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Sample records for aripiprazole metabolic adverse

  1. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine;

    2016-01-01

    insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events...... as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients....

  2. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-10-01

    Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (disorders (PS group) and nonpsychotic disorders (non-PS group). The PS group consisted of 5 patients with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients. PMID:27504593

  3. Aripiprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs difficulty breathing or swallowing tightening of the neck muscles tightness in the throat Aripiprazole may cause ... aripiprazole solution 6 months after you open the bottle or when the expiration date marked on the ...

  4. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  5. Aripiprazole salts. II. Aripiprazole perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Eleonora; Polla, Griselda; Baggio, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    The molecular structure of aripiprazole perchlorate (systematic name: 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-{4-[(2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy]butyl}piperazin-1-ium perchlorate), C(23)H(28)Cl(2)N(3)O(2)(+)·ClO(4)(-), does not differ substantially from the recently published structure of aripiprazole nitrate [Freire, Polla & Baggio (2012). Acta Cryst. C68, o170-o173]. Both compounds have almost identical bond distances, bond angles and torsion angles. The two different counter-ions occupy equivalent places in the two structures, giving rise to very similar first-order `packing motifs'. However, these elemental arrangements interact with each other in different ways in the two structures, leading to two-dimensional arrays with quite different organizations.

  6. Antipsychotic treatments for the elderly: efficacy and safety of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izchak Kohen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Izchak Kohen1, Paula E Lester2, Sum Lam31Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Zucker-Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA; 3Division of Pharmacy and Geriatrics, St. John’s University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Queens, NY, USAAbstract: Delusions, hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms can accompany a number of conditions in late life. As such, elderly patients are commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications for the treatment of psychosis in both acute and chronic conditions. Those conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and dementia. Elderly patients are at an increased risk of adverse events from antipsychotic medications because of age-related pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes as well as polypharmacy. Drug selection should be individualized to the patient’s previous history of antipsychotic use, current medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and potential side effects of the antipsychotic. Specifically, metabolic side effects should be closely monitored in this population. This paper provides a review of aripiprazole, a newer second generation antipsychotic agent, for its use in a variety of psychiatric disorders in the elderly including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression. We will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole as well as dosing, diagnostic indications, efficacy studies, and tolerability including its metabolic profile. We will also detail patient focused perspectives including quality of life, patient satisfaction and adherence.Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, elderly, adverse drug reaction

  7. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day (aripiprazole group or no additional treatment (control group at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8.One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group. PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003 and week 8 (P = 0.007 compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001, week 4 (P< 0.001, week 6 (P< 0.001 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups.Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.chictr.org ChiCTR-IOR-15006278.

  8. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily

  9. The effects of aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine administrated for schizophrenia treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism%阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达休; 李永华; 冉庆国; 陈大坤; 周琳钧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine used for treating schizophrenia on serum glucose and lipids of patients. Methods 270 patients with schizophrenia were divided randomly into 3 groups of 90 patients each; aripiprazole group, risperidone group and clozapine group, and aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine were administrated for 12 weeks,respectively. Levels of fast blood glucose (FBG) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglycericle(TG) and body mass index (BMX) before and after treatment were compared. Results FBG levels of patients in 3 groups after treatment were increased as compared to those before treatment(P0. 05) ,all those in risperidone and clozapine groups increased after treatment as compared with treatment before(P<0. 05) ,and those in clozapine group increased greater than in risperidone group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine used for schizophrenia treatment can lead to adverse effects of glucose and lipid metabolism which are relatively milder for aripiprazole.%目的 比较阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对患者血糖、血脂影响.方法 将270例精神分裂症患者随机分为3组:阿立哌唑组、利培酮组及氯氮平组(各90例),分别给予口服阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗12周.比较治疗前后空腹血糖(FBG)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG),体质量指数(BMI)的变化.结果 3组患者治疗后,FBG较治疗前增高(P<0.05),氯氮平组增高最明显;阿立哌唑组治疗后TC、TG,BMI值较治疗前差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);利培酮及氯氮平组治疗后TC、TG、BMI较治疗前均有升高(P<0.05),且氯氮平组增高大于利培酮组(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗精神分裂症均可导致糖脂代谢异常的不良反应,阿立哌唑的不良反应相对较小.

  10. Aripiprazole-induced hyperprolactinemia in a young female with delusional disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Padamadan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolact...

  11. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  12. Aripiprazole-induced Hyperprolactinemia in a Young Female with Delusional Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sam Padamadan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolactinemia while on aripiprazole treatment. Dopamine acts as a tonic inhibitor of prolactin secretion through the tubero-infundibular dopaminergic system. Aripiprazole being a partial agonist has a lower intrinsic activity at the D2 receptor than dopamine, allowing it to act as both, a functional agonist and antagonist, depending on the surrounding levels of dopamine. Hence, in the absence of a competing D2 antagonist and the presence of dopamine (the natural agonist), aripiprazole could act as a functional antagonist and thus elevate prolactin levels. PMID:27335526

  13. Role of aripiprazole in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossaheb N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nilufar Mossaheb,1 Rainer M Kaufmann21Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: About one third of patients with schizophrenia respond unsatisfactorily to antipsychotic treatment and are termed “treatment-resistant”. Clozapine is still the gold standard in these cases. However, 40%–70% of patients do not improve sufficiently on clozapine either. In the search for more efficacious strategies for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, drugs with different pharmacological profiles seem to raise new hopes, but are they valid? The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for aripiprazole as a potential strategy in monotherapy or combination therapy for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The evidence for aripiprazole monotherapy and for the combination of aripiprazole with psychotropics other than clozapine is scant, and no recommendation can be made on the basis of the currently available data. More effort has been made in describing combinations of aripiprazole and clozapine. Most of the open-label and case studies as well as case reports have shown positive effects of this combination on overall psychopathology and to some extent on negative symptoms. Several reports describe the possibility of dose reduction for clozapine in combination with aripiprazole, a strategy that might help so-called “treatment-intolerant” patients. The findings of four randomized controlled trials with respect to changes in psychopathology seem less conclusive. The most commonly found beneficial effects are better metabolic outcomes and indicators of the possibility of reducing the clozapine dose. However, other side effects, such as akathisia, are repeatedly reported. Further, none of the studies report longer-term outcomes. In the absence of alternatives, polypharmacy is a common strategy in clinical practice. Combining aripiprazole with clozapine in

  14. Adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: POPULATION: adult patients presenting with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia diagnosed by prolactin level with or without prolactin-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: adjunctive aripiprazole vs. adjunctive placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: adverse events and efficacy of treatment. STUDIES: randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials with a total of 639 patients (326 adjunctive aripiprazole, 313 adjunctive placebo met the inclusion criteria. Adjunctive aripiprazole was associated with a 79.11% (125/158 prolactin level normalization rate. Meta-analysis of insomnia, headache, sedation, psychiatric disorder, extrapyramidal symptom, dry mouth, and fatigue showed no significant differences in the adjunctive aripiprazole treatment group compared with the placebo group (risk difference (Mantel-Haenszel, random or fixed -0.05 to 0.04 (95% confidence interval -0.13 to 0.16; I(2 =0% to 68%, P=0.20 to 0.70. However, sedation, insomnia, and headache were more frequent when the adjunctive aripiprazole dose was higher than 15 mg/day. Meta-analysis of the prolactin level normalization indicated adjunctive aripiprazole was superior to placebo (risk difference (Mantel-Haenszel, random 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85; I(2 =43%, P<0.00001. The subgroup analysis confirmed that the subjects who received adjunctive aripiprazole 5 mg/day showed a degree of prolactin normalization similar to that of all participants. No significant differences between groups in discontinuation and improvements of psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive aripiprazole is both safe and effective as a reasonable choice treatment for patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The appropriate dose of adjunctive aripiprazole may be 5 mg/day.

  15. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

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    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  16. Study on metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients treated with aripiprazole%阿立哌唑对首发急性精神分裂症患者代谢风险的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 文飞; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑对首发急性期精神分裂症患者的代谢影响.方法:31例首发急性期精神分裂症患者入选病例组接受阿立哌唑治疗,治疗前后各测量一次体重、腰围、腰臀比、血清TC、TG、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)、载脂蛋白B(Apo B100)、脂蛋白a(LPa)、空腹血糖(FBS)、空腹胰岛素(INS)、C肽(C-P),并分别计算出BMI、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).另设健康对照组44例,同法测量上述指标.将病例组与健康对照组、病例组治疗前后各项指标进行比较分析.结果:病例组INS、C-P及HOMA-IR均高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组治疗后体重、BMI、腰围、腰臀比均较治疗前增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后:病例组TG、INS、C-P、HOMA-IR均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且aPOA1低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:精神分裂症患者本身可能存在有代谢异常;非典型抗精神病药物(APS)阿立哌唑对患者血糖、血脂代谢相对影响较小.%AIM: To study the metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients trea ted with aripiprazole.METHODS: 31 first-episode acute patients with schizophrenic were enrolled into case group and 44 healthy subjects were enrolled into controle group, all cases accepted treatment with oral aripiprazole.At the baseline and at the end, all patients were checked or tested for weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hipratio(WHR), TC, TG, high density lipoprotein(HDL), low density lipoprotein(LDL), apolipoprotein A1 ( Apo Al), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B100), lipoprotein a (LPa),fasting blood glucose (FBS), fasting insulin (INS)and c-peptide(C-P),respectively.The BMI and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated.All indexes were compared and analysed between the case group and controle group,pre and post treatment in the case group.RESULTS:The INS, C-P and HOMA

  17. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the management of schizophrenia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-02-01

    showed a favourable cardiovascular tolerability profile and its use was associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome than placebo or olanzapine. As a consequence, aripiprazole may provide a more cost-effective treatment option compared with other atypical antipsychotics. In conclusion, oral aripiprazole provides an effective and well tolerated treatment alternative for the acute and long-term management of patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole for risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ranjbar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2,3 Parisa Niari Khams,1 Asghar Arfaie,1 Azim Salari,4 Mostafa Farahbakhsh1 1Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics & Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Emam Khomeini Hospital, Naghadeh, West Azerbaijan, Iran Background: Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods: This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77% participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%. Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50

  19. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322

  20. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  1. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Hilton, Michael F; Mantzoros, Christos S; Shea, Steven A

    2009-03-17

    There is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps the result of physiologic maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. To begin to understand underlying mechanisms, we determined the effects of such misalignment between behavioral cycles (fasting/feeding and sleep/wake cycles) and endogenous circadian cycles on metabolic, autonomic, and endocrine predictors of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. Ten adults (5 female) underwent a 10-day laboratory protocol, wherein subjects ate and slept at all phases of the circadian cycle-achieved by scheduling a recurring 28-h "day." Subjects ate 4 isocaloric meals each 28-h "day." For 8 days, plasma leptin, insulin, glucose, and cortisol were measured hourly, urinary catecholamines 2 hourly (totaling approximately 1,000 assays/subject), and blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac vagal modulation, oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and polysomnographic sleep daily. Core body temperature was recorded continuously for 10 days to assess circadian phase. Circadian misalignment, when subjects ate and slept approximately 12 h out of phase from their habitual times, systematically decreased leptin (-17%, P work. PMID:19255424

  2. [Application of HPLC-UV method for aripiprazole determination in serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec, Anna; Gomółka, Ewa; Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a new drug applied in schizophrenia treatment. There are not strict indications for aripiprazole therapeutic drug monitoring. Despite, serum aripiprazole measuring would help control the drug doses effectiveness. The drug monitoring can eliminate overdosing, adverse effects and let control proper drug ingestion. The aim of the paper was to develop a simple method for aripiprazole determination in serum for therapeutic drug monitoring. High performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (HPLC-UV) was used. Resolution was performed on LC-8 column; moving phase was solution 0,025M trimethylammonium buffer: acetonitrile (62:38). Isocratic flow was 1,2 ml/min; internal standard (IS) was promazine; monitored wavelength was lambda=214 nm. The validation parameters were: limits of linearity (LOL) 100-800 ng/ml, limit of detection (LOD) 10 ng/ml, limit of quantity (LOQ) 100 ng/ml. Coefficient of variation (CV) describing accuracy and precision didn't cross 10%. The method was useful for therapeutic drug monitoring in serum of patients treated with aripiprazole. PMID:23421079

  3. 阿立哌唑联合氯氮平对精神分裂症患者糖脂代谢与睡眠及体重的影响%Effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on glucolipid metabolism, sleep and body mass in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏; 孙晓花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on glucolipid metabolism , sleep quality and body mass in patients with schizophrenia .Methods Seventy -six pa-tients with schizophrenia were divided into treatment group and control group , each group 38 cases.Control group was given clozapine 400-500 mg・ d -1 .Treatment group was given aripiprazole 30 mg・ d-1 combined clozapine 200-300 mg・ d-1 .The course of treatment was 6 months. The changes of blood glucose and lipid levels , sleep quality , body mass and clinical symptoms were compared in two groups before and after treatment.The clinical efficacy and adverse drug reactions in two groups were observed.Results After treatment, the self-rating scale of sleep ( SRSS ) and pittsburgh sleep quality index ( PSQI ) in treatment group were (15.74 ±3.21), (2.42 ±0.45), significantly lower than (20.45 ±4.67) ,(6.43 ±0.78) in control group(P<0.05).The levels of fasting blood glucose , postprandial 2 h blood glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in control group were (5.64 ±0.57), (9.75 ±0.66), (1.57 ±0.18), (5.67 ±0.53) mmol・ L-1, signifi-cantly higher than (4.57 ±0.45), (7.89 ±0.55), (1.03 ±0.13),(4.54 ±0.46) mmol・ L-1 in treatment group ( P <0.05 ) .Body mass and body mass index in control group were ( 68.32 ±4.12 ) kg and ( 26.17 ±4.05 ) kg・ m-2 , significantly higher than (57.56 ±3.63 ) kg and (22.07 ±3.44 ) kg・ m-2 in treatment group ( P<0.05 ) . The total effective rate of treatment group was 92.11%, significantly higher than 76.32%in control group ( P<0.05 ) . The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions in treatment group was 15.79%, obviously lower than 39.47%in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Aripiprazole combined with clozapine can be beneficial to glucose metabolism and body mass of patients in a stable state in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia , and can improve sleep condition and clinical symptoms of patients , and had

  4. 换用阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者代谢的影响%Metabolic effects in treating schizophrenia patients after switching to aripiprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程群; 朱怀轩

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨换用阿立哌唑治疗后精神分裂症患者各项代谢指标的改善情况. 方法:选择43例换用阿立哌唑治疗的精神分裂症患者,分别在换药前和换药12周对患者的血糖、血脂和体质量等代谢指标进行检测. 结果:换用阿立哌唑12周,患者的体质量(t=3.38,P<0.01)和体质量指数(t=3.07,P<0.01)显著改善,空腹血糖(t=2.96,P<0.01)、2h血糖(=2.58,P<0.01)、糖化血红蛋白(t=3.50,P<0.01)、空腹胰岛素(t=19.71,P<0.01)、和稳态模型评估的胰岛素抵抗系数(t=2.70,P<0.05)均较治疗前显著降低,总胆固醇(t=2.78,P<0.01)、三酰甘油(t=4.38,P<0.01)和低密度脂蛋白(=2.81,P<0.01)亦有显著降低,代谢综合征的患病率(x2=19.07,P<0.01)显著降低. 结论:换用阿立哌唑治疗对精神分裂症患者的代谢有显著改善作用.%Objective: To evaluate extensively the metabolic improvements of switching to aripirzazole in the treatment of schizophrenia. Method :43 patients who had successfully switched to aripirazole with a schizophrenia diagnosis went through an extensive metabolic evaluation, including blood glucose, blood lipids and body weight test at baseline and at 12 weeks post switch. Results: There was significant decreases in body weight(t=3. 38, P< 0.01), body mass index(t =3. 07,P <0. 01) .fasting glucose(t =2. 96,P <0. 01) .glucose at 2 h(t = 2. 58,P<0. 01) .glycated hemoglobin(t = 3. 50, P < 0.01) .fasting insulin(t = 19. 71,P< 0.01),insulin resistance index(t =2. 70,P<0.05) .total cholesterol (t =2. 78,P <0.01), triglycerides (t = 4. 38,P<0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (t =2. 81 ,P<0.01) levels. There was also a significant reduction in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome(χ 2 = 19.07,P <0.01). Conclusion: Switching to aripiprazole can significantly improve metabolic abnormalities in treating schizophrenia.

  5. Hypercapnia adversely affects postprandial metabolism in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of elevated CO2 partial pressure on the specific dynamic action (SDA) and ammonia excretion in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) following forced feeding. Two different hypercapnic scenarios were investigated; one inwhich pCO2 oscillated between 20 and 60 mm ...... ammonia excretion were observed at high pCO2 or low Ph/normocapnia. The results demonstrate that despite an exceptional tolerance towards elevated pCO2 and acidosis, postprandial metabolic processes of the European eel are adversely affected by hypercapnia and low pH...... significantly increased the duration of the SDA response by 22% and 29%, respectively.Hypercapnia had no effect on standard metabolic rate,while constant or oscillating hypercapnia significantly lowered the maximum metabolic rate compared to controls, causing a significant reduction of the aerobic scope during...

  6. Augmentation of Clozapine with Aripiprazole in Severe Psychotic Bipolar and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Alessandra; Di Paolo, Antonello; Lastella, Marianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Candiracci, Chiara; Litta, Antonella; Ciofi, Laura; Danesi, Romano; Lattanzi, Lorenzo; Del Tacca, Mario; Cassano, Giovanni Battista

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the augmentation of clozapine with aripiprazole in patients with treatment-resistant schizoaffective and psychotic bipolar disorders in a retrospective manner. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between the two drugs were also investigated. Patients: Three men and 4 women (median age 36 and 40 years, respectively) who had mean scores at BPRS and CGI-Severity of 59.1±12.0 and 5.4±0.5, respectively, were treated with clozapine (mean dose 292.9±220.7 mg/day). Patients received an adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole (mean dose 6.8 ± 3.7 mg/day). Clozapine, norclozapine and aripiprazole plasma levels were measured by means of a high performance liquid chromatograpy with UV detection. Results: Total scores at BPRS decreased significantly (from 59.1±12.0 to 51.1±15.6, p=0.007) after aripirazole augmentation. In particular, the factors “thought disorder” (from 10.4±4.4 to 9.0±4.5, p=.047) and “anergia” (from 10.0±2.7 to 8.0±2.4, p=.018) significantly improved. Concomitant administration of aripiprazole and clozapine did not result in an increase in side effects over the period of treatment. Dose-normalized plasma levels of both clozapine and norclozapine and the clozapine/norclozapine metabolic ratio in all patients did not vary as well. Conclusion: The augmentation of clozapine with aripirazole was safe and effective in severe psychotic schizoaffective and bipolar disorders which failed to respond to atypical antipsychotics. A possible pharmacokinetic interaction between clozapine and aripiprazole does not account for the improved clinical benefit obtained after aripiprazole augmentation. PMID:20648219

  7. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  8. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  9. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4–6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  10. Aripiprazole and Risperidone for Treatment of Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis in Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Huijing; Xu, Zaifeng; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Hao, Wei; Chawarski, Marek Cezary

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated tolerability and efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone for treatment of methamphetamine (METH) associated psychotic symptoms in China. Patients with acute METH-associated psychotic symptoms (N=42) and with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score between 60 and 120 were randomized to aripiprazole (initial dose 5-10mg per day followed by flexible doses 5-15 mg per day) or risperidone (initial dose 2-4 mg per day followed by flexible doses 4-6 mg per day) from day 3 to 25 of inpatient hospital stay. Outcome measures included PANSS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S), METH craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Simpson Angus Scale (SAS), Barnes Assessments Akathasia Rating Scale (BARS), and self-reported adverse effects evaluated during treatment. Retention was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the MIXED models procedure was used to compare the groups on measures of psychotic and extra-pyramidal symptoms. Patients in both aripiprazole and risperidone groups showed statistically significant reductions in psychotic symptomatology from baseline during treatment (p<0.001) with no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups (p=0.73 and p=0.15, respectively). Risperidone-treated patients reported significantly greater METH craving reductions (p<0.001). Overall, 71% of patients completed the entire study, but the aripiprazole group had a significantly lower retention than the risperidone group (p=0.007), primarily due to medication related adverse effects. Aripiprazole-treated patients also had significantly more akathisia (p=0.03) and agitation (p=0.02) than risperidone-treated patients. Patients in both groups who tolerated their medications and completed the entire study achieved comparable reductions of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26733277

  11. Aripiprazole Can Improve Apraxia of Eyelid Opening in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokisato, Kaori; Fukunaga, Kimiko; Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Nakanishi, Ryoji; Yamanaga, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We herein report three cases of Parkinson's disease associated with difficulty in eyelid opening, referred to as apraxia of eyelid opening (AEO), which improved after aripiprazole treatment. In case 1, aripiprazole was administered as a psychiatric treatment. It proved to be effective in AEO with blepharospasm. In case 2 and case 3, the patients experienced AEO without blepharospasm, and a significant improvement was observed after aripiprazole treatment. In this study, the aripiprazole dosage ranged between 3 and 9 mg/day. This is the first report of aripiprazole as a potentially effective treatment for AEO in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26631893

  12. No negative symptoms in healthy volunteers after single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Keon-Hak; Huang, Guang-Biao; Tong, Zhao; Park, Myung-Sook; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-03-01

    Noncompliance and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia are closely related to the negative symptoms secondary to antipsychotics. No controlled study has evaluated whether amisulpride and aripiprazole induce negative symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. Seventy-eight young volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study of four antipsychotics: 400 mg amisulpride, 10 mg aripiprazole, 3 mg haloperidol, and 2 mg risperidone. Assessments of negative symptoms were done 4 h after administration using both subjective rating scales (Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale) and an objective rating scale (Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms). Risperidone only produced significant increases on the avolition score of the Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and blunted affect and alogia scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms compared with placebo. The effect on blunted affect persisted after controlling for mental sedation. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol did not induce negative symptoms. Aripiprazole and risperidone induced mild extrapyramidal symptoms. The most common adverse events were somnolence and cognitive slowing. These data indicate that a single risperidone dose induces negative symptoms in normal volunteers, whereas amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol do not. These characteristics of antipsychotics should be considered when choosing optimal drugs for patients with psychosis.

  13. Normalization of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia with the Addition of Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Shores, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor metabolic changes, including hyperprolactinemia, in adolescents medicated with atypical antipsychotics, especially when polypharmacy is involved. This study specifically followed risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in adolescents (14 male patients and 2 female patients) after aripiprazole was added to begin transitioning to another atypical antipsychotic. No other changes were made in the medication regimen. Risperidone was continued at the previo...

  14. Mania/hipomania induzida por aripiprazol Manic/hypomanic symptoms induced by aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazol é um antipsicótico atípico (AAt frequentemente indicado para o tratamento agudo da mania, assim como para quadros mistos de transtorno bipolar (TB tipo I e para o tratamento de manutenção do TB tipo I. A potencial ação antidepressiva dos AAts possibilita que medicamentos dessa classe aumentem as chances do aparecimento de mania em indivíduos suscetíveis. Com o objetivo de sumarizar evidência que possibilite a discussão técnica desse tópico, aqui relatamos três casos de pacientes com TB com mania induzida por aripiprazol. Pacientes tinham diagnósticos e comorbidades diferentes e estavam em regime terapêutico também diferente. Mania foi temporalmente associada à introdução de aripiprazol. Melhora considerável aconteceu após a retirada do fármaco. Sugerimos que o aripiprazol, por meio da sua ação antidepressiva, seja fator de risco para virada maníaca e hipomaníaca. Recomendamos o uso associado de estabilizador de humor com potencial antimaníaco para prevenir eventual inversão de fase. Sugere-se, ainda, a provável eficácia antidepressiva do aripiprazol.Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic often used as monotherapy or as add-on therapy in patients with manic episodes, as well as for bipolar disorders. The antidepressive effect of the atypical antipsychotic medications raises the possibility that these drugs may increase the risk of mania in susceptible individuals. With the aim of providing further evidence on this subject, herein we reported three patients with bipolar disorder and mania induced by aripiprazole. Patients had different final diagnosis as well as different comorbidities. Their therapeutic regimen was different as well. Onset of manias was temporarily associated with aripiprazole use and important improvement happened after the discontinuation of this drug. We suggest that aripiprazole, due to its antidepressant properties, is a risk factor for mania and hypomania. Mood stabilizer is

  15. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 3: Clinical Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. This column reviews clinical trial data to assess whether those data support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD when used as an augmentation strategy to treat MDD. To date, no randomized, placebo-controlled trials have established a definitive link between exposure to aripiprazole and TD in patients with MDD. One long-term, open-label, safety trial examined aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy in individuals with MDD and found a rare occurrence (4/987, 0.4%, the confidence interval of which overlaps with zero) of an adverse event termed TD. In all 4 cases, the observed movements resolved within weeks of aripiprazole discontinuation, suggesting that they were either amenable to treatment or represented an acute syndrome rather than TD. No cases of TD were reported in the registration trials for the MDD indication for aripiprazole. These data were presented in a pooled analysis of

  16. Add-on effects of a low-dose aripiprazole in resolving hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone or paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Chunbo; Guo, Qian; Wen, Hui; Zhu, Suoyu; Ouyang, Qiong; Shen, Weidi; Sheng, Jianhua

    2016-03-30

    This study investigated the effects of a low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment for risperidone- or paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in Han Chinese women with schizophrenia. After 4 weeks of risperidone or paliperidone treatment, 60 out of 66 patients improved significantly and experienced hyperprolactinemia. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (aripiprazole adjunctive treatment) (n=30) or control group (non-adjunctive treatment) (n=30). The dosage of risperidone and paliperidone were maintained; and aripiprazole was maintained at 5mg/day during the 8-week study period. The prolactin levels at the end of the 8th week were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The estradiol level correlated negatively with serum prolactin level both in the treatment group and the control group at the end of the 8th week and the 4th week respectively. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score improved significantly during the 8-week study period in both groups. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse event was similar in two groups. Low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment is effective in relieving risperidone- and paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in female schizophrenic patients without increasing adverse event. PMID:26921057

  17. Aripiprazole-Induced Parkinsonism: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin Kürşad Akpınar; Dursun Aygün; Hakan Doğru

    2015-01-01

    Aripiprazole is one of the recently introduced atypical antipsychotics used in the treatment of psychosis related to schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson’s disease. Well-documented side effects associated with the use of aripiprazole include insomnia, anxiety, headache, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Aripiprazole is associated with infrequent extrapyramidal side effects. Parkinsonism is caused by some drugs that block dopamine receptors. The sign of dru...

  18. Two Cases of Hypersexuality Probably Associated with Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, EunJin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Sang Soo; Lee, Jun-Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect in patients treated with antipsychotics but significant differences exist across different compounds. We report hypersexuality symptoms in two female patients with schizophrenia who were receiving treatment with aripiprazole. The patients experienced more frequent sexual desire and greater sexual preoccupation after taking aripiprazole. We discuss the potential neuro-chemical mechanisms for this and argue that aripiprazole's unique pharmacological pr...

  19. Attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1–3 Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,3 Manabu Yamazaki,4 Kazutaka Shimoda,3,5 Takao Mori,4 Takuro Sugai,3,6 Hiroshi Matsuda,4 Yutaro Suzuki,3,6 Yoshitake Minami,4 Yuji Ozeki,3,5 Kurefu Okamoto,4 Toyoaki Sagae,7 Toshiyuki Someya3,6 1Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Japanese Society of Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology, 4Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association, Tokyo, 5Department of Psychiatry, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 7Department of Health and Nutrition, Yamagata Prefectural Yonezawa University of Nutrition Sciences, Yonezawa, Japan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a growing concern among patients with schizophrenia because metabolic abnormalities are widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The current study assessed attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A brief questionnaire was constructed to investigate patient recognition of the following broad areas: dietary habits, lifestyle, self-monitoring, knowledge, and medical practice. Between January 2012 and June 2013, questionnaires were sent to patients associated with 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association. All of the participants (n=22,072; inpatients =15,170, outpatients =6,902 were diagnosed with schizophrenia based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, or the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Results: Approximately 55.0% (8,069/14,669 of inpatients and 44.8% of outpatients (2,978/6,649 reported that they did not exercise at all. Although 60.9% (4,116/6,760 of outpatients reported that they felt obese, only 35.6% (5

  20. Effect of lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia%较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 王艳婷; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯春兰; 侯凌峰; 董继学; 李俊福

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响.方法:选取2008年3月至2010年3月我院住院精神分裂症患者92例,随机分为研究组和对照组,研究组给予较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗,对照组给予单纯氯氮平治疗.两组观察疗程24周.两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗12周及24周对其体质量、身高、血糖、餐后2h血糖、三酰甘油及胆固醇进行测定,并做统计分析. 结果:与对照组相比,研究组治疗前后体质量及糖脂代谢变化显著较小(P均<0.01).研究组体质量、血糖及三酰甘油异常率明显低于对照组(P均<0.01). 结论:较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗与单用较高剂量氯氮平相比,对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢影响较小.%Objective: To investigate effect of the lower dose of clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight,glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Method:92 schizophrenic patients from our hospital March,2008 to March,2010 were randomly divided into study group and control group,the study group was given a low dose clozapine combined with aripiprazole and the control group was given clozapine treatment for 24 weeks. The body mass, height, blood glucose, postprandial 2 hour blood glucose, cholesterol and tri-glyceride were measured before treatment, week 12 and 24. Results: Compared with the control group, the study group showed fewer changes on body weight and metabolism of glucose and lipid between before and after the treatment (all P<0.01), and abnormal rates of body mass, glucose and triglyceride (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole have less impact on the body mass and glucose metabolism than only high doses clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  1. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 4: Case Report Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-05-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and reviewed preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. The third column in this series reviewed the registration trial data for aripiprazole across all of its indications and found a raw incidence of TD ranging from 0.004 (4 out of 987) in long-term studies of the drug as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder to 0.0016 (19 out of 11,897) based on all short-term (ie, weeks to <6 mo) and long-term (6 mo to 1 y) studies combined. This fourth column in the series reviews the "real-world" data on aripiprazole and assesses whether these data also support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD. The "real-world" data consist of case reports from the medical literature and the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We found 37 cases in the medical literature reporting what was termed TD in association with aripiprazole treatment as well as 27 case reports suggesting improvement in

  2. Comparison of Short-term Metabolic Risk in First-episode Young-adult Schizophrenia Treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内代谢风险的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 魏钦令; 钟智勇; 张晋碚

    2011-01-01

    摘要:[目的]比较阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险.[方法]采用开放对照的临床观察方法,对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)精神分裂症诊断标准的首发住院精神分裂症患者,分别使用阿立哌唑(21例)和奥氮平(42例)治疗,自然观察时间不低于2周,不大于4周,于治疗前后各检测一次体质量、腰围、空腹血脂血糖及胰岛素、C肽.[结果]观察结束时:阿立哌唑组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比均有增高(P<0.05),糖脂改变无统计学差异,男女患者间各项代谢指标的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05);奥氮平组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白AI和B100及脂蛋白LPa较治疗前增高(P<0.0l),且胰岛素(INS)水平和胰岛素抵抗指数(IR)增高(P<0.05),多元逐步回归分析显示胰岛素抵抗与甘油三脂的增高有关(R2 =0.107,P=0.007);奥氛平组男性患者的空腹胰岛素和C肽、胰岛素抵抗指数均增高(P<0.05),女性患者则没有.[结论]阿立哌唑和奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险即有差异,性别差异可能影响着非典型抗精神病药物的代谢风险.%[Objective] To compare the short-term metabolic risk in the first-episode young-adult schizophrenia treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. [ Methods] The open-lable, natural observed, compared method was designed for this study. All of these cases were diagnosed as first-episode schizophrenia in accordance with the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria and respectively allocated into two groups for either Aripiprazole or Olanzapine treatment. The natural observed period was from two weeks to four weeks. Weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and lipid concentration, fasting insulin and C peptide

  3. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. PMID:25207680

  4. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  5. Effects of switching to aripiprazole from current atypical antipsychotics on subsyndromal symptoms and tolerability in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Park, Young-Min; Chung, Sangkeun; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Won, Seunghee; Lee, Jeong Goo; Lee, Hwang-Bin; Kim, Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kwanghun; Kim, Moon-Doo

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of aripiprazole among bipolar patients who had switched to this medication as a result of difficulty maintaining on their prestudy atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) because of subsyndromal mood symptoms or intolerance. This study included 77 bipolar patients who were in syndromal remission with an AAP as monotherapy or with an AAP combined with a mood stabilizer(s) who needed to switch from their present AAP because of subsyndromal symptoms or intolerance. At 24 weeks after switching to aripiprazole, the remission rates on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and on both the MADRS and the Young Mania Rating Scale were increased significantly in the full sample and in the inefficacy subgroup. In the inefficacy subgroup, the MADRS score change was significant during the 24 weeks of study. Total cholesterol and prolactin decreased significantly after switching to aripiprazole. The proportion of patients who had abnormal values for central obesity and hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from baseline to week 24. These findings suggest that a change from the current AAP to aripiprazole was associated with improvement in subsyndromal mood symptoms and several lipid/metabolic or safety profile parameters in patients with bipolar disorder with tolerability concerns or subsyndromal mood symptoms. PMID:27487259

  6. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  7. Aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a critical review of the evidence and its dissemination into the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic medication, has been increasingly used in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in 2005. Given its widespread use, we sought to critically review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and examine how that evidence has been disseminated in the scientific literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder while excluding other types of studies, such as open-label, acute, and adjunctive studies. We then used a citation search to identify articles that cited these trials and rated the quality of their citations. Our evidence search protocol identified only two publications, both describing the results of a single trial conducted by Keck et al., which met criteria for inclusion in this review. We describe four issues that limit the interpretation of that trial as supporting the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance: (1 insufficient duration to demonstrate maintenance efficacy; (2 limited generalizability due to its enriched sample; (3 possible conflation of iatrogenic adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation with beneficial effects of treatment; and (4 a low overall completion rate. Our citation search protocol yielded 80 publications that cited the Keck et al. trial in discussing the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance. Of these, only 24 (30% mentioned adverse events reported and four (5% mentioned study limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A single trial by Keck et al. represents the entirety of the literature on the use of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Although careful review identifies four critical limitations to the trial's interpretation

  8. Behandling af Tourettes syndrom med aripiprazol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Sindø, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a motoric disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics. The treatment for patients with moderate to severe TS includes antipsychotic medication. A case report is described in which a 20 year-old male had taken antipsychotic medication since the age of five......, due to TS. The initial treatment consisted of pimozide and risperidone, both of which had an unsatisfactorily efficacy on tics and side effects in the form of weight gain and sedation. The patient is now treated with aripiprazole and there is a marked reduction of tics and no side effects...

  9. Adverse Metabolic Risk Profiles in Greenlandic Inuit Children Compared to Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, T.; Sorensen, K.; Andersen, L. B.;

    2013-01-01

    Objective During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic p...

  10. Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: is it a rare or common occurrence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bouchard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals differ in the response to regular exercise. Whether there are people who experience adverse changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors has never been addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An adverse response is defined as an exercise-induced change that worsens a risk factor beyond measurement error and expected day-to-day variation. Sixty subjects were measured three times over a period of three weeks, and variation in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP and in fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and insulin (FI was quantified. The technical error (TE defined as the within-subject standard deviation derived from these measurements was computed. An adverse response for a given risk factor was defined as a change that was at least two TEs away from no change but in an adverse direction. Thus an adverse response was recorded if an increase reached 10 mm Hg or more for SBP, 0.42 mmol/L or more for TG, or 24 pmol/L or more for FI or if a decrease reached 0.12 mmol/L or more for HDL-C. Completers from six exercise studies were used in the present analysis: Whites (N = 473 and Blacks (N = 250 from the HERITAGE Family Study; Whites and Blacks from DREW (N = 326, from INFLAME (N = 70, and from STRRIDE (N = 303; and Whites from a University of Maryland cohort (N = 160 and from a University of Jyvaskyla study (N = 105, for a total of 1,687 men and women. Using the above definitions, 126 subjects (8.4% had an adverse change in FI. Numbers of adverse responders reached 12.2% for SBP, 10.4% for TG, and 13.3% for HDL-C. About 7% of participants experienced adverse responses in two or more risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adverse responses to regular exercise in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors occur. Identifying the predictors of such unwarranted responses and how to prevent them will provide the foundation for personalized exercise prescription.

  11. Safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of pediatric Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox JH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joanna H Cox,1 Stefano Seri,2,3 Andrea E Cavanna,2,4,5 1Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Aston University, 3Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, 5Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology and UCL, London, UK Abstract: Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset chronic tic disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics and often accompanied by specific behavioral symptoms ranging from obsessionality to impulsivity. A considerable proportion of patients report significant impairment in health-related quality of life caused by the severity of their tics and behavioral symptoms and require medical intervention. The most commonly used medications are antidopaminergic agents, which have been consistently shown to be effective for tic control, but are also associated with poor tolerability because of their adverse effects. The newer antipsychotic medication aripiprazole is characterized by a unique mechanism of action (D2 partial agonism, and over the last decade has increasingly been used for the treatment of tics. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders (age range: 4–18 years. Our search identified two randomized controlled trials (involving 60 and 61 participants and ten open-label studies (involving between six and 81 participants. The majority of these studies used two validated clinician-rated instruments (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and Clinical Global Impression scale as primary outcome measures. The combined results from randomized controlled trials and open-label studies showed that aripiprazole is an

  12. Treatment of refractory catatonic schizophrenia with low dose aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Tsuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case is of 54-year-old female with catatonic schizophrenia, characterized by treatment resistance to the pharmacotherapy with olanzapine, risperidone, flunitrazepam, and ECT. Olanzapine and risperidone and flunitrazepam did not improve her catatonic and psychotic symptoms, and induced the extrapyramidal symptoms. The effects of ECT did not continue even for a month. However, the treatment with low-dose aripiprazole dramatically improved the patient’s psychotic symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the effects of low-dose aripiprazole in this case remain unclear, but unlike other antipsychotics, aripiprazole is a dopamine D2 partial agonist. In this regard, our results suggest that aripiprazole has numerous advantages, especially in cases of stuporous catatonia and a defective general status.

  13. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umezaki Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yojiro Umezaki,1 Miho Takenoshita,2 Akira Toyofuku2 1Psychosomatic Dentistry Clinic, Dental Hospital, 2Psychosomatic Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. Keywords: burning mouth syndrome, low-dose aripiprazole, chronic pain

  14. Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Kvaløy

    Full Text Available The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally.Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97 and HUNT3 (2006-08 surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood.The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10(-4, adj. P = 0.015. DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980 was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10(-3, adj. P = 0.019 and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10(-4, adj. P = 0.003. When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5 was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10(-7, adj. P = 0.001. Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important.DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to

  15. Codeine Ultra-rapid Metabolizers: Age Appears to be a Key Factor in Adverse Effects of Codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, K; Fuchs, W

    2015-12-01

    Codeine is widely used as an analgesic drug. Taking into account the high consumption of codeine, only few fatal adverse events have been published. A number of reports, where neonates and children showed serious or fatal adverse reactions, led to a restriction of the use of codeine in this patient group. Therefore, we reviewed the safety of codeine in adults. PubMed was systematically searched for clinical studies and case reports, with a special focus on CYP2D6, the enzyme that converts codeine to morphine and exhibits genetic polymorphism.181 cases were identified in adults in conjunction with serious or lethal effects of codeine. In the vast majority of cases, codeine was used in combination with other drugs by drug-dependent individuals or with a suicidal intent. Only 2 cases were found where ultra-rapid metabolizers experienced severe non-lethal adverse events. This is far less than would be predicted from the number of cases reported in children. The discrepancy may be explained by developmental changes in the disposition of codeine.The strategy of regulatory authorities to restrict access to codeine for infants and young children, the apparent highest risk group, has a factual and pharmacological rationale. By the same standards, there is no need for restrictions for adult use of codeine.

  16. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  17. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  18. The effect of obesity on adverse outcomes and metabolism in pediatric burn patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Williams, Felicia N.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Obesity influences metabolism and increases the incidence of clinical complications and worsens outcomes in pediatric burn patients. Design Retrospective, single-center study. Subjects Five hundred ninety-two severely burned pediatric patients who had burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area and who were treated between 2001 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into ≥ 85th percentile (n = 277) and normal (n = 315) weight groups based on bod...

  19. [Hypersexuality associated with aripiprazole: a new case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrignaud, Laura; Aouille, Jerémie; Mallaret, Michel; Durrieu, Geneviève; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with hypersexuality while he was treated with aripiprazole since 6 months. Clinical manifestations were an increased libido, unusual frequent masturbation and sexual instincts. All have resolved upon discontinuation of aripiprazole, and recurred after it was restarted. The partial dopaminergic agonist effect of aripiprazole could probably explain the occurrence of this compulsive behaviour. PMID:25293487

  20. Aripiprazole Lauroxil Long-Acting Injectable: The Latest Addition to Second-Generation Long-Acting Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arpit; Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Lauriello, John

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotics have long been the mainstay for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectables (LAI) of antipsychotics-provided once every two weeks to once every three months-promise to reduce the incidence of nonadherence. ARISTADA(™) (aripiprazole lauroxil; ALLAI) extended-release injectable suspension was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 2015 for the treatment of schizophrenia, and is the newest entrant in the LAI market. ALLAI is available as a single-use, pre-filled syringe, can be started in three different dosages, and also has the option of every six-week dosing. Treatment with oral aripiprazole is recommended for the first twenty-one days after the first ALLAI injection, which is a potential disadvantage. Adverse effects include sensitivity to extrapyramidal symptoms, especially akathisia, which is well documented in other aripiprazole preparations. There is no available data comparing ALLAI to other antipsychotics, and more head-to-head trials comparing different LAI formulations are needed. Based on the available data, ALLAI is an effective and safe option for treatment of schizophrenia. Further studies and post-marketing data will provide better understanding of this formulation. PMID:27074333

  1. The effect of obesity on adverse outcomes and metabolism in pediatric burn patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N.; Williams, Felicia N.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Obesity influences metabolism and increases the incidence of clinical complications and worsens outcomes in pediatric burn patients. Design Retrospective, single-center study. Subjects Five hundred ninety-two severely burned pediatric patients who had burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area and who were treated between 2001 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into ≥ 85th percentile (n = 277) and normal (n = 315) weight groups based on body mass index percentiles. Results Patients stratified below (normal) and ≥ 85th percentile had similar age, gender distribution, and total burn size. No significant differences were detected in the incidence of sepsis (11% for obese vs. 10% for normal), the incidence of multiple organ failure (21% for obese and 16% for normal), or mortality (11% for obese vs. 8% for normal). Compared to the normal group, the ≥ 85th percentile group had low levels of constitutive proteins (α2macroglobulin and Apolipoprotein A-1) (p < 0.05 for both) as well as high levels of triglycerides and the acute-phase protein, C-reactive protein (p < 0.05 for both) up to 60 days after injury. Patients ≥ 85th percentile showed a significant higher loss of bone mineral density and lipolysis compared to normal individuals. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index had a positive predictive value towards the maximum DENVER2 score, an index of organ failure (p < 0.001). Conclusions BMI ≥ 85th percentile altered the post-burn acute phase and catabolic response but did not increase the incidence of sepsis, multiple organ failure, or mortality in pediatric burn patients. Our results suggest that impaired metabolism and an altered inflammatory response occurs already in patients starting at the 85th percentile BMI. PMID:22143622

  2. Cigarette smoking exacerbates the adverse effects of age and metabolic syndrome on subclinical atherosclerosis: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxu Li

    Full Text Available Age and metabolic syndrome are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, limited information is available regarding whether cigarette smoking, another major, modifiable risk factor, has synergistic effects with age and metabolic syndrome on subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in young adults. This aspect was examined in 1,051 adults (747 whites and 304 blacks; aged 24-43 years from the Bogalusa Heart Study. General linear models were used to examine the effects of cigarette smoking and its interactive effects with age and metabolic syndrome on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT. After adjusting for age, race, and sex, current smokers had lower BMI (mean ± SE: 27.4 ± 0.4, 29.3 ± 0.5, and 29.9 ± 0.3 kg/m2 in current, former, and never smokers, respectively; p<0.0001 and lower levels of fasting glucose (82.8 ± 0.9, 89.5 ± 2.3, and 87.1 ± 1.1 mg/dL, respectively; p = 0.001 and insulin (10.6 ± 0.4, 14.2 ± 1.0, 13.6 ± 0. 6 µU/ml, respectively; p<0.0001. Despite being lean and having favorable levels of glucose and insulin, current smokers had greater CIMT (0.850 ± 0.012, 0.808 ± 0.011, and 0.801 ± 0.006 mm, respectively; p = 0.0004. Importantly, cigarette smoking showed significant interactions with age and metabolic syndrome on CIMT: Age-related change in CIMT in current smokers was significantly greater (0.013 ± 0.002 mm/year than in nonsmokers (former and never smokers combined (0.008 ± 0.001 mm/year (p for interaction = 0.005; the difference in CIMT between those with and without metabolic syndrome was significantly greater in current smokers (0.154 ± 0.030 mm, p<0.0001 than in nonsmokers (0.031 ± 0.014 mm, p = 0.03 (p for interaction<0.0001. In conclusion, cigarette smoking significantly exacerbates the adverse effects of age and metabolic syndrome on subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults, which underscores the importance of prevention and cessation of cigarette smoking behavior in the young.

  3. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

  4. Cognitive-enhancing effects of aripiprazole: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderisi Silvana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with schizophrenia often present mild to severe cognitive deficits which contribute to their social disability. Second-generation antipsychotics have shown only mild to moderate beneficial effects on cognition. The present case report suggests cognitive enhancing effects of aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, shown to increase dopamine release in prefrontal cortex in animal studies. The patient was in his first-episode of schizophrenia, and had no previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Before schizophrenia onset his cognitive functioning was poor and he could not attend regular courses to reach his high school degree; he started but was not able to attend the University courses for several years. After schizophrenia onset, he was treated, in sequence, with olanzapine, amisulpride and aripiprazole. During treatment with the first two second-generation antipsychotics, positive symptoms markedly improved while cognitive functioning remained poor. During treatment with aripiprazole, clinical remission was obtained and the patient was able to attend university courses and pass several examinations. Social functioning was markedly improved. Aripiprazole demonstrated cognitive enhancing effects in this patient. These effects were long-lasting and paralleled by a positive impact on social functioning.

  5. Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer: a focus on metabolic and cardiovascular complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lauren Collins; Shehzad Basaria

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men.Prostate being an androgen responsive tissue,androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used in the management of locally advanced (improves survival) and metastatic (improves pain and quality of life) PCa.Over the past two decades,the use of ADT has significantly increased as it is also being used in patients with localized disease and those experiencing biochemical recurrences,though without any evidence of survival advantage.Hypogonadism resulting from ADT is associated with decreased muscle mass and strength,increased fat mass,sexual dysfunction,vasomotor symptoms,decreased quality of life,anemia and bone loss.Insulin resistance,diabetes and cardiovascular disease have recently been added to the list of these complications.As the majority of men with PCa die of conditions other than their primary malignancy,recognition and management of these adverse effects is paramount.Here we review data evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular complications of ADT.

  6. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan, Maria; SILOSI, Isabela; SURLIN, PETRA; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum an...

  7. Effect of aripiprazole on mismatch negativity (MMN in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of the schizophrenia. Cognitive function has been found to be a better predictor of functional outcome than symptom levels. Changed mismatch negativity (MMN reflects abnormalities of early auditory processing in schizophrenia. Up to now, no studies for the effects of aripiprazole on MMN in schizophrenia have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects included 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 26 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS at baseline, after 4- and 8-week treatments with aripiprazole. Auditory stimuli for ERP consisted of 100 millisecond/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 millisecond/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 millisecond/1000 Hz duration deviants. EEG was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from waveforms elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure ANOVA with sessions (i.e., baseline, 4- and 8-week treatments and MMN type (frequency vs. duration as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes. Session main effect was significant. LSD tests demonstrated significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline and 4 weeks. There was significant negative correlation between changes in amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN and changes in PANSS total scores at baseline and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole improved the amplitudes of MMN. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the aripiprazole may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.

  8. Aripiprazole Augmentation in Treatment of Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abdel Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is a novel antipsychotic medication that has been tried in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder resistant to normal regimen of treatment. Method: A total of nine hundred and sixty one patients were admitted over three year period of time (January 2012- December 2014 to the psychiatric department of Al Ain hospital, United Arab Emirates. All patients whose been fulfilled DSM-IV diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD (36 patients screened for further assessment. Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (22 patients and one patient with eating disorder were excluded. Thirteen patients were contacted to be involved in the study. Participants were unstable although they were adherent to their medications (SSRIs when seen in the outpatient clinic two weeks after their discharge. One patient refused to participate in the study. A final number of 12 agreed to participate in the study. twelve patients aged 22 to 65 years who had DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were treated with aripiprazole besides their normal treatment for a period of three months with daily doses ranging from ten to 20 mg daily. Results: a positive clinical response was noted in eight of the 12 patients within three months of study recruitment according to the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Aripiprazole was well tolerated by most of the patients. The most commonly reported side effect was headache. Conclusion: our findings suggest that aripiprazole may be an effective adjuvant and safe treatment for resistant OCD.

  9. The prescribing pattern of a new antipsychotic: A descriptive study of aripiprazole for psychiatric in-patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M.; Manniche, C.; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2008-01-01

    (range 0-8) psychoactive drugs parallel with aripiprazole. This study demonstrates reality in psychopharmacology and quote aripiprazole as example. In day-to-day practice, aripiprazole is used as part of highly individualized regimens comprising polypharmacy and excessive dosing. Although theoretically......In June 2004, aripiprazole was marketed as a second-generation antipsychotic with an entire new mechanism of action. The objective of this descriptive study is to examine the day-to-day prescriptions of aripiprazole to an unselected population of psychiatric in-patients. From 1 February to 1 May...... 2006, present and former in-patients treated with aripiprazole were identified. Prescriptions of aripiprazole and psychoactive comedication were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Seventy-one patients, mainly schizophrenic, received aripiprazole 2.5 to 55 mg/day for median 350 days...

  10. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C A Bakker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs.

  11. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Ilse C A; Schubart, Chris D.; Zelissen, Pierre M J

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs. Learning poin...

  12. Neurobehavioral and genotoxic parameters of antipsychotic agent aripiprazole in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaqueline Nascimento PICADA; Viviane Minuzzo PONTES; Patrícia PEREIRA; Bruna de Jesus Neto DOS SANTOS; Franciele CELSO; Jéssica Dias MONTEIRO; Kelly Morais DA ROSA; Leandro Rosa CAMACHO; Luciana Rodrigues VIEIRA; Taís Madelon FREITAS; Tatiana Grasiela DASILVA

    2011-01-01

    Aim:Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic agent to treat schizophrenia,which acts through dopamine D2 partial agonism,serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism and 5-HT2A antagonism.This study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects and genotoxic/mutagenic activities of the agent,as well as its effects on lipoperoxidation.Methods:Open field and inhibitory avoidance tasks were used.Thirty min before performing the behavioral tasks,adult male CF-1 mice were administered aripiprazole (1,3 or 10 mg/kg,ip) once for the acute treatment,or the same doses for 5 d for the subchronic treatment.Genotoxic effects were assessed using comet assay in the blood and brain tissues.Mutagenic effects were evaluated using bone marrow micronucleus test.Lipoperoxidation was assessed with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).Results:Acute and subchronic treatments significantly decreased the number of crossing and rearing in the open field task.Acute treatment significantly increased the step-down latency for both the short- and long-term memory in the inhibitory avoidance task.Subchronic treatments with aripiprazole (3 and 10 mg/kg) caused significant DNA strain-break damage in peripheral blood but not in the brain.Mutagenic effect was not detected in the acute and subchronic treatments.Nor TBARS levels in the liver were affected.Conclusion:Aripiprazole improved memory,but could impair motor activities in mice.The drug increased DNA damage in blood,but did not show mutagenic effects,suggesting that it might affect long-term genomic stability.

  13. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; AVCI, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obs...

  14. Aripiprazole alone or in combination for acute mania

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rachel; Taylor, Matthew; Geddes, John

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundBipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterised by episodes of elevated or irritable mood (manic or hypomanic episodes) and episodes of low mood and loss of energy (depressive episodes). Drug treatment is the first-line treatment for acute mania with the initial aim of rapid control of agitation, aggression and dangerous behaviour. Aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic, is used in the treatment of mania both as monotherapy and combined with other medicines. The British Associa...

  15. Aripiprazole-associated tic in a schizophrenia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2,* Dali Lu,3,* Yugang Jiang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tic disorder, characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics is common in adolescents and adults. Antipsychotics including typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are generally recognized by experts as the most effective pharmacological treatment for tics. However, previous studies suggest that tic-like symptoms might manifest during treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as clo­zapine, quetiapine, but not aripiprazole. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an adult schizophrenia patient who developed tics during treatment with aripiprazole. Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, tic, schizophrenia, side effect

  16. Aripiprazole for acute mania in an elderly person

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    Balaji Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New-onset bipolar disorder is rare in the elderly. Symptom profile is similar to that in young adults but the elderly are more likely to have neurological co-morbidities. There are no case reports of elderly mania being treated with aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic. A 78-year-old gentleman presented to us with symptoms suggestive of mania of 1 month′s duration. He had similar history 3 years ago and a family history of postpartum psychosis in his mother. There were no neurological signs on examination and work-up for an organic etiology was negative except for age-related cerebral atrophy. He improved with aripiprazole and tolerated the medications well. The use of psychotropic medications in the elderly is associated with side-effects of sedation, increased cardiovascular risk, and greater risk of extra-pyramidal side-effects. The use of partial dopaminergic antagonists like aripiprazole may be useful in the balancing of effects and side-effects.

  17. The cardiac safety of aripiprazole treatment in patients at high risk for torsade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sneider, Benjamin; Graff, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    reviewed and cardiac safety data were extracted. Continuous and dichotomous QTc data were used in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Preclinical studies suggested that aripiprazole has limited affinity for the delayed rectifier potassium current. TdP was reported in two case reports and SCD was reported in one...... case report and one case series. No clinical studies assessing aripiprazole's cardiac safety in patients at high risk for torsade were found. No thorough QT (TQT) study with aripiprazole was found. The meta-analysis revealed that the mean ΔQTc interval was decreased with aripiprazole and QTc...... factors. OBJECTIVES: Aripiprazole's cardiac safety has not been assessed in patients at high risk for torsade, where QTc prolongation risk is highly increased. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched for preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Eligible studies were...

  18. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

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    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  19. Effects of aripiprazole on caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and neural activation in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luara A; Viana, Thércia G; Silveira, Vívian T; Aguiar, Daniele C; Moreira, Fabrício A

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. In addition to its antipsychotic activity, this compound blocks the effects of some psychostimulant drugs. It has not been verified, however, if aripiprazole interferes with the effects of caffeine. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and investigated the effects of these drugs on neural activity in the striatum. Male Swiss mice received injections of vehicle or antipsychotic drugs followed by vehicle or caffeine. Locomotion was analyzed in a circular arena and c-Fos protein expression was quantified in the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral striatum, and in the core and shell regions of nucleus accumbens. Aripiprazole (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) prevented caffeine (10 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion at doses that do not change basal locomotion. Haloperidol (0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/kg) also decreased caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion at all doses, although at the two higher doses, this compound reduced basal locomotion. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that aripiprazole increases c-Fos protein expression in all regions studied, whereas caffeine did not alter c-Fos protein expression. Combined treatment of aripiprazole and caffeine resulted in a decrease in the number of c-Fos positive cells as compared to the group receiving aripiprazole alone. In conclusion, aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases neural activation in the striatum. This latter effect is reduced by subsequent administration of caffeine. These results advance our understanding on the pharmacological profile of aripiprazole.

  20. Adverse Renal, Endocrine, Hepatic, and Metabolic Events during Maintenance Mood Stabilizer Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Walters, Kate; Geddes, John R.; King, Michael; Osborn, David P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited, poorly characterized information about adverse events occurring during maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. We aimed to determine adverse event rates during treatment with lithium, valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine. Methods and Findings We conducted a propensity score adjusted cohort study using nationally representative United Kingdom electronic health records from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2013. We included patients who had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and were prescribed lithium (n = 2148), valproate (n = 1670), olanzapine (n = 1477), or quetiapine (n = 1376) as maintenance mood stabilizer treatment. Adverse outcomes were chronic kidney disease, thyroid disease, hypercalcemia, weight gain, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and hepatotoxicity. The propensity score included important demographic, physical health, and mental health predictors of drug treatment allocation. The median duration of drug treatment was 1.48 y (interquartile range 0.64–3.43). Compared to patients prescribed lithium, those taking valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine had reduced rates of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or more severe, following adjustment for propensity score, age, and calendar year, and accounting for clustering by primary care practice (valproate hazard ratio [HR] 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–0.69; p diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or hepatotoxicity. Despite estimates being robust following sensitivity analyses, limitations include the potential for residual confounding and ascertainment bias and an inability to examine dosage effects. Conclusions Lithium use is associated with more renal and endocrine adverse events but less weight gain than commonly used alternative mood stabilizers. Risks need to be offset with the effectiveness and anti-suicidal benefits of lithium and the potential metabolic side effects of alternative treatment options. PMID:27483368

  1. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyuan Zhao; Xueqin Song; Xiaoqing Ai; Xiaojing Gu; Guangbiao Huang; Xue Li; Lijuan Pang; Minli Ding; Shuang Ding; Luxian Lv

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive an...

  2. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Cecchelli; Giacomo Grassi; Stefano Pallanti

    2010-01-01

    Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole...

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuto Oya, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of aripiprazole once monthly (AOM for schizophrenia.Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs on AOM, published until June 25, 2015, were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. Relative risk (RR, standardized mean difference (SMD, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, and numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH were calculated.Results: We identified four relevant RCTs (total n=1,860, two placebo-controlled trials, one noninferiority trial comparing AOM to oral aripiprazole (OA, and one including therapeutic doses of AOM and OA, as well as an AOM dose below therapeutic threshold (control arm. AOM was superior to placebo for decreasing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total scores (SMD =-0.65, 95% CI =-0.90 to -0.41, n=1,126. However, PANSS total scores did not differ significantly between pooled AOM and OA groups. The pooled AOM group showed significantly lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation (RR =0.54, 95% CI =0.41–0.71, n=1,139, NNH =4 and inefficacy (RR =0.28, 95% CI =0.21–0.38, n=1,139, NNH =5 than placebo, but was not superior to placebo regarding discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs or death. The AOM group exhibited a lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation than OA (RR =0.78, 95% CI =0.64–0.95, n=986, NNH =14, but there were no intergroup differences in discontinuation due to inefficacy, AEs, or death. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms scale scores between AOM and placebo or between AOM and OA. AOM resulted in higher weight gain than placebo (SMD =0.41, 95% CI =0.18–0.64, n=734 but lower than OA (SMD =-0.16, 95% CI =-0.29 to -0.02, n=847.Conclusion: AOM has antipsychotic efficacy and low risk of discontinuation due to AEs. Keywords: schizophrenia

  4. The adverse effect of obesity/high fat diet on oocyte quality and metabolism is not reversible with resumption of regular diet in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kasey A; Boudoures, Anna L; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Wang, Qiang; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which affects over one-third of reproductive-age women, has negative effects on reproduction and results in oocyte defects in both mice and humans. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine whether the adverse effects of an obesogenic diet, specifically abnormal oocyte spindle formation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid accumulation, can be reversed by return to normal weight and metabolic profile. Female C57BL6/J mice were placed on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 35.8% fat and 20.2% protein by nutritional content) or an isocaloric control diet (CD; 13% fat and 25% protein) for six weeks. All mice were then maintained on CD for eight weeks. We found that whereas metabolic parameters (weight, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol levels) of the HFD mice returned to normal after this “diet reversal” period, several oocyte defects were not reversible. Oocytes from the diet reversal mice demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of abnormal meiotic spindles than those from control mice. The HFD diet reversal GV oocytes also had lower mitochondrial membrane potential, lower levels of ATP and citrate, and higher percentages of abnormal lipid accumulation and distribution and abnormally distributed mitochondria than oocytes from control mice. Thus, despite normalization of weight, glucose utilization, and cholesterol levels eight weeks after switching from a high fat to a regular chow, oocytes from diet reversal mice exhibited significantly higher rates of meiotic spindle, lipid, and mitochondrial defects than found in mice maintained on regular chow. These results suggest that the negative effects of an obesogenic diet on oocyte quality are not as reversible as the overall metabolic parameters. These data may provide better insight when counseling obese women regarding reproductive options and success. PMID:25775080

  5. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  6. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  7. Reduced Perinatal Leptin Availability May Contribute to Adverse Metabolic Programming in a Rat Model of Uteroplacental Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Wohlfarth, Maria; Lippach, Gregor; Rauh, Manfred; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-05-01

    Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery. In the offspring, we took blood samples on E22 (n = 44), postnatal day (P) 1 (n = 29), P2 (n = 16), P7 (n = 30), and P12 (n = 30). Circulating leptin (ELISA) was significantly reduced in LIG (E22, P1, P2) and SOP offspring (E22). Postnatal leptin surge was delayed in LIG but was accelerated in SOP offspring. Placental leptin gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) was reduced in LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E20, E22). Hepatic leptin receptor (Lepr-a, mediating leptin degradation) gene expression was increased in LIG fetuses (E20, E22) only. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factors (Hif; Western blot) were unaltered in placentas and were reduced in the livers of LIG (Hif1a, E20; Hif2a, E19, E22) and SOP (Hif2a, E19) fetuses. Gene expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3, a factor expressed under hypoxic conditions contributing to Hif degradation, was increased in livers of LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E19) fetuses and in placentas of LIG and SOP (E19). In summary, reduced placental leptin production, increased fetal leptin degradation, and persistent perinatal hypoleptinemia are present in intrauterine growth restriction offspring, especially after uteroplacental insufficiency, and may contribute to perinatal programming of leptin resistance and adiposity in later life.

  8. 阿立哌唑的药理作用及治疗精神分裂症的疗效观察%Observation of the Curative Effect of Pharmacological Effects and Treatment of Mental Aripiprazole Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽红

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿立哌唑的药理作用,探究其治疗精神分裂症疗效。方法将67例患者分为治疗组34例和对照组33例,分别经阿立哌唑、利培酮治疗。结果两组治疗效果、PANSS评分对比(P>0.05),治疗组不良反应低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑可有效治疗精神分裂症。%Objective Pharmacological analysis of aripiprazole, explore the treatment effect of schizophrenia. Methods 67 patients were divided into treatment group 34 cases and control group 33 cases, respectively, by aripiprazole risperidone in the treatment of. Results The effect of PANSS treatment, scores of two groups were compared (P>0.05), adverse reaction in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole is more effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  9. Pregnancy exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    To review available data on first-trimester exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. We performed a systematic literature search in accordance with PRISMA guidelines identifying studies containing original data on first....../22 (5.1%) and 100/5 (5.0%), respectively. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 1.0 (0.7-1.4) (olanzapine), 1.0 (0.6-1.7) (quetiapine), 1.5 (0.9-2.2) (risperidone) and 1.4 (0.5-3.1) (aripiprazole). First-trimester exposure to olanzapine is not associated with an increased risk...... of congenital malformation. Data for quetiapine and risperidone do not suggest a substantially increased risk, while the risk estimate for aripiprazole remains imprecise owing to a low amount of data....

  10. Low dosage of aripiprazole induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome after interaction with other neuroleptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Petrone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is a 2nd generation antipsychotic medication, atypical neuroleptic used for treatment of schizophrenia improving symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including aripiprazole. Rare cases of NMS occurred during aripiprazole treatment in the worldwide clinical database. The disease is characterized by a distinctive clinical syndrome of mental status change, rigidity, fever, and dysautonomia. We report on a 63-year old woman with depression syndrome who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome after twelve days of aripripazole 5 mg per day. Our case is added to the small number already described and suggests the need for caution when aripripazole is added to increase the effect of other antipsychotics.

  11. Aripiprazole in the acute and maintenance phase of bipolar I disorder

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    Zupancic M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Zupancic1, Misty L Gonzalez2,31Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 2Division of Medicine Psychiatry, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 3Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Bipolar affective disorder is a disabling illness with substantial morbidity and many management challenges. Traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine are often inadequate in controlling symptoms both during the acute and maintenance phase of treatment. Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action. Evidence suggests that it is effective in acute manic and mixed states. There are limited data to suggest its efficacy as a maintenance agent. Future studies will be needed to better define the role of aripiprazole relative to other traditional pharmacologic agents.Keywords: aripiprazole, bipolar disorder, acute treatment, maintenance treatment

  12. Aripiprazole as augmentation therapy in bipolar patients with current minor or subsyndromal mood symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Isaac; Sarris, Jerome; Tuckwell, Virginia; Maguire, Kay; Smith, Deidre; Ng, Chee

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation of maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder in patients with minor or subsyndromal mood episodes while on a stable dose of a mood stabiliser and/or antidepressant. Methods All subjects had a diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th Edition, Text Revision). Open-label aripiprazole was given over 8 weeks initially. The starting dose was 5 to 15 mg/day w...

  13. 阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪治疗精神分裂症的安全性系统评价%Systematic review the safety of aripiprazole versus clorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彪; 李庆平; 母波; 刘福; 周春阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪治疗精神分裂症的不良反应的差异.方法 检索国内阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪对照研究治疗精神分裂症的文献,用系统评价方法对10篇文献评估.结果 药物不良反应发生率2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).其中,发生头痛、失眠,阿立哌唑组明显比氯丙嗪组多(P<0.05);发生口干、震颤、静坐不能、肌强直、便秘、肝功能异常、心动过速、体重增加、直立性低血压、视物模糊、嗜睡、心电图异常、月经失调、溢乳不良反应,氯丙嗪组明显比阿立哌唑组多(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑组发生不良反应的总体风险低于氯丙嗪.%Objective To study the difference in adverse drug reaction ( ADR) between aripiprazole and clorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods A total of 10 paper about control study comparing aripiprazole with clorpromazine in treatment of schizophrenia retrieved were subjected to system evaluation. Results There was significant difference in ADR incidences between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of ADR ( such as headache insomnia) in aripiprazole group were significantly higher than in clorpromazine group (P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of ADR ( such as dry mouth, tremor, akathisia, rigidity, constipation, abnormal, liver function, tachycardia, weight gain, orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, drowsiness, menstruation disturbance syndrome) in clorpromazine group were significantly higher than in aripiprazole group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Aripiprazole has less overall risk of ADR than clorpromazine for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  14. Aripiprazole blocks acute self-administration of cocaine and is not self-administered in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Sager, Thomas N; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: The novel antipsychotic aripiprazole in use for treatment of schizophrenia is a partial agonist at dopamine D(2) receptors with actions at a variety of other receptors as well. Cocaine is believed to exert an important part of its rewarding effect by increasing extracellular levels...

  15. The Treatment of Adult Bipolar Disorder with Aripiprazole: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by exacerbations of opposite mood polarity, ranging from manic to major depressive episodes. In the current nosological system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - 5(th) edition (DSM-5), it is conceptualized as a spectrum disorder consisting of bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymic disorder, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Treatment of all phases of this disorder is primarily with mood stabilizers, but many patients either show resistance to the conventional mood stabilizing medications or are intolerant to their side-effects. In this setting, second-generation antipsychotics have gained prominence as many bipolar subjects who are otherwise treatment refractory show response to these agents. Aripiprazole is a novel antipsychotic initially approved for the treatment of schizophrenia but soon found to be effective in bipolar disorder. This drug is well studied, as randomized controlled trials have been conducted in various phases of bipolar disorders. Aripiprazole exhibits the pharmacodynamic properties of partial agonism, functional selectivity, and serotonin-dopamine activity modulation - the new exemplars in the treatment of major psychiatric disorders. It is the first among a new series of psychotropic medications, which now also include brexpiprazole and cariprazine. The current review summarizes the data from controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in adult bipolar patients. On the basis of this evidence, aripiprazole is found to be efficacious in the treatment and prophylaxis of manic and mixed episodes but has no effectiveness in acute and recurrent bipolar depression. PMID:27190727

  16. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  17. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  18. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

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    Kirino E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 3Juntendo Institute of Mental Health, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. Keywords: child, mania, mixed state

  19. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  20. Low-dose aripiprazole resolved complex hallucinations in the left visual field after right occipital infarction (Charles Bonnet syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Che; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    We reported a patient who suffered from complex visual hallucinations with left homonymous hemianopsia. Brain imaging showed an acute haemorrhage infarct at the right occipital lobe. Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) was suspected and aripiprazole was prescribed at 5 mg daily. After 3 weeks, the symptoms of hallucinations and anxiety were relieved. Although some CBS patients might be self-limited without discomfort, low-dose aripiprazole can be considered as a safe medication for significantly anxious patients with CBS.

  1. No difference in frontal cortical activity during an executive functioning task after acute doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg eBolstad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is characterized by partial dopamine D2 receptor agonism. Its pharmacodynamic profile is proposed to be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment, which is prevalent in psychotic disorders. This study compared brain activation characteristics produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist, during a task targeting executive functioning.Methods: Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo before performing an executive functioning task while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was carried out. Results: There was a tendency towards reduced performance in the aripiprazole group compared to the two other groups. The image analysis yielded a strong task-related BOLD-fMRI response within each group. An uncorrected between-group analysis showed that aripiprazole challenge resulted in stronger activation in the frontal and temporal gyri and the putamen compared with haloperidol challenge, but after correcting for multiple testing there was no significant group difference. Conclusion: No significant group differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in frontal cortical activation were obtained when corrected for multiple comparisons.This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: 2009-016222-14; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  2. 阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性%Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占敏; 宓为峰; 王晓志; 卢天兰; 付艺; 王雪芹; 郝晓楠; 李玲芝; 张鸿燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was designed. One hundred and sixty - nine patients with schizophrenia were randomized into aripiprazole group (n = 79, 8 weeks, 10 -30 mg ? D-1) and quetiapine group (n = 90, 8 weeks, 400 - 750 mg ? D -1 ). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and response rate were mainly used to evaluate efficacy. The safety was assessed by using the laboratory examination, vital signs and electrocardiogram ( ECG) at the baseline, week 4, 8. Results Compared with the baseline, total scores of PANSS in both groups decreased significantly at week 4 and week 8 ( P < 0. 01 ). At week 8 of treatment the mean reduction scores of PANSS and the clinical response rates were approximate, there were no significant differences between both groups. The incidence of adverse drug reactions related to the drugs 25. 3% (20/79) in aripiprazole and 17. 7% ( 16/90) in quetiapine treatment was approximate in both groups, with lower liability for heart rate in aripiprazole than in quetiapine treatment. The triglyceride(TG) and QRS interval in aripiprazole group showed more significant differences at week 8 than the baseline ( P < 0. 05 ). But the heart rate, body mass, body mass index ( BMI) , hemoglobin ( HGB ) , total cholesterol ( TC ) and low density lipoprotein ( LDL) in quetiapine group different significantly when compared with those at baseline (P < 0. 01). Conclusion Aripiprazole and quetiapine both have good efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. They have similar incidence of adverse drug reaction related to the drugs.%目的 评价阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效及安全性.方法 169例符合DSM-Ⅳ(第4版)精神分裂症患者,阿立哌唑组79例,剂量10~30mg·d-1;喹硫平组90例,剂量400~ 750 mg·d-1,疗程均8周.治疗前,治疗第4,8周用阳性和阴性症状

  3. A clinical comparative study in first-onset schizophrenia patients treated with Aripiprazole and Quetiapine%阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗首发精神分裂症的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effects of Aripiprazole and Quetiapine in the treatment of first -onset schizophrenia. Methods 63 adult patients who were diagnosed as schizophreniain accordance with the CCMD-3 diagnosis standard were recruited in this study. All the cases were randomized into two groups and were treated with Aripiprazole and Quetiapine for 8 weeks. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and treatment emergent side effect scale (TESS) were used to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects respectively. Results The significant efficacy rates of Aripiprazole was 93.55%, Quetiapine was 90.63%, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Before and after treatment between Aripiprazole group and Quetiapine group, the PANSS score had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The level of LEP and TG was elevated which were treated by Aripiprazole, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The level of LEP, PRL, BG and TG was elevated which were treated by Quetiapine, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of first-onset schizophrenia between Aripiprazole and Quetiapine is quite, but the adverse reactions are different, the former is better than the latter.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效.方法 63例首发精神分裂症患者,符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准,随机分成两组,分别使用阿立哌唑和喹硫平治疗,疗程共8周.采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)和不良反应症状量表(TESS)进行副反应评定.结果 阿立哌唑组总有效率为93.55%,喹硫平组总有效率为90.63%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).阿立哌唑组和喹硫平组两组患者治疗前后PANSS量表评分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组治疗前后相比,瘦素和三酰甘油水平升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),喹硫平组治疗前后瘦素、催乳素、血糖和三酰甘油水平升

  4. TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND OTHER EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE: A CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic introduced in 2004 for treatment of Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. It has partial agonist activity at dopamine D2 receptor and D2 antagonist activity under hyperdopaminergic condition. In addition, it is a partial agonist at serotonin 5HT1A receptor and antagonist at 5HT2A receptor. Because its pharmacological profile differs from other atypical antipsychotics, it was initially thought to produce lesser side effects and movement disorders. But over the years, there is a growing body of evidence in the form of case reports and case series of Aripiprazole induced movement disorders like Tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. Of late it has been advocated for irritability associated with autism and as an augmenter for depressive disorder. It has lower potential for weight gain and sedation, as it has relatively low affinity for H1 [Histamine] receptor compared to clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. Based on this unique mechanism, it is claimed to have minimal or non-significant motor side effects like Tardive dyskinesia. We document a case series of 8 patients who developed Tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism and akathisia following treatment with Aripiprazole (ARP. METHODS This is both retrospective and observational study. Patients from outpatient and inpatient department of a tertiary psychiatric teaching hospital with an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, who has experienced movement disorder while on treatment with Aripiprazole are included in this report. All these patients were under the care of authors as treating Psychiatrists. Rating scales like Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS, Naranjo’s Causality Scale, Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and Simpson Angus extrapyramidal Scale (SAS were used. RESULTS Total of eight patients presented with various movement disorders associated with Aripiprazole, out of which three patients with tardive

  5. A retrospective study of predictive factors for effective aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sugawara,1,2 Kaoru Sakamoto,1 Tsuyoto Harada,3 Satoru Shimizu,4 Jun Ishigooka1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, 2Support Center for Women Health Care Professionals and Researchers, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Arakawa-ku, 4Department of Research, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Several studies have evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole for augmentation of antidepressant therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD. Here, we investigated the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and the clinical predictors of treatment efficacy in a Japanese population.  Methods: Eighty-five depressed Japanese patients who underwent aripiprazole augmentation therapy after failing to respond satisfactorily to antidepressant monotherapy were included in the study. Treatment responses were evaluated based on Clinical Global Impression Improvement scores assessed 8 weeks after initiation of aripiprazole administration. We compared demographic and diagnostic variables, psychiatric medication variables, and clinical variables between remission and nonremission groups.  Results: The aripiprazole augmentation remission rate was 36.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that aripiprazole augmentation was significantly more effective for bipolar depression than for major depressive disorder, and both absence of comorbid anxiety disorders and current episode duration >3 months were significantly associated with the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation.  Conclusion: Polarity of depression, comorbidity of anxiety disorders, and current episode duration may predict the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and

  6. Aripiprazole augmentation in poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciguerra Valentina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with a relevant impairment in social and interpersonal functioning and severe disability. This seems to be particularly true for the poor insight subtype, characterised by a lack of consciousness of illness and, consequently, compliance with treatment. Poor responsiveness to serotonergic drugs in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients may also require an augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Methods We reviewed a case in which a patient with a long history of poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with a high dosage of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results The treatment resulted in a poor outcome. This patient was therefore augmentated with aripiprazole. Conclusion Doctors should consider aripiprazole as a possible augmentation strategy for serotonergic poor responder obsessive-compulsive patients, but further research on these subjects is needed.

  7. Verbessert sich das Gedächtnis euthymer bipolarer Patienten durch die Behandlung mit Aripiprazol?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellmann, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical treatment in bipolar disorder has been more focused on dealing with the acute phase of the illness and preventing future relapse rather than treating cognitive dysfunctions. Cognitive impairment in bipolar patients is related to the central vulnerability of the dopaminergic and serotonergic system. Aripiprazole as a partial agonist at D2/D3- and 5HT1A- receptors includes activity in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Previous studies on animals and schizophrenic pa...

  8. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  9. Effects of amisulpride and aripiprazole on progressive-ratio schedule performance: comparison with clozapine and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boon, F S; Body, S; Hampson, C L; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; de Bruin, N

    2012-09-01

    Clozapine and some other atypical antipsychotics (e.g. quetiapine, olanzapine) have been found to exert a characteristic profile of action on operant behaviour maintained by progressive-ratio schedules, as revealed by Killeen's Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement model of schedule-controlled behaviour. These drugs increase the value of a parameter that expresses the 'incentive value' of the reinforcer (a) and a parameter that is inversely related to the organism's 'motor capacity' (δ). This experiment examined the effects of two further atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole and amisulpride, on progressive-ratio schedule performance in rats; the effects of clozapine and a conventional antipsychotic, haloperidol, were also examined. In agreement with previous findings, clozapine (4, 8 mg kg⁻¹) increased a and δ, whereas haloperidol (0.05, 0.1 mg kg⁻¹) reduced a and increased δ. Aripiprazole (3,30 mg kg⁻¹) increased δ but did not affect a. Amisulpride (5, 50 mg kg⁻¹) had a delayed and protracted effect: δ was increased 3-6 hours after treatment; a was increased 1.5 hours, and reduced 12-24 hours after treatment. Interpretation based on Killeen's model suggests that aripiprazole does not share clozapine's ability to enhance reinforcer value. Amisulpride produced a short-lived enhancement, followed by a long-lasting reduction, of reinforcer value. Both drugs impaired motor performance.

  10. Successful treatment of catatonic syndrome in bipolar I disorder adding aripiprazole to ECT: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hidalgo, MD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Catatonic syndrome is a condition presenting in multiple ways, sharing many of them with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and other diseases. This diagnostic challenge is the main cause of keep treating catatonic syndromes without neuroleptics. Methods: Review of the literature and a case report. Results: We present the case of a 19 years old bipolar I patient with a severe catatonic syndrome, with a torpid clinical evolution, partial response to benzodiazepines and ECT, which successfully resolved with intramuscular aripiprazole. We found through a systematic review (PubMed 2005-2010 that there are few but significant case reports of catatonic syndromes treated with new second generation antipsychotics for different reasons with good outcomes as ours. The pharmacological profile of aripiprazole and the low incidence of NMS reported make it a suitable option in treating this syndrome. Conclusions: We think that this case report could contribute to add more evidence for aripiprazole to be considered a good third-line option in the treatment of catatonic syndrome. However, this would require randomized controlled trials to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

  11. Palmitic acid interferes with energy metabolism balance by adversely switching the SIRT1-CD36-fatty acid pathway to the PKC zeta-GLUT4-glucose pathway in cardiomyoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, V Vijaya; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic regulation is inextricably linked with cardiac function. Fatty acid metabolism is a significant mechanism for creating energy for the heart. However, cardiomyocytes are able to switch the fatty acids or glucose, depending on different situations, such as ischemia or anoxia. Lipotoxicity in obesity causes impairments in energy metabolism and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. We utilized the treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells palmitic acid (PA) as a model for hyperlipidemia to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in these processes. Our results show PA induces time- and dose-dependent lipotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Moreover, PA enhances cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and reduces glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) pathway protein levels following a short period of treatment, but cells switch from CD36 back to the GLUT4 pathway after during long-term exposure to PA. As sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) play important roles in CD36 and GLUT4 translocation, we used the SIRT1 activator resveratrol and si-PKCζ to identify the switches in metabolism. Although PA reduced CD36 and increased GLUT4 metabolic pathway proteins, when we pretreated cells with resveratrol to activate SIRT1 or transfected si-PKCζ, both were able to significantly increase CD36 metabolic pathway proteins and reduce GLUT4 pathway proteins. High-fat diets affect energy metabolism pathways in both normal and aging rats and involve switching the energy source from the CD36 pathway to GLUT4. In conclusion, PA and high-fat diets cause lipotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and adversely switch the energy source from the CD36 pathway to the GLUT4 pathway. PMID:27133433

  12. Clinical efficacy comparison of escitalopram treatment combined with aripiprazole on obsessive compulsive disorder%艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑治疗强迫症患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effectiveness and safety of escitalopram with or without aripi-prazole in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method;60 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram with or without aripiprazole. Effectiveness and adverse effect were assessed by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) and treatment emergent symptom scale ( TESS) , respectively. Results; Patients both received escitalopram and escitalopram with aripiprazole showed significant improvement by Y-BOCS scores after treatment,while the combination group showed a better outcome. There was no significant difference in TESS evaluation between the two groups. Conclusion; Escitalopram could effectively treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, while escitalopram combined with aripiprazole is more effective.%目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合治疗强迫症的疗效及不良反应.方法:对60例强迫症患者随机分为单用艾司西酞普兰组(单用组)及艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合用药组(合用组)治疗强迫症患者各30例进行开放、随机、对照研究,通过耶鲁布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)评定疗效,治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应. 结果:艾司西酞普兰治疗后显著改善强迫症状,艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑也能显著改善强迫症状,后者改善效果更好;两组不良反应轻微.结论:艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑较单用艾司西酞普兰的抗强迫效果更好.

  13. 阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性%Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永桥; 杜波; 宓为峰; 王晓志; 施莹; 李玲芝; 马文斌; 金超; 杨勇峰; 张鸿燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of quetiapine and aripiprazole on patients with schizophrenia.Methods The random-ized, open, multi-center trial recruited 168 patients with schizophrenia , who received a 8-week treatment of aripiprazole (n=79, 10-30 mg· d -1 ) or quetiapine ( n=89 , 400-800 mg · d -1 ).The psychotic syn-dromes were rated with the positive and negative syndrome scale ( PAN-SS)at the baseline, the end of the fourth week and the eighth week.The disease severity was evaluated by the Clinical global impression -severity scale ( CGI-S ) and the Clinical global impression -improvement scale ( CGI-I).The safety was evaluated based on the incidences of adverse events and the comparison of laboratory or electrocardiography examina-tions prior and post the treatment.Results The response rates of aripi-prazole and quetiapine were 71.4%and 72.9%.There was no statistical difference ( P>0.05 ).The incidence rates of adverse events related to aripiprazole and quetiapine were 54.05% and 41.77%.The incidence rate of extrapyramidal symptoms ( EPS ) of the two groups were 36.7%and 4.6%( P<0.001 ).Conclusion Aripiprazole and quetiapine both show similar efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia.The incidence rates of adverse events are similar but with different profiles.%目的:评价阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性。方法用随机、开放、多中心的研究方法。入选精神分裂症患者168例,随机分入阿立哌唑组79例,剂量10~30 mg· d-1;喹硫平组89例,剂量400~800 mg· d-1,疗程均8周。在基线,4,8周末,用阳性症状与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价精神病性症状,以临床总体印象量表-严重程度(CGI-S)、疗效总评(CGI-I)评价疾病严重程度;以不良事件、实验室检查、心电图检查等评价安全性。结果阿立哌唑组与喹硫平组有效率分别为71.4%和72.9%,2组差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。

  14. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice.

  15. 博思清与氯氮平治疗单纯型精神分裂症疗效与安全性评价%Efficacy and safety evaluation of aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕见好; 高丽静

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripi-prazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schizophreni-a.METHODS:100 cases of simple type schizophrenia meeting ICD-10 criteria were analyzed in our hospital from November 2008 to December 2014,and they were divided randomly into two groups.Aripiprazole group was treated with aripiprazol,while clozapine group was treated with clozapine.PANSS reducing rates were used to evaluate the curative effect after 3 months and half a year,and the difference treatment effect and adverse reaction of two groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The total effective rate of two groups was comparative after 3 months (P >0.05);and the total effective rate of aripiprazole group was better than clozapine group after half a year (P <0.05).The incidence of adverse reac-tion of two groups had significant difference,and the incidence of adverse reaction of aripiprazole is lower than clozapine group's (P <0.05).CONCLUSION:The effect is relatively in recent of aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schiz-ophrenia,but aripiprazole has obvious advantages for the long-term efficacy and safety.Its security is greater,and is worthy of promotion.%目的:对博思清与氯氮平治疗单纯型精神分裂症疗效与安全性进行评价.方法:研究对象选取本院2008-11/2014-12收治的100例符合 ICD-10单纯型精神分裂症诊断标准的患者,按随机方法分为两组.博思清组患者采用博思清治疗,氯氮平组患者给予氯氮平治疗.治疗3个月和6个月分别采用 PANSS 量表减分率评价疗效,对比分析两组患者治疗效果和不良反应的差异性.结果:经过3个月治疗后氯氮平组患者总有效率与博思清组相当(P >0.05);而治疗6个月后博思清组治疗总有效率明显优于氯氮平组(P <0.05);两组患者治疗期间不良反应发生率有显著差异,博思清组发生率明显低于氯氮平组(P <0.05)

  16. Microbial metabolism shifts towards an adverse profile with supplementary iron in the TIM-2 in vitro model of the human colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortman, G.A.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Maathuis, A.J.H.; Engelke, U.F.; Boekhorst, J.; Keegan, K.P.; Nielsen, F.G.G.; Betley, J.; Weir, J.C.; Kingsbury, Z.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Venema, K.; Tjalsma, H.

    2016-01-01

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitr

  17. A Treatment-control Study of Aripiprazole and Ziprasidone in Female First-onset Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与齐拉西酮治疗女性首发精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱琴; 尤加永; 赵长银

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of aripiprazole and ziprasidone in female first-onset schizophrenia.Method:31 female first-onset schizophrenia patients met the CCMD-3 diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to aripiprazole group (36 patients) and ziprasidone group (35 cases). Positive symptoms and negative syndrome scale(PANSS) and treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety.Result:There was no significant difference in PANSS scores(P>0.05) before and after 2,4,8 week’treatment between two groups. The two groups had no serious adverse reactions.Conclusion:Aripiprazole and ziprasidone were effective and less adverse reactions in treatment of female first-onset schizophrenia.%目的:评价齐拉西酮与阿立哌唑治疗女性首发精神分裂症的疗效与不良反应。方法:31例符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准的女性首发患者随机分为阿立哌唑(博思清)组(36例)和齐拉西酮(思贝格)组(35例),采用阳性症状与阴性症状量表(positive symptoms and negative symptoms scale,PANSS)评定疗效,副反应量表(treatment Emergent Symptom Scale,TESS)评价药物安全性。结果:两组患者治疗前及治疗后2、4、8 PANSS评分差异无显著性(P>0.05),两组均无严重不良反应。结论:阿立哌唑和齐拉西酮治疗女性首发精神分裂症有效,且不良反应少。

  18. A controlled study between Aripiprazole combined with low-Dose of Clozapine and single Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Female Chronic Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合用小剂量氯氮平与阿立哌唑单用治疗女性慢性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆德青; 肖刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse reaction of aripiprazole combined with low- dose of clozapine in the treatment of female patients with chronic schizophrenia.Methods The Study Group 20 cases were treated by aripiprazole combined with low-dose of clozapine treatment,20 cases in the control group only treated with aripiprazole,analyzed the assessment efficacy with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS)and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms(SANS),applied the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS)to analyze their adverse reactions.Results There was no significant difference between the BPRS scores of the two groups before treatment.After treatment,it showed Significant diference in depression and anxiety and thought disorder(P<0.05), in the activity and total scores,it showed a very significant difference(P<0.01);The same group before and after treatment,the difference is very significant(P<0.01).SANS scores of the two groups had no sign- ificant difference before treatment,After treatment,in lack of interest/social lack had significant differences(P<0.05); The same group before and after treatment,the difference is very significant(P<0.01).TESS statistics showed that two groups’Side reaction occurred with the same frequency.Conclusion Regardless of aripiprazole combined with smal dose of clozapine or single use of aripiprazole in female patients with chronic schizophrenia had a definite effect,aripiprazole combined with smal dose of clozapine has advantages in improvement activities,improve interest/social and so on ,and the adverse reactions were not increased.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑合用小剂量氯氮平与阿立哌唑单用治疗女性慢性精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和不良反应。方法研究组20例应用阿立哌唑合用小剂量氯氮平治疗,对照组20例仅应用阿立哌唑单独治疗,应用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)和阴性症状量表(SANS)评定疗效,应用副反应

  19. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  20. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, So Young; Park, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myeon Woo; Choi, Ki Hwan; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2016-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are globally prescribed, exhibit mainly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects but also can cause adverse effects including gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration, bleeding, and perforation. The purpose of this study was to investigate surrogate biomarkers associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) damage caused by NSAID treatment using pattern recognition analysis of (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra of rat urine. Urine was collected for 5h after oral administration of the following NSAIDs at low or high doses: acetylsalicylic acid (10 or 200mgkg(-1)), diclofenac (0.5 or 15mgkg(-1)), piroxicam (1 or 10mgkg(-1)), indomethacin (1 or 25mgkg(-1)), or ibuprofen (10, or 150mgkg(-1)) as nonselective COX inhibitors and celecoxib (10 or 100mgkg(-1)) as a COX-2 selective inhibitor. The urine was analyzed using 500MHz (1)H NMR for spectral binning and targeted profiling and the level of gastric damage was examined. The nonselective COX inhibitors caused severe gastric damage while no lesions were observed in the celecoxib-treated rats. The (1)H NMR urine spectra were divided into spectral bins (0.04ppm) for global profiling, and a total of 44 endogenous metabolites were assigned for targeted profiling. Multivariate data analyses were performed to recognize the spectral pattern of endogenous metabolites related to NSAIDs using partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). The (1)H NMR spectra clustered differently according to gastric damage score in global profiling. In targeted profiling, the endogenous metabolites of citrate, allantoin, 2-oxoglutarate, acetate, benzoate, glycine, and trimethylamine N-oxide were selected as putative biomarkers for gastric damage caused by NSAIDs. These putative biomarkers might be useful for predicting the risk of adverse effects caused by NSAIDs in the early stage of drug development process.

  1. Microbial metabolism shifts towards an adverse profile with supplementary iron in the TIM-2 in vitro model of the human colon

    OpenAIRE

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Engelke, Udo F.; Boekhorst, Jos; Keegan, Kevin P.; Nielsen, Fiona G.G.; Betley, Jason; Weir, Jacqueline C.; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Venema, Koen; Tjalsma, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 μmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 μmol/L ferric citrate, or 5...

  2. Microbial metabolism shifts towards an adverse profile with supplementary iron in the TIM-2 in vitro model of the human colon

    OpenAIRE

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Engelke, Udo F.; Jos eBoekhorst; Keegan, Kevin P.; Fiona Gwendolyn Ginn Nielsen; Jason eBetley; Weir, Jacqueline C.; Zoya eKingsbury; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Koen eVenema; Harold eTjalsma

    2016-01-01

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO’s in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 µmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 µmol/L ferric citrate, or 5...

  3. Clinical Usefulness of Aripiprazole and Lamotrigine in Schizoaffective Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, In Goo; Kim, Jung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is not as rare as once thought and has high psychiatric comorbidities. However, bipolar or psychotic features associated with tuberous sclerosis have been rarely reported. This report first presents a tuberous sclerosis patient, resembling a schizoaffective disorder of bipolar type. A patient with known tuberous sclerosis displayed mood fluctuation and psychotic features. Her symptoms did not remit along with several psychiatric medications. After hospitalization, the patient responded well with lamotrigine and aripiprazole without exacerbation. As demonstrated in this case, tuberous sclerosis may also encompass bipolar affective or psychotic features. We would like to point out the necessity to consider bipolarity in evaluating and treating tuberous sclerosis. PMID:27489387

  4. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  5. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponson L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ponson,1,2 Frédéric Andersson,1 Wissam El-Hage1,2 1Université François-Rabelais de Tours, Inserm, Imagerie et Cerveau UMR U930, Tours, France, 2CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France Background: The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown.Case presentation: Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA.Conclusion: Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. Keywords: supplementary motor area, antipsychotics, fMRI

  6. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  7. Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红波

    2013-01-01

    目的比较阿立哌唑和利培酮对精神分裂症的疗效,为临床用药提供参考。方法以我院2011年1月~2012年9月收治的120例精神分裂症患者为研究对象,将患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组60例。对照组患者应用利培酮,治疗组患者服用阿立哌唑。观察两组的治疗效果以及不良反应。结果治疗组总有效率高于对照组,但是差异不具有统计学意义( P>0.05);两组患者PANSS总分、阳性症状分、阴性症状分、一般精神病理分治疗后明显比治疗前降低(P<0.05),但是组间比较差异不具有统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论临床对精神分裂症采用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗效果均较显著,两种药物疗效相似;但是采用阿立哌唑治疗的不良反应发生率少,因此阿立哌唑治可作为临床的首要选择。%Objective Objective To analyze effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizo-phrenia ,and provide reference for clinical medication choice .Methods 120 cases with schizophrenia from in-patient department in January 2011 to September 2012 were selected .These patients were randomly di-vided into treatment group and control group , 60 cases in each group .Control group received risperidone , and treatment group received aripiprazole .Curative effect and adverse reaction for two groups were observed and compared .Results Total effective rate for treatment group was obviously higher than control group , but there were no significant difference ( P>0 .05 ) .PANSS score , positive symptoms score , negative symp-toms score and general psychopathology score after treatment were obviously lower than the score before treatment ( P0 .05 ) .Incidence of adverse effect was obviously lower than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion herapeutic effects of aripiprazole and risperi-done in the treatment of

  8. Microbial Metabolism Shifts Towards an Adverse Profile with Supplementary Iron in the TIM-2 In vitro Model of the Human Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortman, Guus A M; Dutilh, Bas E; Maathuis, Annet J H; Engelke, Udo F; Boekhorst, Jos; Keegan, Kevin P; Nielsen, Fiona G G; Betley, Jason; Weir, Jacqueline C; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Swinkels, Dorine W; Venema, Koen; Tjalsma, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 μmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 μmol/L ferric citrate, or 50 μmol/L hemin. High resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing, microarray analysis, and metagenomic sequencing. The metabolome was assessed by fatty acid quantification, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Cultured intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to assess fecal water toxicity. Microbiome analysis showed, among others, that supplementary iron induced decreased levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while it caused higher levels of Roseburia and Prevotella. Metagenomic analyses showed an enrichment of microbial motility-chemotaxis systems, while the metabolome markedly changed from a saccharolytic to a proteolytic profile in response to iron. Branched chain fatty acids and ammonia levels increased significantly, in particular with ferrous sulfate. Importantly, the metabolite-containing effluent from iron-rich conditions showed increased cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our explorations indicate that in the absence of host influences, iron induces a more hostile environment characterized by a reduction of microbes that are generally beneficial, and increased levels of bacterial metabolites that can impair the barrier function of a cultured intestinal epithelial monolayer. PMID:26779139

  9. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m² consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm) in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01), triglycerides (TGs) (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01), and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant. PMID:27023594

  10. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm) in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01), triglycerides (TGs) (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01), and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant. PMID:27023594

  11. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J. Angelopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that average consumption of fructose and fructose containing sugars would not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, parallel group study was conducted where 267 individuals with BMI between 23 and 35 kg/m2 consumed low fat sugar sweetened milk, daily for ten weeks as part of usual weight-maintenance diet. One group consumed 18% of calories from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, another group consumed 18% of calories from sucrose, a third group consumed 9% of calories from fructose, and the fourth group consumed 9% of calories from glucose. There was a small change in waist circumference (80.9 ± 9.5 vs. 81.5 ± 9.5 cm in the entire cohort, as well as in total cholesterol (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.01, triglycerides (TGs (11.5 ± 6.4 vs. 12.6 ± 8.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, and systolic (109.2 ± 10.2 vs. 106.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, p < 0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (69.8 ± 8.7 vs. 68.1 ± 9.7 mmHg, p < 0.01. The effects of commonly consumed sugars on components of the MetS and CVD risk factors are minimal, mixed and not clinically significant.

  12. Effects of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment on choice between cocaine self-administration and food under a concurrent schedule of reinforcement in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Woldbye, David;

    2008-01-01

    the hypothesis that aripiprazole, both as acute and as chronic treatment, would preferentially decrease cocaine self-administration while sparing behavior maintained by a natural reinforcer, resulting in a shift in the allocation of behavior from cocaine-taking towards the alternative reinforcer. MATERIALS...... performance in the choice procedure was assessed daily. RESULTS: An intermediate dose of aripiprazole decreased cocaine self-administration and shifted the cocaine choice curve to the right as an acute treatment. However, as a chronic treatment, aripiprazole failed to decrease cocaine self-administration...... or cocaine choice, despite a dose-dependent decrease in overall response rates and food-maintained behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm and extend earlier findings and indicate that acute administration of aripiprazole can decrease cocaine self-administration. However, based on the present data...

  13. Adverse Effects of Second-Generation Antipsychotics as Adjuncts to Antidepressants: Are the Risks Worth the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decades, several adjunctive therapies have been introduced for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and these strategies have ebbed and flowed in popularity. Currently, adjunctive therapy with the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is most commonly used by psychiatrists. Four SGAs are FDA approved for indications related to TRD (aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine extended release); some evidence also supports use of risperidone and ziprasidone as adjunctive therapies. This article briefly reviews the role of adjunctive therapy with SGAs in contemporary algorithms for TRD, considering both the evidence of benefit and the adverse effects. PMID:27514300

  14. A control study of duloxetine combined with aripiprazol in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression%度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓良华; 莫翠英; 吴廷娟; 杨子民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of duloxetine combined with aripiprazol in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) .Meth-ods Ninety-three TRD patients were randomly divided into two groups ,research group (n=47) was trea-ted with oral duloxetine plus aripiprazol and control group (n=46) with single duloxetine for 8 weeks . Clinical efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results At the end of the 8th week ,obvious effective and effective rate were respectively 59 .1% and 77 .3% in research and 31 .1% and 42 .2% in control group , the former was significantly than the latter (χ2 = 7 .04 ,11 .35 ;P0 .05) .Conclusion Duloxetine plus aripiprazol takes effect more rapidly and has an evident effect and higher safety compared with single duloxetine in the treatment of T RD .%目的:探讨度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将93例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为两组,研究组口服度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗,对照组单用度洛西汀治疗,观察8周。采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗8周末研究组显效率59.1%、有效率77.3%,对照组分别为31.1%、42.2%,研究组显效率、有效率均显著高于对照组(χ2=7.04、11.35,P<0.01)。两组不良反应较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症起效快,疗效显著,安全性高,显著优于单用度洛西汀治疗。

  15. 阿立哌唑应用于老年精神分裂症临床治疗的疗效和安全性%The clinical therapeutic effect and safety of aripiprazole in clinical treatment of senile schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑应用于老年精神分裂症临床治疗效果及安全性,总结其治疗经验。方法:2010年1月-2013年10月收治老年精神分裂症患者40例,采用阿立哌唑治疗,平均治疗剂量(18.5±5.5)mg/d,治疗8周后采用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)评定临床疗效,不良反应量表(TESS)评定安全性。结果:显效率70.0%,有效率87.5%,无明显锥体外系反应,不良反应轻。结论:阿立哌唑应用于老年精神分裂症患者的治疗依从性好、安全性高,可以有效缓解老年精神分裂症的精神病症状,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To explore the clinical therapeutic effect and safety of aripiprazole in clinical treatment of senile schizophrenia,to summarize the treatment experience.Methods:40 elderly patients with schizophrenia were selected from January 2010 to October 2013.They were treated with aripiprazole.Average dose was (18.5 ± 5.5)mg/day.At 8 weeks after treatment,the clinical efficacy was assessed by the brief psychiatric rating scale(BPRS),and security was assessed by side effects scale(TESS). Results:The significant efficiency rate was 70%,and the efficiency was 87.5%.There was no obvious extrapyramidal reaction,and adverse reaction was light.Conclusion:Treatment compliance of application of aripiprazole in clinical treatment of senile schizophrenia is good,and security is high.It can effectively alleviate psychotic symptoms of senile schizophrenia,and it is worth the clinical promotion.

  16. Dilemma of prescribing aripiprazole under the Taiwan health insurance program: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chien Hsu,1,2 Yu-Ching Chou,3 Hsin-An Chang,1,2,4 Yu-Chen Kao,1,2,5 San-Yuan Huang,1,2 Nian-Sheng Tzeng1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, 3School of Public Health, 4Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Song-Shan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: Refractory major depressive disorder (MDD is a serious problem leading to a heavy economic burden. Antipsychotic augmentation treatment with aripiprazole and quetiapine is approved for MDD patients and can achieve a high remission rate. This study aimed to examine how psychiatrists in Taiwan choose medications and how that choice is influenced by health insurance payments and administrative policy.Design: Descriptive study.Outcome measures: Eight questions about the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason to choose aripiprazole.Intervention: We designed an augmentation strategy questionnaire for psychiatrists whose patients had a poor response to antidepressants, and handed it out during the annual meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Psychiatry in October 2012. It included eight questions addressing the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason whether or not to choose aripiprazole as the augmentation antipsychotic.Results: Choosing antipsychotic augmentation therapy or switching to other antidepressant strategies for MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressants was common with a similar probability (76.1% vs 76.4%. The most frequently used antipsychotics were aripiprazole and quetiapine, however a substantial number of psychiatrists chose olanzapine, risperidone, and sulpiride. The major reason for not choosing aripiprazole was cost (52.1%, followed by insurance official policy audit and deletion in the claims review system (30.1%.Conclusion: The prescribing

  17. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  18. Switching to Aripiprazole as a Strategy for Weight Reduction: A Meta-Analysis in Patients Suffering from Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Barak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain is one of the major drawbacks associated with the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Existing strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity amongst these patients are disappointing. Switching the current antipsychotic to another that may favorably affect weight is not yet fully established in the psychiatric literature. This meta-analysis focused on switching to aripiprazole as it has a pharmacological and clinical profile that may result in an improved weight control. Nine publications from seven countries worldwide were analyzed. These encompassed 784 schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients, 473 (60% men and 311 (40% women, mean age 39.4±7.0 years. The major significant finding was a mean weight reduction by −2.55±1.5 kgs following the switch to aripiprazole (<.001. Switching to an antipsychotic with a lower propensity to induce weight gain needs be explored as a strategy. Our analysis suggests aripiprazole as a candidate for such a treatment strategy.

  19. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  20. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  1. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾天成

    2014-01-01

    incidence of adverse effect in experimental group was less than that in the control group(P <0.05).Conclusion Both aripiprazole and risperidone can improve the negative symptoms of schizophrenia with the similar efficacy;however,aripi-prazole is adept in treating the symptoms of affection and cognition,compared with the advantage of risperidone in treating the symptoms of af-fection and behavior.Aripiprazole is generally safer than risperidone.

  2. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixed with water (Abilify Maintena) and as a suspension (liquid) (Aristada) to be injected into a muscle ... decisions, and react quickly. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this ...

  3. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method for sensitive and rapid determination of aripiprazole in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daxesh P; Sharma, Primal; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-04-15

    An improved and rugged UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for sensitive and rapid determination of aripiprazole in human plasma using aripiprazole-d8 as the internal standard (IS). The analyte and IS were extracted from 100 μL of human plasma by solid-phase extraction using Phenomenex Strata-X (30 mg, 1 cc) cartridges. Chromatography was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) analytical column using methanol: 10mM ammonium formate (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase with isocratic elution. Quantitation was done using multiple reaction monitoring in the positive ionization mode. The linearity of the method was established in the concentration range 0.05-80 ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery was greater than 96% across QC levels, while intra- and inter batch accuracy and precision (% CV) values ranged from 97.4 to 101.9% and from 1.20 to 3.72% respectively. The relative matrix effect in eight different lots of plasma samples, expressed as % CV for the calculated slopes of calibration curves was 1.08%. The stability of aripiprazole was studied under different storage conditions. The validated method was used to support a bioequivalence study of 10mg aripiprazole formulation in 36 healthy Indian subjects. PMID:23510852

  4. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性比较%Comparison of Efifcacy and Safety of Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过临床试验对阿立哌唑和利培酮对于痴呆精神行为的疗效和安全性进行观察和探讨。方法将本科室近来收治的有痴呆精神行为症状的患者72人进行随机分组,每组36人,并分别用阿立哌唑(A组)和利培酮来(B组)对患者进行为期8 w的治疗,在治疗之前以及治疗的第2、4以及第8周的最后一天对72名患者采用BEHAV-AD对患者的病理行为进行评定,以此来对两种药物的有效性进行对比;同时采用TESS(不良反应检测表)来对药物的安全性进行分析和比较。结果通过阿立哌唑和利培酮进行治疗的两组患者在治疗后BEHAV-AD评分较治疗之前有了明显的降低,A、B两组患者的治疗之前与治疗之后的BEHAV-AD评分相比较具有较为明显的统计学差异(P<0.05)。另外服用阿立哌唑的A组患者的不良反应发生率明显比服用利培酮的B组患者的不良反应发生率低,通过对差异进行分析发现,此差异同样具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论阿立哌唑和利培酮对于痴呆精神行为都具有较为明显的疗效,但是利培酮的安全性相比阿立哌唑较差。%Objective Observe and investigate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone for spirit behavior of dementia. Methods 72 patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were randomly assigned into two groups, 36 people in each group , they were treated with aripiprazole (A group) and risperidone to (group B) respectively for a period of 8 w, assessed the behavior of the patients by BEHAV-AD at the points of prior to treatment, treatment of 2, 4 and 8 weeks , and the last day, compared the effectiveness of the two drugs, at the same time using the TESS (adverse reaction detection table) to assess the safety of the drugs. Results After the treatment of aripiprazole and risperidone, BEHAV-AD score signiifcantly reduced in two groups, there were

  5. Combining moderators to identify clinical profiles of patients who will, and will not, benefit from aripiprazole augmentation for treatment resistant late-life major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Wallace, Meredith L; Anderson, Stewart J; Karp, Jordan F; Lenze, Eric J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Butters, Meryl A; Blumberger, Daniel M; Diniz, Breno S; Lotrich, Francis E; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2016-10-01

    Personalizing treatment for late-life depression requires identifying and integrating information from multiple factors that influence treatment efficacy (moderators). We performed exploratory moderator analyses using data from a multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of aripiprazole augmentation. Patients (n = 159) aged ≥60 years had major depressive disorder that failed to remit with venlafaxine monotherapy. We examined effect sizes of 39 potential moderators of aripiprazole (vs. placebo) augmentation efficacy using the outcome of percentage reduction in depressive symptom after 12 weeks. We then incorporated information from the individually relevant variables in combined moderators. A larger aripiprazole treatment effect was related to: white race, better physical function, better performance on Trail-Making, attention, immediate, and delayed memory tests, greater psychomotor agitation and suicidality symptoms, and a history of adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy. A smaller aripiprazole treatment effect was observed in patients with: more pain and more work/activity impairment and libido symptoms. Combining information from race and Trail-Making test performance (base combined moderator (Mb*)) produced a larger effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.42)) than any individual moderator. Adding other individually relevant moderators in the full combined moderator (Mf*) further improved effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.52)) and identified a sub-group benefiting more from placebo plus continuation venlafaxine monotherapy than adjunctive aripiprazole. Combining moderators can help clinicians personalize depression treatment. We found the majority of our patients benefited from adjunctive aripiprazole, but a smaller subgroup that is identifiable using clinical measures appeared to benefit more from continuation venlafaxine plus placebo. PMID:27438687

  6. Aripiprazole combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症的临床疗效及安全性。方法:将68例难治性精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,组34例,研究组口服阿立哌唑联合氯氮平治疗,对照组单用氯氮平治疗,观察8周,于治疗前及治疗第2周,第4周,第8周末采用阳性与阴性症状量表及副反应量表评定临床疗效和不良反应。结果:两组治疗2周末起阳性与阴性症状量表评分均较治疗前有显著下(P<0.05),研究同期两组间比较均无显著性差异(P>0.05),治疗8周末研究组有效率为63.48%,对照组为51.73%,两组无显著性差异(P>0.05),研究组不良反应发生率为31.23%,对照组为57.27%,研究组显著低于对照组(P<0.05),研究组主要表现为静坐不能、震颤、体重增加。对照组主要为流涎、心电图异常、肝功能异常、白细胞减少、嗜睡、头昏、体重增加等。结论:阿立哌唑联合氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症疗效显著,安全性高,依从性好。%ObjectiveThe clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia.Methods68 patients with refractory schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups, each group have 34 cases,the study group use aripiprazole combined with clozapine to treatment, the control group used clozapine treatment, observe 8 weeks, before treatment and second weeks, fourth weeks and eighth weeks using the positive and negative symptoms scale and side effects scale to evaluated the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions.Results The positive and negative symptom scale scores of the two groups after 2 weeks treatment were significantly lower (P 0.05), after 8 weeks the studygroup effective rate was 63.48%, the control group is 51.73%, the two groups was not statistically significant difference (P> 0.05), the incidence of adverse reactions was 31.23% in

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Kaur S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly ...

  8. A control study of influence of amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole on electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia%氨磺必利与氯氮平、阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者心肌酶和心电图影响的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常学润; 张敬悬; 何云鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole on electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia.Methods 180 schizophrenic patients were randomly divided into amisulpride group (n =60),clozapine group (n =60)and aripiprazole group (n =60)treated with amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole respectively.The electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram including AST,CK,CK-MB, LDH,α-HBDH were measured at baseline and at the end of the 2nd ,4th ,8th and 12th week of the treatment.Results (1)At the end of the 8th week,serum level of AST in aripiprazole group,as well as serum levels of CK-MB and LDH in amisulpride group were significantly higher than those at baseline (P <0.05 ).Serum levels of CK and α-HBDH in 3 groups were significantly higher at the 4th,8th and 12th week of the treatment than those at baseline (P <0.05).(2)There was significant difference in incidence of abnormal T wave among 3 groups at the 12th week (P <0.05).The incidence of abnormal T wave in clozapine group was significantly higher than that in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group (P <0.05).(3)The incidence rate of abnormal electrocardiogram showed significant difference among 3 groups at the 12th week (P <0.01 ),and was significantly higher in clozapine group than that in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group (P <0.05).Inner-group comparison showed that incidence rates of abnormal electrocardiogram in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group were significantly lower at the end of the 12th week than that at the end of the 2nd week respectively (P <0.05).Conclusion Amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole can cause a certain adverse effects on electrocardiogram and myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia. The influence on electrocardiogram is relatively more obvious in clozapine treated patients and is likely to be more serious with the progress of treatment.%目的:比较氨磺必利与氯

  9. The effect of antipsychotic medication on sexual function and serum prolactin levels in community-treated schizophrenic patients: results from the Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole (STAR study (NCT00237913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pans Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia in a community based study on sexual function and prolactin levels comparing the use of aripiprazole and standard of care (SOC, which was a limited choice of three widely used and available antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone (The Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole [STAR] study [NCT00237913]. Method This open-label, 26-week, multi-centre, randomised study compared aripiprazole to SOC (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone in patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria. The primary effectiveness variable was the mean total score of the Investigator Assessment Questionnaire (IAQ at Week 26. The outcome research variables included the Arizona Sexual Experience scale (ASEX. This along with the data collected on serum prolactin levels at week 4, 8, 12, 18 and 26 will be the focus of this paper. Results A total of 555 patients were randomised to receive aripiprazole (n = 284 or SOC (n = 271. Both treatment groups experienced improvements in sexual function from baseline ASEX assessments. However at 8 weeks the aripiprazole treatment group reported significantly greater improvement compared with the SOC group (p = 0.007; OC. Although baseline mean serum prolactin levels were similar in the two treatment groups (43.4 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group and 42.3 mg/dL in the SOC group, p = NS at Week 26 OC, mean decreases in serum prolactin were 34.2 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group, compared with 13.3 mg/dL in the SOC group (p Conclusion The study findings suggest that aripiprazole has the potential to reduce sexual dysfunction, which in turn might improve patient compliance.

  10. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  11. 阿立哌唑合并康复训练改善精神分裂症患者生活质量的临床研究%Clinical Study of Aripiprazole Combined with Rehabilitation Training to Improve the Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程闯; 张新风

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of aripiprazole combined with rehabilitation training in patients with schizophrenia quality of life of the spirit.Method:Met the Chinese classification and diagnostic criteria of mental disorders Third Edition(CCMD-3)criteria for the diagnosis of 90 patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups,aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of,a total of 8 weeks,two groups were psychiatric rehabilitation training. The positive and negative symptoms scale before and after treatment(PANSS)was introduced in June to assess the efficacy,the side effects scale(TESS)assessment of adverse reactions,the WHO quality of life scale(WHOQOL-100)assessment of quality of life.Result:Aripiprazole group and clozapine group markedly effective rate were 73.3%and 75.6%,with no significant difference between two groups(P>0.05);4,8 weeks after treatment,two groups of PANSS scale scores were decreased than that before treatment(P0.05);治疗后4、8周,两组PANSS量表各项因子分均较治疗前下降(P<0.05),但治疗后8周阿立哌唑组阴性症状及一般精神病理分较氯氮平组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);阿立哌唑组不良反应发生率显著低于氯氮平组(P<0.05);治疗6个月后两组在(WHOQOL-100)量表各领域均较治疗前有统计学意义(P<0.05),但阿立哌唑组在生理领域、心理领域、社会关系领域、精神支柱、生活质量方面较氯氮平组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症疗效与氯氮平相仿,不良反应少,合并精神康复治疗可显著改善精神分裂症患者的生活质量。

  12. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  13. Adverse effects of benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Gudex

    1990-01-01

    The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This has stimulated interest in the costs and benefits of their use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern: drug dependence which the consequent withdrawal symptoms; psychological effects while on the drugs; use by the elderly’ and tolerance to the drug effects. Although th...

  14. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性比较%Comparison of efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗克勇; 刘克祥; 王瑞超; 付华斌

    2013-01-01

    by patients in risperidone group with a starting dose of 0.5 mg/d and less than the maximum dose 3 mg/d.Two groups were treated for 8 weeks.BEHAVE-AD and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) were used to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effect respectively before and at the ends of 8 weeks treatment.The levels of blood glucose,total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and weight were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks.Results After 8 weeks treatment,the scores of BEHAVE-AD in both groups significantly reduced [aripiprazole group:(14.8 ± 4.2),(10.2 ± 3.6),(6.8 ± 2.6) scores vs (16.4 ± 4.6) scores ; risperidone group:(15.2 ±3.9),(11.8 ±3.8),(7.2 ±3.0)scores vs (17.2 ±5.0)scores,P<0.05 or P<0.01],but there were no significantly differences between the two groups (P > 0.05) ; there were few side effects in both groups [both 8.8% (3/34)],but the weight gaining,TC and LDL-C in risperidone group were higher than those before treatment [(71-±6)kg vs (66 ±6)kg,(1.62 ± 0.46) mmol/L vs (0.96 ± 0.29) mmol/L,(3.82±0.86)mmol/L vs (3.08 ± 0.74)mmol/L,all P < 0.05].Conclusion The results suggest that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for the treatment of BPSD,but aripiprazole has less effect on blood glucose,lipids and weight than risperidone.

  15. Adverse effects of general anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, M C; Reilly, C S

    1992-01-01

    This review deals with the adverse reactions associated with general anaesthetic agents in current use. These reactions fall into 2 categories; those which are more common, predictable and often closely related, and those which are rare, unpredictable and carry a high mortality. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents affect the central nervous and cardio-respiratory systems in a dose-related manner. Neuronal inhibition results in decreasing levels of consciousness and depression of the medullary vital centres which can lead to cardiorespiratory failure. Both groups of agents have some depressant effect on the myocardium and vascular smooth muscle leading to a fall in cardiac output and hypotension. Centrally-mediated respiratory depression is common to both groups and the inhalational agents have a direct effect on lung physiology. The most important idiosyncratic reactions to the volatile agents are malignant hyperpyrexia and 'halothane hepatitis'. Malignant hyperpyrexia has an incidence of 1:12,000 with a mortality of about 24%. It is triggered most often by halothane together with suxamethonium. Post halothane hepatic necrosis is rare. Evidence points to 2 distinct syndromes; direct toxicity from the products of reductive metabolism, and a more serious illness, immunologically mediated via haptens formed by liver proteins and the products of oxidative metabolism. Prolonged nitrous oxide exposure can cause bone marrow depression and life-threatening pressure effects by expansion of air-filled spaces within the body. The idiosyncratic reactions to the intravenous agents include anaphylactoid reactions (which are rare) and triggering of acute porphyria. Etomidate is immunologically 'clean', but it inhibits cortisol synthesis. PMID:1418699

  16. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  17. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  18. Efeitos adversos metabólicos de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor Metabolic side effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Ribeiro Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    use of lithium and valproic acid once again directed the attention to their metabolic effects. This study aims to review the medical literature with regard to metabolic side effects associated with the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. METHOD: Research was carried out at MEDLINE and LILACS through October 2005. CONCLUSION: Metabolic side effects remain a major concern for psychopharmacology. Clinically relevant weight gain occurs frequently in patients taking antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, particularly clozapine, olanzapine, lithium, and valproic acid. Clozapine and olanzapine are also associated with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, either due to weight gain or because of a direct deleterious action on glucose metabolism. Incidence of obesity and other metabolic disorders is lower with risperidone when compared to olanzapine or clozapine. Carbamazepine is associated with lower weight gain when compared to lithium or valproic acid. Drugs such as haloperidol, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and lamotrigine are not associated with significant weight gain or with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus. They are alternatives for patients more likely to develop these adverse effects.

  19. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Anwikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization′s Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetany-related symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1, muscle spasm (1, muscle cramps (1, lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4, and hypertonia (1, with hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium metabolism. Resorption of bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

  20. 阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆精神行为症状的效果观察%Effect observation on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and olanzapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the clinical efficacy on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. Methods 84 patients with senile dementia associated with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms were selected in the hospital from March 2009 to December 2011, who were divided into two groups randomly. 42 patients who used Olanzapine treatment were as the control group. 42 patients who used Aripiprazole in the treatment were as the observation group. The course of treatment was 8 weeks. After treatment of 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, AD behavioral pathology In scale (BEHAVE-AD), treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) of patients were performed. Before the treatment and after treatment of 8 weeks, minimum mental state examination was performed. Results After treatment, AD behavioral pathology in scale total score and each factor scores in the control group and observation group decreased significantly. The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions (19.0%) in the observation group was significantly lower than that In the control group (45.2%), the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Minimum mental state examination scores in the control group and observation group evaluated. Total efficiency of AD behavioral pathology In scale score and minimum mental state examination score In the observation group was slightly higher than those In the control group, while there were no significant differences between them (P > 0.05}. Conclusion Aripiprazole and Olanzapine in the treatment of senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms have equivalent clinical efficacy. But Aripiprazole has better security, which is more suitable for clinical use.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆的精神行为症状的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2009年3月~2011年12月收治的老年期痴呆伴精神行为症状患者84例,随机分为两

  1. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Preclinical and Early Phase Human Proof of Concept Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients treated with antipsychotics. The first column in this series began with the case of a 76-year-old man with major depressive disorder who developed orofacial dyskinesias while being treated with aripiprazole as an antidepressant augmentation strategy. It was alleged that a higher than intended dose of aripiprazole (ie, 20 mg/d for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/d for 4 wk instead of the intended dose of 2 mg/d) was the cause of the dyskinetic movements in this man, and the authors were asked to review the case and give their opinion. The principal basis for this theory of causation was the class warning about TD in the package insert for aripiprazole. The rationale for concluding aripiprazole caused TD in the 76-year-old man led to this series of columns about aripiprazole, its potential--if any--to cause TD, and the presence of a class warning about TD in its package insert. The central point is to illustrate why class warnings exist and their implications for practice. The first column in this series focused on the historical background, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias and concluded with a discussion of diagnostic considerations explaining why clinicians should avoid making a diagnosis of TD until a thorough differential diagnosis has been considered. This second column in the series reviews the pharmacology of aripiprazole and the preclinical and phase I translational human studies that suggest aripiprazole should have a low to nonexistent risk of causing TD compared with other antipsychotics. The third column in the series

  2. 阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study on aripiprazole combined with risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永秀; 陈斌华; 徐小杰; 陶云海; 施剑飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 212例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为阿立哌唑联合利培酮组(治疗组,105例)和利培酮组(对照组,107例).分别于治疗前及治疗后第2,4,8周末用阳性症状和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评价药物不良反应.结果 治疗组完成105例,对照组完成104例.治疗组有效率为92.38%,显著率为77.14%;对照组有效率为85.58%,显著率为66.35%,2组疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PANSS总分减分及PANSS阴性因子减分在第2,4,8周末治疗组均优于对照组(P <0.05或P<0.01).2组药物不良反应均较轻微,经对症处理大多能缓解,其中在震颤、静坐不能、体重增加及泌乳、月经紊乱等发生率,治疗组明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 利培酮联合阿立哌唑治疗慢性精神分裂症疗效良好,不良反应小,患者治疗依从性好.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole combined risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia.Methods A total of 212 patients diagnosed as chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into aripiprazole combined risperidone group (treatment group,n =105) and risperidone group (control group,n =107).Clinical effectiveness was assessed with the positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS)and adverse reactions with the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of the 2,4,8 week.Results One hundred and five patients of the treatment group and 104 patients of the control group had completed the course.The effective rate and the apparent effect rate in treatment group was 92.38% and 77.14%,whereas that was 85.58% and 66.35% in control group.There was no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05).Effectiveness of treatment group was superior to control group at the end of the 2,4,8 week by PANSS total scores'subtraction and

  3. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study of amisulpride vs aripiprazole in the first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride and aripi‐prazole in the treatment of first‐episode schizophrenia .Methods Using randomized ,double‐blind ,double‐dummy parallel controlled method 124 first‐episode schizophrenics were assigned to two groups taking o‐rally amisulpride and aripiprazole respectively for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the PANSS and CGI scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) .Ad‐verse reactions were mild ,there were no group significant difference in incidence of adverse reaction (P>0 .05) .Conclusion Both amisulpride and aripiprazole have an equivalent evident effect in first‐episode schizophrenia ,take effect rapidly ,and have higher safety and better compliance .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及安全性。方法将124例首发精神分裂症患者按随机数字表分为两组,采用双盲、双模拟平行对照的方法分别口服氨磺必利和阿立哌唑治疗,观察8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表、临床疗效总评量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表和临床疗效总评量表评分均较治疗前显著性下降( P<0.05或0.01);治疗8周末氨磺必利组显效率63.3%、总有效率88.3%,阿立哌唑组分别为64.4%、91.5%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.01、0.33,P>0.05)。不良反应均较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症疗效显著,总体疗效相当,起效快,安全性高,依从性好。

  4. Usability of a novel digital medicine system in adults with schizophrenia treated with sensor-embedded tablets of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters-Strickland T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Peters-Strickland,1 Linda Pestreich,1 Ainslie Hatch,2 Shashank Rohatagi,1 Ross A Baker,1 John P Docherty,2 Lada Markovtsova,1 Praveen Raja,3 Peter J Weiden,4 David P Walling5 1Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., 2ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 3Proteus Digital Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 5CNS Network, LLC, Long Beach, CA, USA Objective: Digital medicine system (DMS is a novel drug–device combination that objectively measures and reports medication ingestion. The DMS consists of medication embedded with an ingestible sensor (digital medicine, a wearable sensor, and software applications. This study evaluated usability of the DMS in adults with schizophrenia rated by both patients and their health care providers (HCPs during 8-week treatment with prescribed doses of digital aripiprazole.Methods: Six US sites enrolled outpatients into this Phase IIa, open-label study (NCT02219009. The study comprised a screening phase, a training phase (three weekly site visits, and a 5-week independent phase. Patients and HCPs independently rated usability of and satisfaction with the DMS.Results: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, and 49 (73.1% patients completed the study. The mean age (SD of the patients was 46.6 years (9.7 years; the majority of them were male (74.6%, black (76.1%, and rated mildly ill on the Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale (70.1%. By the end of week 8 or early termination, 82.1% (55/67 of patients had replaced the wearable sensor independently or with minimal assistance, based on HCP rating. The patients used the wearable sensor for a mean (SD of 70.7% (24.7% and a median of 77.8% of their time in the trial. The patients contacted a call center most frequently at week 1. At the last visit, 78% (47/60 of patients were somewhat satisfied/satisfied/extremely satisfied with the DMS.Conclusion: A high proportion of patients with

  5. 舍曲林联合阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗难治性抑郁症患者的临床效果%Clinical effects of Sertraline combined with Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in treatment of treatment-resistant depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍臣; 杨静娟; 敖瑞

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察舍曲林联合小剂量阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗难治性抑郁症患者的疗效。方法:将76难治性抑郁症患者随机分成治疗组40例、对照组36例。治疗组患者用舍曲林联合小剂量阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗,对照组患者单用舍曲林治疗,观察8周。分别于治疗前及治疗后第1、2、4、8周末采用HAMD(汉密尔顿抑郁量表)评定疗效,用TESS(副反应量表)观察不良反应。结果:经8周治疗后,两组患者经Ridit评分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 HAMD评分第1、2、4周末两组患者有显著性差异(P<0.01~0.05),两组患者的不良反应均较低。结论:舍曲林联合小剂量阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗难治性抑郁症患者的疗效肯定,不良反应轻微。%Objective:To observe clinical effects of Sertraline combined with small-dose Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tab-lets in treatment of treatment-resistant depression. Methods:76 patients with treatment-resistant depression were randomly assigned into research group (40 patients) and control group (36 patients). Research group received Sertraline combine with small-dose Aripi-prazole ODT for 8 weeks and control group accepted Sertraline alone for 8 weeks. The efficacy and adverse reactions before the treat-ment and at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week of treatment were measured by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and treatment emergent symptom scale ( TESS) . Results:There were significant differences of HAMD scores between the two groups at the end of 1st, 2nd, and 4th week of the treatment (P<0. 01~0. 05), and there were also statistical differences of Ridit scores between the two groups patients at the end of 8th week of treatment. The two groups both had fewer adverse reactions. Conclusions: Sertraline com-bined with small-dose Aripiprazole ODT has a certain efficacy in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression with mild adverse re-actions.

  6. Medication adherence and utilization in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder receiving aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Ariel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are chronic debilitating disorders that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic agents, such as aripiprazole, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. While patients who are hospitalized for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often receive these agents at discharge, comparatively little information exists on subsequent patterns of pharmacotherapy. Methods Using a database linking hospital admission records to health insurance claims, we identified all patients hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 295.XX or bipolar disorder (296.0, 296.1, 296.4-296.89 between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2008 who received aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at discharge. Patients not continuously enrolled for 6 months before and after hospitalization (“pre-admission” and “follow-up”, respectively were excluded. We examined patterns of use of these agents during follow-up, including adherence with treatment (using medication possession ratios [MPRs] and cumulative medication gaps [CMGs] and therapy switching. Analyses were undertaken separately for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. Results We identified a total of 43 patients with schizophrenia, and 84 patients with bipolar disorder. During the 6-month period following hospitalization, patients with schizophrenia received an average of 101 therapy-days with the second-generation antipsychotic agent prescribed at discharge; for patients with bipolar disorder, the corresponding value was 68 therapy-days. Mean MPR at 6 months was 55.1% for schizophrenia patients, and 37.3% for those with bipolar disorder; approximately one-quarter of patients switched to another agent over this period. Conclusions Medication compliance is poor in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who initiate treatment with aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge.

  7. Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making.

  8. 喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性研究%Efficacy and safety of quetiapine,aripiprazole and amisulpride in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智勇; 谢玲银; 黄伟波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the antipsychotic efficacy and safety of three kinds of drugs on patients with schizophrenia. Methods Patients with schizophrenia in our hospital from January to October in 2014 were selected and randomly divided into three groups,quetiapine group (n=98)accepted quetiapine 400 ~800 (512 ± 128)mg/d,aripi-prazole group (n=100) accepted aripiprazole 10~30 (20 ±6) mg/d,amisulpride group (n=102) accepted amisul-pride 400~800(635 ± 147) mg/d respectively for eight weeks. The efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated by PANSS and TESS,and the social function was evaluated by PSP before and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Results The total effective rate of quetiapine group,aripiprazole group and amisulpride group was 68. 4%,70.0% and 69. 6%respectively,there was no significant difference among the three groups(P>0.05). The score of CGI and PSP of each group increased significantly. Conclusion Quetiapine,aripiprazole and amisulpride have similar efficiency in the treat-ment of schizophrenic patients,but the adverse reactions features are different.%目的 研究喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性. 方法 选择2014年1-10月在我院精神科住院的300例精神分裂症患者,随机分为喹硫平组、阿立哌唑组、氨磺必利组,分别给予喹硫平[400~800 mg/d,平均(512 ±128)mg/d]、阿立哌唑[10~30 mg/d,平均(20 ±6)mg/d]、氨磺必利[400~800 mg/d,平均(635 ± 147)mg/d]治疗8周. 于分组前及治疗后4、8周用评估阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)、不良反应量表( TESS)评定疗效和不良反应,用社会功能量表( PSP)评定患者的社会功能. 结果 喹硫平组总有效率为68. 4%,阿立哌唑组总有效率为70.0%,氨磺必利组总有效率为69. 6%,三组总有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);三组患者CGI评分及PSP评分均显著增加. 结论 喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效相当,但不良反应特点不同.

  9. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon; Flynn, Alexandra; Macaluso, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This series of columns has 2 main goals: (1) to explain the use of class warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration and (2) to increase clinicians' awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications and why it is appropriate and good practice to refrain from immediately assuming the diagnosis is tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD). This first column in the series will focus on the second goal, which will then serve as a case example for the first goal. Clinicians should refrain from jumping to a diagnosis of TD because a host of other causes need to be ruled out first before inferring iatrogenic causation. The causal relationship between chronic treatment with dopamine antagonists and TD is based on pharmacoepidemiology (ie, the prevalence of such movement disorders is higher in individuals receiving chronic treatment with such agents than in a control group). There is nothing pathognomonic about movement disorders, nor is there any test that can currently prove a drug caused a movement disorder in a specific individual. Another goal of this series is to describe the types of research that would be needed to establish whether a specific agent has a meaningful risk of causing TD. In this first column of the series, we present the case of a patient who developed orofacial dyskinesia while being treated with aripiprazole. In this case, the movement disorder was prematurely called TD, which led to a malpractice lawsuit. This case highlights a number of key questions clinicians are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice. We then review data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for 2 movement disorders, TD and spontaneous dyskinesia. Subsequent columns in this series will review: (1) unique aspects of the psychopharmacology of aripiprazole, (2) the limited and inconsistent data in the literature concerning the causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD, (3) the use of

  10. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  11. 阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症老年患者临床疗效观察%OBSERVATION ON THE CLINIC EFFICACY OF ARIPIPRAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF THE ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿怀红

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 研究阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症老年患者的临床疗效和不良反应,为临床提供依据.[方法] 选择符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准、简明精神疾病评定量表(BPRS)>35分、年龄≥65岁的病例共60例.随机分为阿立哌唑组与奋乃静组各30例.治疗前及治疗8周后分别用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)及阳性和阴性综合征量表(PANSS)评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.[结果] 阿立哌唑在治疗精神分裂症老年患者总疗效和对情感障碍、意志障碍的改善明显优于奋乃静.阿立哌唑在行为毒性、神经系和植物神经系的副作用明显低于奋乃静.阿立哌唑副反应轻且相对安全、依从性高.[结论] 阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症老年患者效果确切、安全性强、依从性高,能全面提高患者生活质量.%[Objective] To study the efficacy and side effect of aripiprazole in the treatment of the elderly patients with schizophrenia, and to provide the basis for the clinical. [Methodsl According to CCMD-3, 65 patients with BPRS score over 35 and aged above 60 years old were selected and randomly divided into two groups: 30 patients had heen given aripiprazole for 8 weeks, and 30 patients had been given perphenazine for 8 weeks, then all patients were assessed by BPRS, PANSS and TESS. [ Results) Both aripiprazole and perphenazine had same effect on Psychiatric symptams. Aripiprazole were much better than perphenazine in these respects: anxiety, depression and exceasive activity. Aripiprazole has less side effecta than perphenazine. Aripiprazole was Side-Light and relatively safe and high compliance. [Conclusion] Aripiprazole is an effective trealment of the elderly patients with schizophrenia, strong security and , high compliance, we can improve the overall quality of life of patients.

  12. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  13. Factors modifying stress from adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Roland, R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The adverse effects of immunosuppression appear in the majority of patients with a negative impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The group of adverse symptoms manifested as changes in appearance, mood and energy are often more stressful than serious metabolic changes bec

  14. A control study of SVSRT plus aripiprazole in the treatment of manic episode of bipolar disorder%丙戊酸钠缓释片联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菲; 谭柏坚; 郭彦杨

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨丙戊酸钠缓释片联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作的疗效和安全性。方法将81例双相障碍躁狂发作患者按照治疗方法不同分为观察组42例,对照组39例,均口服丙戊酸钠缓释片治疗,观察组联合阿立哌唑治疗,对照组联合喹硫平治疗,观察8周。采用Young躁狂评定量表评定躁狂状况、健康调查简表评定生活质量、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表评定睡眠质量、副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组Young躁狂评定量表总分及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表各维度评分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),观察组显著低于对照组(P<0.01);两组健康调查简表各维度评分均较治疗前显著升高(P<0.01),观察组显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。两组不良反应均较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论丙戊酸钠缓释片联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作疗效显著,能有效改善患者的生活质量及睡眠质量,安全性高。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of sodium valproate sus‐tained release tablets (SVSRT ) plus aripiprazole in the treatment of manic episode of bipolar disorder . Methods Eighty‐one patients with manic episodes of bipolar disorder were assigned to observation (n=42) and control group (n=39) according to different treatment methods ,both groups took orally SVSRT , observation was plus aripiprazole and control group plus quetiapine for 8 weeks .Manic states were as‐sessed with Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ,qualities of life with the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF‐36) ,sleep qualities with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ,and adverse reac‐tions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the total score of the YMRS and each dimension score of the PSQI of both groups lowered more significantly (P0 .05) .Conclusion SVSRT

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  16. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  17. 帕罗西汀合并不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的临床观察%Observing the effect of Paroxetine combined with different doses of ariPiPrazole on obsessive-comPulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立毛; 舒菊红; 戴升太

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effectiveness and safety of paroxetine combined with different doses of aripiprazole on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method:One hundred and sixty-four patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomly divided into 2 groups:the paroxetine only group( n = 33),the 2. 2 mg/ d group(n = 32),the 2 mg/ d group(n = 34),the 7. 2mg group(n = 32),the 10 mg/ d group(n = 33). Each group was treated with paroxetine 40 mg/ d combined with corresponding doses of aripiprazole for 8 weeks. Effectiveness and adverse effect were assessed respectively by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale( Y-BOCS)and treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS). Results:After 8 weeks treatment,in the five groups, the scores of Y-BOCS significantly decreased(P ﹤ 0. 02 or P ﹤ 0. 01),the 2. 2 mg/ d group and the 2 mg group were more obvious(all P ﹤ 0. 01). The decreased score rate of Y-BOCS were significantly different between the paroxetine only group and the 2. 2 mg/ d group or the 2 mg group(all P ﹤ 0. 02). After 8 weeks treatment,no significant difference was found in the rates of adverse effect in 2. 2 mg/ d group and 2 mg/ d group compared with paroxetine only group;but in 7. 2 mg/ d group and 10 mg/ d group were sifnificantly higher than paroxetine only group(P ﹤ 0. 02 or P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion:The paroxetine combined the 2. 2-2 mg/ d aripiprazole trea-ting patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is more effective than the paroxetine combined the 7. 2-10 mg/d aripiprazole and paroxetine only.%目的:探讨盐酸帕罗西汀联合不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的疗效及安全性。方法:164例强迫症患者随机分为帕罗西汀治疗(单药)组及帕罗西汀+阿立哌唑2.2 mg/ d 组、2 mg/ d 组、7.2 mg/d 组及10 mg/ d 组,每组给予帕罗西汀40 mg/ d 及相应剂量的阿立哌唑治疗8周。治疗前后进行耶鲁布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)及治疗过程中出现的症状量表

  18. Quetiapine versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with psychosis - protocol for the randomised, blinded clinical Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Jeppesen, Pia; Klauber, Dea Gowers;

    2014-01-01

    weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome is change in the positive symptom score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The recruitment period is 2010-2014. DISCUSSION: Antipsychotics are currently the only available pharmacologic treatments for psychotic disorders. However, information......BACKGROUND: The evidence for choices between antipsychotics for children and adolescents with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is limited. The main objective of the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial is to compare the benefits and harms of quetiapine versus...... aripiprazole in children and adolescents with psychosis in order to inform rational, effective and safe treatment selections. METHODS/DESIGN: The TEA trial is a Danish investigator-initiated, independently funded, multi-centre, randomised, blinded clinical trial. Based on sample size estimation, 112 patients...

  19. Rationale and design of an independent randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole or haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piantato Ennio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One third to two thirds of people with schizophrenia have persistent psychotic symptoms despite clozapine treatment. Under real-world circumstances, the need to provide effective therapeutic interventions to patients who do not have an optimal response to clozapine has been cited as the most common reason for simultaneously prescribing a second antipsychotic drug in combination treatment strategies. In a clinical area where the pressing need of providing therapeutic answers has progressively increased the occurrence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, despite the lack of robust evidence of its efficacy, we sought to implement a pre-planned protocol where two alternative therapeutic answers are systematically provided and evaluated within the context of a pragmatic, multicentre, independent randomised study. Methods/Design The principal clinical question to be answered by the present project is the relative efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole compared with combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with an incomplete response to treatment with clozapine over an appropriate period of time. This project is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial that follow patients over a period of 12 months. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months is the primary outcome. Discussion The implementation of the protocol presented here shows that it is possible to create a network of community psychiatric services that accept the idea of using their everyday clinical practice to produce randomised knowledge. The employed pragmatic attitude allowed to randomly allocate more than 100 individuals, which means that this study is the largest antipsychotic combination trial conducted so far in Western countries. We expect that the current project, by generating evidence on whether it is clinically useful to combine clozapine with aripiprazole

  20. Rationale and design of an independent randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole or haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Accordini, Simone; Artioli, Paola; Barale, Francesco; Barbui, Corrado; Beneduce, Rossella; Berardi, Domenico; Bertolazzi, Gerardo; Biancosino, Bruno; Bisogno, Alfredo; Bivi, Raffaella; Bogetto, Filippo; Boso, Marianna; Bozzani, Alberto; Bucolo, Piera; Casale, Marcello; Cascone, Liliana; Ciammella, Luisa; Cicolini, Alessia; Cipresso, Gabriele; Cipriani, Andrea; Colombo, Paola; Dal Santo, Barbara; De Francesco, Michele; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Di Munzio, Walter; Ducci, Giuseppe; Erlicher, Arcadio; Esposito, Eleonora; Ferrannini, Luigi; Ferrato, Farida; Ferro, Antonio; Fragomeno, Nicoletta; Parise, Vincenzo Fricchione; Frova, Maria; Gardellin, Francesco; Garzotto, Nicola; Giambartolomei, Andrea; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Grassi, Luigi; Grazian, Natalia; Grecu, Lorella; Guerrini, Gualtiero; Laddomada, Francesco; Lazzarin, Ermanna; Lintas, Camilla; Malchiodi, Francesca; Malvini, Lara; Marchiaro, Livio; Marsilio, Alessandra; Mauri, Massimo Carlo; Mautone, Antonio; Menchetti, Marco; Migliorini, Giuseppe; Mollica, Marco; Moretti, Daniele; Mulè, Serena; Nicholau, Stylianos; Nosè, Flavio; Occhionero, Guglielmo; Pacilli, Anna Maria; Pecchioli, Stefania; Percudani, Mauro; Piantato, Ennio; Piazza, Carlo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Pycha, Roger; Quartesan, Roberto; Rillosi, Luciana; Risso, Francesco; Rizzo, Raffella; Rocca, Paola; Roma, Stefania; Rossattini, Matteo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Giovanni; Sala, Alessandra; Santilli, Claudio; Saraò, Giuseppe; Sarnicola, Antonio; Sartore, Francesca; Scarone, Silvio; Sciarma, Tiziana; Siracusano, Alberto; Strizzolo, Stefania; Tansella, Michele; Targa, Gino; Tasser, Annamarie; Tomasi, Rodolfo; Travaglini, Rossana; Veronese, Antonio; Ziero, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Background One third to two thirds of people with schizophrenia have persistent psychotic symptoms despite clozapine treatment. Under real-world circumstances, the need to provide effective therapeutic interventions to patients who do not have an optimal response to clozapine has been cited as the most common reason for simultaneously prescribing a second antipsychotic drug in combination treatment strategies. In a clinical area where the pressing need of providing therapeutic answers has progressively increased the occurrence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, despite the lack of robust evidence of its efficacy, we sought to implement a pre-planned protocol where two alternative therapeutic answers are systematically provided and evaluated within the context of a pragmatic, multicentre, independent randomised study. Methods/Design The principal clinical question to be answered by the present project is the relative efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole compared with combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with an incomplete response to treatment with clozapine over an appropriate period of time. This project is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial that follow patients over a period of 12 months. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months is the primary outcome. Discussion The implementation of the protocol presented here shows that it is possible to create a network of community psychiatric services that accept the idea of using their everyday clinical practice to produce randomised knowledge. The employed pragmatic attitude allowed to randomly allocate more than 100 individuals, which means that this study is the largest antipsychotic combination trial conducted so far in Western countries. We expect that the current project, by generating evidence on whether it is clinically useful to combine clozapine with aripiprazole rather than with haloperidol

  1. ADVERSE SELECTION AND MANAGERIAL INCENTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Javier M. López Cuñat

    2000-01-01

    We analyze managerial contracts (i.e. incentive schemes based on a linear combination of profits and sales) under asymmetric information about costs. In the competitive setting with ex ante symmetric information, standard strategic effects appear. Under adverse selection in both, monopolistic and competitive settings, we show that, in order to decrease the manager's expected informational rents, the owner will optimally pay the manager to keep sales low or, on the contrary, keep them high. Mo...

  2. MR imaging evaluation of cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roos, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has become an important public health problem and has reached epidemic proportions globally. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities in an individual, with insulin resistance as the main characteristic. The major adverse consequence of metabolic

  3. A randomized,controlled study of lithium carbonate monotheraPy or combined ariPiPrazole theraPy in Patients with biPolar disorder tyPe I manic ePisode%碳酸锂单用与合并阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍I型躁狂发作患者的随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋振华; 粟幼嵩; 王勇; 黄佳; 季曹珺; 吴彦; 王祖承

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨碳酸锂单用及合并阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍 I 型躁狂发作患者的疗效和安全性。方法:86例门诊双相障碍 I 型躁狂发作患者被随机分为联合组(碳酸锂+阿立哌唑治疗)和单药组(碳酸锂单药治疗),疗程8周。分别在治疗前、治疗2、4、8周进行杨氏躁狂量表(YMRS)和汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)-17项评定,采用治疗中出现的症状量表( TESS)评定不良反应。结果:治疗前两组YMRS 评分差异无统计学意义;治疗2、4、8周后联合组 YMRS 减分值明显高于对照组(P ﹤0.05或 P ﹤0.01);治疗前后两组 HAMD 均﹤7分;两组 TESS 评分差异无统计学意义。结论:碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍 I 型躁狂发作较单用碳酸锂起效快,症状改善更明显,且未见不良反应明显增加。%To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate monotherapy or combined aripiprazole therapy in patients with bipolar disorder type I manic episode. Method:Eighty-six out-patients with bipolar disorder type I manic episode were randomly divided into combining therapy group( trea-ted with lithium carbonate + aripiprazole)and monotherapy guoup(treated with lithium carbonate only),the course was 8 weeks. The patients were assessed by Young′s manic scale(YMRS)and Hamilton depression scale items(HAMD)-17 before treatment and 2,4,8 weeks after treatment. The adverse reaction was evaluated by treatment emergent symptoms scale(TESS). Results:Before treatment,the score of YMRS between the two groups was not significantly different. At 2,4,8 weeks after treatment the subtraction scores of YMRS in the combining therapy group were more obvious than the monotherapy guoup(P ﹤ 0. 05 or P ﹤ 0. 01). The scores of HAMD at each time point in the both groups were ﹤ 7. The score of TESS between the two groups was not signifi-cantly different. Conclusion:Compared lithium carbonate monotherapy

  4. Not all partial dopamine D2 receptor agonists are the same in treating schizophrenia. Exploring the effects of bifeprunox and aripiprazole using a computer model of a primate striatal dopaminergic synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athan Spiros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Athan Spiros1, Robert Carr1, Hugo Geerts1,21In Silico Biosciences, Berwyn, PA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USAAbstract: Species differences in physiology and unique active human metabolites contribute to the limited predictive value of preclinical rodent models for many central nervous system (CNS drugs. In order to explore possible drivers for this translational disconnect, we developed a computer model of a dopaminergic synapse that simulates the competition among three agents and their binding to pre- and postsynaptic receptors, based on the affinities for their targets and their actual concentrations. The model includes presynaptic autoreceptor effects on neurotransmitter release and modulation by presynaptic firing frequency and is calibrated with actual experimental data on free dopamine levels in the striatum of the rodent and the primate. Using this model, we simulated the postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor activation levels of bifeprunox and aripiprazole, two relatively similar dopamine D2 receptor agonists. The results indicate a substantial difference in dose–response for the two compounds when applying primate calibration parameters as opposed to rodent calibration parameters. In addition, when introducing the major human and rodent metabolites of aripiprazole with their specific pharmacological activities, the model predicts that while bifeprunox would result in a higher postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonism in the rodent, aripiprazole would result in a higher D2 receptor antagonism in the primate model. Furthermore, only the highest dose of aripiprazole, but not bifeprunox, reaches postsynaptic functional D2 receptor antagonism similar to 4 mg haloperidol in the primate model. The model further identifies a limited optimal window of functionality for dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists. These results suggest that computer modeling of key CNS processes, using well-validated calibration paradigms, can

  5. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  6. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  7. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  8. Interaction of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in treatment of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与氯氮平联合治疗精神分裂症的交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 黄华利; 李玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the interaction of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in treatment of schizo-phrenia ,in order to make suitable dose of this combination therapy explicit .Methods A total of 97 cases of schizo-phrenia diagnosed in our hospital between Oct .,2011 and May ,2013 were divided into 4 groups(low dose of aripi-prazole combined with low dose of clozapine ,low dose of aripiprazole combined with high dose of clozapine ,high dose of aripiprazole combined with low dose of clozapine ,high dose of aripiprazole combined with high dose of clozapine ) . The results of efficacy and side effects were all recorded and analyzed .Results In treatment efficacy ,high dose of aripiprazole and clozapine was the best ,when compared with other 3 groups(P<0 .05) ,low dose of aripiprazole and clozapine was the worst (P<0 .05) .On the other hand ,the incidence of side effects was highest in group of high dose of aripiprazole and clozapine ,group of high dose of aripiprazole combined with low dose of clozapine and group of low dose of aripiprazole and clozapine were better than others in safety .Conclusion The efficacy and side effects of aripi-prazole and clozapine are dose dependent ,when using these two medicines to treat schizophrenia ,the doses should be suitable to make good efficacy and avoid side effects .If the side effects are obvious ,the dose of clozapine should be de-creased ,however ,the dose of aripiprazole can be decreased extenuatorily ;If the patients can tolerate the treatment ,the doses of these two medicine can be increased .%目的:探讨阿立哌唑与氯氮平联合治疗精神分裂症的交互作用,以明确两种药物联合治疗精神分裂症时的合适剂量。方法将2011年10月至2013年5月于重庆市黔江中心医院诊治为精神分裂症的97例患者随机分为4组(低剂量阿立哌唑+低剂量氯氮平组、低剂量阿立哌唑+高剂量氯氮平组、高剂量阿立哌唑+低剂量氯氮平组、高剂量阿立

  9. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  10. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  11. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  12. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A Comparative Study of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the Treatment of First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇红杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将75例首发精神分裂症患者按照随机数字表法分成两组,氨磺必利组37例,阿立哌唑组38例,治疗8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,采用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:氨磺必利组的治疗总有效率为89.19%,阿立哌唑组为92.11%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗第4、6、8周PANSS总分及各因子评分两组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症均有良好效果,不良反应均较少。%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia. Method:75 patients of first opisode schizoprenia were randomly divided into two groups(amisulpride 37,aripiprazole 38).Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole were administered to two groups respectively for 8 weeks. Their symptoms were assessed with PANSS and their side effects were assessed with TESS before and after the treatment. Result:The total cure rates were 89.19%in amisulpride group and 92.11%in aripiprazole group,with no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). PANSS score and each factor score in treatment of 4,6,8 weeks between the two groups had no statistical significance(P>0.05). Conclusion:Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole have notable curative effect with less side-effect in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia.

  13. Childhood adversities in relation to psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrek, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence has documented that adverse childhood experiences exert deleterious effects on mental health. It is less clear to what extent specific maltreatment during specific developmental periods may vary between disorders rather than increasing vulnerability for any particular disorder. The present comparison of characteristics of childhood adversity (type and frequency of adversity, developmental period) between major depressive disorder (MDD), borderline personality disorder (BP...

  14. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....... develop a model that captures how principals differentially obtain information on agents. We show that principals that combine conventional data collection techniques with mentalizing benefit from a synergistic effect that impacts both the amount of information that is accessed and the overall cost...

  15. Adverse effects of antioxidative vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2012-06-01

    High doses of synthetic antioxidative vitamins: A, E, C and β-carotene are often used on long-term basis in numerous preventive and therapeutic medical applications. Instead of expected health effects, the use of those vitamins may however lead to cases of hypervitaminosis and even to intoxication. The article points out main principles of safety which are to be observed during supplementation with antioxidative vitamins. Toxic effects resulting from erroneous administration of high doses of those substances on organs and systems of the organism are also discussed. Attention is drawn to interactions of antioxidative vitamins with concomitantly used drugs, as well as intensification of adverse effects caused by various exogenous chemical factors. Moreover, the article presents the evaluation of supplementation with these vitamins, which was performed in large studies. PMID:22528540

  16. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess.

  17. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  18. Genetic determinants for metabolic abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients often use psychotropic drugs. Apart from frequent problems regarding lack of efficacy, use of these drugs also often results in (severe) adverse effects. The use of (atypical) antipsychotic drugs in particular can give rise to weight gain and metabolic deregulation regarding glu

  19. Adverse events in healthcare: learning from mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, N; Hickey, A; Condell, S; Conroy, R; O'Connor, P; Vaughan, D; Williams, D

    2015-04-01

    Large national reviews of patient charts estimate that approximately 10% of hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (defined as an injury resulting in prolonged hospitalization, disability or death, caused by healthcare management). Apart from having a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality, adverse events also result in increased healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of adverse events are preventable. Through identifying the nature and rate of adverse events, initiatives to improve care can be developed. A variety of methods exist to gather adverse event data both retrospectively and prospectively but these do not necessarily capture the same events and there is variability in the definition of an adverse event. For example, hospital incident reporting collects only a very small fraction of the adverse events found in retrospective chart reviews. Until there are systematic methods to identify adverse events, progress in patient safety cannot be reliably measured. This review aims to discuss the need for a safety culture that can learn from adverse events, describe ways to measure adverse events, and comment on why current adverse event monitoring is unable to demonstrate trends in patient safety. PMID:25078411

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  1. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  2. Lipid Chaperones and Metabolic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has emerged demonstrating an integration of metabolic and immune response pathways. It is now clear that obesity and associated disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a metabolically driven, low-grade, chronic inflammatory state, referred to as “metaflammation.” Several inflammatory cytokines as well as lipids and metabolic stress pathways can activate metaflammation, which targets metabolically critical organs and tissues including adipocytes and macrophages to adversely affect systemic homeostasis. On the other hand, inside the cell, fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs, a family of lipid chaperones, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria play significant roles in promotion of metabolically triggered inflammation. Here, we discuss the molecular and cellular basis of the roles of FABPs, especially FABP4 and FABP5, in metaflammation and related diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis.

  3. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  4. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  5. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  6. PENGARUH ADVERSITY QUOTIENT TERHADAP INTENSI BERWIRAUSAHA

    OpenAIRE

    Zahreni, Siti; Pane, Ratna Sari Dewi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to know the influence of Adversity Quotienton entrepreneurial intention og college students. This research involves 80 college students from faculty of psychology Universitas Sumatera Utara with sampling technique using convinience sampling. Data obtained processed using Simple linear regression analysis. the measuring instrument used is the scale of entrepreneurial intention and the scale of adversity quotient. Result showed that Adversity Quotient significantl...

  7. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael J; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators...

  8. Asymmetric Information – Adverse Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an introduction in the contract theory starting with the definitions of asymmetric information and some of the problems that generate: moral hazard and adverse selection. We provide an insight of the latest empirical studies in adverse selection in different markets. An adverse selection model, based on Rothchild and Stiglitz is also present to give a perspective of the theoretical framework.

  9. Simultaneously Determination of Sertraline and Aripiprazole in Human Plasma by HPLC with UV Detection%高效液相色谱法同时测定人血浆中舍曲林与阿立哌唑浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文宪; 陈清霞; 周桂成; 刘伟忠; 温预关; 王广发

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定人血浆中舍曲林、阿立哌唑浓度的反相高效液相色谱法.方法 以DiamonsilTM C18反相柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)为色谱柱,流动相为0.03 mol·L-1醋酸铵-甲醇(18:82);流速:0.8 mL·min-1;柱温:40 ℃; 检测波长:220 nm.以乙酸乙酯-二氯甲烷(80:20)为提取剂.结果 舍曲林在20.0~640.0 ng·mL-1、阿立哌唑在25.0~1 000.0 ng·mL-1浓度范围内,峰面积与其浓度呈良好线性关系;舍曲林、阿立哌唑的低、中、高3种浓度相对平均回收率分别为101.30%,98.14%,97.92%和101.60%,97.75%,98.16%;提取回收率分别为70.56%,73.87%,76.45%和71.66%,74.12%,75.26%;日内、日间RSD均<10%,分析方法的检测限10.0 ng·mL-1.舍曲林线性方程:Y=92.251X+1.61,r=0.998 6(n=7);阿立哌唑线性方程:Y=85.489X+1.27,r=0.998 9(n=7).结论 该方法灵敏、准确、简单、快速,可用于临床血浆舍曲林与阿立哌唑浓度的监测和药动学研究.%Objective To establish a method for determining the concentration of sertraline and aripiprazole in human plasma by HPLC. Methods The C18 column( 150 mmx4. 6 mm,5 |xm )was used in the reversed HPLC system, the mobile phase consisted of 0.03 mol ■ L" ammonioum-methanol( 18 '. 82 ); the flow rate was 0. 8 mL ■ min ; the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. Ethyl acetate-dichloromethane( 80 '. 20 )were used as extracting solvent. Results The calibration curves were linear in the range of 20. 0-640. 0 ng ■ mL" for sertraline,25. 0-1 000. 0 ng ■ mL" for aripiprazole,respectively. The average recoveries of sertraline and aripiprazole at low,middle and high concentrations were 101. 30% ,98. 14% ,97. 92% and 101. 60% , 97.75% ,98. 16% .respectively; the extraction recovery were 70. 56% ,73. 87% ,76. 45% and 71. 66% ,74. 12% ,75. 26% , respectively. The intra-day and inter-day variations ( RSD ) were both less than 10% ( n = 5 ). The minimum detectable concentration of method was 10.0 ng ? mL"1. The calibration

  10. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  11. Rationale and Baseline Characteristics of PREVENT: A Second-Generation Intervention Trial in Subjects At-Risk (Prodromal) of Developing First-Episode Psychosis Evaluating Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Aripiprazole, and Placebo for the Prevention of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Hendrik; Stützer, Hartmut; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; de Millas, Walter; Janssen, Birgit; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Michel, Tanja Maria; Schneider, Frank; Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter; Brüne, Martin; Krüger-Özgürdal, Seza; Wobrock, Thomas; Riedel, Michael; Klosterkötter, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and omega-3-fatty acids have been found superior to control conditions as regards prevention of psychosis in people at-risk of first-episode psychosis. However, no large-scale trial evaluating the differential efficacy of CBT and antipsychotics has been performed yet. In PREVENT, we evaluate CBT, aripiprazole, and clinical management (CM) as well as placebo and CM for the prevention of psychosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with regard to the antipsychotic intervention and a randomized controlled trial with regard to the CBT intervention with blinded ratings. The hypotheses are first that CBT and aripiprazole and CM are superior to placebo and CM and second that CBT is not inferior to aripiprazole and CM combined. The primary outcome is transition to psychosis. By November 2010, 156 patients were recruited into the trial. The subjects were substantially functionally compromised (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale mean score 52.5) and 78.3% presented with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition axis I comorbid diagnosis. Prior to randomization, 51.5% of the participants preferred to be randomized into the CBT arm, whereas only 12.9% preferred pharmacological treatment. First, assessments of audiotaped treatment sessions confirmed the application of CBT-specific skills in the CBT condition and the absence of those in CM. The overall quality rating of the CBT techniques applied in the CBT condition was good. When the final results of the trial are available, PREVENT will substantially expand the current limited evidence base for best clinical practice in people at-risk (prodromal) of first-episode psychosis. PMID:21860040

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbron, Jorge; Khandaker, Golam M; Toschi, Chiara; Jones, Peter B; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic complications are commonly found in people treated with clozapine. Reviews on the management of this problem have generally drawn conclusions by grouping different types of studies involving patients treated with various different antipsychotics. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. Two researchers independently searched PubMed and Embase for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. All other types of studies were excluded. We only included RCTs where more than 50% of participants were taking clozapine. We identified 15 RCTs. Effective pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome include metformin, aripiprazole, and Orlistat (in men only). Meta-analysis of three studies showed a robust effect of metformin in reducing body mass index and waist circumference but no effects on blood glucose, triglyceride levels, or HDL levels. In addition, there is limited evidence for combined calorie restriction and exercise as a non-pharmacological alternative for the treatment of clozapine-induced obesity, but only in an in-patient setting. Rosiglitazone, topiramate, sibutramine, phenylpropanolamine, modafinil, and atomoxetine have not shown to be beneficial, despite reports of efficacy in other populations treated with different antipsychotics. We conclude that randomised-controlled trial data support the use of metformin, aripiprazole, and Orlistat (in men only) for treating clozapine-induced obesity. Calorie restriction in combination with an exercise programme may be effective as a non-pharmacological alternative. Findings from trials in different populations should not be extrapolated to people being treated with clozapine. PMID:27496573

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  14. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  15. Interventions to prevent adverse fetal programming due to maternal obesity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-10-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring.

  16. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  17. The comparison of blood prolactin in the female patients with psychosis treated by aripiprazole and Sulpiride%阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素影响的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素的影响。方法:将64例精神分裂症女性患者随机分为阿立哌唑组和舒必利组,比较两组治疗前后的血清催乳素变化。结果:阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素的影响有显著差异。结论:阿立哌唑对女性患者血清催乳素的影响较舒必利不明显。%Objective:To investigate the change of blood prolactin in female patients with p sychosis treated by aripiprazole and Sulpiride .Methods:64 female patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia form psychosis were randomized to aripiprazole and Sulpiride .The blood prolactin at the baseline and after treatment were compared.Results:There were significant differences in the blood prolactin after treatment between aripiprazole and Sulpiride groups . Conclusions:The change of blood prolactin in the female patients with psychosis caused by aripiprazole was little then Sulpiride .

  18. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  19. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  20. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  1. Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a sta...

  2. Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive def...

  3. Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrn, Annica; Olai, Anders; Rutberg, Hans; Nilsen, Per; Tropp, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine). Methods We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 200...

  4. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    OpenAIRE

    VM Morais; H Massaldi

    2009-01-01

    Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism ...

  5. E fficacy of Aripiprazole and Risperidone on Memory Function in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂荣; 姜淑珍; 占海燕; 胡斌; 鲍成; 余斌; 周朝雄; 吴慧玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone on memory function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 112 first-episode patients with schizophrenia were random-ized to aripiprazole group(n=56) and risperidone group(n=56). All subjects were assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-ⅢSpatial Span Task(WMS-Ⅲ SST), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Re-vised (HVLT-R) and The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R).Results Both groups showed no statistical significance in WMS-Ⅲ SST, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in the baseline (P>0.05).The performances after 12 weeks of treatment in the both groups was higher than those in the baseline in all tests(P0.05).Aripiprazole group was increased significantly compared with before treatment after treatment WMS-Ⅲ SST score (P<0.05), and after treatment there was a statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion Memory impairments in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia was im-proved by aripiprazole and risperidone, and effect of aripiprazole on certain memory functions was better than those of risperidone.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响。方法112例首发精神分裂症患者随机分成阿立哌唑组和利培酮组,每组56例。在治疗前和治疗12周末采用韦氏记忆量表-第三版的空间广度测验(WMS-Ⅲ SST)、霍普金斯词汇学习测验-修订版(HVLT-R)、简单视觉空间记忆测验-修订版(BVMT-R)分别对工作记忆、言语记忆和视觉记忆领域进行评定。结果在治疗前,两组的WMS-Ⅲ SST HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。在治疗12周后,两组的HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分较治疗前比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05)而治疗后两组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组在治疗后的WMS-Ⅲ SST得分较治疗前显著增加(P<0.05),且治疗后两组间比较有统计学意义(P<0.05

  6. [Metabolic disorders under antipsychotic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, N; Rummel-Kluge, C; Himmerich, H

    2012-03-01

    Patients with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, are more likely to be overweight and to suffer from dyslipidaemia, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy lifestyles, including poor diet and sedentary behaviour, but also pharmacotherapy contribute to the adverse risk profile. This article reviews the epidemiology and pharmacodynamics of metabolic abnormalities in psychiatric patients treated with antipsychotics, focusing on substance-specific differences. PMID:21206997

  7. Clinical effect and influence in cognitive function of aripiprazole and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮对精神分裂症患者的临床疗效及认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 程哲; 杨芳; 程传宝

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia, and the influence in cognitive function of patients. [ Methods] 156 schizophrenia patients were randomly divided into two groups, 78 cases in each group. The research group was treated with aripiprazole orally, and the control group was given risperidone, for 8 weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the 4th and 8th week of treatment, the clinical effect was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression ( CGIS) , and the adverse reactions were evaluated with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). Before treatment and at the end of the 8th week of treatment, the cognitive functions of patients was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) , the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The evaluation results of two groups were analyzed and compared. [ Results] At the end of 4th week of treatment, the total and each factors scores of PANSS, as well as CGIS score decreased significantly as compared with those before treatment (P 0.05). At the end of 8th week of treatment, the obvious effective rate and effective rate in the research group was 73.08% and 96.15% respectively, and that in the control group was 71. 79% and 92. 31% respectively, which showed no significantly difference (X2 = 0. 032, 0. 806,P >0.05). At the end of 8th week, the error answers and non-persistent error of WCST of two groups decreased significantly than those before treatment, while factor scores of WMS in the recognition, regeneration, comprehension, memory quotient were significantly higher than those before treatment (P 0.05). Adverse reactions of both groups were mild, and appeared at the beginning of treatment. The incidence rates of extrapyramidal reactions, menstrual disorders, lactation and weight gain in the research group were significantly lower than those in the

  8. Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzmiller JP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph P Kitzmiller,1 Eduard B Mikulik,1 Anees M Dauki,2 Chandrama Murkherjee,1 Jasmine A Luzum3 1Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, 2College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy. Statin-associated muscle symptoms occur in ~10% of patients on statins and constitute the most commonly reported adverse effect associated with statin pharmacotherapy. Substantial clinical and nonclinical research effort has been dedicated to determining whether genetics can provide meaningful insight regarding an individual patient’s risk of statin adverse effects. This contemporary review of the relevant clinical research on polymorphisms in several key genes that affect statin pharmacokinetics (eg, transporters and metabolizing enzymes, statin efficacy (eg, drug targets and pathways, and end-organ toxicity (eg, myopathy pathways highlights several promising pharmacogenomic candidates. However, SLCO1B1 521C is currently the only clinically relevant pharmacogenetic test regarding statin toxicity, and its relevance is limited to simvastatin myopathy. Keywords: cholesterol, myopathy, lipids, muscle toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics

  9. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child.

  10. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J.; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J.; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  11. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is "prescription metabolism." The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  12. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events. PMID:24955289

  13. Metabolic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Michael J; Young, G Bryan

    2011-11-01

    Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure. This article focuses on common causes of metabolic encephalopathy, and reviews common causes, clinical presentations and, where relevant, management.

  14. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  15. Seamless prevention of adverse events from tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The boom in tattooing has been paralleled by more frequent adverse events, which may be localised in the skin or systemic and manifested clinically or latent. Infections, allergic reactions from red-coloured tattoos and papulo-nodular reactions from black tattoos dominate. Mild complaints are very...... to hygienic security. Records and documentation of tattoo cases with complications and the culprit inks as well as the establishment of national or European-based surveillance systems that are properly equipped to deliver efficient clarification and handling of adverse events and hazards of tattooing and inks...

  16. Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica; Rickels, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain and an increased incidence of metabolic diseases. The metabolic impairments are assumed a consequence of increased body adiposity secondary to central nervous system-associated increases in food intake. We have previously reported that, independent of weight gain, 9 days of olanzapine administration to control subjects is associated with insulin resistance and increases in postprandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 to a mixed meal challenge. This current report describes previously unpublished data on the effects of the SGAs olanzapine and aripiprazole compared with placebo on detailed hunger and satiety responses over the 12-day inpatient evaluation as well as postprandial ghrelin and leptin responses prior to and following administration of the 2 SGAs. We found no changes in hunger, fullness, or in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin or satiety hormone leptin, consistent with our previous report indicating no change in weight during this study. The results indicate that the SGAs are associated with metabolic changes prior to changes in hunger, satiety, and food intake, and this temporal separation suggests that there are differential mechanisms mediating SGA-associated changes in metabolism and food intake.

  17. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  18. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  19. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  20. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA. PMID:25144752

  2. Obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J.Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of obesity in both developed and developing countries has increased dramatically in recent years.1Many people who are obese develop metabolic changes that increase the risk of diabetes mellitus and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obesity leads to the development of insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities and increased blood pressure.

  3. [Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilance algorithms were used for signal detection, including the reporting odds ratio. An SRS is a passive reporting database and is therefore subject to numerous sources of selection bias, including overreporting, underreporting, and a lack of a denominator. Despite the inherent limitations of spontaneous reporting, SRS databases are a rich resource and data mining index that provide powerful means of identifying potential associations between drugs and their adverse effects. Our results, which are based on the evaluation of SRS databases, provide essential knowledge that could improve our understanding of clinical issues. PMID:27040337

  4. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable...

  5. Resilience in the Face of Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    "Resilience" is the capacity for moving ahead under adverse circumstances. School superintendents are advised to stay upbeat and mindful of "both-and" opportunities; stay focused on what they care about; remain flexible and tolerant of ambiguity; be proactive, not reactive; and apply resilience-conserving strategies during tough times. (MLH)

  6. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.

  7. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  8. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Worm; N. Friis-Møller; M. Bruyand; A. d'Arminio Monforte; M. Rickenbach; P. Reiss; W. El-Sadr; A. Phillips; J. Lundgren; C. Sabin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  9. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias;

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  10. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, S.W.; Friis-Moller, N.; Bruyand, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Reiss, P.; El-Sadr, W.; Phillips, A.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. M

  11. 阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症对照研究%Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Female Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究女性精神分裂症患者运用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗的临床效果。方法2012年4月~2013年4月间诊治的160例女性精神分裂症患者,将其分为两组,组1使用阿立哌唑进行治疗,组2使用利培酮进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床效果。结果通过对两组患者进行比较,组1有效率为87.5%,组2为90.0%,两组患者临床效果未见明…显差异,无统计学意义(P >0.05);但组2患者的体质量增加情况、椎体外系反应的发生率、泌乳以及月经紊乱情况均比组1高,两组患者差异显著,有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论对于女性精神分裂症治疗上效果上阿立哌唑和利培酮基本一致,但是阿立哌唑更适合用于女性精神分裂症患者。%Objective To study the clinical effect of female schizophrenia with aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of patients with. Methods 160 cases of female spirit in 2012 April ~2013 April in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with schizophrenia,it is divided into two groups, group 1 were treated by aripiprazole risperidone group, 2 were treated by comparison of the clinical effects of two groups of patients. Results The two groups of patients were compared, the group has an efficiency of 1 for 87.5%, group 2 to 90%,The patients in the two groups no significant differences in clinical effect, no statistical significance (P>0.05), but the group of 2 patients with body mass increase, extrapyramidal reaction rate, lactation and menstrual disorders are 1 higher than group, the differences between the two groups were significant, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For the treatment of female schizophrenia aripiprazole and risperidone effect on basically the same,but aripiprazole is more suitable for female patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. PMID:27297495

  13. To observe the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症的临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚日东; 黄书梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of female spirit admitted in our hospital in 2012 January to 2014 January between the schizophrenia patients for clinical research,The patients were randomly divided into aripiprazole group and risperidone group, compared two groups of patients with clinical curative effect. Results In the two groups before treatment PANSS clinical psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and score of contrast was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05), the clinical treatment for 2 weeks, 4 weeks of treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment, PANSS psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and total score compared with the statistically significant difference (P0.05),临床治疗2周、治疗4周和治疗8周后PANSS精神病理、阴性症状、阳性症状和总分对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组女性精神分裂症患者临床治疗的总有效率和不良反应发生率对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论该次医学研究结果证实,阿立哌唑用于女性精神分裂症的临床治疗,具有更高的有效率和安全性,因而临床推广和应用价值更高。

  14. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VM Morais

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism as: anaphylactic reactions mediated by IgE, anaphylactoid reactions caused by complement system activation, and pyrogenic reactions produced mainly by the presence of endotoxins in the final product. In the future, antivenoms may be replaced by humanized antibodies, specific neutralizing compounds or vaccination. Meanwhile, improvements in antivenom quality will be focused on the obtainment of a more purified and specific product in compliance with good manufacturing practices and at an affordable cost.

  15. Metabolic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic review of catalytic activities in thermal proteinoids and microspheres aggregated therefrom yields some new inferences on the origins and evolution of metabolism. Experiments suggest that, instead of being inert, protocells were already biochemically and cytophysically competent. The emergence and refinement of metabolism ab initio is thus partly traced conceptually. When the principle of molecular self-instruction, as of amino acids in peptide synthesis, is taken into account as a concomitant of natural selection, an expanded theory of organismic evolution, including saltations, emerges.

  16. Revisiting cutaneous adverse reactions to pemetrexed

    OpenAIRE

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Quatresooz, Pascale; Reginster, Marie‑Annick; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2011-01-01

    Pemetrexed (Alimta®) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of a small number of malignancies including advanced and metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma. This review reports the recent peer-reviewed publications and original findings regarding cutaneous adverse reactions (CARs) to pemetrexed. Pemetrexed-related CARs are frequently reported under the unspecific t...

  17. Monitoring Adverse Drug Reactions: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of family physicians functioning as monitors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) was examined over one month in ten practices. This was done as a preliminary trial, before attempting to use the 200 family physicians of the National Reporting System of the College of Family Physicians of Canada to monitor ADRs on a national basis. Both of these trials were designed to examine the feasibility of family physicians acting as prospective monitors of ADRs in newly marketed drugs and to ...

  18. Valuation, Adverse Selection, and Market Collapses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Fishman; Parker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    We study a market for funding real investment in which valuation creates information on which adverse selection can occur. Unlike in previous models, higher amounts of valuation are associated with lower market prices and so greater returns to valuation, and this strategic complementarity in the capacity to do valuation generates multiple equilibria. In this region, the equilibrium without valuation is always more efficient despite funding projects that valuation would reveal as unprofitable....

  19. Adverse Reactions to Radiographic Contrast Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, William H.; Mullarkey, Michael F.; Webb, D. Robert

    1980-01-01

    Major adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media will occur more often as contrast material is now also administered during computerized tomographic (CT) scanning. Differentiation of the two major contrast reactions, the vagus reaction and the anaphylactoid reaction, is essential. Bradycardia is the key finding for identifying the vagus reaction. The vagus reaction involving hypotension and bradycardia requires treatment with large doses of atropine given intravenously. The immediate ge...

  20. Reporting vaccine-associated adverse events.

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, P.; Hockin, J; Pless, R; Lawlor, B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine family physicians' awareness of the need to monitor and report vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAE) in Canada and to identify mechanisms that could facilitate reporting. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: Canadian family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 747 family physicians. Overall response rate was 32% (226 of 717 eligible physicians). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Access to education on VAAE; knowledge about VAAE monitoring systems, reporting criteria, and repor...

  1. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee: Recommended ("Best") Practices for Determining, Communicating, and Using Adverse Effect Data from Nonclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Roy; Bolon, Brad; Burkhardt, John; Francke, Sabine; Greaves, Peter; Meador, Vince; Popp, James

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations (best practices) are provided by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Adversity Working Group for making consistent interpretations of test article-related effects as "adverse" and assigning a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) in nonclinical toxicity studies. Adverse is a term indicating "harm" to the test animal, while nonadverse indicates lack of harm. Adverse findings in the study reports should be defined in relation to effects on the test species used and within the context of the given study. Test article-related effects should be described on their own merits, and decisions to consider them as adverse or nonadverse should be justified. Related effects may be discussed together; in particular, markers of toxicity that are not in and of themselves adverse ideally should be discussed in conjunction with the causal toxicity to determine adversity. Adverse findings should be identified in subreports (clinical data, pathology data, etc.) if sufficient information is available, and/or in the final study report as individual or grouped findings, but study NOAELs should be established at the level of the overall study report. Interpretations such as "not biologically relevant" or "not toxicologically important" should be avoided unless defined and supported by scientific rationale. Decisions defining adverse findings and the NOAEL in final study reports should combine the expertise of all contributing scientific disciplines. Where possible, use of NOAELs in data tables should be linked to explanatory text that places them in context. Ideally, in nonclinical summary documents, NOAELs from multiple studies are considered together in defining the most important adverse responses in the most sensitive species. These responses are then considered along with an understanding of their likely mechanisms, as well as other information such as variability in species sensitivity, comparative pathology, reversibility and progression, kinetics, and

  2. MEASURING SYSTEM OF ADVERSE WEATHER PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ćurić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  3. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  4. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  5. Comparison of Efficacy and Prolactin Concentrations between Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treat-ments in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马筠; 李轶琛; 李毅; 房茂胜; 钟宝亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prolactin concentrations between aripiprazole and risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight schizophrenic patients with hy-perprolactinemia were randomly divided into risperidone group and aripiprazole group. Patients in the risperidone group were treated with risperidone and in the aripiprazole group were treated with aripiprazol instead of risperidone for 8 weeks. The prolactin concentrations were assessed and compared between two groups at weeks 0, 1,2, 4, 6, and 8. The clinical status was assessed by using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the clinical global impressions scale (CGIS) atweeks0 and 8. Results: Fifty-three in the risperidone group and 48 in the aripiprazole group were available for analyzing. Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels. The serum prolactin levels in the risperidone group was significantly lower than that in the aripiprazole group at week 8 (P<0.001). No significant changes was found in the PANSS and CGI-S scores between the two groups. Conclusion: Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels of schizophrenia patients with hyperprolactinemia.%目的:研究阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响.方法:伴有高催乳素血症的精神分裂症患者128 例,随机分为利培酮组(维持利培酮治疗)和阿立哌唑(阿立哌唑替代利培酮治疗)组,治疗8 周.于第0、1、2、4、6 及8 周测血清催乳素水平及身体质量指数(BMI);在入组时和治疗8 周时采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)和临床总体印象量表(CGIS)测定疗效.结果:可用于评估的数据101 例,利培酮组53 例,阿立哌唑组48 例.阿立哌唑组替换治疗后第1 周血清催乳素水平即明显下降,第8 周时,显著低于利培酮组(P<0.001);2 组BMI 、PANSS 及CGIS 评分及变化差异无统计

  6. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  7. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  8. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you already have metabolic syndrome, making these healthy lifestyle choices can help reduce your risk of heart disease and other health problems. If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your ... to help. Maintain a healthy weight Your doctor can measure your body mass ...

  9. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  10. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions are High blood pressure High blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels High levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood Low ...

  11. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  12. Pharmacogenetics of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmohamed, Munir

    2010-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of well-characterized samples from patients with such reactions. This is now beginning to be solved through the formation of international consortia, including developing novel ways of identifying and recruiting patients affected by these reactions, both prospectively and retrospectively. This has been led by the research on abacavir hypersensitivity - its association with HLA-B*5701 forms the gold standard of how we need to identify associations and implement them in clinical practice. Strong genetic predisposing factors have also been identified for hypersensitivity reactions such as are associated with carbamazepine, allopurinol, flucloxacillin, and statin-induced myopathy. However, for most other idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the genetic effect sizes have been low to moderate, although this may partly be due to the fact that only small numbers have been investigated and limited genotyping strategies have been utilized. It may also indicate that genetic predisposition will be dependent on multiple genes, with complex interactions with environmental factors. Irrespective of the strength of the genetic associations identified with individual idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, it is important to undertake functional investigations to provide insights into the mechanism(s) of how the drug interacts with the gene variant to lead to a phenotype, which can take a multitude of clinical forms with variable severity. Such investigations will be essential in preventing the burden caused by idiosyncratic reactions, both in healthcare and in industry

  13. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: establishing causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, James P; Shander, Aryeh; Spahn, Donat R; Erhard, Jochen; Farmer, Shannon L; Hofmann, Axel

    2011-04-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood components is ingrained in modern medical practice. The rationale for administering transfusions is based on key assumptions that efficacy is established and risks are acceptable and minimized. Despite the cliché that, "the blood supply is safer than ever," data about risks and lack of efficacy of RBC transfusions in several clinical settings have steadily accumulated. Frequentist statisticians and clinicians demand evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs); however, causation for the recognized serious hazards of allogeneic transfusion has never been established in this manner. On the other hand, the preponderance of evidence implicating RBC transfusions in adverse clinical outcomes related to immunomodulation and the storage lesion comes from observational studies, and a broad and critical analysis to evaluate causation is overdue. It is suggested in several circumstances that this cannot wait for the design, execution, and conduct of rigorous RCTs. We begin by examining the nature and definition of causation with relevant examples from transfusion medicine. Deductive deterministic methods may be applied to most of the well-accepted and understood serious hazards of transfusion, with modified Koch's postulates being fulfilled in most circumstances. On the other hand, when several possible interacting risk factors exist and RBC transfusions are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, establishing causation requires inferential probabilistic methodology. In the latter circumstances, the case for RBC transfusions being causal for adverse clinical outcomes can be strengthened by applying modified Bradford Hill criteria to the plethora of existing observational studies. This being the case, a greater precautionary approach to RBC transfusion is necessary and equipoise that justifying RCTs may become problematic. PMID:21345639

  14. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage

  15. Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, Jacoline C; De Bruin, Marie L; Koopmanschap, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause considerable mortality and morbidity but no recent reviews are currently available for the European region. Therefore, we performed a review of all epidemiological studies quantifying ADRs in a European setting that were published between 1 January 2000 and 3....... These results indicate that the occurrence of ADRs in the European hospital setting-both ADRs that result in hospitalization and ADRs that occur during the hospital stay-is significant. Furthermore, the limited number of studies that were performed in the outpatient setting identify a lack of information...

  16. Adverse reactions to food: allergies and intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, Massimo; Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Curigliano, Valentina; Gallo, Antonella; Visca, Dina; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as 'adverse reactions to food'. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into 'food allergies' when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and 'food intolerances' when there are no immunological implications. The diagnostic approach to adverse reactions to food is based on accurate clinical history and objective examination, and further execution of specific tests when allergy or intolerance is suspected. The therapy for food allergies is the elimination of the food to which hypersensibility has been found; this strategy can lead, especially in pediatric age, to tolerance. If elimination diets cannot be completely performed, or if it is not possible to identify the food to eliminate, some drugs (e.g. antihistaminics, steroids, etc.) can be administered. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been recently introduced. Fundamental is food allergy prevention, especially in high-risk subjects. The therapeutic approach to secondary food intolerances is based principally on primitive disease resolution; on the other hand, some specific treatments (e.g. beta-galactosidases in lactose malabsorption) are available in case of primary intolerance. PMID:18431058

  17. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  18. Adverse drug reactions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti K Brahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medications probably are the single most important health care technology in preventing illness, disability, and death in the geriatric population. Age-related changes in drug disposition and pharmacodynamic responses have significant clinical implications; increased use of a number of medications raises the risk that medicine-related problems may occur. The relationship between increased use of drugs including the prescription medication and elderly is well established. Majority of ADRs (80% causing admission or occurring in hospital are type A reactions. Although less common occurring in elderly, type B ADRs may sometimes cause serious toxicity. Studies have correlated the integral association between old age and increased rate of adverse drug reactions arising out of confounding association between age and polypharmacy contributed by age-related changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics at least for some medical conditions. A drug combination may sometimes cause synergistic toxicity which is greater than the sum of the risks of toxicity of either agent used alone. But, strategies to increase opportunities for identifying ADRs and related problems have not been emphasised in current international policy responses especially in India to the increase in elderly population and chronic conditions. Careful epidemiological studies that encompass large numbers of elderly drug users are required to obtain this information as increased knowledge of the frequency and cost of adverse drug reactions is important in enabling both more rational therapeutic decisions by individual clinicians and more optimal social policy.

  19. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  20. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  1. Auditory hallucinations in childhood : associations with adversity and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; van de Willige, G.; Jenner, J. A.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous work suggests that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with the combination of delusions and hallucinations. In the present study, associations between (severity of) auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and (i) social adversity [traumatic experiences (TE) and stressful

  2. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  3. FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): Latest Quartely Data Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. The database...

  4. The influence of thyroid disorders on adverse pregnancy outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vissenberg

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the association between thyroid disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the underlying pathophysiology and treatment possibilities. The association between thyroid disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes is investigated in a systematic review and two retrospective cohort stud

  5. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  6. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Lauenborg, Jeannet; Breum, Birger Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery.......The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery....

  7. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  8. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  9. Effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯凌峰; 董继雪; 武建斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.Method:According to the therapeutic schedule,78 recurrent patients with schizophrenics who were clinical recovery or remarkable progress by the acute treatment were divided into the study group (38 cases) and control group (40 cases).The maintenance treatment was aripiprazole combined with lower dose clozapine in study group and single clozapine in control group.The quality of life was evaluated by scale of general quality of life (GQOL1-74) in the two groups before and after 6,12 months of maintenance treatment,respectively.The results were compared.Results:After 6 and 12 months of maintenance treatment,the scores of GQOL1-74 in in the two groups were significantly increased than before maintenance treatment,and the improvement of score in the study group was more obvious (P <0.01 or P <0.001).The scores of physical function dimension,social function dimension,self-esteem score in psychological functions dimensions in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Conclusion:The quality of life is better in patients with schizophrenia who had the maintenance treatment with aripiprazole combined lower dose clozapine than those with purely clozapine.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响. 方法:将78例经急性期治疗达临床痊愈及显著进步的复发性精神分裂症患者按治疗方案分为研究组(38例)和对照组(40例),分别给予阿立哌唑合并低剂量氯氮平及氯氮平单药维持治疗.分别在维持治疗前、6及12个月时采用生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLl-74)对两组患者生活质量进行评定和比较. 结果:维持治疗6及12个月时,两组GQOLl-74总分较维持治疗前显著提高,且研究组更显著(P<0.01或P<0.001);研究组的躯体功能、社会功能维度评分以及

  10. Clinical Observation on Fluvoxamine and Aripiprazole as Adjunctive Therapy in the Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Disorders%阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明治疗强迫障碍的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏强; 康瑞; 李爱玲; 赵秀娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine and aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders patients.Method:Total 54 obsessive-compulsive disorders patients were randomly divided into two groups:Fluvoxamine(250-300 mg/d)auxiliaried by aripiprazole(2.5-10 mg/d)group(study group)and fluvoxamine(250-300 mg/d)group(contral group),27 for each. Each group had a 8-week treatment.The efficacy were assessed and analyzed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS) at baseline and at week 2,4,6 and 8. The side effects were assessed by Treatment Emergent Syptom Scale(TESS)during the treatment. Result:Study group and contral group had 1,2 case being off respectively. The obsession and compulsion scores of study group had all statistical difference at baseline and week 2,4 ,6,8 each other(P0.05). At week 4,in both groups,the compulsion scores had statistical difference(P0.05). Conclusion:Fluvoxamine and aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy can effectively continue to improve the compulsive symptoms in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders patients,the rate of side effects is similar to that of simple fluvoxamine therapy.%  目的:探讨阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明治疗强迫障碍的临床疗效及安全性.方法:将54例强迫障碍患者随机分为两组(各27例):阿立哌唑(2.5~10 mg/d)辅助氟伏沙明(250~300 mg/d)组(研究组)、氟伏沙明(250~300 mg/d)组(对照组),治疗观察期均为8周.两组患者于基线及治疗2、4、6、8周末分别评定Yale-Brown强迫量表(Y-BOCS),并采用副反应量表(TESS)评定治疗期间的不良反应.结果:研究组、对照组分别脱落1例、2例.研究组的强迫思维和强迫行为评分在基线及2、4、6、8周末时点间比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);4周末时,两组间的强迫行为评分比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明可有效、持续地改善强迫障

  11. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  12. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse...

  13. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). Submit all vaccine adverse experience reports to: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) (see mailing addresses in § 600.2). FDA may waive the... history of actions taken since the last report because of adverse experiences (for example,...

  14. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  15. Managing Adverse Events With Immune Checkpoint Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadu, Ramona; Zobniw, Chrystia; Diab, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand antibodies) have shown impressive clinical activity in multiple cancer types. Despite achieving great clinical success, challenges and limitations of these drugs as monotherapy or various combinational strategies include the development of a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can be severe and even fatal. Therefore, identification of patients at risk, prevention, consistent communication between patients and medical team, rapid recognition, and treatment of irAEs are critical in optimizing treatment outcomes. This review focuses on the description of more common irAEs and provides a suggested approach for management of specific irAEs. PMID:27111908

  16. Periodontal treatment for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Karimbux, Nadeem; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush;

    2015-01-01

    .79 [0.57-1.10]) or low birth weight (0.69 [0.43-1.13]). Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that futility was not reached for any of the outcomes. For populations with moderate occurrence (...OBJECTIVES: Periodontal treatment might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. The efficacy of periodontal treatment to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality was evaluated using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. METHODS: An existing systematic review was updated...... and meta-analyses performed. Risk of bias, heterogeneity, and publication bias were evaluated, and meta-regression performed. Subgroup analysis was used to compare different studies with low and high risk of bias and different populations, i.e., risk groups. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess...

  17. Consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. Since 2003 in Denmark, consumers have been able to report ADRs directly to the authorities. The objective of this study was to compare ADRs reported by consumers with ADRs...... medicines on level 1 of the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. ADR reports from consumers were compared with reports from other sources (physicians, pharmacists, lawyers, pharmaceutical companies and other healthcare professionals). Chi-square and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated...... to investigate the dependence between type of reporter and reported ADRs (classified by ATC or SOC). FINDINGS: We analysed 6319 ADR reports corresponding to 15 531 ADRs. Consumers reported 11% of the ADRs. Consumers' share of 'serious' ADRs was comparable to that of physicians (approximately 45%) but lower than...

  18. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  19. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992

  20. A Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Sulpiride in Treating Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms%阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗精神分裂症阴性症状对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈妙扬; 肖垚南; 陈丁玲; 黎艳芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and sulpiride in treatment of schizophrenia negative symptoms. Methods 120 cases of schizophrenia whose predominant clin-ical features were negative symptoms were randomly assigned to treat with either aripiprezole or sulpiride for 3 months each. They were all assessed by SANS and TESS. Results There was a significant difference in efficacy between the groups assessed by SANS. Side effects of aripiprezole were significantly fewer than sulpiride assessed by TESS. Conclusions Aripiprazole has better ef-fect on schizophrenia whose negative symptoms as target symptom and less side effects.%目的:比较阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性。方法选取120例符合中国精神疾病诊断标准(CCMD3)诊断为精神分裂症且以阴性症状为主的患者,根据随机对照的方法分为研究组(60例)和对照组(60例),研究组应用阿立哌唑治疗,对照组舒必利治疗,疗程均为3个月;用阴性症状评定量表(SANS)、用药物副反应量表(TESS)进行评定。结果两组治疗前后1个月比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),治疗后2、3个月与治疗前比较亦有显著性差异(P<0.05);两组药物副反应比较,阿立哌唑组明显舒必利组少,有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑对分裂症阴性症状有较好的治疗效果,药物副反应少,使用安全较高。

  1. Bedaquiline Metabolism: Enzymes and Novel Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ke; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Liu, Shinlan; Dorko, Kenneth; Xie, Wen; Ma, Xiaochao

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Adverse cardiac and hepatic drug reactions to bedaquiline have been noted in clinical practice. The current study investigated bedaquiline metabolism in human hepatocytes using a metabolomic approach. Bedaquiline N-demethylation via CYP3A4 was confirmed as the major pathway in bedaquiline metabolism. In addition to CYP3A4, we found that both CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 contributed to bedaquiline N-demethylat...

  2. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse...

  3. Adverse reactions to new anticonvulsant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I C; Lhatoo, S D

    2000-07-01

    A lack of systematic pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to anticonvulsants makes it difficult to assess accurately the incidence of anticonvulsant-related ADRs. Most of the available information in this regard stems from clinical trial experience, case reports and postmarketing surveillance, sources that are not, by any means, structured to provide precise data on adverse event epidemiology. For various ethical, statistical and logistical reasons, the organisation of structured clinical trials that are likely to provide substantial data on ADRs is extremely difficult. This review concentrates on current literature concerning serious and life-threatening ADRs. As with the older anticonvulsants, the majority of ADRs to newer anticonvulsants are CNS-related, although there are several that are apparently unique to some of these new drugs. Gabapentin has been reported to cause aggravation of seizures, movement disorders and psychiatric disturbances. Felbamate should only be prescribed under close medical supervision because of aplastic anaemia and hepatotoxicity. Lamotrigine causes hypersensitivity reactions that range from simple morbilliform rashes to multi-organ failure. Psychiatric ADRs and deterioration of seizure control have also been reported with lamotrigine treatment. Oxcarbazepine has a safety profile similar to that of carbamazepine. Hyponatraemia associated with oxcarbazepine is also a problem; however, it is less likely to cause rash than carbamazepine. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been reported frequently with tiagabine, although there are insufficient data at present to identify risk factors for this ADR. Topiramate frequently causes cognitive ADRs and, in addition, also appears to cause word-finding difficulties, renal calculi and bodyweight loss. Vigabatrin has been reported to cause seizure aggravation, especially in myoclonic seizures. There have been rare reports of other neurological ADRs to

  4. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe;

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass...... existing cardiovascular disease. In this initial phase of ADT, metabolic changes are also most prominent. In addition, ADT increases the rate of bone loss and fracture risk. Currently available evidence supports the use of exercise interventions to improve physical function and mitigate ADT-induced fatigue...... mellitus and cardiovascular disease are still warranted. Furthermore, studies investigating safety and effects of physical activity in men with bone metastases are lacking....

  5. Infliximab in patients with psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases: evaluation of adverse events in the treatment of 168 patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, João Roberto; Sanmiguel, Jessica; Cagnon, Giovana Viotto; Augusto, Marília Silveira Faeda; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Pozetti, Eurides Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with preference for skin and joints. The skin involvement occurs by hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. It is associated with comorbidities, mainly related to the clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Increased TNF-alpha expression (TNF-α) is related to its pathophysiology. Infliximab is an intravenous drug that acts neutralizing the biological activity of TNF-α and prevents the binding of the molecule to the target cell receptor, inhibiting cell proliferation of psoriasis and other diseases mediated by TNF-α. A lot of infusion reactions have been described in the literature. Objective To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous treatment with infliximab, analyzing patients with psoriasis compared to those with other chronic inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). Method Analysis of medical records and adverse events of 168 patients undergoing infliximab infusion for psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases treatment. Results 168 patients who have used infliximab were evaluated, 24 had psoriasis and 144 had chronic inflammatory diseases. Only 2 (8.3%) patients with psoriasis showed adverse events requiring treatment discontinuation, and just 6 (4.2%) female patients with chronic inflammatory diseases experienced adverse events. Conclusion Infliximab is a safe drug, with a low percentage of adverse events and there were more adverse events in women with chronic inflammatory diseases and in patients who received more infliximab infusions. PMID:27438197

  6. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication. PMID:26914914

  7. Adverse effects of IgG therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. PMID:24565701

  8. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young.

  9. Serum tryptase levels in adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoqui, E; Zubeldia, J M; Aranzábal, A; Rubio, M; Herrero, T; Tornero, P; Rodríguez, V M; Prieto, A; Baeza, M L

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of individual tryptase levels and variations after adverse drug reactions in 64 patients. Our aim was to find a tool for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Thirty-seven subjects were confirmed to have drug allergy, 12 had nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions, five had negative controlled drug challenges (NAAR), and 10 had symptoms after placebo intake (PLA). Serum tryptase levels greatly increased after anaphylactic shocks (2242%) and anaphylaxis (710.5%). Patients with allergic urticaria and those with idiosyncratic responses to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) exhibited a small increase in serum tryptase (49.5% and 38.2%, respectively). In the other two groups (NAAR and PLA), no variation in this serum protease was observed. The time of appearance of the serum tryptase peak differed considerably among patients with similar clinical reactions (from 30 min to 6 h) and was independent of the latent period, severity of symptoms, or the amount of tryptase released. We conclude that serum tryptase determinations are helpful in the diagnosis of anaphylactic shock and anaphylaxis, but serial measurements may be needed to confirm mast-cell participation in milder reactions.

  10. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Mallappa, Rashmi H.; Namita Rokana; Raj Kumar Duary; Harsh Panwar; Virender Kumar Batish; Sunita Grover

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Applicatio...

  11. CYP2C9 polymorphism in patients with epilepsy: genotypic frequency analyzes andphenytoin adverse reactions correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Twardowschy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: CYP2C9 is a major enzyme in human drug metabolism and the polymorphism observed in the corresponding gene may affect therapeutic outcome during treatment. The distribution of variant CYP2C9 alleles and prevalence of phenytoin adverse reactions were hereby investigated in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. METHOD: Allele-specific PCR analysis was carried out in order to determine frequencies of the two most common variant alleles, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in genomic DNA isolated from 100 epileptic patients. We also analyzed the frequency of phenytoin adverse reactions among those different genotypes groups. The data was presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: The mean age at enrollment was 39.6±10.3 years (range, 17-72 years and duration of epilepsy was 26.5±11.9 years (range 3-48 years. The mean age at epilepsy onset was 13.1±12.4 years (range, 1 month-62 years. Frequencies of CYP2C9*1 (84%, CYP2C9*2 (9% and CYP2C9*3 (7% were similar to other published reports. Phenytoin adverse reactions were usually mild and occurred in 15% patients, without correlation with the CYP2C9 polymorphism (p=0.34. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an overall similar distribution of the CYP2C9 alleles in a population of patients diagnosed with epilepsy in the South of Brazil, compared to other samples. This sample of phenytoin users showed no drug related adverse reactions and CYP2C9 allele type correlation. The role of CYP2C9 polymorphism influence on phenytoin adverse reaction remains to be determined since some literature evidence and our data found negative results.

  12. Concomitant use of clopidogrel and statins and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events following coronary stent implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten; Johansen, Martin B; Mæng, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • The CYP3A4 inhibition by lipophilic statins may attenuate the effectiveness of clopidogrel. • No studies have measured drug exposure in a time-varying manner that detects discontinuation and restart of clopidogrel and statin therapy, allowing clinical...... quantification of the interaction effect. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS • Clopidogrel and CYP3A4-metabolizing statin use were each associated with a substantially reduced rate of major adverse cardiovascular events within 12 months after coronary stent implantation. • Although we observed an interaction between use...... of clopidogrel and statins, statin use vs. non-use was not associated with an increased rate of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients using clopidogrel after coronary stent implantation. AIMS To examine whether CYP3A4-metabolizing statin use modified the association between clopidogrel use and major...

  13. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  14. Children and ADRs (Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleone Ettore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicines are prescribed to the paediatric population on an unlicensed or 'off-label' basis because they have not been adequately tested and/or formulated and authorized for use in appropriate paediatric age groups. Regulatory authorities also need to remind health professionals about the importance of their contribution towards the process of paediatric pharmacovigilance thanks to their reporting of adverse drug reactions. The lack of reliable data in the paediatric population is associated with specific problems including: limited availability of safety data due to the lack of clinical trials in the paediatric population; under- or over-dosing in some age groups due to the lack of pharmacokinetics data or dose-finding studies; maturation, growth and development of the paediatric population susceptible to drug-induced growth and development disorders as well as to delayed ADRs not findable in adults. Pre-marketing trials are able to provide information about the benefits of drugs but do not manage to establish a safety profile. Spontaneous reporting of suspected ADRs become an important means to promote reasonable warning signs. Therefore some ADRs may be known in their qualitative aspect and quantitative aspect only after successful marketing and use in the population during a "normal" use. When the drug is used in clinical practice in large unselected populations, epidemiological post-marketing studies are useful as they find their major confirmation in recalling all the events that occur during monitoring, with estimates of incidence of ADRs that can not be obtained by spontaneous reports. In these studies a significant role can be played by the Family Pediatricians with the participation to active pharmacovigilance projects.

  15. Does Adverse Selection Matter? Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The empirical evidence of adverse selection in insurance markets is mixed. The problem in assessing the extent of adverse selection is that private information, on which agents act, is generally unobservable to the researcher, which makes it difficult to distinguish between adverse selection and moral hazard. Unique micro data, from a dental insurance natural experiment, is here used to provide a direct test of selection. All agents in a population were stratified into different risk classes,...

  16. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Exley; Alyson Norman; Michael Hyland

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electron...

  17. Perbedaan Adversity Quotient Pada Wirausahawan Batak Toba Dan Jawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Olyfia Karona

    2013-01-01

    Adversity quotient is a capability of anyone to survive in any difficult condition and solve the problems to achieve a success either in the work or life. This is a quantitative comparative research that aims to know the difference of adversity quotient between Batak Toba entrepreneur and Javanese entrepreneur. The hypothesis in this research says that adversity quotient of Batak Toba entrepreneur is higher than Javanese entrepreneur. This research involved 200 entrepreneurs, consisting...

  18. Reputation and Persistence of Adverse Selection in Secondary Loan Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, V. V.; Ali Shourideh; Ariel Zetlin-Jones

    2014-01-01

    The volume of new issuances in secondary loan markets fluctuates over time and falls when collateral values fall. We develop a model with adverse selection and reputation that is consistent with such fluctuations. Adverse selection ensures that the volume of trade falls when collateral values fall. Without reputation, the equilibrium has separation, adverse selection is quickly resolved, and trade volume is independent of collateral value. With reputation, the equilibrium has pooling and adve...

  19. Assessing Incentives for Adverse Selection in Health Plan Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Layton; Ellis, Randall P.; McGuire, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance markets face two forms of adverse selection problems. On the demand side, adverse selection leads to plan price distortions and inefficient sorting of consumers across health plans. On the supply side, adverse selection creates incentives for plans to inefficiently distort benefits to attract profitable enrollees. These problems can be addressed by features of health plan payment systems such as reinsurance, risk adjustment, and premium categories. In this paper, we develop H...

  20. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Dianne Bautista Solis; Elna R. Lopez

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to tes...

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviours in female prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Joana Ferreira Cardoso; Maia, Ângela

    2010-01-01

    Adversity during childhood has been the object of innumerous Psychology studies, justified by its prevalence and decisive impact in the development of human being. The most relevant results confirm that adverse childhood experiences increase the incidence of physical and psychological disturbances in adult age. We intends to characterizes adverse childhood experiences and relate them to health risk behaviour and with psychopathological symptoms, as found within a sample group of 4...

  2. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood.Objective: This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support.M...

  3. Modeling the effects of commonly used drugs on human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swagatika; Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S; Fleming, Ronan M T; Thiele, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism contributes significantly to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug. In addition, diet and genetics have a profound effect on cellular metabolism with respect to both health and disease. In the present study, we assembled a comprehensive, literature-based drug metabolic reconstruction of the 18 most highly prescribed drug groups, including statins, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants and analgesics. This reconstruction captures in detail our current understanding of their absorption, intracellular distribution, metabolism and elimination. We combined this drug module with the most comprehensive reconstruction of human metabolism, Recon 2, yielding Recon2_DM1796, which accounts for 2803 metabolites and 8161 reactions. By defining 50 specific drug objectives that captured the overall drug metabolism of these compounds, we investigated the effects of dietary composition and inherited metabolic disorders on drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions. Our main findings include: (a) a shift in dietary patterns significantly affects statins and acetaminophen metabolism; (b) disturbed statin metabolism contributes to the clinical phenotype of mitochondrial energy disorders; and (c) the interaction between statins and cyclosporine can be explained by several common metabolic and transport pathways other than the previously established CYP3A4 connection. This work holds the potential for studying adverse drug reactions and designing patient-specific therapies. PMID:25345908

  4. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related adverse events: general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) represents a monumental advance in the management of patients with pancreaticobiliary diseases, but is a complex and technically demanding procedure with the highest inherent risk of adverse events of all routine endoscopic procedures. Overall adverse event rates for ERCP are typically reported as 5-10%. The most commonly reported adverse events include post-ERCP pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, infection (cholangitis), and cardiopulomary or "sedation related" events. This article evaluates patient-related and procedure-related risk factors for ERCP-related adverse events, and discusses strategies for the prevention, diagnosis and management of these events.

  5. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  6. Relationship between serum concentration and clinical efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia%阿立派唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 钟华; 沈卫民; 孙菊水; 陈海支; 范振国; 卢桂华

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应之间关系,探索阿立哌唑血药浓度的治疗窗.方法:采用前瞻性研究方法,应用非固定剂量药物治疗8周.以高效液相色谱仪测定阿立哌唑的谷浓度,阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS),临床总体印象-病情严重程度量表(CGI-SI)评定疗效,治疗时出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.采用受试者运筹特征曲线(ROC曲线)获得血药浓度的最佳截断值,结合四分位间距法推测阿立哌唑血药浓度的治疗窗.并分析血药浓度与药物剂量、临床疗效、不良反应等之间的相关性.结果:入组80例患者,治疗有效47例、无效29例,另外4例脱落.总的不良反应发生率为32.5%.阿立哌唑血药浓度与药物剂量、PANSS减分率及TESS分值间呈正相关,与CGI-SI分值呈负相关.药物剂量与疗效无相关性.最低有效血药浓度为363 μg/L,发生不良反应的血药浓度阈值为540 μg/L.有效组血药浓度的四分位间距为348~623 μg/L.血药浓度在350~540 μg/L的范围内疗效较好,副反应较轻.结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应之间存在相关性,较适宜的治疗窗是350~540 μg/L.%AIM: To explore the relationship between serum concentration and clinical efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and the suitable therapeutic window of aripiprazole. METHODS: Prospective study method was adopted. The dosages of aripiprazole were unfixed for eight weeks. The trough serum concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illnes (CGI-SI), side effects were done with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). The optimized cutoff value of serum concentration was procured by the receiver operator curve (ROC), and the

  7. Effects of long-term use of aripiprazole and clozapine on myo-cardial enzymes of patients with schizophrenia%长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血清心肌酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 李素芝; 王新红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of long‐term use of aripiprazole and clozapine on myocardial enzymes of patients with schizophrenia .Methods Serum myocardial enzymes lev‐els were detected and analyzed in 84 schizophrenics on aripiprazole and 85 ones on clozapine > 3 years ,in‐dexes consisted of creatine kinase (CK) ,creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK‐MB) ,lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) and aspertate aminotransferase (AST ) .Results The CK ,CK‐MB and LDH levels of both groups were all higher than normal value ,but those significantly higher in clizapine than in aripiprazole group (P<0 .05 or 0 .01);AST levels of both groups had no significant difference from normal value . Conclusion Long‐term use of aripiprazole or clozapine could induce the increases of serum myocardial en‐zymes levels in schizophrenics in different degrees ,especially clozapine ,as should be paid attention to .%目的:探讨长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血清心肌酶水平的影响。方法对84例服用阿立哌唑及85例服用氯氮平治疗时间>3 a的精神分裂症患者进行血清心肌酶水平检测分析,指标包括肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶MB亚型、乳酸脱氢酶和天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶。结果两组肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶MB亚型、乳酸脱氢酶水平均高于正常值,但氯氮平组显著高于阿立哌唑组( P<0.05或0.01);两组天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶水平与正常值比较均无明显变化。结论精神分裂症患者长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平治疗均可导致血清心肌酶水平不同程度的升高,氯氮平升高更为显著,应引起临床医师的关注。

  8. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  9. A fatal adverse effect of cefazolin administration: severe brain edema in a patient with multiple meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribuddharat S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirirat Tribuddharat,1 Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee,1 Amnat Kitkhuandee,2 Sunchai Theerapongpakdee,1 Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup,1 Sarinya Chanthawong,11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Abstract: Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment. This was followed by unexplained metabolic acidosis. The patient then developed severe brain edema 100 minutes later. The patient had facial edema when her face was exposed for the next 30 minutes. A computed tomography scan revealed global brain edema with herniation. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for symptomatic treatment and died 10 days after surgery from multiorgan failure. The serum IgE level was very high (734 IU/mL. Single-dose administration of cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis may lead to rare, fatal adverse reaction. The warning signs are sudden, unexplained metabolic acidosis, hypertensive crisis, tachycardia, and facial angioedema predominating with or without cutaneous symptoms like urticaria. Keywords: cefazolin, adverse effect, drug hypersensitivity, brain edema, hypertension

  10. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  11. Early differences in metabolic flexibility between obesity-resistant and obesity-prone mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardova, K.; Horakova, O.; Janovska, P.; Hansikova, Jana; Kus, V.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Hoevenaars, Femke; Uil, Melissa; Hensler, M.; Keijer, J.; Kopecky, J.

    2015-01-01

    Decreased metabolic flexibility, i.e. a compromised ability to adjust fuel oxidation to fuel availability supports development of adverse consequences of obesity. The aims of this study were (i) to learn whether obesity-resistant A/J and obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice differ in their metabolic flexibil

  12. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias;

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  13. The relationship of omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size to metabolic disease in severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported the existence of a subgroup of obese individuals with normal metabolic profiles. It remains unclear what factors are responsible for this phenomenon. We proposed that adipocyte size might be a key factor in the protection of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals from the adverse effects of obesity.

  14. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R;

    2002-01-01

    overt insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, glucose metabolism should be monitored in children with CRF during rhGH-treatment. GH therapy in our patients resulted in a significant increase in height velocity with no inappropriate bone age progression and few serious adverse effects, all...

  15. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of medicine

  16. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  17. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  18. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  19. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manual...... reviews, and we therefore believe that it is possible to develop automatic tools for monitoring aspects of patient safety....

  20. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  1. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  2. Challenges in coding adverse events in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation...

  3. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva; Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes Silva; Luciana Tavares Toscano; Klébya Hellen Dantas de Oliveira; Lavoisiana Mateus de Lacerda; Alexandre Sérgio Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about...

  4. Multiple adverse effects of pyridium: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Charles; Dewar, James C

    2006-01-01

    Pyridium (phenazopyridine hydrochloride) is often prescribed as an analgesic in patients following trauma, surgery, or infections of the urinary tract. Pyridium toxicity has been previously reported, however, most cases result in a single adverse effect. Herein the authors describe an elderly patient who presented with simultaneous multiple adverse effects, including a previously undocumented myelosuppressive pancytopenia. PMID:16466130

  5. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiHyeon Ryu

    Full Text Available We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media and contrast media-induced adverse reactions.Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary's teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea from 2010-2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton's preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed.Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021% and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%. The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001, and more likely to be type A reactions (73.5% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.001. Females were over-represented among drug-induced adverse reactions (68.1%, p < 0.001 but not among contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066. Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p < 0.001.We found differences in sex, preventability, severity, and type A/B reactions between spontaneously reported drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. The World Health

  6. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  7. The Relationship of Omental and Subcutaneous Adipocyte Size to Metabolic Disease in Severe Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jean O'Connell; Lydia Lynch; Cawood, Tom J.; Anna Kwasnik; Niamh Nolan; Justin Geoghegan; Aiden McCormick; Cliona O'Farrelly; Donal O'Shea

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported the existence of a subgroup of obese individuals with normal metabolic profiles. It remains unclear what factors are responsible for this phenomenon. We proposed that adipocyte size might be a key factor in the protection of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals from the adverse effects of obesity. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five patients undergoing bariatric surgery were classified as MHO (n = 15) or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO, n = 20) according...

  8. Effectiveness and adverse effects of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: Japanese experience and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Satoru Ueno; Yasuhide Kitagawa; Takashi Fukagai; Hideyuki Akaza

    2012-01-01

    Recently,novel anti-androgens and inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis have been developed through the elucidation of mechanisms of castration resistance of prostate cancer.We believe that these new developments will improve hormonal therapy.On the other hand,there has been an increase in criticism of hormonal therapy,because hormonal therapy is supposed to induce adverse effects such as cardiovascular disease.In this review,we have introduced the Japanese experience of hormonal therapy,because we believe that there may be ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asian people in the efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal therapy.First,we showed that primary hormonal therapy can achieve long-term control of localized prostate cancer in some cases and that quality of life of patients receiving hormonal therapy is rather better than previously thought.Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in cases undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very useful for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer.Further clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy.We showed that the death from cardiovascular diseases in Japanese patients receiving hormonal therapy was not higher than that in the general population.However,efforts should be made to decrease the adverse effects of hormonal therapy,because life-style change may increase the susceptibility to adverse effects by hormonal therapy even in Japan.Managements of endocrine and metabolic dysfunction,such as diabetes mellitus,are essential.New hormonal compounds such as selective androgen receptor modulators capable of specifically targeting prostate cancer are expected to be developed.

  9. Insulin resistance, adiponectin and adverse outcomes following elective cardiac surgery: a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjortdal Vibeke E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance and adiponectin are markers of cardio-metabolic disease and associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The present study examined whether preoperative insulin resistance or adiponectin were associated with short- and long-term adverse outcomes in non-diabetic patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods In a prospective study, we assessed insulin resistance and adiponectin levels from preoperative fasting blood samples in 836 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Population-based medical registries were used for postoperative follow-up. Outcomes included all-cause death, myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention, stroke, re-exploration, renal failure, and infections. The ability of insulin resistance and adiponectin to predict clinical adverse outcomes was examined using receiver operating characteristics. Results Neither insulin resistance nor adiponectin were statistically significantly associated with 30-day mortality, but adiponectin was associated with an increased 31-365-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 [95% confidence interval 1.3-6.4] comparing the upper quartile with the three lower quartiles. Insulin resistance was a poor predictor of adverse outcomes. In contrast, the predictive accuracy of adiponectin (area under curve 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.65-0.85] was similar to that of the EuroSCORE (area under curve 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.67-0.83] and a model including adiponectin and the EuroSCORE had an area under curve of 0.78 [95% confidence interval 0.68-0.88] concerning 31-365-day mortality. Conclusions Elevated adiponectin levels, but not insulin resistance, were associated with increased mortality and appear to be a strong predictor of long-term mortality. Additional studies are warranted to further clarify the possible clinical role of adiponectin assessment in cardiac surgery. Trial Registration The Danish Data Protection Agency; reference no

  10. Multi-omic landscape of Rheumatoid Arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eTieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events of (novel therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI microbiome.Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we generated RA-related protein-protein interaction (PPI networks (interactomes based on experimental PPI data. Pharmacological treatment simulation, topological and functional analyses were further run to gain insight into the proteins most affected by therapy and by multi-omic modelling.Results: Simulation on the administration of MTX results in the activation of expected (apoptosis and adverse (nitrogenous metabolism alteration effects. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2 and Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase-4 (IRAK4, already an RA target emerge as relevant nodes. The former controls the activation of inflammatory, proliferative and degenerative pathways in host and pathogens. The latter controls immune alterations and blocks innate response to pathogens.Conclusions: This multi-omic map properly recollects in a single analytical picture known, yet complex, information like the adverse/side effects of MTX, and provides a reliable platform for in silico hypothesis testing or recommendation on novel therapies. These results can support the development of RA translational research in the design of validation experiments and clinical trials, as such we identify GRB2 as a robust potential new target for RA for its ability to control both synovial degeneracy and dysbiosis, and, conversely, warn on the usage of IRAK4-inhibitors recently promoted, as this involves potential adverse effects in the form of impaired innate response to pathogens.

  11. Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G; Wood, Ruth I; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  12. 阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作的临床疗效及安全性%The effects and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder typelmanic episode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋正伟

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作的临床疗效及安全性.方法 选取 2014 年 1 月—2015年 1 月在徐州精神病院治疗的 94 例双相障碍躁狂发作患者,按照治疗药物的不同分为对照组 40 例和研究组 54 例,对照组患者采用丙戊酸钠缓释片治疗,研究组患者采用阿立派唑治疗,比较两组患者的临床疗效及不良反应发生情况.结果 杨氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)评分时间和方法无交互作用(P > 0. 05),时间间比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05),时间间比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05),治疗 7、14d 两组患者 YMRS 和 CIG - S - BP 评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05),comparison between time,the differences were statistically significant(P 0. 05),comparison between time,the differences were statistically significant(P 0. 05),7,14d after treatment YMRS and CGI - S - BP scores between the two groups showed significant differences(P < 0. 05). The incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms between the two groups showed significant differences(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Aripiprazole has sure effect in the treatment of bipolar disorder typelmanic episode,and has good safety

  13. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Differential Gene Expression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) parameters represent important connections between exposure to chemicals and the activation of molecular initiating events of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in cellular, tissue, and organ level targets. ADME parameters u...

  14. [Fructose Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome: Association or Causality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A

    2016-06-22

    Fructose consumption has increased significantly during the past decades – in particular by using added sugar in food and beverages, either sugars containing free fructose, but also sugars containing fructose in bound form (e. g. sucrose). The metabolism of fructose exhibits distinct differences compared to the metabolism of glucose. Association studies performed in the past years suggest an association of fructose consumption and adverse effects on metabolism. Intervention studies, conducted in part with healthy individuals, could prove such effects and deliver explanations of the mechanisms leading to these adverse effects. A reduction of consumption of added fructose should be recommended, but there is no evidence to support a restriction of fruit consumption (as a natural source of fructose). PMID:27329707

  15. Promoting adverse drug reaction reporting: comparison of different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ribeiro-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe different approaches to promote adverse drug reaction reporting among health care professionals, determining their cost-effectiveness. METHODS We analyzed and compared several approaches taken by the Northern Pharmacovigilance Centre (Portugal to promote adverse drug reaction reporting. Approaches were compared regarding the number and relevance of adverse drug reaction reports obtained and costs involved. Costs by report were estimated by adding the initial costs and the running costs of each intervention. These costs were divided by the number of reports obtained with each intervention, to assess its cost-effectiveness. RESULTS All the approaches seem to have increased the number of adverse drug reaction reports. We noted the biggest increase with protocols (321 reports, costing 1.96 € each, followed by first educational approach (265 reports, 20.31 €/report and by the hyperlink approach (136 reports, 15.59 €/report. Regarding the severity of adverse drug reactions, protocols were the most efficient approach, costing 2.29 €/report, followed by hyperlinks (30.28 €/report, having no running costs. Concerning unexpected adverse drug reactions, the best result was obtained with protocols (5.12 €/report, followed by first educational approach (38.79 €/report. CONCLUSIONS We recommend implementing protocols in other pharmacovigilance centers. They seem to be the most efficient intervention, allowing receiving adverse drug reactions reports at lower costs. The increase applied not only to the total number of reports, but also to the severity, unexpectedness and high degree of causality attributed to the adverse drug reactions. Still, hyperlinks have the advantage of not involving running costs, showing the second best performance in cost per adverse drug reactions report.

  16. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  17. A controlled clinical study of aripiprazole combined with SSRIs vs.chlorimipramine in treatment of SSRIs refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder%阿立哌唑合并5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂与氯米帕明治疗5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂无效强迫障碍的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏静; 战玉华; 王旭梅

    2012-01-01

    AIM To explore the treatment plan in the treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS Seventy-three patients with obsessive compulsive disorder were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) augmentation treatment group (n = 26) was treated by aripiprazole based upon preceding SSRIs, with the initial dose 5 mg·d-1 and maximum dose 20 mg·d-1; (2) switch treatment group (n = 24) stopped taking SSRIs with the change of chlorimipramine, from initial dose 50 - 75 mg·d-1 increased up to 150 - 225 mg·d-1 gradually; (3) control group (n = 23) continued the SSRIs monotherapy as before. The treatment course was 12 weeks in all three groups. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Global Assessment Scale (GAS) were used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, and adverse drug reactions were observed. RESULTS At the end of wk 8 and wk 12 of the treatment, there were no significant differences between the augmentation treatment group and the switch treatment group in scores of the Y-BOCS, Y-BOCS obsessions, Y-BOCS compulsions and GAS (P > 0.05). At the end of wk 12, there were significant differences in the four scores between the augmentation treatment group and the control group (P 0.05; x2 = 3.70, P = 0.055 ). But the differences between the augmentation treatment group and the control group were significant ( x2 = 7.58, P 0.05), and they both had significant difference compard with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Aripiprazole augmentation and chlormipramine switch could be the candidate treatment plan in the treatment of SSRIs refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The curative effect and the safety were similar in these two plans.%目的 探索5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRIs)治疗无效的强迫障碍的治疗方案.方法 将73例强迫障碍患者随机分为3组:(1)增效剂组26例,在原用SSRIs药物剂量不变的基础上加用阿立哌唑治疗,起始量为5 mg·d-1,

  18. Metabolism of phthalates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-07-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP); and their monoester metabolites. Urine, however, contains relatively more of the secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP, as well as the monoester phthalates of the more short-branched phthalates. This differential distribution is of special concern as, in particular, the hydrophobic phthalates and their metabolites are shown to have adverse effects following in utero and lactational exposures in animal studies.

  19. 首发精神分裂症患者使用阿立哌唑后血清IL-2、IL-4水平变化的探讨%Explore the level changes of IL-2,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia after the treatment of arip-iprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 李亚飞; 朱祥路; 蒋天玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizo-phrenia and healthy controls were explored ,and to compare the changes of symptoms before and after aripiprazole treatment and the changes of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 .Methods Serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 was exam-ined with Flow Cytometry in 35 healthy volunteers and 35 first episode patients .The symptoms of pa-tients were evaluated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale .Results There were no statistical sig-nificantly differents in the serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia than normal .controls (P>0 .05) .The serum levels of IL-4 was lower in patients with first-episode schizophrenia after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .01) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were increased in positive symptoms of schizophre-nia patients before aripiprazole treatment (positive symptoms) than normal controls (P<0 .05) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were different in positive symptoms of schizophrenia patients before and after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .05) .Conclusion The patients with schizophrenia have immune dysfunction ;Aripiprazole of antipsychotics have lowered the level of IL-2 ,IL-4 and positive symptoms also im-proved .Conclusion.%目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清细胞因子IL-2、IL-4与正常人的差异,比较分析首发精神分裂症患者经过阿立哌唑治疗前后症状改变及细胞因子IL-2、IL-4的变化。方法选择35例首发精神分裂症患者作为研究组,35例健康志愿者作为对照组,通过流式细胞学技术测定血清标本中IL-2、IL-4的水平,用PANSS量表评定精神症状。结果(1)首发精神分裂症患者IL-2、IL-4水平与正常对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(2)首发精神分裂症患者阿立哌唑治疗后较治疗前IL-4水平降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。(3)首发精神分裂症阳性症状患者血清IL-2、IL-4水平在治疗前均高于对照组(P<0.05

  20. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床对照研究%A controlled clinical study of amisulpride and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in treatment of negative schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较氨磺必利和阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法采用随机对照研究,将64例符合《中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准(第3版)》(CCMD-3)诊断标准的以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者按照入组先后顺序分为氨磺必利组(研究组)和阿立哌唑口崩片组(对照组)各32例,疗程8周,采用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定疗效,采用副反应量表( TESS)评定不良反应。结果治疗8周后,两组PANSS评分均下降(P>0.05),氨磺必利组和阿立哌唑口崩片组有效率分别为90.63%,87.5%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组TESS评分分别为(3.98±1.03)分、(4.07±1.89)分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症疗效相当,不良反应轻。%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety between amisulpride and aripiprazole in treatment of negative schizo-phrenia. Methods Using randomized controlled trials in this study, 64 patients diagnosed with negative schizophrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride group (study group) and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group (control group). The positive and negative scale ( PANSS) was used to evaluate the efficacy, and treatment emergent side effect scale ( TESS) was used to evaluate the advese reactions. The course of treatment was eight weeks. Results PANSS(P>0. 05) scores of the two groups were both significant-ly decreased after 8 weeks, the efficacy rates of amisulpride group and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group were 90. 63% and 87. 5%, which two groups showed no significant difference fromχ2 test (P>0. 05). The TESS scores of amisulpride group and aripi-prazole group were(3. 98 ± 1. 03)and(4. 07 ± 1. 89), The TESS scores of two groups also showed no significant difference by t-test (P>0. 05). Conclusion Amisulpride are as effective as Aripiprazole orally

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole in treatment of bipolar depression%碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍抑郁发作的疗效和安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟幼嵩; 陈俊; 李则挚; 王勇; 黄佳; 方贻儒; 王祖承

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍抑郁发作的疗效和安全性.方法 81例双相障碍抑郁发作患者随机分为联合用药组(n=42)和锂盐组(n=39),分别给予碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗或单用碳酸锂治疗,持续8周.在基线期及治疗第1、2、4、8周末,采用17项汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD-17)和Young躁狂评定量表(YMRS)评定疗效,计算治疗有效率,采用治疗时出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果 基线期两组HAMD-17评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗第1、2、4周末联合用药组HAMD-17评分显著低于锂盐组(P<0.05或P<0.01);治疗第8周末联合用药组HAMD-17评分低于锂盐组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组基线期及治疗各阶段的YMRS评分均<7.两组治疗有效率和不良反应发生率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与单用碳酸锂比较,碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍抑郁发作起效快,疗效相似,不良反应无明显增加.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole in treatment of bipolar depression. Methods Eighty-one patients with bipolar depression were randomly divided into lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole group (re = 42) or lithium carbonate group ( n = 39), and were treated with lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole and lithium carbonate for 8 weeks respectively. At the baseline and the end of fthe irst, second, fourth and eighth week of treatment, Hamilton Depression Scale-17 ( HAMD-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were employed to evaluate the clinical efficacy, the effective rates were calculated, and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) was adopted to assess the side effects. Results There was no significant difference in HAMD-17 score between two group at the baseline (P>0.05), while HAMD-17 scores at the end of first, second and fourth week of treatment in lithium

  2. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  3. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children History of antisocial disorder, suicide attempt or marijuana abuse showed the ... themselves attempted suicide, or who had struggled with antisocial personality disorder or marijuana abuse, were found to ...

  4. Data mining for signal detection of adverse event safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chia; Tsong, Yi; Chen, James J

    2013-01-01

    The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is the primary database designed to support the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) postmarketing safety surveillance program for all approved drugs and therapeutic biologic products. Most current disproportionality analysis focuses on the detection of potential adverse events (AE) involving a single drug and a single AE only. In this paper, we present a data mining biclustering technique based on the singular value decomposition to extract local regions of association for a safety study. The analysis consists of collection of biclusters, each representing an association between a set of drugs with the corresponding set of adverse events. Significance of each bicluster can be tested using disproportionality analysis. Individual drug-event combination can be further tested. A safety data set consisting of 193 drugs with 8453 adverse events is analyzed as an illustration. PMID:23331228

  5. Guidelines for submitting adverse event reports for publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, William; Arellano, Felix; Barnes, Joanne; Bergman, Ulf; Edwards, Ralph; Fernandez, Alina; Freedman, Stephen; Goldsmith, David; Huang, Kui; Jones, Judith; McLeay, Rachel; Moore, Nicholas; Stather, Rosie; Trenque, Thierry; Troutman, William; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Williams, Frank; Wise, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Publication of case reports describing suspected adverse effects of drugs and medical products that include herbal and complementary medicines, vaccines and other biologicals and devices is important for postmarketing surveillance. Publication lends credence to important signals raised in these adve

  6. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  7. Ouabain protects against adverse developmental programming of the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Khodus, Georgiy R; Kruusmägi, Markus; Kamali-Zare, Padideh; Liu, Xiao-Li; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Zelenin, Sergey; Brismar, Hjalmar; Aperia, Anita

    2010-01-01

    The kidney is extraordinarily sensitive to adverse fetal programming. Malnutrition, the most common form of developmental challenge, retards the formation of functional units, the nephrons. The resulting low nephron endowment increases susceptibility to renal injury and disease. Using explanted rat embryonic kidneys, we found that ouabain, the Na,K-ATPase ligand, triggers a calcium-nuclear factor-κB signal, which protects kidney development from adverse effects of malnutrition. To mimic malnutrition, kidneys were serum deprived for 24 h. This resulted in severe retardation of nephron formation and a robust increase in apoptosis. In ouabain-exposed kidneys, no adverse effects of serum deprivation were observed. Proof of principle that ouabain rescues development of embryonic kidneys exposed to malnutrition was obtained from studies on pregnant rats given a low-protein diet and treated with ouabain or vehicle throughout pregnancy. Thus, we have identified a survival signal and a feasible therapeutic tool to prevent adverse programming of kidney development. PMID:20975704

  8. Management of acute adverse reactions to contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, S5 7AU, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    When anaphylactoid and other severe adverse reactions to contrast media occur, prompt recognition and immediate treatment are essential. Simple guidelines for treatment have been requested by many radiologists, and therefore the Contrast Media Safety Committee has produced guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions to contrast media. The committee made an extensive review of the literature on treatment of adverse reactions to contrast media. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The resulting report was discussed at the 10th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Uppsala. Sweden, September 2003. Guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions and a list of first-line drugs and equipment that should be available in the room where contrast medium is given are provided. (orig.)

  9. Management of acute adverse reactions to contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2004-03-01

    When anaphylactoid and other severe adverse reactions to contrast media occur, prompt recognition and immediate treatment are essential. Simple guidelines for treatment have been requested by many radiologists, and therefore the Contrast Media Safety Committee has produced guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions to contrast media. The committee made an extensive review of the literature on treatment of adverse reactions to contrast media. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The resulting report was discussed at the 10th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Uppsala. Sweden, September 2003. Guidelines for treatment of acute adverse reactions and a list of first-line drugs and equipment that should be available in the room where contrast medium is given are provided. PMID:14740165

  10. Information sharing and lending market competition under strong adverse selection

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge FERNÁNDEZ-RUIZ; García-Cestona, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In a relatively recent paper, Gehrig and Stenbacka (Eur Econ Rev 51, 77-99, 2007) show that information sharing increases banks' profits to the detriment of creditworthy entrepreneurs in a model of a banking duopoly with switching costs and poaching. They restrict their analysis to the case in which adverse selection is not too strong.We analyze the complementary case and show that, when the economy suffers from strong adverse selection, information sharing still increases banks' profits, but...

  11. Childhood adversities as a predictor of disability retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Harkonmäki, K.; Korkeila, K.; Vahtera, J; Kivimäki, M; Suominen, S; Sillanmäki, L.; Koskenvuo, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a large body of research on adulthood risk factors for retirement due to disability, but studies on the effect of adverse childhood experiences are scarce. AIM: To examine whether adverse childhood experiences predict disability retirement. METHODS: Data were derived from the Health and Social Support Study. The information was gathered from postal surveys in 1998 (baseline) and in 2003 (follow-up questionnaire). The analysed data consisted of 8817 non-retired respondents...

  12. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  13. Hubungan Adversity Quotient Terhadap Kepuasan Berwirausaha Pada Wirauasaha Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Malini, Shoffa

    2015-01-01

    Everybody who interested in entrepreneurship was motivated by the potential reward. This reward is grouped in three basic category, those are income, leisure time and psychological well being. This reward later results a satisfaction for those entrepreneurs. Beside the reward, there’s also a possible challenges, therefore, adversity quotient is needed. This research was aimed to examine the correlation of adversity quotient with women entrepreneurial satisfaction. The resear...

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among N...

  15. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Upadya Gatha; Ruxana K

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis....

  16. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2011-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of th...

  17. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  18. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  19. Chemical Hair Relaxers Have Adverse Effects a Myth or Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Vinma H; Shetty, Narendra J; Nair, Dhanya Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Context: Hair plays an important role in one's personality and builds confidence. Now-a-days, chemical hair relaxers are used very commonly in the society. We document the adverse effects reported by the sample that have used any one of the professional chemical hair relaxers. Aim: To study the adverse effects reported by the sample who underwent repeated chemical hair relaxing. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study done on a sample taken from a medical college and ho...

  20. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... values for glucose and creatinine can vary with age. Normal value ranges for all tests may vary ...

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  2. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani G. An ...

  3. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs ...

  4. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

  5. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahdavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do.Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Irans supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual's characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined.Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance.Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market.

  6. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Exley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset.

  7. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  8. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Deter...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, ...

  10. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  11. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  12. Metabolic depression in animals: physiological perspectives and biochemical generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, M; Withers, P

    1999-02-01

    Depression of metabolic rate has been recorded for virtually all major animal phyla in response to environmental stress. The extent of depression is usually measured as the ratio of the depressed metabolic rate to the normal resting metabolic rate. Metabolic rate is sometimes only depressed to approx. 80% of the resting value (i.e. a depression of approx. 20% of resting); it is more commonly 5-40% of resting (i.e. a depression of approx. 60-95% of resting); extreme depression is to 1% or less of resting, or even to an unmeasurably low metabolic rate (i.e. a depression of approx. 99-100% of resting). We have examined the resting and depressed metabolic rate of animals as a function of their body mass, corrected to a common temperature. This allometric approach allows ready comparison of the absolute level of both resting and depressed metabolic rate for various animals, and suggests three general patterns of metabolic depression. Firstly, metabolic depression to approx. 0.05-0.4 of rest is a common and remarkably consistent pattern for various non-cryptobiotic animals (e.g. molluscs, earthworms, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, reptiles). This extent of metabolic depression is typical for dormant animals with 'intrinsic' depression, i.e. reduction of metabolic rate in anticipation of adverse environmental conditions but without substantial changes to their ionic or osmotic status, or state of body water. Some of these types of animal are able to survive anoxia for limited periods, and their anaerobic metabolic depression is also to approx. 0.05-0.4 of resting. Metabolic depression to much less than 0.2 of resting is apparent for some 'resting', 'over-wintering' or diapaused eggs of these animals, but this can be due to early developmental arrest so that the egg has a low 'metabolic mass' of developed tissue (compared to the overall mass of the egg) with no metabolic depression, rather than having metabolic depression of the entire cell mass. A profound decrease in

  13. Digging Up the Human Genome: Current Progress in Deciphering Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chi Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are a major clinical problem. In addition to their clinical impact on human health, there is an enormous cost associated with ADRs in health care and pharmaceutical industry. Increasing studies revealed that genetic variants can determine the susceptibility of individuals to ADRs. The development of modern genomic technologies has led to a tremendous advancement of improving the drug safety and efficacy and minimizing the ADRs. This review will discuss the pharmacogenomic techniques used to unveil the determinants of ADRs and summarize the current progresses concerning the identification of biomarkers for ADRs, with a focus on genetic variants for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug-transporter proteins, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA. The knowledge gained from these cutting-edge findings will form the basis for better prediction and management for ADRs, ultimately making the medicine personalized.

  14. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  15. [Adverse efects of riluzole (Rilutek) in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch-Torreilles, I; Camu, W; Hillaire-Buys, D

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal degenerative disorder of the motoneurones which was without any effective therapy until 1997. Riluzole (Rilutek) has been the first patented drug used in its specific treatment. In order to evaluate the tolerability profile of this molecule, a Pharmacovigilance study was undertaken in the Department of Neurology B at the Montpellier University Hospital. A total of 153 patients were studied and all observed side-effects were listed in the French bank of Pharmacovigilance. Riluzole induced one or more adverse effects in 50.3 per cent of patients. The most frequent were gastrointestinal disturbances, hepatotoxicity and asthenia. Dermatological, haematological, neuropsychiatric and metabolic side-effects were also reported. This study shows an acceptable safety profile for riluzole. Due to its mode of action, riluzole could potentially be used in the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases involving glutamate excitotoxicity. Subsequently, Pharmacovigilance will have to be carried out to establish the proper use of riluzole. PMID:10967703

  16. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.......Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...

  17. Integrative metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H McArthur IV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in experimental and computational synthetic biology are extremely useful for achieving metabolic engineering objectives. The integration of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering within an iterative design-build-test framework will improve the practice of metabolic engineering by relying more on efficient design strategies. Computational tools that aid in the design and in silico simulation of metabolic pathways are especially useful. However, software helpful for constructing, implementing, measuring and characterizing engineered pathways and networks should not be overlooked. In this review, we highlight computational synthetic biology tools relevant to metabolic engineering, organized in the context of the design-build-test cycle.

  18. Longitudinal in vivo tracking of adverse effects following topical steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Andrew J; Arp, Zane; Zhao, Youbo; Li, Joanne; Chaney, Eric J; Marjanovic, Marina; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Boppart, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Topical steroids are known for their anti-inflammatory properties and are commonly prescribed to treat many adverse skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. While these treatments are known to be effective, adverse effects including skin atrophy are common. In this study, the progression of these effects is investigated in an in vivo mouse model using multimodal optical microscopy. Utilizing a system capable of performing two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEF) of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to visualize the epidermal cell layers and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to identify collagen in the dermis, these processes can be studied at the cellular level. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is also utilized to image intracellular NADH levels to obtain molecular information regarding metabolic activity following steroid treatment. In this study, fluticasone propionate (FP)-treated, mometasone furoate (MF)-treated and untreated animals were imaged longitudinally using a custom-built multimodal optical microscope. Prolonged steroid treatment over the course of 21 days is shown to result in a significant increase in mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH, suggesting a faster rate of maturation of epidermal keratinocytes. Alterations to collagen organization and the structural microenvironment are also observed. These results give insight into the structural and biochemical processes of skin atrophy associated with prolonged steroid treatment. PMID:26739196

  19. Analysis of suspected adverse reactions following immunization against pandemic influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization was aimed at recording all adverse events possibly related with vaccines. During the implementation of immunization strategy against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009, the post-marketing comprehensive surveillance was suggested to be conducted due to limited clinical experience in applying this particular vaccine and because of the fact that some vaccines had been licensed only on the basis of the data regarding their quality. Material and Methods. The passive surveillance on adverse events following immunization was conducted simultaneously with immunization campaign against pandemic influenza in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Reporting of adverse events was conducted by health care service through a specially designed questionnaire Results. In the period from December 17th 2009 to February 7th 2010, of the total number of 55720 people who were vaccinated, 50433 received one dose and 5287 received two doses of vaccine. The total number of doses administered was 61007. During the observed period, some adverse reactions were recorded in 37 people, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions being 6.6 per 10.000 vaccinated. Since the majority of patients had several symptoms and signs, the number of recorded clinical manifestations was much higher (140 than the number of patients with reactions. The dominant symptoms and signs were fever (51.4%, weakness/fatigue (48.6%, headache (40.5% and myalgia (31.5%. The reactions in the majority of patients were mild and transient. Only two patients sought medical care and one was hospitalized. Since the immunization coverage was very small, it was not possible to record rare adverse events, whose expected incidence is, anyway, very low. Conclusion. Surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization represents an important component of immunization program, especially when new vaccines are introduced. Therefore, this form

  20. Impact of statins in microalbuminuric subjects with the metabolic syndrome : a substudy of the PREVEND Intervention Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, CA; Asselbergs, FW; Hillege, HL; Bakker, SJL; de Jong, PE; Zijlstra, F; van Gilst, WH

    2005-01-01

    Aims Microalbuminuria frequently clusters with the metabolic syndrome and may identify subjects at increased coronary risk. Statin treatment may reduce the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in subjects with the metabolic syndrome, but evidence is limited. We evaluated the impact of pravastat

  1. Reliability of adverse symptom event reporting by clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuelin; Coffey, Charles W.; Sit, Laura; Shaw, Mary; Lavene, Dawn; Bennett, Antonia V.; Fruscione, Mike; Rogak, Lauren; Hay, Jennifer; Gönen, Mithat; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adverse symptom event reporting is vital as part of clinical trials and drug labeling to ensure patient safety and inform risk–benefit decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of adverse event reporting of different clinicians for the same patient for the same visit. Methods A retrospective reliability analysis was completed for a sample of 393 cancer patients (42.8% men; age 26–91, M = 62.39) from lung (n = 134), prostate (n = 113), and Ob/Gyn (n = 146) clinics. These patients were each seen by two clinicians who independently rated seven Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) symptoms. Twenty-three percent of patients were enrolled in therapeutic clinical trials. Results The average time between rater evaluations was 68 min. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate for constipation (0.50), diarrhea (0.58), dyspnea (0.69), fatigue (0.50), nausea (0.52), neuropathy (0.71), and vomiting (0.46). These values demonstrated stability over follow-up visits. Two-point differences, which would likely affect treatment decisions, were most frequently seen among symptomatic patients for constipation (18%), vomiting (15%), and nausea (8%). Conclusion Agreement between different clinicians when reporting adverse symptom events is moderate at best. Modification of approaches to adverse symptom reporting, such as patient self-reporting, should be considered. PMID:21984468

  2. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. Results: The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04, as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p < 0.0001 and among those who had consumed any type of supplementation for over 2 years (p = 0.005. Serum creatinine levels were higher only in the subgroup of carbohydrates when compared to the control group (p = 0.03. Diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile and hepatic function did not present differences between groups. Conclusions: The use of nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  3. 阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对难治性精神分裂症疗效和认知功能影响的研究%A self-controlled study of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on efficacy and cognitive function in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司桂梅; 王爱波; 秦爱玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on efficacy and cognitive function for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Methods A total of 45 treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine were combined with aripiprazole (10-30mg/d) for 12 weeks,at the same time clozapine was lowered to maintenance does within 2 weeks. The efficacy and side effects were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS) ,the cognitive function were measured with Wisconsion Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Continuous Performance Test (CPT) at baseline and at the 12th weekend of the treatment. Results At the end of the treatment, scores of PANSS and TESS decreased significantly, and each parameters of cognitive function was significantly improved when compared with those at baseline. Conclusion Aripiprazole combined with clozapine can effectively improve the negative symptoms and cognitive functions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia with few side effects.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对难治性精神分裂症疗效及认知功能的影响.方法 对45例原服用氯氮平治疗的难治性精神分裂症患者合并阿立哌唑( 10~30) mg/d治疗12周,同时2周内将氯氮平减量至维持剂量后不再变化,并于合并治疗前及治疗后12周末用阳性与阴性症状量表( PA NSS)、副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和副反应,以威斯康星卡片(WCST)和连续作业测验(CPT)评定患者的认知功能.结果 合并阿立哌唑治疗后12周末PANSS总分和TESS评分较合并前有明显差异(P<0.01,P<0.05),各项认知功能指标均有不同程度改善.结论 阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对难治性精神分裂症阴性症状及认知功能的改善明显,副反应减少.

  4. 阿立哌唑合并抗抑郁药治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性研究%Study on the clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole combined with antidepressants in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜美俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并抗抑郁药(三环类抗抑郁剂阿米替林)治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性。方法选择120例抑郁症患者随机分为研究组和对照组。对照组给予常规抗抑郁药物治疗,研究组在常规抗抑郁治疗基础上给予阿立哌唑。采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表和副反应量表对两组患者治疗前和治疗后进行评定。结果研究组治疗后的第1、2、4、6周汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分分别与对照组同期比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论阿立哌唑能够提高抗抑郁药(三环类抗抑郁剂阿米替林)治疗抑郁症的临床治疗效果,可作为临床抗抑郁治疗的一种增效手段。%Objective To study clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole combined with antidepressants(tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline) in the treatment of depression. Methods From January 2010 to December 2013, 120 patients with depression patients were selected and randomly divided into study group and control group , control group was given regular treatment of antidepressant drugs, study group was given aripiprazole combined with antidepressants(tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline). The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were used in the two group s of patients before and after treatment. Results Hamilton Depression Scale scores in the study group after treatment of the first week, second week, fourth week and sixth week of study group was compared with those in control group , the difference was statistically significant(P0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole can improve the clinical efficacy of antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline) in the treatment of depression, which can be one of the augmentations in the treatment of depression.

  5. PPARs and the orchestration of metabolic fuel selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Mary C; Zariwala, M Gulrez; Holness, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    This contribution describes recent advances in our knowledge of the regulatory interactions between the two major oxidative fuels glucose and lipid. It also addresses how the metabolic abnormalities associated with insulin resistance and ischemic diseases impair the ability of skeletal muscle to switch between the use of alternative metabolic fuels and the ability of adipose tissue to function appropriately in relation to the body's requirements for triglyceride mobilisation or storage, as appropriate to nutritional status. We discuss how targeting PPARs might ameliorate metabolic inflexibility in muscle through altered expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms and impact the functions of the adipocyte in lipid buffering and energy homeostasis. Focus has been placed on the participation of the regulatory pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases, PPAR targets, both in the beneficial and the potentially adverse actions of the PPARs in metabolic control. PMID:19646653

  6. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes. PMID:27431365

  7. Adverse effects and treatment on palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects on palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases are generally mild. Acute and late adverse effects are similar between 8 Gy single fraction and multi-fraction radiotherapy (e.g. 30 Gy in 10 fractions). Both external beam radiotherapy and radiopharmaceutical therapy with strontium-89 may cause pain flare. A randomized controlled trial is currently performed to confirm the effectiveness of dexamethasone for the prevention of pain flare. Reirradiation for the same site is widely used. However, its safeness has not been confirmed enough. Radiation myelitis is an unrecoverable severe adverse effect. However, the tolerated accumulated dose for the spinal cord is not fully understood. Stereotactic body radiotherapy may be considered to deliver reirradiation for spinal metastases without exposing too much dose for the spinal cord. Another solution to prevent radiation myelitis after reirradiation may use dose fractionations of 8 Gy single or 20 Gy in 5 fractions instead of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. (author)

  8. Different reactions to adverse neighborhoods in games of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chunyan; Weissing, Franz J; Perc, Matjaz; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long; 10.1371/journal.pone.0035183

    2012-01-01

    In social dilemmas, cooperation among randomly interacting individuals is often difficult to achieve. The situation changes if interactions take place in a network where the network structure jointly evolves with the behavioral strategies of the interacting individuals. In particular, cooperation can be stabilized if individuals tend to cut interaction links when facing adverse neighborhoods. Here we consider two different types of reaction to adverse neighborhoods, and all possible mixtures between these reactions. When faced with a gloomy outlook, players can either choose to cut and rewire some of their links to other individuals, or they can migrate to another location and establish new links in the new local neighborhood. We find that in general local rewiring is more favorable for the evolution of cooperation than emigration from adverse neighborhoods. Rewiring helps to maintain the diversity in the degree distribution of players and favors the spontaneous emergence of cooperative clusters. Both propert...

  9. Epidemiology and prevention of adverse drug reactions in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lexin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a correlation between increasing age and adverse drug reactions. This increased risk is related to aged-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In addition, chronic illnesses such as congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and hypertension are more prevalent in the elderly who also have an increased risk of diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Consequently elderly patients are often treated with multiple medications, which may cause drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Adequate undergraduate training in clinical pharmacology and continued professional development in evidence-based therapeutics will undoubtedly reduce inappropriate prescribing and improve the quality of medications. Good communications between physicians and patients are also critically important in avoidance or prevention of adverse drug reactions in the elderly.

  10. A database in ACCESS for assessing vaccine serious adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas,1 Dave Jackson2,3 1Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Independent Research Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Database Consultant, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To provide a free flexible database for use by any researcher for assessing reports of adverse events after vaccination. Results: A database was developed in Microsoft ACCESS to assess reports of serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination using Brighton Collaboration criteria. The database is partly automated (if data panels contain identical data fields the data are automatically also entered into those fields. The purpose is to provide the database free for developers to add additional panels to assess other vaccines. Keywords: serious adverse events after vaccination, database, process to assess vaccine-associated events 

  11. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  12. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes.

  13. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  14. Doppler prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mahale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to determine and compare the diagnostic performance of Doppler ultrasonography of the fetal Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA and Umbilical Artery (UA for prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in suspected intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Methods: Fifty singleton pregnancies in third trimester of pregnancy with suspected intrauterine growth restriction were examined with Doppler ultrasonography of fetal MCA and UA. Results: Twenty patients of the fifty included patients had at least one major or minor adverse outcome. Major adverse outcome included perinatal deaths which included both intrauterine deaths and early neonatal deaths, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, pulmonary hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and septicemia. Minor outcomes included cesarean section for fetal distress, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes and admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU for treatment. MCA PI is the most sensitive(90% index in predicting any adverse perinatal outcome i.e. including both major and minor outcomes, Positive Predictive Value (PPV and specificity being greatest for MCA/UA PI (96.6%, 93.7%. For the major adverse outcome most sensitive (86.6% most specific (91.4% and with highest PPV (81.2% and NPV (94.1%, is MCA/UA PI. Ratio of MCA/UAPI is more sensitive (90% than PI of both the arteries alone for overall prediction of adverse perinatal outcome. Conclusions: Thus we conclude that the Doppler studies of the multiple vessels in the fetoplacental unit can help in the monitoring of the compromised fetus and can help us predicting neonatal morbidity. This may be helpful in determining the optimal time of deliveries in pregnancies complicated by IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 119-130

  15. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based...

  16. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  17. Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.

  18. A Survey of Adverse Drug Reactions in Family Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, 232 Canadian family physicians recorded suspected adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in their practices for five months. Patients' age and sex, the drug(s) implicated, type of reaction and any disability were recorded on a card and sent to a central coordinating office each week. The number of SADRs in clinical practice seems to be small. An estimated 300,000 patients were involved in the study, and a total of 314 suspected adverse drug reactions in 314 patients were reported. A pr...

  19. A Robust Acquisition Scheme for FH Signal in Adverse Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ding Chen; Shao-Qian Li; Yu-Fan Cheng; Gang Wu

    2009-01-01

    Both partial-band jamming and multi- tone jamming have severe effect on the acquisition of frequency-hopping (FH) signal in adverse environments. In this paper, an anti-jamming FH signal acquisition scheme based on cognitive correlation process is proposed to boost the robustness of acquisition. The main idea of this scheme is to utilize a priori knowledge of FH speed and FH pattern to distinguish jamming signal from received signal. Furthermore, theoretic analysis on detection probability and false probability is given to demonstrate the robust performance of the FH signal acquisition method compared with conventional acquisition scheme without any prior information on FH speed and pattern in adverse environments.

  20. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Miller, Nancy B; Ball, Robert

    2006-03-24

    In May 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine (HEPAB) for immunization of adults. From May 2001 to September 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received 305 reports of adverse events after HEPAB. Many events were similar to those reported after the monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Non-serious events included constitutional symptoms and local reactions. Serious events included neurologic, hepatobiliary, and dermatologic conditions, and detailed medical and epidemiological review did not suggest a clear pattern of evidence supporting a causal relationship with the vaccine, except for injection site reactions and some allergic reactions.

  1. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  2. Movement Behaviors in Children and Indicators of Adverse Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    The prevalence of overweight children is high and increasing numbers of children now show features of metabolic syndrome. Various aspects of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and lack of good-quality sleep have all been linked to this recent development of overweight and cardio-metabolic risk...... to promote a healthy lifestyle. Thirdly, short sleep duration and a high variability in sleep duration, as well as sleep problems, were associated with an obesity-promoting diet. Short sleep duration was also associated with a higher fat mass index and increased cardio-metabolic risk. Furthermore, a decline...

  3. Metabolic syndrome and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eSachdev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevaleirnt and costly conditions.The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogensis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.

  4. Inflammasomes and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Elinav, Eran; Thaiss, Christoph A; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune response pathways and metabolic pathways are evolutionarily conserved throughout species and are fundamental to survival. As such, the regulation of whole-body and cellular metabolism is intimately integrated with immune responses. However, the introduction of new variables to this delicate evolutionarily conserved physiological interaction can lead to deleterious consequences for organisms as a result of inappropriate immune responses. In recent decades, the prevalence and incidence of metabolic diseases associated with obesity have dramatically increased worldwide. As a recently acquired human characteristic, obesity has exposed the critical role of innate immune pathways in multiple metabolic pathophysiological processes. Here, we review recent evidence that highlights inflammasomes as critical sensors of metabolic perturbations in multiple tissues and their role in the progression of highly prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:24274736

  5. Mevalonate metabolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbacher, Georg; Thurnher, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Cancer cells are characterized by sustained proliferative signaling, insensitivity to growth suppressors and resistance to apoptosis as well as by replicative immortality, the capacity to induce angiogenesis and to perform invasive growth. Additional hallmarks of cancer cells include the reprogramming of energy metabolism as well as the ability to evade immune surveillance. The current review focuses on the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells and on the immune system's capacity to detect such changes in cancer cell metabolism. Specifically, we focus on mevalonate metabolism, which is a target for drug and immune based cancer treatment. PMID:24467965

  6. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....

  7. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    .2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii...

  8. Proteomics for Adverse Outcome Pathway Discovery using Human Kidney Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that applies molecular-based data for use in risk assessment and regulatory decision support. AOP development is based on effects data of chemicals on biological processes (i.e., molecular initiating events, key intermedi...

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  10. Adverse drug reactions in the paediatric population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Weber, Camilla Blicher; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the paediatric population has become a public health concern and regulatory agencies in Europe and the US have acknowledged that there is a need for more research in this area. Spontaneous reporting systems can provide important n...

  11. Mechanisms of Hexachlorobenzene-induced Adverse Immune Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, Janine

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an environmental pollutant that can induce adverse immune effects in humans and rats. Brown Norway rats (BN) appeared to be very susceptible to HCB-induced immune effects. Oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes (LN) and ele

  12. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism. PMID:23887883

  14. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs): A framework to support predictive toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    High throughput and in silico methods are providing the regulatory toxicology community with capacity to rapidly and cost effectively generate data concerning a chemical’s ability to initiate one or more biological perturbations that may culminate in an adverse ecological o...

  15. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young

  16. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions caused by antituberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezakovic, Saida; Pastar, Zrinjka; Kostovic, Kresimir

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug antituberculosis regimen is associated with diverse clinical patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), ranging from mild and moderate such as pruritus, maculopapular exanthems, lichenoid eruptions, fixed drug eruptions and urticaria to severe and even life threatening ones like acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). These adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs are commonly observed adverse events. This is of particular importance for high HIV prevalence settings and developing countries where tuberculosis is common infection resulting in higher occurrence rate of these reactions. There is still significant heterogenity in definition and classification of CADR, as well as diversity in treatment modalities following adverse reactions and rechallenge management. The aim of this review is to discuss clinical presentation, occurrence of CADR caused by antituberculosis drugs, to identify risk factors for intolerance of the standard therapy as well as to draw attention to importance of multi-disciplinary approach, early detection, prompt diagnosis and in time management of antituberculosis drugs associated CADR. CADR can cause significant treatment interruption and alteration, resulting in increased risk of treatment failure, drug resistance, relapses and increased risk of complications including even lethal outcome. Finally, it can be concluded that it is of great importance to identify the best possible treatment and preventive regimens in order to enable continuity of the antituberculosis therapy to the full extent. PMID:25039910

  17. Economic growth and longevity risk with adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Reijnders, Laurie S. M.

    2013-01-01

    We study the implications of adverse selection in annuity markets in a general-equilibrium model of the closed economy. Agents differ in their health type and invest their assets in the annuity market. Without informational asymmetries each agent would obtain an actuarially fair insurance. If the in

  18. Adverse reactions in treatment with lithium carbonate and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup, P C; Hollnagel, P; Sorensen, R; Schou, M

    1976-12-01

    Hospital records of 425 patients who had been treated simultaneously with lithium carbonate and haloperidol were examined. Adverse reactions in these patients were the same as in patients given lithium alone or haloperidol alone. None of the patients developed a syndrome resembling that described by others in patients treated with a lithium and haloperidol combination. PMID:1036539

  19. Narrative Perspectives in Psychosocial Intervention Following Adverse Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, William

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates how narrative perspectives provide means of conceptualizing brief psychotherapy following negative life outcomes. Representative case studies illustrate three types of narrative construction following adverse experiences and show how narrative perspectives shift focus from disability and dysfunction to concern for client strengths,…

  20. Adverse events in children and adolescents treated with quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Bruhn, Christina H;

    2016-01-01

    Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children...

  1. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W;

    2011-01-01

    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society...

  2. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  4. Genomic architecture of pharmacological efficacy and adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Chhibber, Aparna; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; McGeachie, Michael; Cheng, Cheng; Plenge, Robert; Stahl, Eli; Sadee, Wolfgang; RITCHIE, MARYLYN D.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic disciplines address pharmacological traits, including efficacy and adverse events. Pharmacogenomics studies have identified pervasive genetic effects on treatment outcomes, resulting in the development of genetic biomarkers for optimization of drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics-based tests are already being applied in clinical decision making. However, despite substantial progress in identifying the genetic etiology of pharmacological response, current biom...

  5. Adverse events due to the immunization: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An adverse event after immunization is a medical incident following the administration of vaccine, which can be connected with vaccine usage. This event could be a reaction to a vaccine component or lapse in vaccine handling, transport and storage or coincidental event. The assessment of severity of this reaction and the decision about prospective permanent contraindications for futher immunization are to be made by the regional expert team for permanent contraindications. This is regulated by low. Case report. A series of adverse events after immunization in three children of a single family is reported. As regulated by law, all three children were vaccinated with different vaccines, from 2007. to 2010. Although the recorded events were diverse by their nature, way of clinical manifestation and severity they all required hospitalization. In addition to being siblings, the three children had the same atopic diseases in their personal and family anamnesis. All adverse events were explored including allergological/immunological tests. Thanks to the good cooperation of involved general practicioners, pediatricians, members of expert team for permanent contraindications and clinicians, two of three children received the full series of vaccines in optimal time. Discussion. Decision making about futher immunization of children with adverse event after vaccine administration depends on the nature and severity of developed medical condition, results of medical exploration, existing immunity and personal risk of getting disease and subsequent complications. Conclusion. Bearing in mind the significance of immunization for personal and collective immunity, good cooperation of all physicians and experts involved in each single case of adverse event is required.

  6. ADVERSE REACTION TO LATEX CONTAINING MATERIALS IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pouryaghoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Latex allergy has become an occupational hazard among healthcare workers. Atopy, intensity and duration of exposure have been recognized as predisposing factors for latex sensitization. Frequency of sensitization varies among countries. So we decided to investigate the prevalence of latex sensitization and potential risk factors among healthcare workers in a general hospital. In a cross sectional study by distributing a questionnaire among 876 employees of a general hospital, we investigated the prevalence of latex allergy and the potential risk factors for latex sensitization. We collected information about occupational history, including specific tasks performed, time of first exposure to latex, number of pairs of gloves used, and duration of weekly exposure. We also investigated the interval between first exposure and onset of symptoms. We asked about pre-existing rhinoconjuctivitis, asthma, atopic and contact dermatitis, hay fever, autoimmune diseases, and food allergies. This survey documented a high prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials (52.5%. 37.7% of responder had adverse reaction to latex gloves. The highest prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials was found in the surgical operating room, followed by emergency unit and internal medicine wards. According to this study, frequency of adverse reaction to latex was high among health care workers. This may be due to relatively low response rate, low quality of latex products in Iran, and the method of measurement. Whenever, the need for implementing prevention program, using latex-free methods and training of employees to reduce adverse reaction to latex is apparent.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES: A COMMUNITY BASED LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  8. Therapeutic effects of aripiprazole and olanzapine on the patients with first-episode acute schizophrenia and their influence on plasma prolactin level%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发精神分裂症 急性期疗效及对催乳素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 王继辉; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To study the efficacy on first-episode acute schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole and olanzapine and the effect on plasma prolactin level. METHODS: 65 inpatients with first-episode acute schizophrenia were divided into either olanzapine group [n = 42, M21, F21; age(23. 9±6. 6)year] or aripiprazole group[(n=23, M1l, F12; age (23. 7 ± 7. 2) year] for 4 week treatment. The plasma prolactin level, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressionglobal improvement (CGI-I) were measured before and after 4 week treatment. RESULTS: The score of PANSS (59 ± 13) after therapy in olanzapine group was significantly lower than that before therapy (103+15) (P 0.05) in the CGI-I score between the two groups. The difference of negative symptoms and general psychopathological sub-scale scoreschanging from base to end between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0. 01). Compared with the prolactin baseline level (547 ±382) uIu/mL,the plasma prolactin level (418 ±362) ulu/mL in olanzapine group was significantly decreased after treatment, and there was no difference. Compared with the prolactin baseline level (351 ±299) ulu/mL, the plasma prolactin level (123 ±114) ulu/mL in aripiprazole group was significantly decreased after treatment, and there was significant difference ( P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effects were similar in the aripiprazole and olanzapine group for first-episode acute schizophrenia. Olanzapine is better for the general psychopathological symptoms, and aripiprazole is better for the negative symptoms. Aripiprazole maybe decrease the plasma prolactin level of first-episode acute schizophrenia.%目的:研究奥氮平和阿立哌唑对首发精神分裂症患者急性期疗效及对血中催乳素(PRI)水平的影响.方法:65例首发精神分裂症患者分为奥氮平组42例[男21例,女21例;年龄(23.9±6.6)岁]和阿立哌唑组23例[男11例,女12例;年龄(23.7±7.2)岁].分别给予奥

  9. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  10. Circadian Systems and Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    1999-01-01

    Circadian systems direct many metabolic parameters and, at the same time, they appear to be exquisitely shielded from metabolic variations. Although the recent decade of circadian research has brought insights into how circadian periodicity may be generated at the molecular level, little is known ab

  11. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  12. Disorders of fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froesch, E R

    1976-11-01

    There are fundamental differences between the metabolic fate of fructose and of glucose. Whereas the metabolism of glucose is controlled by hormones such as insulin, fructose uptake and phosphorylation in the liver occurs independently of hormones and its ultimate metabolic fate is unpredictable. Essential fructosuria, a harmless inherited anomaly of fructose metabolism, is the least harmful of the disorders of fructose metabolism. Hereditary fructose intolerance and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency are discussed in greater detail with regard to biochemical abnormalities and clinical aspects. HFI is most serious in bottle-fed infants who cannot reject their sucrose-containing diet. Patients with HFI will have no clinical symptoms if kept on a fructose-free diet. In contrast, patients with fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency can tolerate frucose. However, severe infections precipitate attacks of hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis.

  13. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  14. Adverse Drug Event Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoffe, Aaron R; Baehr, Avi; Peña, Juliet C; Rider, Briana B; Yang, Sandra; Hu, Dale J

    2016-09-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) have been highlighted as a national patient safety and public health challenge by the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention (ADE Action Plan), which was released by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in August 2014. The following October, the ADE Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference provided an opportunity for federal agencies, national experts, and stakeholders to coordinate and collaborate in the initiative to reduce preventable ADEs. The single-day conference included morning plenary sessions focused on the surveillance, evidence-based prevention, incentives and oversights, and additional research needs of the drug classes highlighted in the ADE Action Plan: anticoagulants, diabetes agents, and opioids. Afternoon breakout sessions allowed for facilitated discussions on measures for tracking national progress in ADE prevention and the identification of opportunities to ensure safe and high-quality health care and medication use.

  15. The Paradoxes of Outside-limits: From Diversity to Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Affaya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid presenting a segregationist use of space that reduces the Other to permanent adversity, this article approaches the boundary from a phenomenological viewpoint, such as the different forms of segregation and barriers, in a dimension that is also symbolic. Questioning the boundary means questioning the imposition of a “single thought” and reflecting on the plural in order to achieve intercultural communication. Within this theoretical framework, the article focuses on the study of the impact of television broadcasting in the Arab world, examining how it contributes in different ways to turn the possibilities of diversity into pathological trends of identity models that continually provoke and generate adversity.

  16. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts. PMID:26527429

  17. Optimising the retrieval of information on adverse drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical interventions have brought about many benefits to health, improving the population's well-being and life expectancy. However, these interventions are not without potential harmful side-effects and yet searching for the evidence on adverse effects is challenging. This article summarises a PhD whose main aim was to develop a better understanding of the implications of using different sources and approaches to identifying relevant data on adverse effects. The author is Su Golder, who has recently completed her PhD at the University of York and who has already published several articles on specific aspects of her research, including this journal. This article is the first in the Dissertations into Practice series to report on a PhD study, and it summarises her research in a way which emphasises the implications for practice.

  18. Phytoremediation: Potential flora for synthetic dyestuff metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Tahir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dumping of dye-laden effluents into different environmental compartments adversely affects equilibrium and integrity of ecological systems. Being genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic these dyes are quite damaging to health of biota (either aquatic or terrestrial. Many of these dyes are resistant to degradation and remediation under natural conditions and through conventional treatment methods. This situation has necessitated the development of effective and efficient wastewater treatment strategies without further stressing the environment and endangering other life forms. To date many biological systems including microorganisms and plants have been assessed for metabolism of dyestuffs. Phytoremediation catalyzed by natural solar driven pumps (green plants and their associated metabolic processes has emerged as a comparatively new approach and has proven to be one of the most effective environmental friendly strategies for removal, detoxification and decolorization of dyes. Hence, this review quotes the literature of applied aspects of various plant species and their inherent metabolic as well as extractive potentials which enable them to effectively deal with various coloring agents.

  19. Do behavioral biases adversely affect the macro-economy?

    OpenAIRE

    George M. Korniotis; Alok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether the adverse effects of investors' behavioral biases extend beyond the domain of financial markets to the broad macro-economy. We focus on the risk sharing (or income smoothing) role of financial markets and demonstrate that risk sharing levels are higher in U.S. states in which investors have higher cognitive abilities and exhibit weaker behavioral biases. Further, states with better risk sharing opportunities achieve higher levels of risk sharing if investors ...

  20. Tenure Insecurity, Adverse Selection, and Liquidity in Rural Land Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Derek

    2011-01-01

    A theory of land market activity is developed for settings where there is uncertainty and private information about the security of land tenure. Land sellers match with buyers in a competitive search environment, and an illiquid land market emerges as a screening mechanism. As a consequence, adverse selection and an insecure system of property rights stifle land market transactions. The implications of the theory are tested using household level data from Indonesia. As predicted, formally tit...

  1. A multifactorial analysis of the Russian adversity impersonal construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The adversity impersonal construction involves two arguments: an accusative and an instrumental. The order of these two elements is investigated with the help of 669 examples taken from a Russian corpus, and the analysis shows that the primary determinants of the word order are the pronominality......—when the accusative is animate it is more prone to precede the instrumental argument. This finding shows that animacy directly affects word order in Russian...

  2. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  3. Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Claudia; Thompson Coon, Joanna; Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) [Verbenaceae] is a deciduous shrub that is native to Mediterranean Europe and Central Asia. Traditionally, VAC fruit extract has been used in the treatment of many female conditions, including menstrual disorders (amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), corpus luteum insufficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, infertility, acne, menopause and disrupted lactation. The German Commission E has approved the use of VAC for irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual disturbances and mastodynia. Clinical reviews are available for the efficacy of VAC in PMS, cycle disorders, hyperprolactinaemia and mastalgia, but so far no systematic review has been published on adverse events or drug interactions associated with VAC. Therefore, this review was conducted to evaluate all the available human safety data of VAC monopreparations. Literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases, in references lists of all identified papers and in departmental files. Data from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies were also included. Twelve manufacturers of VAC-containing preparations and five herbalist organisations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination preparations including VAC or homeopathic preparations of VAC were excluded. Data extraction of key data from all articles reporting adverse events or interactions was performed independently by at least two reviewers, regardless of study design. Data from clinical trials, postmarketing surveillance studies, surveys, spontaneous reporting schemes, manufacturers and herbalist organisations indicate that the adverse events following VAC treatment are mild and reversible. The most frequent adverse events are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritus and erythematous rash. No drug interactions were reported. Use of VAC should be avoided during pregnancy or

  4. Mechanisms in adverse reactions to food. The nose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common symptom in food allergic patients, but rhinitis is rarely the only symptom. Rhinitis due to adverse reactions to preservatives and colorants is very rare. In anaphylactic systemic reactions to foods the rhinitis symptoms are caused by inflammatory mediators transported...... by the circulation. In non-anaphylactic reactions, the nasal inflammation and symptoms are probably induced by interaction with food allergens transported to the nasal mucosa via the blood circulation....

  5. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam P

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and photot...

  6. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, David A.; Muessig, Paul H.; Loren D. Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b) of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI). Section 316(b) requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regar...

  7. Safely Using TCM Herbs: Adverse Reaction and Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楷; AngelaBerscheid

    2004-01-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity: Amygdalin is the main toxic constituent, which can be decomposed to hydrocyanic acid. Toxicity is dose related; 55--60 pieces of Xing ren, containing approximately 1.8 g of amygdalin, is often the fatal dose in adults. Two hours after administration, the first symptoms often appear, such as a bitter taste in mouth accompanied with oversalivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, palpitations, dyspnea, cyanosis, which may lead to coma and death due to respiratory arrest .

  8. Dyspnea assessment and adverse events during sputum induction in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschandreas Joanna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of normal or hypertonic saline during sputum induction (SI may act as an indirect bronchoconstrictive stimulus leading to dyspnea and lung function deterioration. Our aim was to assess dyspnea and adverse events in COPD patients who undergo SI following a safety protocol. Methods Sputum was induced by normal and hypertonic (4.5% saline solution in 65 patients with COPD of varying severity. In order to minimize saline-induced bronchoconstriction a protocol based on the European Respiratory Society sputum induction Task group report was followed. Dyspnea change was scored using the Borg scale and lung function was assessed by spirometry and oximetry. Results Borg score changes [median(IQR 1.5(0–2] were observed during SI in 40 subjects; 16 patients required temporary discontinuation of the procedure due to dyspnea-general discomfort and 2 did not complete the session due to dyspnea-wheezing. The change in Borg dyspnea score was significantly correlated with oxygen saturation and heart rate changes and with discontinuation of the procedure due to undesired symptoms. 19 subjects presented an hyperresponsive reaction (decline>20% from baseline FEV1. No significant correlation between Borg changes and FEV1decline was found. Patients with advanced COPD presented significantly greater Borg and oxygen saturation changes than patients with less severe disease (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT demonstrated significant diagnostic values in distinguishing subjects who develop an adverse physiologic reaction during the procedure. Conclusion COPD patients undergoing SI following a safety protocol do not experience major adverse events. Dyspnea and oxygen desaturation is more likely to occur in patients with disease in advanced stages, leading to short discontinuation or less frequently to termination of the procedure. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT may have a

  9. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  10. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, L. M.; Reid, A. J.; Midmer, D. K.; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involut...

  11. Parsing (malicious) pleasures: Schadenfreude and gloating at others’ adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Wayne Leach; Russell eSpears; Antony Stephen Reid Manstead

    2015-01-01

    We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude) and in causing (i.e., gloating) others’ adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group) episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude, gloating, pride, or joy, without reference to an emotion word. Schadenfreude and gloating were distinct in the situational features of the episode, participants’ appraisals of it, and their express...

  12. Parsing (malicious) pleasures: schadenfreude and gloating at others’ adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S.R.

    2015-01-01

    We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude) and in causing (i.e., gloating) others’ adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group) episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude, gloating, pride, or joy, without reference to an emotion word. Schadenfreude and gloating were distinct in the situational features of the episode, participants’ appraisals of it, and their express...

  13. Optimal Licensing Contracts with Adverse Selection and Informational Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MARINESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.

  14. Adverse Selection Models with Three States of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MARINESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze an adverse selection model with three states of nature, where both the Principal and the Agent are risk neutral. When solving the model, we use the informational rents and the efforts as variables. We derive the optimal contract in the situation of asymmetric information. The paper ends with the characteristics of the optimal contract and the main conclusions of the model.

  15. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of health...

  16. Chemical respiratory allergy: Reverse engineering an adverse outcome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is associated with rhinitis and asthma and remains an important occupational health issue. Although less than 80 chemicals have been confirmed as respiratory allergens the adverse health effects can be serious, and in rare instances can be fatal, and there are, in addition, related socioeconomic issues. The challenges that chemical respiratory allergy pose for toxicologists are substantial. No validated methods are available for hazard identification and characterisation, and this is due in large part to the fact that there remains considerable uncertainty and debate about the mechanisms through which sensitisation of the respiratory tract is acquired. Despite that uncertainty, there is a need to establish some common understanding of the key events and processes that are involved in respiratory sensitisation to chemicals and that might in turn provide the foundations for novel approaches to safety assessment. In recent years the concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) has gained some considerable interest among the toxicology community as a basis for outlining the key steps leading to an adverse health outcome, while also providing a framework for focusing future research, and for developing alternative paradigms for hazard characterisation. Here we explore application of the same general principles to an examination of the induction by chemicals of respiratory sensitisation. In this instance, however, we have chosen to adopt a reverse engineering approach and to model a possible AOP for chemical respiratory allergy working backwards from the elicitation of adverse health effects to the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are implicated in the acquisition of sensitisation

  17. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  18. Adverse blood transfusion reactions at tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Surekha K. Chavan; Gorakhnath Patil; Pallavi Rajopadhye

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goal of hemovigilance is to increase the safety and quality of blood transfusion. It is necessary to recognize and prompt response to adverse transfusion reactions, which will help in taking appropriate steps to reduce their incidence and make blood transfusion process as safe as possible. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of transfusion reactions (TRs) occurring in patients, reported to the blood bank at our institute. Methods: A retrospective r...

  19. Adverse reactions to acetylcysteine and effects of overdose.

    OpenAIRE

    Mant, T. G.; Tempowski, J H; Volans, G N; Talbot, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction in 1979 of intravenous acetylcysteine (Parvolex) as an antidote for overdosage of paracetamol the National Poisons Information Service and the manufacturer have been notified of 38 adverse reactions that were anaphylactoid in nature and 19 accidental overdoses. The most common feature of the anaphylactoid reaction to normal dosage was rash; other features reported included angioedema, hypotension, and bronchospasm; all the patients recovered. The features associated wit...

  20. Psychological adverse effects of cannabis smoking: a tentative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrete, J C

    1973-01-20

    This paper stresses the need for an early definition and description of the "deviant" cannabis smoker in North America. Attention is called to the fact that on this continent heavy smokers have not yet been separated as "problem" users from other smokers.A comprehensive review of possible psychological adverse effects of the drug is made. The following classification is suggested: a) Severe intoxications, b) Pathological intoxications, c) Acute cannabis psychoses, d) Subacute and chronic cannabis psychoses and e) Residual conditions. PMID:4569453

  1. Methylmercury Exposure and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects in Faroese Whaling Men

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Anna Lai; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.; Jukka T Salonen; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nielsen, Hans Petur; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Askham, Jórun; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30–70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from consumption of pilot whale meat. Methods: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 yea...

  2. Social adversities and anxiety disorders in the Gaza Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, A; Vostanis, P

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children, and their relation to social adversities in a cultural sample not previously researched.
METHODS—237 children aged 9 to 13 years living in the Gaza Strip were selected randomly from 112 schools. Children completed the revised manifest anxiety scale (a questionnaire with yes/no answers for 28 anxiety items and nine lie items), and teachers completed the Rutter scale (a questionnaire of 26 it...

  3. Polyhydramnios as a Predictor of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilham Moosa Hamdi; Kaukab Tashfeen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to ascertain the frequency of polyhydramnios in singleton pregnancies, to determine the associated risk factors, and assess the adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all singleton pregnancies complicated with polyhydramnios after 28 weeks of gestation was carried out in Nizwa Hospital’s Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Oman, from January 2002 to December 2007. Of 25,979 pregnant women reviewed, 477 were found to have ...

  4. Survivability of meteor burst communication under adverse operating conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a study of the survivability and reliability issues associated with operating meteor burst communication systems under adverse conditions. Meteor burst communication relies on the phenomenon of reflecting radio waves off the ionized trails left by meteors as they enter the atmosphere and disintegrate. The system's rapid deployment capability, mobility, and operating characteristics make it ideal for disast...

  5. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions to β-blockers in hospitalized cardiac patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugoša S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Snežana Mugoša,1,2 Nataša Djordjević,3 Nina Djukanović,4 Dragana Protić,5 Zoran Bukumirić,6 Ivan Radosavljević,7 Aneta Bošković,8 Zoran Todorović5,9 1Department of Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montenegro, 2Clinical Trial Department, Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro; 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, 4High Medical School “Milutin Milanković”, Belgrade, 5Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 6Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 7Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia; 8Clinic for Heart Diseases, Clinical Centre of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro; 9Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Medical Center “Bežanijska kosa”, Belgrade, Serbia Abstract: The aim of the present study was to undertake a study on the prevalence of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6 poor metabolizer alleles (*3, *4, *5, and *6 on a Montenegrin population and its impact on developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs of β-blockers in a hospitalized cardiac patient population. A prospective study was conducted in the Cardiology Center of the Clinical Center of Montenegro and included 138 patients who had received any β-blocker in their therapy. ADRs were collected using a specially designed questionnaire, based on the symptom list and any signs that could point to eventual ADRs. Data from patients’ medical charts, laboratory tests, and other available parameters were observed and combined with the data from the questionnaire. ADRs to β-blockers were observed in 15 (10.9% patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of ADRs in relation to genetically determined enzymatic activity (P<0.001, with ADRs’ occurrence significantly

  6. Parkinsonism caused by adverse drug reactions: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaba Emmanuel I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Parkinsonism puts a high direct cost burden on both patient and caregiver. Several reports of drug-induced parkinsonism have been published, but to the best of our knowledge, there has not been any report of quinine or halothane inducing parkinsonism. Case presentation We describe two cases of parkinsonism possibly caused by adverse drug reaction to quinine in a 29-year-old black Nigerian woman and to halothane in a 36-year-old black Hausa (Nigerian man who received it as general anaesthesia for appendicectomy in our teaching hospital. Conclusion These are two unusual cases of parkinsonism caused by adverse drug reactions to high-dose quinine and to halothane as general anaesthesia. We consider that these two cases are important in bringing this potential side-effect to the attention of both pharmacologists and primary care physicians as these are two of the most commonly used medications in our clinics. We conclude that parkinsonism should be included among the adverse drug reactions to high-dose quinine and halothane general anaesthetic.

  7. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  8. Maternal Serum Screening Markers and Adverse Outcome: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Krantz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies evaluating the association of aneuploidy serum markers with adverse pregnancy outcome. More recently, the development of potential treatments for these adverse outcomes as well as the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA screening for aneuploidy necessitates a re-evaluation of the benefit of serum markers in the identification of adverse outcomes. Analysis of the literature indicates that the serum markers tend to perform better in identifying pregnancies at risk for the more severe but less frequent form of individual pregnancy complications rather than the more frequent but milder forms of the condition. As a result, studies which evaluate the association of biomarkers with a broad definition of a given condition may underestimate the ability of such markers to identify pregnancies that are destined to develop the more severe form of the condition. Consideration of general population screening using cffDNA solely must be weighed against the fact that traditional screening using serum markers enables detection of severe pregnancy complications, not detectable with cffDNA, of which many may be amenable to treatment options.

  9. [Nursing practice in view of adverse events following vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetto, Lúcia Helena Linheira; Cubas, Marcia Regina; Malucelli, Andreia

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this article are to identify the adverse events following vaccination, the focus if nursing practice, using the Post-Vaccination Adverse Events Information System database, and discuss on the nurses' practice on the surveillance for those events. Secondary data were those regarding the vaccines applied in the Brazilian public health system, in the period from 1999 to 2008, totaling 65,442 registers, 59,899 of which were confirmed and 1,403 were associated with another vaccine. The 16 nursing practice events totaled 21,727 registers. Although they account for 35.4% of the registers, the data do not reflect the reality, because their reliability depends on the knowledge network that comprises diagnosis, notification and inclusion in the system. Discussions were made on interventions for the most prevalent events: fever and local events. Most interventions established in the adverse events manual was in agreement with the literature, though there were differences in the content between conducts for the same event due to different vaccines.

  10. The reasons of the nursing staff to notify adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cristina Marques da Silva de Paiva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this research aimed to understand the motivation for reporting adverse events from the perspective of nursing staff in the work environment.METHOD: qualitative study that used the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz for reference, which offers a systematic approach to understand the social aspects of human action. Data were collected by open interviews with 17 nurses and 14 technicians/assistant nurses in a university hospital.RESULTS: motivation was revealed through six categories: all types of occurrences must be reported; the incident report is an auxiliary instrument to health care provision management; the culture of punishment in transition; nurses as the agents responsible for voluntary reporting; sharing problems with higher management and achieving quality in the work process.DISCUSSION: it was unveiled that, when reporting adverse events, team members perceived themselves to be in a collaborative relationship with the institution and trusted that they would receive administrative support and professional security, which encouraged them to continue reporting. Reporting allows health care professionals to share responsibilities with managers and encourages corrective actions.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the study revealed the nursing staff's motivation for adverse event reporting, contributing to reflections on institutional policies aimed at patient safety in health care.

  11. Childhood adversities and risk for problematic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Hardt, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    The findings from studies exploring the relationship between childhood adversities (CAs) and adolescent and adult drinking problems are inconclusive - some researchers have found strong effects, others virtually none. In this study, we sought to examine the associations between 23 types of retrospectively reported CAs and adult problematic alcohol use in two samples, one drawn from Germany, the other from Poland. A total sample of 1008 participants was recruited via the internet: 500 in Germany and 508 in Poland. They completed a set of questionnaires including questions regarding various types of CA, and also the CAGE tool for the identification of problem drinking. CAs were grouped into four categories: Negative Personal Experience, Family Adversities, Parental Disorders, Parent-Child Relationships; this last category included role reversal. Separate logistic regression analyses were performed, with age, gender and country as potential confounders. The probability of having an alcohol problem was higher in men, and higher in Poland than in Germany. Of the risk factors tested, three displayed a significant association with problematic alcohol use. The risk factors concerned were Regular Arguments Between the Parents, plus two types of adversities from the Parent-Child Relationships cluster: Maternal Control and Maternal Role Reversal. The results serve to underline the importance of examining links between childhood risk factors and problematic alcohol use, and also suggest that certain less visible symptoms of a disordered parent-child (particularly mother-child) relationship, such as parentification, may constitute important risk factors for the development of drinking problems in later life. PMID:27082746

  12. Regulation of lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Lipids including cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids and triacylglycerols are important cellular constituents involved in membrane structure, energy homeostasis and many biological processes such as signal transduction, organelle development and cell differentiation.Recently, the area of lipid metabolism has drawn a great deal of attention due to its emerging role in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and liver steatosis.We decided to organize a special issue of Frontiers in Biology focusing on our current understanding of lipid metabolism.

  13. A Metabolic Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Our muscles are metabolically flexible, i.e., they are capable of `switching' between two types of oxidation: (1) when fasting, a predominantly lipid oxidation with high rates of fatty acid uptake, and (2) when fed, suppression of lipid oxidation in favour of increased glucose uptake, oxidation...... and storage, in response to insulin. One of the many manifestations of obesity and Type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance of the skeletal muscles, which suppresses this metabolic switch. This talk describes recent development of a low-dimensional system of ODEs that model the metabolic switch, displaying...

  14. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2016-05-01

    Tumors reprogram pathways of nutrient acquisition and metabolism to meet the bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and redox demands of malignant cells. These reprogrammed activities are now recognized as hallmarks of cancer, and recent work has uncovered remarkable flexibility in the specific pathways activated by tumor cells to support these key functions. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework to understand how and why metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumor cells, and the mechanisms linking altered metabolism to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Understanding these concepts will progressively support the development of new strategies to treat human cancer. PMID:27386546

  15. Sirtuins, Metabolism and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMartinez-Pastor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade ago, sirtuins were discovered as a highly conserved family of NAD+-dependent enzymes that extend lifespan in lower organisms. In mammals, sirtuins are key regulators of stress responses and metabolism, influencing a range of diseases, including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. In recent years, new functions of sirtuins have been characterized, uncovering the underlying mechanisms of their multifaceted role in metabolism. Here, we specifically review recent progress on the role of sirtuins in DNA repair and energy metabolism, further discussing the implication of sirtuins in the biology of cancer.

  16. Study and evaluation of the various cutaneous adverse drug reactions in Kasturba hospital, Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes on implementation of the adverse drug reaction reporting and monitoring system, in the Dermatology department of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, by a clinical pharmacist, using different promotional activities. Documented adverse drug reactions were assessed and analyzed for incidence, purpose of visit, types, drug classes, individual drug causing adverse drug reactions, type of cutaneous reaction, and various predisposing factors. Management and outcome of the adverse drug reactions were also studied. Adverse drug reactions were also assessed for causality, using Naranjo′s scale, severity, and preventability, using Hartwig et al. scale. Adverse drug reaction attributes to 77% of the hospital visit. Incidence of reported cutaneous adverse drug reactions, were 2.85%. Majority of the adverse drug reactions (96% were of type B. Antibiotics (30%, were the common class of drugs, causing a cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Maximum number of adverse drug reactions were due to Acetaminophen, Amoxicillin, antitubercular drugs, and Phenytoin. Most of the adverse drug reactions were managed by withdrawal of drug (81%, and 58% patients were recovered from the reaction. Naranjos scale classifies, 29 as probable, 21 as possible, and 3 as definite adverse drug reactions. Most of the adverse drug reactions were of moderate severity, however 13 adverse drug reactions were severe. All the adverse drug reactions were probably preventable on extreme caution.

  17. Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Tsigos, Constantine

    2006-11-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis or disharmony caused by intrinsic or extrinsic adverse forces and is counteracted by an intricate repertoire of physiologic and behavioral responses that aim to reestablish the challenged body equilibrium. The adaptive stress response depends upon an elaborate neuroendocrine, cellular, and molecular infrastructure, the stress system. Crucial functions of the stress system response are mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the central and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The integrity of the HPA axis and the ANS and their precise interactions with other CNS components are essential for a successful response to the various stressors. Chronic stress represents a prolonged threat to homeostasis by persistent or frequently repeated stressors and may lead to manifestations that characterize a wide range of diseases and syndromes. Such states progressively lead to a deleterious overload with complications caused by both the persistent stressor and the detrimental prolongation of the adaptive response. The metabolic syndrome can be described as a state of deranged metabolic homeostasis characterized by the combination of central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The incidence of both obesity and the metabolic syndrome in modern Western societies has taken epidemic proportions over the past decades and often correlates with indices of stress in the affected populations. Stress, primarily through hyperactivation of the HPA axis, appears to contribute to the accumulation of fat tissue, and vice versa, obesity itself seems to constitute a chronic stressful state and may cause HPA axis dysfunction. In addition, the description of obesity as a systemic low grade inflammatory condition that contributes to the derangement of the metabolic equilibrium implies that the proinflammatory cytokines which are secreted by the adipocytes hold a potentially important

  18. The prevalence of adverse cardiometabolic responses to exercise training with evidence-based practice is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalleck LC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1 Gary P Van Guilder,2 Tara B Richardson,1 Chantal A Vella3 1Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Movement Sciences, WWAMI Medical Education Program, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of individuals who experienced exercise-induced adverse cardiometabolic response (ACR, following an evidence-based, individualized, community exercise program. Methods: Prevalence of ACR was retrospectively analyzed in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a 14-week supervised community exercise program. ACR included an exercise training-induced increase in systolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg, increase in plasma triglycerides (TG of >37.0 mg/dL (0.42 mmol/L, or decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C of >4.0 mg/dL (0.12 mmol/L. A second category of ACR was also defined – this was ACR that resulted in a metabolic syndrome component (ACR-risk as a consequence of the adverse response. Results: According to the above criteria, prevalence of ACR between baseline and post-program was systolic blood pressure (6.0%, TG (3.6%, and HDL-C (5.1%. The prevalence of ACR-risk was elevated TG (3.2%, impaired fasting blood glucose (2.7%, low HDL-C (2.2%, elevated waist circumference (1.3%, and elevated blood pressure (0.6%. Conclusion: Evidence-based practice exercise programming may attenuate the prevalence of exercise training-induced ACR. Our findings provide important preliminary evidence needed for the vision of exercise prescription as a personalized form of preventative medicine to become a reality. Keywords: evidence-based research, cardiovascular health, community-based research, metabolic health

  19. Metabolic Alterations and Cardiovascular Outcomes of Cortisol Excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Iacuaniello, Davide; Simeoli, Chiara; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Carlomagno, Francesco; De Leo, Monica; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe chronic and systemic condition caused by endogenous or exogenous excess of glucocorticoids, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with active CS suffer from many metabolic alterations, including visceral obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, impairment of glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. Additionally, in these patients several cardiovascular abnormalities, i.e. atherosclerosis, clotting disorders, left ventricular hypertrophy, concentric remodeling and diastolic dysfunction have been documented. These alterations, which persist even long after hypercortisolism remission, account for the increased cardiovascular risk and greatly contribute to the increased mortality observed in patients with CS. The current review aims to discuss the main adverse effects of CS on metabolism and cardiovascular risk, focusing on the active and remission phases of disease, and underlining the importance of long-term monitoring and treatment of these complications during active disease, as well as in the long-term follow-up after CS remission. PMID:27212264

  20. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375