groundwater. Our work is aligned with the standard suggested by the regulatory agencies and allows to propagate uncertainty from hydrogeological, toxicological and behavioral parameters to the final health risk endpoint. The problem under consideration consists of a contaminated aquifer supplying water to a population. Contamination stems from a continuous source that feeds a steady plume which constitutes the hazard source. This scenario is particularly suited for NAPL pollutants. The erratic displacement of the contaminant plume in groundwater, due to the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, is characterized within the Lagrangian stochastic framework which enables the complete probabilistic characterization of the contaminant concentration at an environmentally sensitive location. Following the probabilistic characterization of flow and transport, we quantify the adverse health effects on humans. The dose response assessment involves the estimation of the uncertain effects of the exposure to a given contaminant while accounting for the exposed individual's metabolism. The model integrates groundwater transport, exposure and human metabolism in a comprehensive probabilistic framework which allows the assessment of the risk probability through a novel simple analytical solution. Aside from its computational efficiency, the analytical features of the framework allows the assessment of uncertainty arising from the hydrogeological parameters.

  9. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  10. A fatal adverse effect of cefazolin administration: severe brain edema in a patient with multiple meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribuddharat S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirirat Tribuddharat,1 Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee,1 Amnat Kitkhuandee,2 Sunchai Theerapongpakdee,1 Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup,1 Sarinya Chanthawong,11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Abstract: Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment. This was followed by unexplained metabolic acidosis. The patient then developed severe brain edema 100 minutes later. The patient had facial edema when her face was exposed for the next 30 minutes. A computed tomography scan revealed global brain edema with herniation. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for symptomatic treatment and died 10 days after surgery from multiorgan failure. The serum IgE level was very high (734 IU/mL. Single-dose administration of cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis may lead to rare, fatal adverse reaction. The warning signs are sudden, unexplained metabolic acidosis, hypertensive crisis, tachycardia, and facial angioedema predominating with or without cutaneous symptoms like urticaria. Keywords: cefazolin, adverse effect, drug hypersensitivity, brain edema, hypertension

  11. Clinical Observation on Fluvoxamine and Aripiprazole as Adjunctive Therapy in the Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Disorders%阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明治疗强迫障碍的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏强; 康瑞; 李爱玲; 赵秀娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine and aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders patients.Method:Total 54 obsessive-compulsive disorders patients were randomly divided into two groups:Fluvoxamine(250-300 mg/d)auxiliaried by aripiprazole(2.5-10 mg/d)group(study group)and fluvoxamine(250-300 mg/d)group(contral group),27 for each. Each group had a 8-week treatment.The efficacy were assessed and analyzed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS) at baseline and at week 2,4,6 and 8. The side effects were assessed by Treatment Emergent Syptom Scale(TESS)during the treatment. Result:Study group and contral group had 1,2 case being off respectively. The obsession and compulsion scores of study group had all statistical difference at baseline and week 2,4 ,6,8 each other(P0.05). At week 4,in both groups,the compulsion scores had statistical difference(P0.05). Conclusion:Fluvoxamine and aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy can effectively continue to improve the compulsive symptoms in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders patients,the rate of side effects is similar to that of simple fluvoxamine therapy.%  目的:探讨阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明治疗强迫障碍的临床疗效及安全性.方法:将54例强迫障碍患者随机分为两组(各27例):阿立哌唑(2.5~10 mg/d)辅助氟伏沙明(250~300 mg/d)组(研究组)、氟伏沙明(250~300 mg/d)组(对照组),治疗观察期均为8周.两组患者于基线及治疗2、4、6、8周末分别评定Yale-Brown强迫量表(Y-BOCS),并采用副反应量表(TESS)评定治疗期间的不良反应.结果:研究组、对照组分别脱落1例、2例.研究组的强迫思维和强迫行为评分在基线及2、4、6、8周末时点间比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);4周末时,两组间的强迫行为评分比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明可有效、持续地改善强迫障

  12. Effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯凌峰; 董继雪; 武建斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.Method:According to the therapeutic schedule,78 recurrent patients with schizophrenics who were clinical recovery or remarkable progress by the acute treatment were divided into the study group (38 cases) and control group (40 cases).The maintenance treatment was aripiprazole combined with lower dose clozapine in study group and single clozapine in control group.The quality of life was evaluated by scale of general quality of life (GQOL1-74) in the two groups before and after 6,12 months of maintenance treatment,respectively.The results were compared.Results:After 6 and 12 months of maintenance treatment,the scores of GQOL1-74 in in the two groups were significantly increased than before maintenance treatment,and the improvement of score in the study group was more obvious (P <0.01 or P <0.001).The scores of physical function dimension,social function dimension,self-esteem score in psychological functions dimensions in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Conclusion:The quality of life is better in patients with schizophrenia who had the maintenance treatment with aripiprazole combined lower dose clozapine than those with purely clozapine.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响. 方法:将78例经急性期治疗达临床痊愈及显著进步的复发性精神分裂症患者按治疗方案分为研究组(38例)和对照组(40例),分别给予阿立哌唑合并低剂量氯氮平及氯氮平单药维持治疗.分别在维持治疗前、6及12个月时采用生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLl-74)对两组患者生活质量进行评定和比较. 结果:维持治疗6及12个月时,两组GQOLl-74总分较维持治疗前显著提高,且研究组更显著(P<0.01或P<0.001);研究组的躯体功能、社会功能维度评分以及

  13. Shorterm and mid - term curative effect of Aripiprazole in hyperprolactinemia induced by Risperdai.%阿立哌唑对利培酮所致高催乳素血症的中短期影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛旭峰; 陆燕华; 王佩青; 范慧斌; 刘燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the safety and effectiveness of Aripiprazole in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia induced by Risperdal. Methods Totally 38 female patients with hyperprolactinemia induced by Risperdal received 5mg/d Aripiprazole combination treatment for 24 weeks. The serum prolactin (PRL)level, Risperdal blood concentration and PANSS were measured at baseline and at the end of 4th, 8th, 12th ,24th week respectively. Results After 4 weeks combination treatment, PRL level decreased significantly from 67.58 ± 49. 12ng/ml to 36. 18 ± 35.32ng/ml ( P =0.000). Compared with the baseline, PRL level also decreased significantly at the end of 8th and 12th month(P <0.05 ). The PRL level was stable after 12 weeks treatment. The effective rate was 86.8% and 81.6% respectively at the end of 12th and 24th month. The PRL level of five patients rebounded at the end of 24th month compared with that at the end of 12th month, and two of those five patients' PRL level was higher than normal range. There were no significant differences in PANSS score at each viewpoint compared with the baseline (P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion Aripiprazole is effective and safety in the short - and mid - term treatment of hyperprolactinemia induced by Risperdal, but the long -term effectiveness are not warranted.%目的 探讨利培酮所致高催乳素血症的女性精神分裂症合并应用小剂量阿立哌唑的有效性和安全性.方法 对38例利培酮所致高催乳素血症的女性精神分裂症患者,合并应用阿立哌唑5mg/d,分别于治疗前、治疗第4、8、12、24周末检测血清催乳素水平(PRL)、利培酮血浓度,并评定阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS).结果 合并治疗4周后PRL显著下降[(67.58+49.12)ng/ml vs(36.18±35.32)ng/ml,P=0.000],在合并治疗的第8周末、第12周末PRL的下降仍存在统计学差异(P0.05).8周末有效率达86.8%,24周末有效率81.6%.全部患者中,有5例在第24周末的PRL浓度较第12

  14. Effect of treatment with Aripiprazole on mismatch negativity potentials in schizophrenia%阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者失匹配性负波电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建军; 张紫娟; 周振和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Aripiprazole on mismatch negativity potentials in schizophrenia. Methods 30 patients (age of 18 - 65 years old) met DSM-IV schizophrenia criteria were enrolled as research group and 30 healthy persons were selected as normal control group that performed the frequency and duration deviant MMN task. MMN latency and amplitude at Fz electrodes were obtained. The research group was treated with Quetipine for 8 weeks and assessed with PANSS. MMN amplitudes and latencies of two groups were compared between the groups. Results Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS scales (P < 0. 05). Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN than that of normal controls (P < 0. 05). A repeated measure ANOVA in MMN type (frequency vs. Duration) and session as between-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type X session interaction for MMN amplitudes but significant effects of session. A multiple comparisons by LSD tests demonstrated significant differences in MMN amplitudes at after 8 - week treatment from that at baseline (P < 0. 05) and after 4 - week treatment (P < 0. 05). There was no significant differences in MMN amplitudes between 4- week treatment and baseline (P>0. 05). MMN amplitudes at 8- week treatment were higher than that at 4 -week treatment and at baseline (P < 0. 05). Conclusions It presents cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In neuroelectrophysical aspect,MMN offers objective evidence for Aripiprazole to improves cognitive function in schizophrenia.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者失匹配性负波电位(MMN)的影响.方法 随机选自18~65岁符合DSM-精神分裂症标准患者30例作为研究组,30例健康人作为对照组.研究组于阿立哌唑治疗前、4,8周后予MMN检测,同时予PANSS评定病情严重程度.对照组入组时预MMN检测.观察MMN波幅、潜伏期的变化.结果 研究组在治疗4,8周后PANSS量

  15. 阿立哌唑辅治酒精所致精神障碍临床观察%Clinical Observation on Aripiprazole to Treat Mental Disorders Due to Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文斌

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑辅治酒精所致精神障碍的临床疗效。方法选取2012年5月~2013年6月我院收治的因酒精中毒所致的精神功能障碍患者46例,将其随机平均分为对照组和实验组,两组均采用常规综合治疗方式,实验组采用阿立哌唑辅助治疗,对照组采用传统抗精神病药物氟哌啶醇治疗,观察两组患者的治疗前后的临床疗效、阳性与阴性症状量表评分以及副反应发生情况。结果实验组的治疗总有效率为95.7%(22/23),对照组的治疗总有效率为78.3%(18/23),实验组的治疗总有效率明显高于对照组治疗总有效率,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后实验组的阳性与阴性症状量表评分明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑辅治酒精所致精神障碍临床疗效显著,用药安全,副作用少,能够有效促进患者精神功能恢复。%ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Aripiprazole to treat mental disorders due t Alcohol.Methods Selected 46 cases of mental disorders due to alcohol poisoning from May 2012 to June 2013 in our hospital patients, they were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, two groups both used the conventional comprehensive treatment, the experimental group was using the Aripiprazole therapy, the control group was treated with traditional antipsychotic drugs haloperidol treatment, observed the clinical effects of two groups of patients before and after treatment, the positive and negative symptoms rating scale and side effects. Results Treatment group total effective rate was 95.7% (22/23), the treatment of control group total effective rate was 78.3% (18/23), treatment group total effective rate was significantly higher than the control group total effective rate, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). The experimental group after treatment of positive and negative symptoms scale score

  16. Challenges in coding adverse events in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation...

  17. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  19. Practical management of adverse events related to apomorphine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Henriksen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The potential for adverse events is often cited as a barrier to the use of subcutaneous apomorphine therapy (intermittent injections and continuous infusion) in the management of Parkinson's disease. However, with proactive management most adverse effects are manageable if reported and tackled...... titration, initiation and long-term treatment, and discuss practical management strategies....

  20. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  1. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manual...... reviews, and we therefore believe that it is possible to develop automatic tools for monitoring aspects of patient safety....

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  3. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of medicine

  4. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  5. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  6. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.170 Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall...

  7. A Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Sulpiride in Treating Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms%阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗精神分裂症阴性症状对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈妙扬; 肖垚南; 陈丁玲; 黎艳芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and sulpiride in treatment of schizophrenia negative symptoms. Methods 120 cases of schizophrenia whose predominant clin-ical features were negative symptoms were randomly assigned to treat with either aripiprezole or sulpiride for 3 months each. They were all assessed by SANS and TESS. Results There was a significant difference in efficacy between the groups assessed by SANS. Side effects of aripiprezole were significantly fewer than sulpiride assessed by TESS. Conclusions Aripiprazole has better ef-fect on schizophrenia whose negative symptoms as target symptom and less side effects.%目的:比较阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性。方法选取120例符合中国精神疾病诊断标准(CCMD3)诊断为精神分裂症且以阴性症状为主的患者,根据随机对照的方法分为研究组(60例)和对照组(60例),研究组应用阿立哌唑治疗,对照组舒必利治疗,疗程均为3个月;用阴性症状评定量表(SANS)、用药物副反应量表(TESS)进行评定。结果两组治疗前后1个月比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),治疗后2、3个月与治疗前比较亦有显著性差异(P<0.05);两组药物副反应比较,阿立哌唑组明显舒必利组少,有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑对分裂症阴性症状有较好的治疗效果,药物副反应少,使用安全较高。

  8. Profiling metabolic networks to study cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Karsten; Metallo, Christian M

    2013-02-01

    Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth and survival, and tumors reprogram biochemical pathways to aid these processes. New capabilities in the computational and bioanalytical characterization of metabolism have now emerged, facilitating the identification of unique metabolic dependencies that arise in specific cancers. By understanding the metabolic phenotype of cancers as a function of their oncogenic profiles, metabolic engineering may be applied to design synthetically lethal therapies for some tumors. This process begins with accurate measurement of metabolic fluxes. Here we review advanced methods of quantifying pathway activity and highlight specific examples where these approaches have uncovered potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Pharmacologically-induced metabolic acidosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, George; Milionis, Haralampos J; Elisaf, Moses

    2010-05-01

    Metabolic acidosis may occasionally develop in the course of treatment with drugs used in everyday clinical practice, as well as with the exposure to certain chemicals. Drug-induced metabolic acidosis, although usually mild, may well be life-threatening, as in cases of lactic acidosis complicating antiretroviral therapy or treatment with biguanides. Therefore, a detailed medical history, with special attention to the recent use of culprit medications, is essential in patients with acid-base derangements. Effective clinical management can be handled through awareness of the adverse effect of certain pharmaceutical compounds on the acid-base status. In this review, we evaluate relevant literature with regard to metabolic acidosis associated with specific drug treatment, and discuss the clinical setting and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. These mechanisms involve renal inability to excrete the dietary H+ load (including types I and IV renal tubular acidoses), metabolic acidosis owing to increased H+ load (including lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, ingestion of various substances, administration of hyperalimentation solutions and massive rhabdomyolysis) and metabolic acidosis due to HCO3- loss (including gastrointestinal loss and type II renal tubular acidosis). Determinations of arterial blood gases, the serum anion gap and, in some circumstances, the serum osmolar gap are helpful in delineating the pathogenesis of the acid-base disorder. In all cases of drug-related metabolic acidosis, discontinuation of the culprit medications and avoidance of readministration is advised.

  10. Nonhemostatic adverse effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenga, Jeanine M; Thethi, Indermohan; Lewis, Bruce E

    2012-11-01

    The topic of adverse effects of drugs is now receiving due attention in both the lay and medical communities. For drugs of the coagulation disorder class, such as anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, the obvious adverse effects are bleeding from a dose too high and thrombosis from a dose too low. However, these drugs have other potential adverse effects that are not directly related to blood coagulation, yet cannot be dismissed due to their medical importance. There has been a recent advancement of several new drugs in this category and this number will soon grow as more drugs are reaching the end of their clinical trials. This article will discuss the nonhemostatic adverse effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. As the adverse effects of bleeding and thrombosis will be excluded, this article will be in contrast to the typical discussions on the anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug classes.

  11. The relationship of omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size to metabolic disease in severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported the existence of a subgroup of obese individuals with normal metabolic profiles. It remains unclear what factors are responsible for this phenomenon. We proposed that adipocyte size might be a key factor in the protection of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals from the adverse effects of obesity.

  12. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  13. Metabolism disrupting chemicals and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Blumberg, Bruce; Cave, Mathew; Machtinger, Ronit; Mantovani, Alberto; Mendez, Michelle A; Nadal, Angel; Palanza, Paola; Panzica, Giancarlo; Sargis, Robert; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick

    2017-03-01

    The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders. It will then specifically focus on the role of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the etiology of obesity, T2D and NAFLD while finally integrating the information on EDCs on multiple metabolic disorders that could lead to metabolic syndrome. We will specifically examine evidence linking EDC exposures during critical periods of development with metabolic diseases that manifest later in life and across generations.

  14. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  15. Interplay of drug metabolizing enzymes with cellular transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Riha, Juliane; Brenner, Stefan; Höferl, Martina; Jäger, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Many endogenous and xenobiotic substances and their metabolites are substrates for drug metabolizing enzymes and cellular transporters. These proteins may not only contribute to bioavailability of molecules but also to uptake into organs and, consequently, to overall elimination. The coordinated action of uptake transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and efflux pumps, therefore, is a precondition for detoxification and elimination of drugs. As the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to predict alterations in drug disposal, adverse drug reactions and, finally, drug-drug interactions, this review illustrates the interplay between selected uptake/efflux transporters and phase I/II metabolizing enzymes.

  16. Effectiveness and adverse effects of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: Japanese experience and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Satoru Ueno; Yasuhide Kitagawa; Takashi Fukagai; Hideyuki Akaza

    2012-01-01

    Recently,novel anti-androgens and inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis have been developed through the elucidation of mechanisms of castration resistance of prostate cancer.We believe that these new developments will improve hormonal therapy.On the other hand,there has been an increase in criticism of hormonal therapy,because hormonal therapy is supposed to induce adverse effects such as cardiovascular disease.In this review,we have introduced the Japanese experience of hormonal therapy,because we believe that there may be ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asian people in the efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal therapy.First,we showed that primary hormonal therapy can achieve long-term control of localized prostate cancer in some cases and that quality of life of patients receiving hormonal therapy is rather better than previously thought.Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in cases undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very useful for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer.Further clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy.We showed that the death from cardiovascular diseases in Japanese patients receiving hormonal therapy was not higher than that in the general population.However,efforts should be made to decrease the adverse effects of hormonal therapy,because life-style change may increase the susceptibility to adverse effects by hormonal therapy even in Japan.Managements of endocrine and metabolic dysfunction,such as diabetes mellitus,are essential.New hormonal compounds such as selective androgen receptor modulators capable of specifically targeting prostate cancer are expected to be developed.

  17. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolically healthy obesity in Europe : a collaborative analysis of ten large cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Slagter, Sandra N; Doiron, Dany; Fischer, Krista; Foco, Luisa; Gaye, Amadou; Gögele, Martin; Heier, Margit; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Joensuu, Anni; Newby, Christopher; Pang, Chao; Partinen, Eemil; Reischl, Eva; Schwienbacher, Christine; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Swertz, Morris A; Burton, Paul; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel; Giepmans, Lisette; Harris, Jennifer R; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Jostein; Jula, Antti; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Männistö, Satu; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Saaristo, Timo; Salomaa, Veikko; Stolk, Ronald P; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Waldenberger, Melanie; Perola, Markus; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce Hr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Not all obese subjects have an adverse metabolic profile predisposing them to developing type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The BioSHaRE-EU Healthy Obese Project aims to gain insights into the consequences of (healthy) obesity using data on risk factors and phenotypes across seve

  18. Promoting adverse drug reaction reporting: comparison of different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ribeiro-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe different approaches to promote adverse drug reaction reporting among health care professionals, determining their cost-effectiveness. METHODS We analyzed and compared several approaches taken by the Northern Pharmacovigilance Centre (Portugal to promote adverse drug reaction reporting. Approaches were compared regarding the number and relevance of adverse drug reaction reports obtained and costs involved. Costs by report were estimated by adding the initial costs and the running costs of each intervention. These costs were divided by the number of reports obtained with each intervention, to assess its cost-effectiveness. RESULTS All the approaches seem to have increased the number of adverse drug reaction reports. We noted the biggest increase with protocols (321 reports, costing 1.96 € each, followed by first educational approach (265 reports, 20.31 €/report and by the hyperlink approach (136 reports, 15.59 €/report. Regarding the severity of adverse drug reactions, protocols were the most efficient approach, costing 2.29 €/report, followed by hyperlinks (30.28 €/report, having no running costs. Concerning unexpected adverse drug reactions, the best result was obtained with protocols (5.12 €/report, followed by first educational approach (38.79 €/report. CONCLUSIONS We recommend implementing protocols in other pharmacovigilance centers. They seem to be the most efficient intervention, allowing receiving adverse drug reactions reports at lower costs. The increase applied not only to the total number of reports, but also to the severity, unexpectedness and high degree of causality attributed to the adverse drug reactions. Still, hyperlinks have the advantage of not involving running costs, showing the second best performance in cost per adverse drug reactions report.

  19. A Case of Treatment Resistant Depression and Alcohol Abuse in a Person with Mental Retardation: Response to Aripiprazole and Fluvoxamine Therapy upon Consideration of a Bipolar Diathesis after Repetitive Failure to Respond to Multiple Antidepressant Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Ciampa, Giovanni; Mosti, Nicola; Del Carlo, Alessandra; Ceraudo, Giuseppe; Colicchio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Mental Retardation (MR) is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over) prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for "agitated" TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  20. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Differential Gene Expression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) parameters represent important connections between exposure to chemicals and the activation of molecular initiating events of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in cellular, tissue, and organ level targets. ADME parameters u...

  1. Effects of Controlled Discontinuation of Long-Term Used Antipsychotics on Weight and Metabolic Parameters in Individuals With Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kuijper, Gerda; Mulder, Hans; Evenhuis, Heleen; Visser, Frank; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotics are frequently prescribed agents in individuals with intellectual disability, often for behavioral symptoms. Efficacy of antipsychotics for this is ambiguous, so discontinuation should be considered. Weight gain and metabolic dysregulation are well-known adverse effects of antipsychot

  2. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  3. Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A; Pedersen, M H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90......-year-old woman receiving doxapram. At this point the randomization code was broken and we decided to terminate the trial. Three of nine patients receiving doxapram had had an adverse event whereas none of the patients receiving placebo had adverse events (P = 0.2). In the 18 patients studied...

  4. Early life origins of metabolic disease: Developmental programming of hypothalamic pathways controlling energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that perinatal exposure to adverse metabolic conditions - be it maternal obesity, diabetes or under-nutrition - results in predisposition of offspring to develop obesity later in life. This mechanism is a contributing factor to the exponential rise in obesity rates. Increased weight gain in offspring exposed to maternal obesity is usually associated with hyperphagia, implicating altered central regulation of energy homeostasis as an underlying cause. Perinatal development of the hypothalamus (a brain region key to metabolic regulation) is plastic and sensitive to metabolic signals during this critical time window. Recent research in non-human primate and rodent models has demonstrated that exposure to adverse maternal environments impairs the development of hypothalamic structure and consequently function, potentially underpinning metabolic phenotypes in later life. This review summarizes our current knowledge of how adverse perinatal environments program hypothalamic development and explores the mechanisms that could mediate these effects.

  5. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  6. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  7. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  8. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children History of antisocial disorder, suicide attempt or marijuana abuse showed the ... themselves attempted suicide, or who had struggled with antisocial personality disorder or marijuana abuse, were found to ...

  9. Guidelines for submitting adverse event reports for publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, William; Arellano, Felix; Barnes, Joanne; Bergman, Ulf; Edwards, Ralph; Fernandez, Alina; Freedman, Stephen; Goldsmith, David; Huang, Kui; Jones, Judith; McLeay, Rachel; Moore, Nicholas; Stather, Rosie; Trenque, Thierry; Troutman, William; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Williams, Frank; Wise, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Publication of case reports describing suspected adverse effects of drugs and medical products that include herbal and complementary medicines, vaccines and other biologicals and devices is important for postmarketing surveillance. Publication lends credence to important signals raised in these adve

  10. Do older hospital patients recognize adverse drug reactions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K. Mannesse; F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); A.J. Man in 't Veld (Arie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between subjective complaints of side effects of drugs and the objective presence of adverse drug reactions in older patients. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five medical wards at the University

  11. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  12. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Ngilangwa David P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outco...

  13. Targeting metabolic disorders by natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The most prevalent metabolic disorders are diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome, which are developed when normal metabolic processes are disturbed. The most common pathophysiologies of the above disorders are oxidative stress, Nrf2 pathways, epigenetic, and change in miRNA expression. There is a challenge in the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders due to severe adverse effects of some synthetic drugs, their high cost, lack of safety and poverty in some conditions, and insufficient accessibility for the general population in the world. With increasing interest in shifting from synthetic drugs to phytotherapy as an alternative treatment, there is still a gap in scientific evidences of plant-derived therapeutic benefits. One reason may be slow rate of translation of animal studies' findings into human clinical trials. Since metabolic disorders are multifactorial, it seems that poly-herbal medications, or drug-herbal combination are needed for their treatment. However, further researches to determine the most effective plant-derived metabolites, and their cellular mechanism in order to set priorities for well-designed animal and clinical trials, and also more studies with strong scientific evidences such as systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies are needed.

  14. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  15. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahdavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do.Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Irans supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual's characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined.Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance.Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market.

  16. Prolactin levels and adverse events in patients treated with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, D L; Davis, J M; de Coster, R; Van Baelen, B; Brecher, M

    1999-02-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common clinical disorder that may lead to sexual dysfunction or galactorrhea. It may arise from a variety of etiologies, including the use of antipsychotic agents, presumably because of a dopamine receptor blockade. This analysis was designed to characterize the relationship between risperidone, serum prolactin levels, and possible clinical sequelae. All data from randomized, double-blind studies of risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia were analyzed. The two largest studies (the North American and multinational trials) included 841 patients (259 women, 582 men) with paired prolactin level data and 1,884 patients (554 women, 1,330 men) with data on six adverse events possibly associated with increased prolactin levels (amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and decreased libido in women; erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, gynecomastia, and decreased libido in men). Both risperidone and haloperidol produced dose-related increases in plasma prolactin levels in men and women. Among women, the risperidone dose was not correlated with adverse events, nor were the adverse events correlated with endpoint prolactin levels. Among men, the incidence of adverse events was positively correlated with risperidone dose; however, at risperidone doses of 4 to 10 mg/day the incidence of adverse events was not significantly higher than that observed in patients receiving placebo. Furthermore, adverse events in men were unrelated to plasma prolactin levels. Risperidone-associated increase in serum prolactin levels was not significantly correlated to the emergence of possible prolactin-related side effects.

  17. Metabolism of phthalates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-07-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP); and their monoester metabolites. Urine, however, contains relatively more of the secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP, as well as the monoester phthalates of the more short-branched phthalates. This differential distribution is of special concern as, in particular, the hydrophobic phthalates and their metabolites are shown to have adverse effects following in utero and lactational exposures in animal studies.

  18. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  19. Effects of long-term use of aripiprazole and clozapine on myo-cardial enzymes of patients with schizophrenia%长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血清心肌酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 李素芝; 王新红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of long‐term use of aripiprazole and clozapine on myocardial enzymes of patients with schizophrenia .Methods Serum myocardial enzymes lev‐els were detected and analyzed in 84 schizophrenics on aripiprazole and 85 ones on clozapine > 3 years ,in‐dexes consisted of creatine kinase (CK) ,creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK‐MB) ,lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) and aspertate aminotransferase (AST ) .Results The CK ,CK‐MB and LDH levels of both groups were all higher than normal value ,but those significantly higher in clizapine than in aripiprazole group (P<0 .05 or 0 .01);AST levels of both groups had no significant difference from normal value . Conclusion Long‐term use of aripiprazole or clozapine could induce the increases of serum myocardial en‐zymes levels in schizophrenics in different degrees ,especially clozapine ,as should be paid attention to .%目的:探讨长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血清心肌酶水平的影响。方法对84例服用阿立哌唑及85例服用氯氮平治疗时间>3 a的精神分裂症患者进行血清心肌酶水平检测分析,指标包括肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶MB亚型、乳酸脱氢酶和天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶。结果两组肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶MB亚型、乳酸脱氢酶水平均高于正常值,但氯氮平组显著高于阿立哌唑组( P<0.05或0.01);两组天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶水平与正常值比较均无明显变化。结论精神分裂症患者长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平治疗均可导致血清心肌酶水平不同程度的升高,氯氮平升高更为显著,应引起临床医师的关注。

  20. Relationship between serum concentration and clinical efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia%阿立派唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 钟华; 沈卫民; 孙菊水; 陈海支; 范振国; 卢桂华

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应之间关系,探索阿立哌唑血药浓度的治疗窗.方法:采用前瞻性研究方法,应用非固定剂量药物治疗8周.以高效液相色谱仪测定阿立哌唑的谷浓度,阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS),临床总体印象-病情严重程度量表(CGI-SI)评定疗效,治疗时出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.采用受试者运筹特征曲线(ROC曲线)获得血药浓度的最佳截断值,结合四分位间距法推测阿立哌唑血药浓度的治疗窗.并分析血药浓度与药物剂量、临床疗效、不良反应等之间的相关性.结果:入组80例患者,治疗有效47例、无效29例,另外4例脱落.总的不良反应发生率为32.5%.阿立哌唑血药浓度与药物剂量、PANSS减分率及TESS分值间呈正相关,与CGI-SI分值呈负相关.药物剂量与疗效无相关性.最低有效血药浓度为363 μg/L,发生不良反应的血药浓度阈值为540 μg/L.有效组血药浓度的四分位间距为348~623 μg/L.血药浓度在350~540 μg/L的范围内疗效较好,副反应较轻.结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应之间存在相关性,较适宜的治疗窗是350~540 μg/L.%AIM: To explore the relationship between serum concentration and clinical efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and the suitable therapeutic window of aripiprazole. METHODS: Prospective study method was adopted. The dosages of aripiprazole were unfixed for eight weeks. The trough serum concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illnes (CGI-SI), side effects were done with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). The optimized cutoff value of serum concentration was procured by the receiver operator curve (ROC), and the

  1. Medical adverse events in elderly hospitalized patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Szlejf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of medical adverse events in elderly patients admitted to an acute care geriatric unit, the predictive factors of occurrence, and the correlation between adverse events and hospital mortality rates. METHODS: This prospective study included 171 admissions of patients aged 60 years and older in the acute care geriatric unit in a teaching hospital in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. The following variables were assessed at admission: the patient age, gender, number of prescription drugs, geriatric syndromes (e.g., immobility, postural instability, dementia, depression, delirium, and incontinence, comorbidities, functional status (evaluated with the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living, and severity of illness (evaluated with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score Il. The incidence of delirium, infection, mortality, and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (based on the Beers criteria were assessed during hospitalization. An observer who was uninvolved in patient care reported the adverse events. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 78.12 years. A total of 187 medical adverse events occurred in 94 admissions (55%. The predictors of medical adverse events were undetermined. Compared with the patients with no adverse events, the patients with medical adverse events had a significantly longer hospital stay (21.41 ± 15.08 days versus 10.91 ± 7.21 days and a higher mortality rate (39 deaths [41.5%] versus 17 deaths [22.1%]. Mortality was significantly predicted by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] 95%, 1.07 to 1.20, the Katz score (OR=1.47, CI 95%, 1.18 to 1.83, and medical adverse events (OR = 3.59, CI 95%, 1.55 to 8.30. CONCLUSION: Medical adverse events should be monitored in every elderly hospitalized patient because there is no risk profile for susceptible patients, and the consequences of adverse events are

  2. Mangiferin modulation of metabolism and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling

    2016-09-10

    The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):492-503, 2016.

  3. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  4. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  5. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesi

  6. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolism. A few of them are: Fructose intolerance Galactosemia Maple sugar urine disease (MSUD) Phenylketonuria (PKU) Newborn ... disorder. Alternative Names Metabolism - inborn errors of Images Galactosemia References Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of ...

  7. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  8. Adverse effects of oral antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaaslan, Bircan; Guner, Rahmet

    2017-01-01

    Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are currently the backbone of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection treatment. They are generally well-tolerated by patients and safe to use. To date, a significant number of patients have been treated with NAs. Safety data has accumulated over the years. The aim of this article is to review and update the adverse effects of oral NAs. NAs can cause class adverse effects (i.e., myopathy, neuropathy, lactic acidosis) and dissimilar adverse effects. All NAs carry a “Black Box” warning because of the potential risk for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, these adverse effects are rarely reported. The majority of cases are associated with lamivudine and telbivudine. Adefovir can lead to dose- and time-dependent nephrotoxicity, even at low doses. Tenofovir has significant renal and bone toxicity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, bone and renal toxicity in patients with CHB are not as prominent as in HIV infection. Entecavir and lamivudine are not generally associated with renal adverse events. Entecavir has been claimed to increase the risk of lactic acidosis in decompensated liver disease and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. However, current studies reported that entecavir could be safely used in decompensated cirrhosis. An increase in fetal adverse events has not been reported with lamivudine, telbivudine and tenofovir use in pregnant women, while there is no adequate data regarding entecavir and adefovir. Further long-term experience is required to highlight the adverse effects of NAs, especially in special patient populations, including pregnant women, elderly and patients with renal impairment. PMID:28261380

  9. Evidence for the adverse effect of starvation on bone quality: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Beyth, Shaul; Liebergall, Meir; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh E

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and starvation's possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200-800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  10. Digging Up the Human Genome: Current Progress in Deciphering Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chi Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are a major clinical problem. In addition to their clinical impact on human health, there is an enormous cost associated with ADRs in health care and pharmaceutical industry. Increasing studies revealed that genetic variants can determine the susceptibility of individuals to ADRs. The development of modern genomic technologies has led to a tremendous advancement of improving the drug safety and efficacy and minimizing the ADRs. This review will discuss the pharmacogenomic techniques used to unveil the determinants of ADRs and summarize the current progresses concerning the identification of biomarkers for ADRs, with a focus on genetic variants for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug-transporter proteins, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA. The knowledge gained from these cutting-edge findings will form the basis for better prediction and management for ADRs, ultimately making the medicine personalized.

  11. Amodiaquine-associated adverse effects after inadvertent overdose and after a standard therapeutic dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, G O; Goka, B Q; Rodrigues, O P;

    2009-01-01

    , the occurrence of bradycardia after a standard dose of amodiaquine, which coincided with the time of expected peak concentrations of the active metabolite of amodiaquine, suggests a direct drug effect. These less reported adverse effects are likely to increase in parallel with the increased use of amodiaquine......, is reported. Both subjects were homozygous for the wild type allele of cytochrome P450 2C8, the main enzyme responsible for amodiaquine metabolism. In both subjects, plasma concentrations of N-desethylamodiaquine and N-bis-desethylamodiaquine, the main metabolites of amodiaquine, were normal. No other drugs......A case of an acute dystonic reaction in a child presumptively treated for malaria with amodiaquine, and a case of persistent asymptomatic bradycardia in another child with mild pulmonary stenosis treated with a standard dose of amodiaquine for parasitologically confirmed uncomplicated malaria...

  12. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  13. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, Luc; Lê, Kim-Anne

    2010-01-01

    While virtually absent in our diet a few hundred years ago, fructose has now become a major constituent of our modern diet. Our main sources of fructose are sucrose from beet or cane, high fructose corn syrup, fruits, and honey. Fructose has the same chemical formula as glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), but its metabolism differs markedly from that of glucose due to its almost complete hepatic extraction and rapid hepatic conversion into glucose, glycogen, lactate, and fat. Fructose was initially thought to be advisable for patients with diabetes due to its low glycemic index. However, chronically high consumption of fructose in rodents leads to hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure. The evidence is less compelling in humans, but high fructose intake has indeed been shown to cause dyslipidemia and to impair hepatic insulin sensitivity. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis and lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and hyperuricemia have all been proposed as mechanisms responsible for these adverse metabolic effects of fructose. Although there is compelling evidence that very high fructose intake can have deleterious metabolic effects in humans as in rodents, the role of fructose in the development of the current epidemic of metabolic disorders remains controversial. Epidemiological studies show growing evidence that consumption of sweetened beverages (containing either sucrose or a mixture of glucose and fructose) is associated with a high energy intake, increased body weight, and the occurrence of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. There is, however, no unequivocal evidence that fructose intake at moderate doses is directly related with adverse metabolic effects. There has also been much concern that consumption of free fructose, as provided in high fructose corn syrup, may cause more adverse effects than consumption of fructose consumed with sucrose. There is, however, no direct evidence for more serious metabolic

  14. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  15. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  16. Analysis of suspected adverse reactions following immunization against pandemic influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization was aimed at recording all adverse events possibly related with vaccines. During the implementation of immunization strategy against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009, the post-marketing comprehensive surveillance was suggested to be conducted due to limited clinical experience in applying this particular vaccine and because of the fact that some vaccines had been licensed only on the basis of the data regarding their quality. Material and Methods. The passive surveillance on adverse events following immunization was conducted simultaneously with immunization campaign against pandemic influenza in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Reporting of adverse events was conducted by health care service through a specially designed questionnaire Results. In the period from December 17th 2009 to February 7th 2010, of the total number of 55720 people who were vaccinated, 50433 received one dose and 5287 received two doses of vaccine. The total number of doses administered was 61007. During the observed period, some adverse reactions were recorded in 37 people, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions being 6.6 per 10.000 vaccinated. Since the majority of patients had several symptoms and signs, the number of recorded clinical manifestations was much higher (140 than the number of patients with reactions. The dominant symptoms and signs were fever (51.4%, weakness/fatigue (48.6%, headache (40.5% and myalgia (31.5%. The reactions in the majority of patients were mild and transient. Only two patients sought medical care and one was hospitalized. Since the immunization coverage was very small, it was not possible to record rare adverse events, whose expected incidence is, anyway, very low. Conclusion. Surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization represents an important component of immunization program, especially when new vaccines are introduced. Therefore, this form

  17. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  18. Patient knowledge on reporting adverse drug reactions in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Olejniczak, Dominik; Duda-Zalewska, Aneta; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess patient knowledge on reporting of adverse drug reactions. Materials and methods A prospective study was conducted among 200 patients. The study was based on an original survey composed of 15 single- and multiple-choice questions. The study involved individuals who have experienced adverse reactions as well as individuals who have never experienced any adverse reactions; people over the age of 18; literate; residing in Mazowieckie Voivodeship, who have not been diagnosed with any disease that could compromise their logical thinking skills. Results The respondents who lived in the city had a greater knowledge compared to the respondents who lived in the countryside (Pearson’s χ2=47.70, P=0.0013). The respondents who lived in the city were also more statistically likely to provide a correct answer to the question about the type of adverse reactions to be reported (Pearson’s χ2=50.66, P=0.012). Statistically significant associations were found between the place of residence of the respondents and the correct answer to the question about the data that must be included in the report on adverse reactions (Pearson’s χ2=11.7, P<0.0001). PMID:28096661

  19. Adverse drug reactions and their measurement in the rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Quinn, D I; Conaghan, P G; Tett, S E

    1995-05-01

    Drugs administered as therapy for rheumatological disorders are a relatively common cause of adverse events. Important data regarding the effects of drugs on patients with rheumatological conditions is being lost or rendered inaccessible because of deficiencies in classification, measurement, and collection methods for adverse drug reactions. A significant number of adverse reactions to drugs will not be known before marketing, and hence vigilance on the part of clinicians and patients in observing and documenting these reactions is paramount in building our knowledge and modifying our practice accordingly. A variety of systems and methods for detecting adverse drug reactions are described, critically evaluated, and compared for cost, potential bias, ethical concerns, and subject recruitment required for necessary statistical power. Systems need to be developed to give access to the wealth of clinical experimental data available in the individual practices of a broad spectrum of clinicians. To facilitate this, representative organizations need to make adverse drug reactions a high priority as well as contributing expertise and finance to database formulation and accessibility.

  20. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  1. A database in ACCESS for assessing vaccine serious adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas,1 Dave Jackson2,3 1Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Independent Research Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Database Consultant, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To provide a free flexible database for use by any researcher for assessing reports of adverse events after vaccination. Results: A database was developed in Microsoft ACCESS to assess reports of serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination using Brighton Collaboration criteria. The database is partly automated (if data panels contain identical data fields the data are automatically also entered into those fields. The purpose is to provide the database free for developers to add additional panels to assess other vaccines. Keywords: serious adverse events after vaccination, database, process to assess vaccine-associated events 

  2. Different reactions to adverse neighborhoods in games of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chunyan; Weissing, Franz J; Perc, Matjaz; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long; 10.1371/journal.pone.0035183

    2012-01-01

    In social dilemmas, cooperation among randomly interacting individuals is often difficult to achieve. The situation changes if interactions take place in a network where the network structure jointly evolves with the behavioral strategies of the interacting individuals. In particular, cooperation can be stabilized if individuals tend to cut interaction links when facing adverse neighborhoods. Here we consider two different types of reaction to adverse neighborhoods, and all possible mixtures between these reactions. When faced with a gloomy outlook, players can either choose to cut and rewire some of their links to other individuals, or they can migrate to another location and establish new links in the new local neighborhood. We find that in general local rewiring is more favorable for the evolution of cooperation than emigration from adverse neighborhoods. Rewiring helps to maintain the diversity in the degree distribution of players and favors the spontaneous emergence of cooperative clusters. Both propert...

  3. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  4. Sustained metabolic scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C C; Nagy, K A; Diamond, J

    1990-03-01

    Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal or standard) metabolic rates (RMR). We test this conclusion by analyzing all 37 species (humans, 31 other endothermic vertebrates, and 5 ectothermic vertebrates) for which SusMR and RMR had both been measured. For all species, the ratio of SusMR to RMR, which we term sustained metabolic scope, is less than 7; most values fall between 1.5 and 5. Some of these values, such as those for Tour de France cyclists and breeding birds, are surely close to sustainable metabolic ceilings for the species studied. That is, metabolic rates higher than 7 times RMR apparently cannot be sustained indefinitely. These observations pose several questions: whether the proximate physiological causes of metabolic ceilings reside in the digestive tract's ability to process food or in each tissue's metabolic capacity; whether ceiling values are independent of the mode of energy expenditure; whether ceilings are set by single limiting physiological capacities or by coadjusted clusters of capacities (symmorphosis); what the ultimate evolutionary causes of metabolic ceilings are; and how metabolic ceilings may limit animals' reproductive effort, foraging behavior, and geographic distribution.

  5. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  6. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based...

  7. Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.

  8. A Robust Acquisition Scheme for FH Signal in Adverse Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ding Chen; Shao-Qian Li; Yu-Fan Cheng; Gang Wu

    2009-01-01

    Both partial-band jamming and multi- tone jamming have severe effect on the acquisition of frequency-hopping (FH) signal in adverse environments. In this paper, an anti-jamming FH signal acquisition scheme based on cognitive correlation process is proposed to boost the robustness of acquisition. The main idea of this scheme is to utilize a priori knowledge of FH speed and FH pattern to distinguish jamming signal from received signal. Furthermore, theoretic analysis on detection probability and false probability is given to demonstrate the robust performance of the FH signal acquisition method compared with conventional acquisition scheme without any prior information on FH speed and pattern in adverse environments.

  9. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Miller, Nancy B; Ball, Robert

    2006-03-24

    In May 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine (HEPAB) for immunization of adults. From May 2001 to September 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received 305 reports of adverse events after HEPAB. Many events were similar to those reported after the monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Non-serious events included constitutional symptoms and local reactions. Serious events included neurologic, hepatobiliary, and dermatologic conditions, and detailed medical and epidemiological review did not suggest a clear pattern of evidence supporting a causal relationship with the vaccine, except for injection site reactions and some allergic reactions.

  10. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  11. A controlled clinical study of aripiprazole combined with SSRIs vs.chlorimipramine in treatment of SSRIs refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder%阿立哌唑合并5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂与氯米帕明治疗5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂无效强迫障碍的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏静; 战玉华; 王旭梅

    2012-01-01

    AIM To explore the treatment plan in the treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS Seventy-three patients with obsessive compulsive disorder were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) augmentation treatment group (n = 26) was treated by aripiprazole based upon preceding SSRIs, with the initial dose 5 mg·d-1 and maximum dose 20 mg·d-1; (2) switch treatment group (n = 24) stopped taking SSRIs with the change of chlorimipramine, from initial dose 50 - 75 mg·d-1 increased up to 150 - 225 mg·d-1 gradually; (3) control group (n = 23) continued the SSRIs monotherapy as before. The treatment course was 12 weeks in all three groups. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Global Assessment Scale (GAS) were used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, and adverse drug reactions were observed. RESULTS At the end of wk 8 and wk 12 of the treatment, there were no significant differences between the augmentation treatment group and the switch treatment group in scores of the Y-BOCS, Y-BOCS obsessions, Y-BOCS compulsions and GAS (P > 0.05). At the end of wk 12, there were significant differences in the four scores between the augmentation treatment group and the control group (P 0.05; x2 = 3.70, P = 0.055 ). But the differences between the augmentation treatment group and the control group were significant ( x2 = 7.58, P 0.05), and they both had significant difference compard with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Aripiprazole augmentation and chlormipramine switch could be the candidate treatment plan in the treatment of SSRIs refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The curative effect and the safety were similar in these two plans.%目的 探索5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRIs)治疗无效的强迫障碍的治疗方案.方法 将73例强迫障碍患者随机分为3组:(1)增效剂组26例,在原用SSRIs药物剂量不变的基础上加用阿立哌唑治疗,起始量为5 mg·d-1,

  12. Metabolic reprogramming of mononuclear phagocytes and progressive multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePluchino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Accumulation of brain damage in progressive MS is partly the result of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs attacking myelin sheaths in the CNS. Although there is no cure yet for MS, significant advances have been made in the development of disease modifying agents. Unfortunately, most of these drugs fail to reverse established neurological deficits and can have adverse effects. Recent evidence suggests that MPs polarisation is accompanied by profound metabolic changes, whereby pro-inflammatory MPs (M1 switch toward glycolysis, whereas anti-inflammatory MPs (M2 become more oxidative. It is therefore possible that reprogramming MPs metabolism could affect their function and repress immune cell activation. This minireview describes the metabolic changes underpinning macrophages polarisation and anticipates how metabolic re-education of MPs could be used for the treatment of MS.

  13. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; de Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes.

  14. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes.

  15. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床对照研究%A controlled clinical study of amisulpride and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in treatment of negative schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较氨磺必利和阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法采用随机对照研究,将64例符合《中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准(第3版)》(CCMD-3)诊断标准的以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者按照入组先后顺序分为氨磺必利组(研究组)和阿立哌唑口崩片组(对照组)各32例,疗程8周,采用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定疗效,采用副反应量表( TESS)评定不良反应。结果治疗8周后,两组PANSS评分均下降(P>0.05),氨磺必利组和阿立哌唑口崩片组有效率分别为90.63%,87.5%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组TESS评分分别为(3.98±1.03)分、(4.07±1.89)分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症疗效相当,不良反应轻。%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety between amisulpride and aripiprazole in treatment of negative schizo-phrenia. Methods Using randomized controlled trials in this study, 64 patients diagnosed with negative schizophrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride group (study group) and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group (control group). The positive and negative scale ( PANSS) was used to evaluate the efficacy, and treatment emergent side effect scale ( TESS) was used to evaluate the advese reactions. The course of treatment was eight weeks. Results PANSS(P>0. 05) scores of the two groups were both significant-ly decreased after 8 weeks, the efficacy rates of amisulpride group and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group were 90. 63% and 87. 5%, which two groups showed no significant difference fromχ2 test (P>0. 05). The TESS scores of amisulpride group and aripi-prazole group were(3. 98 ± 1. 03)and(4. 07 ± 1. 89), The TESS scores of two groups also showed no significant difference by t-test (P>0. 05). Conclusion Amisulpride are as effective as Aripiprazole orally

  16. 首发精神分裂症患者使用阿立哌唑后血清IL-2、IL-4水平变化的探讨%Explore the level changes of IL-2,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia after the treatment of arip-iprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 李亚飞; 朱祥路; 蒋天玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizo-phrenia and healthy controls were explored ,and to compare the changes of symptoms before and after aripiprazole treatment and the changes of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 .Methods Serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 was exam-ined with Flow Cytometry in 35 healthy volunteers and 35 first episode patients .The symptoms of pa-tients were evaluated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale .Results There were no statistical sig-nificantly differents in the serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia than normal .controls (P>0 .05) .The serum levels of IL-4 was lower in patients with first-episode schizophrenia after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .01) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were increased in positive symptoms of schizophre-nia patients before aripiprazole treatment (positive symptoms) than normal controls (P<0 .05) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were different in positive symptoms of schizophrenia patients before and after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .05) .Conclusion The patients with schizophrenia have immune dysfunction ;Aripiprazole of antipsychotics have lowered the level of IL-2 ,IL-4 and positive symptoms also im-proved .Conclusion.%目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清细胞因子IL-2、IL-4与正常人的差异,比较分析首发精神分裂症患者经过阿立哌唑治疗前后症状改变及细胞因子IL-2、IL-4的变化。方法选择35例首发精神分裂症患者作为研究组,35例健康志愿者作为对照组,通过流式细胞学技术测定血清标本中IL-2、IL-4的水平,用PANSS量表评定精神症状。结果(1)首发精神分裂症患者IL-2、IL-4水平与正常对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(2)首发精神分裂症患者阿立哌唑治疗后较治疗前IL-4水平降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。(3)首发精神分裂症阳性症状患者血清IL-2、IL-4水平在治疗前均高于对照组(P<0.05

  17. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12...

  18. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    .2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii...

  19. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs): A framework to support predictive toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    High throughput and in silico methods are providing the regulatory toxicology community with capacity to rapidly and cost effectively generate data concerning a chemical’s ability to initiate one or more biological perturbations that may culminate in an adverse ecological o...

  20. Adversity Training for Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Helping students who were born under China's 1979 One Child Policy learn to face adversity was the target of multiple programs during first- and second-year study. Carefully planned and embraced by academic colleagues, students receive academic credit for "whole person education."

  1. [Photodegradation of chlorpromazine, a drug-related adverse event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected.

  2. 13 CFR 120.892 - Certifications of no adverse change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... application, and must furnish interim financial statements, current within 120 days of closing; and (c) The... loan closing: (a) The interim lender must certify to the CDC that it has no knowledge of any unremedied substantial adverse change in the condition of the small business since the application to the interim...

  3. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  4. Do pharmacists' reports of adverse drug reactions reflect patients' concerns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, A.C.; van Puijenbroek, E.P.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the concerns patients express to a Drug Information Line about possible adverse drug reactions (ADRs) they have experienced, are sufficiently reflected by the ADR reports submitted by pharmacists to the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre

  5. Adverse Consequences of Drug Use in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. van der Hooft (Cornelis)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough drug therapy often results in beneficial effects and improves functional status, adverse consequences of pharmacotherapy are a major patient safety concern, especially in the growing older population '.In the well-known report 'To err is human: building a safer health care syste

  6. Contribution of pharmacists to the reporting of adverse drug reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, AC; van Puijenbroek, EP; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2002-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to get a better view about the possible contribution of pharmacists' reports to the quantity and the quality of reports and in this way to the quality of a voluntary reporting system of adverse drug reactions. Methods A total of 15 293 reports, sent to the Netherlands

  7. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-12-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.

  8. Quality of whey powders stored under adverse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) is exported by the U.S. and is included in emergency aid foods, but the bags sent overseas are usually stored without refrigeration and under elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH). The shelf life of WPC under adverse conditions must be known to preven...

  9. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  10. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young

  11. Non-native speech perception in adverse conditions: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lecumberri, M.L.; Cooke, M.P.; Cutler, A.

    2010-01-01

    If listening in adverse conditions is hard, then listening in a foreign language is doubly so: non-native listeners have to cope with both imperfect signals and imperfect knowledge. Comparison of native and non-native listener performance in speech-in-noise tasks helps to clarify the role of prior l

  12. Consumer adverse drug reaction reporting - A new step in pharmacovigilance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, K; de Graaf, L; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2003-01-01

    The direct reporting of adverse drug reactions by patients is becoming an increasingly important topic for discussion in the world of pharmacovigilance. At this time, few countries accept consumer reports. We present an overview of experiences with consumer reporting in various countries of the worl

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism.

  14. Mechanisms of Hexachlorobenzene-induced Adverse Immune Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, Janine

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an environmental pollutant that can induce adverse immune effects in humans and rats. Brown Norway rats (BN) appeared to be very susceptible to HCB-induced immune effects. Oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes (LN) and ele

  15. Economic growth and longevity risk with adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Reijnders, Laurie S. M.

    2013-01-01

    We study the implications of adverse selection in annuity markets in a general-equilibrium model of the closed economy. Agents differ in their health type and invest their assets in the annuity market. Without informational asymmetries each agent would obtain an actuarially fair insurance. If the in

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  17. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  18. ADVERSE REACTION TO LATEX CONTAINING MATERIALS IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pouryaghoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Latex allergy has become an occupational hazard among healthcare workers. Atopy, intensity and duration of exposure have been recognized as predisposing factors for latex sensitization. Frequency of sensitization varies among countries. So we decided to investigate the prevalence of latex sensitization and potential risk factors among healthcare workers in a general hospital. In a cross sectional study by distributing a questionnaire among 876 employees of a general hospital, we investigated the prevalence of latex allergy and the potential risk factors for latex sensitization. We collected information about occupational history, including specific tasks performed, time of first exposure to latex, number of pairs of gloves used, and duration of weekly exposure. We also investigated the interval between first exposure and onset of symptoms. We asked about pre-existing rhinoconjuctivitis, asthma, atopic and contact dermatitis, hay fever, autoimmune diseases, and food allergies. This survey documented a high prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials (52.5%. 37.7% of responder had adverse reaction to latex gloves. The highest prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials was found in the surgical operating room, followed by emergency unit and internal medicine wards. According to this study, frequency of adverse reaction to latex was high among health care workers. This may be due to relatively low response rate, low quality of latex products in Iran, and the method of measurement. Whenever, the need for implementing prevention program, using latex-free methods and training of employees to reduce adverse reaction to latex is apparent.

  19. Adverse events due to the immunization: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An adverse event after immunization is a medical incident following the administration of vaccine, which can be connected with vaccine usage. This event could be a reaction to a vaccine component or lapse in vaccine handling, transport and storage or coincidental event. The assessment of severity of this reaction and the decision about prospective permanent contraindications for futher immunization are to be made by the regional expert team for permanent contraindications. This is regulated by low. Case report. A series of adverse events after immunization in three children of a single family is reported. As regulated by law, all three children were vaccinated with different vaccines, from 2007. to 2010. Although the recorded events were diverse by their nature, way of clinical manifestation and severity they all required hospitalization. In addition to being siblings, the three children had the same atopic diseases in their personal and family anamnesis. All adverse events were explored including allergological/immunological tests. Thanks to the good cooperation of involved general practicioners, pediatricians, members of expert team for permanent contraindications and clinicians, two of three children received the full series of vaccines in optimal time. Discussion. Decision making about futher immunization of children with adverse event after vaccine administration depends on the nature and severity of developed medical condition, results of medical exploration, existing immunity and personal risk of getting disease and subsequent complications. Conclusion. Bearing in mind the significance of immunization for personal and collective immunity, good cooperation of all physicians and experts involved in each single case of adverse event is required.

  20. PREVALENCE OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES: A COMMUNITY BASED LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eSachdev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevaleirnt and costly conditions.The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogensis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.

  2. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.

  3. Genetic and metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Yea-Tyng; Bennett, George N.; San, Ka-yiu

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology techniques, analytical methods and mathematical tools have led to a growing interest in using metabolic engineering to redirect metabolic fluxes for industrial and medical purposes. Metabolic engineering is referred to as the directed improvement of cellular properties through the modification of specific biochemical reactions or the introduction of new ones, with the use of recombinant DNA technology (Stephanopoulos, 1999). This multidisciplinary field dr...

  4. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Stachowiak; Tomasz Pertyński; Magdalena Pertyńska-Marczewska

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopaus...

  5. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since th...

  6. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2004-08-17

    A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M) will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  7. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...

  8. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J.; Davis, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  9. Attractor metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso M De la Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a Systemic Metabolic Structure in the cell, characterized by a set of different enzymatic reactions always locked into active states (metabolic core while the rest of the catalytic processes are only intermittently active. This global metabolic structure was verified for Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it seems to be a common key feature to all cellular organisms. In concordance with these observations, the cell can be considered a complex metabolic network which mainly integrates a large ensemble of self-organized multienzymatic complexes interconnected by substrate fluxes and regulatory signals, where multiple autonomous oscillatory and quasi-stationary catalytic patterns simultaneously emerge. The network adjusts the internal metabolic activities to the external change by means of flux plasticity and structural plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to research the systemic mechanisms involved in the regulation of the cellular enzymatic activity we have studied different catalytic activities of a dissipative metabolic network under different external stimuli. The emergent biochemical data have been analysed using statistical mechanic tools, studying some macroscopic properties such as the global information and the energy of the system. We have also obtained an equivalent Hopfield network using a Boltzmann machine. Our main result shows that the dissipative metabolic network can behave as an attractor metabolic network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have found that the systemic enzymatic activities are governed by attractors with capacity to store functional metabolic patterns which can be correctly recovered from specific input stimuli. The network attractors regulate the catalytic patterns

  10. Adverse events in total knee arthroplasty: Results of a physician independent survey in 260 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschner Stephan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Identification of all common and potentially avoidable adverse events is crucial to further improve the quality of medical care. The intention of the current study was to evaluate a standardized physician independent survey format on adverse events in total knee arthroplasty. The protocol for reporting adverse drug events following the International Conference of Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use (ICH was adopted for adverse events occurring during surgical interventions. Material and methods Data of a prospective sequential cohort trial introducing a clinical pathway for total knee arthroplasty was analysed. Reporting of adverse events was done by a physician independent study nurse using the modified ICH-Good Clinical Practice (GCP format (Structure and Content of Clinical study reports - E3 in 260 patients. The adverse events were graded to their severity and their potential relation to surgical treatment. Results A total of 55 patients (21% suffered from an adverse event and 16 (6% from a serious adverse event. In 38 patients' one adverse event occurred, 12 patients showed 2 adverse events and 5 patients suffered from a combination of an adverse and a serious adverse event. A serious adverse event alone occurred in 11 patients. The incidence of adverse events (Fisher p = 0.448 and serious adverse (p = 0.126 events showed no significant difference between the two cohorts. The most common adverse events were deep vein thrombosis (8% and 5% followed by wound healing problems (1% and 0% and haematoma (1% and 3%. A wide range of non surgical adverse events were recorded with low incidence levels. Conclusion The use of the modified ICH-GCP format supports standardization of adverse event reporting. Routine assessment of adverse events by a study nurse revealed higher incidence rates of adverse events in total knee arthroplasty. We recommend the implementation of trained

  11. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FDA Form 3500A (Adverse Reaction Report) for each adverse drug experience not reported under paragraph... resubmit to FDA adverse drug experience reports forwarded to the applicant by FDA; however, applicants must... applicant shall report to FDA adverse drug experience information, as described in this......

  12. The Paradoxes of Outside-limits: From Diversity to Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Affaya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid presenting a segregationist use of space that reduces the Other to permanent adversity, this article approaches the boundary from a phenomenological viewpoint, such as the different forms of segregation and barriers, in a dimension that is also symbolic. Questioning the boundary means questioning the imposition of a “single thought” and reflecting on the plural in order to achieve intercultural communication. Within this theoretical framework, the article focuses on the study of the impact of television broadcasting in the Arab world, examining how it contributes in different ways to turn the possibilities of diversity into pathological trends of identity models that continually provoke and generate adversity.

  13. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  14. Adverse effects and intoxications related to medicinal/harmful plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja VONČINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants around us have beneficial effects on our body and can be used as food. People are more and more interested in the medicinal plants. Many of them began gathering and preparing plants for the relief of symptoms of diseases or as a food dietary. Due to the lack of knowledge of plants, mistaking plants that contain toxins for medical plants may happen and cause adverse effects or even poisoning. The Poison Control Centre in Ljubljana keeps records of patients who have been admitted to the department because of adverse effects from the ingestion of certain plants. We analysed 64 cases, which were registered by the Poison Control Centre between January 2000 and December 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine which plants cause the most intoxications in Slovenia.

  15. Adverse events in children and adolescents treated with quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Bruhn, Christina H

    2017-01-01

    Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children and adolesc......Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children...... 10–17 years) and six patients were boys. The main reported ADEs were (i) endocrine, for example, hyperprolactinemia and hyperthyroidism, (ii) cardiac, for example, tachycardia and QT prolongation, (iii) neurological, for example, seizures and cerebral hemorrhage, and (iv) psychiatric, for example...

  16. Optimising the retrieval of information on adverse drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical interventions have brought about many benefits to health, improving the population's well-being and life expectancy. However, these interventions are not without potential harmful side-effects and yet searching for the evidence on adverse effects is challenging. This article summarises a PhD whose main aim was to develop a better understanding of the implications of using different sources and approaches to identifying relevant data on adverse effects. The author is Su Golder, who has recently completed her PhD at the University of York and who has already published several articles on specific aspects of her research, including this journal. This article is the first in the Dissertations into Practice series to report on a PhD study, and it summarises her research in a way which emphasises the implications for practice.

  17. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  18. [Reported adverse reactions of veterinary drugs and vaccines in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Gassner, B; Demuth, D C; Althaus, F R; Zwahlen, R

    2007-02-01

    We received 105 reports of suspected adverse events (SARs) following the use of veterinary drugs for the year 2005. This corresponds to a 35% increase compared to 2004. Practicing veterinarians sent most of these declarations. 73% of these concerned drugs used on companion animals. Antiparasitic drugs approved for topical use were the most frequently represented group with 48%, followed by drugs used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (11%) and drugs used off-label (14%; other target species or other indication). For the first time 2 declarations concerning the application of permethrin containing spot-on preparations used by mistake on cats were received. An overview of 20 declarations about adverse reactions following application of different vaccines is also presented with emphasis on the problem of fibrosarcoma in cats. We are pleased by the growing interest shown by practicing veterinarians for the vigilance system and hope to further develop this collaboration in the future.

  19. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively.

  20. Adverse Drug Event Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoffe, Aaron R; Baehr, Avi; Peña, Juliet C; Rider, Briana B; Yang, Sandra; Hu, Dale J

    2016-09-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) have been highlighted as a national patient safety and public health challenge by the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention (ADE Action Plan), which was released by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in August 2014. The following October, the ADE Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference provided an opportunity for federal agencies, national experts, and stakeholders to coordinate and collaborate in the initiative to reduce preventable ADEs. The single-day conference included morning plenary sessions focused on the surveillance, evidence-based prevention, incentives and oversights, and additional research needs of the drug classes highlighted in the ADE Action Plan: anticoagulants, diabetes agents, and opioids. Afternoon breakout sessions allowed for facilitated discussions on measures for tracking national progress in ADE prevention and the identification of opportunities to ensure safe and high-quality health care and medication use.