WorldWideScience

Sample records for argument large permittivity

  1. Slow light, open cavity formation, and large longitudinal electric field on slab waveguide made of indefinite permittivity materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, W. T.; Sridhar, S.

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of slab waveguides made of indefinite permittivity ($\\vep$) materials (IEM) are considered. In this medium the transverse permittivity is negative while the longitudinal permittivity is positive. At any given frequency the waveguide supports an infinite number of transverse magnetic (TM) eigenmodes. For a slab waveguide with a fixed thickness, at most only one TM mode is forward-wave. The rest of them are backward waves which can have very large phase index. At a critic...

  2. Large enhanced dielectric permittivity in polyaniline passivated core-shell nano magnetic iron oxide by plasma polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial samples of Magnetite with size ranging from 25–30 nm were coated with polyaniline by using radio frequency plasma polymerization to achieve a core shell structure of magnetic nanoparticle (core)–Polyaniline (shell). High resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the core shell architecture of polyaniline coated iron oxide. The dielectric properties of the material were studied before and after plasma treatment. The polymer coated magnetite particles exhibited a large dielectric permittivity with respect to uncoated samples. The dielectric behavior was modeled using a Maxwell–Wagner capacitor model. A plausible mechanism for the enhancement of dielectric permittivity is proposed

  3. Slow light, open-cavity formation, and large longitudinal electric field on a slab waveguide made of indefinite permittivity metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W. T.; Sridhar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The optical properties of slab waveguides made of indefinite permittivity (ɛ) materials (IEMs) are considered. In this medium, the real part of the transverse permittivity is negative while that of the longitudinal permittivity is positive. At any given frequency, the IEM waveguide supports an infinite number of transverse magnetic (TM) eigenmodes. For a slab waveguide with a fixed thickness, at most only one TM mode is forward wave. The remainder are backward waves which can have a very large phase index. At a critical thickness, the waveguide supports degenerate forward- and backward-wave modes with zero group velocity if loss is absent. Above the critical thickness, the waveguide supports complex-conjugate decay modes instead of propagating modes. The presence of loss in IEMs will lift the TM mode degeneracy, resulting in modes with finite group velocity. A feasible realization is proposed. The performance of the IEM waveguide is analyzed and possible applications are discussed, which are supported by numerical calculations. These slab waveguides can be used to make optical delay lines in optical buffers to slow down and trap light, to form open cavities, to generate strong longitudinal electric fields, and as phase shifters in optical integrated circuits. Although the presence of loss will hinder these applications, gain can be introduced to compensate the loss and enhance the performance.

  4. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Saha

    2008-06-01

    Nanodielectrics is an emerging area of research because of its potential application in energy storage and transducers. One-dimensional metallic nanostructures with localized electronic wave functions show giant dielectric constant. Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal nanowires, which shows giant permittivity is also discussed.

  5. Study of the Relative Permittivity Response of Metal Nanoantenna at Optical Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Mehnaj Mahbuba; Nafiz Ahmed Chisty

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the relative permittivity response of some nanometals such as Gold (Au), Silver(Ag), Copper(Cu), Aluminum (Al) and Nickel(Ni) are investigated at optical frequencies. The permittivity response is necessary because the optical response of the metal nanoantenna highly depends on the permittivity of the metals. The surface plasma response largely depends on the permittivity response at optical frequency. This relative permittivity response also playsan ...

  6. Biofilm monitoring using complex permittivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; McGrath, Lucas K.; Dolan, Patricia L.; Yelton, William Graham

    2008-10-01

    is observed two hours after inoculation when the permittivity begins to increase slightly over the next 20 hours, best seen in the shift from 1000 Hz to 5000 Hz in tan {delta} at the high frequencies (c). Because of similar dielectric relaxation properties noted by the comparable size of the semicircles, plot (a), and the height of tan {delta}, plot (c), within the first 29 hours, cell activity levels did not appreciably change. The third trend is observed when the complex permittivity value drops by orders of magnitude between 29 hours and 37 hours, best seen in the log [E] plot (b), and in the drop of the dielectric loss, tan {delta}, to 0. This change in the dielectric properties in the bio environment is nearly independent of all frequencies (c) and dissimilar from the original condition when only bacteria and nutrient was present in the biofilm chambers. The semicircles in plot (a) for this period decreased below the resolution of the graph, implying a large difference in the dielectric behavior of the cells/biofilms consisting of low dielectric losses. We believe these large changes are related to the on-set of biofilms.

  7. Study of the Relative Permittivity Response of Metal Nanoantenna at Optical Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaj Mahbuba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relative permittivity response of some nanometals such as Gold (Au, Silver(Ag, Copper(Cu, Aluminum (Al and Nickel(Ni are investigated at optical frequencies. The permittivity response is necessary because the optical response of the metal nanoantenna highly depends on the permittivity of the metals. The surface plasma response largely depends on the permittivity response at optical frequency. This relative permittivity response also playsan important role in the design process of a nanoantenna. This paper represents the permittivity response at the frequency range of 20-300 THz (the wavelength range of 3-15 µm

  8. Large magnetoelectric effect and low-loss high relative permittivity in 0-3 CuO/PVDF composite films exhibiting unusual ferromagnetism at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible magnetoelectric 0-3 composite films formed with high dielectric (εr ∼ 104) CuO microparticles in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix showed multifunctional properties. The films prepared by the hot-moulding technique exhibit low-loss high relative permittivity (εeff ∼ 103) with good ferroelectric behaviour (with P-E loop) at the percolation threshold (fCuO = fc ∼ 0.25). Dielectric, ferroelectric, magnetic and direct magnetoelectric properties of the composites depend strongly on the CuO filler concentration (fCuO). Interesting low field magnetoelectric response appears with about 5% decrease in ferroelectric polarization in the insulating composite (fCuO = 0.20) along with 7.5% increase in the magnetodielectric coefficient under a magnetic field of 6 kG in the semiconducting percolative composite at room temperature. At this field, a maximum magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 1.45 mV cm-1 Oe-1 was obtained. Even though the CuO sample is paramagnetic at ambient temperature, this typical composite film exhibits weakly ferromagnetic (with M-H loop) behaviour indicating multiferroic character. Our result represents an important step towards practical device applications using the high dielectric and magnetoelectric effects.

  9. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  10. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  11. Complex permittivity measurements of ferroelectrics employing composite dielectric resonator technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, Jerzy; Zychowicz, Tomasz; Bovtun, Viktor; Veljko, Sergiy

    2006-10-01

    Composite cylindrical TE(0n1) mode dielectric resonator has been used for the complex permittivity measurements of ferroelectrics at frequency about 8.8 GHz. Rigorous equations have been derived that allowed us to find a relationship between measured resonance frequency and Q-factor and the complex permittivity. It has been shown that the choice of appropriate diameter of a sample together with rigorous complex angular frequency analysis allows precise measurements of various ferroelectric. Proposed technique can be used for materials having both real and imaginary part of permittivity as large as a few thousand. Variable temperature measurements were performed on a PbMg(1/3)Nb(2/3)O3 (PMN) ceramic sample, and the measured complex permittivity have shown good agreement with the results of measurements obtained on the same sample at lower frequencies (0.1-1.8 GHz). PMID:17036796

  12. Two Kinds of Argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Kane distinguishes between two kinds of argument: the interpretation/use argument and the validity argument. This commentary considers whether there really are two kinds of argument, two arguments, or just one. It concludes that there is just one argument: the validity argument. (Contains 2 figures and 5 notes.)

  13. Undignified Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2016-04-01

    Something strange has happened to the concept of dignity in bioethics. After a long period in which U.S. pragmatist and U.K. consequentialist philosophers have argued that the concept is useless and vacuous, and in which they have been reasonably successful in expunging it from mainstream English-language academic bioethics, dignity has suddenly become popular again in debates about the legalization of physician-assisted dying (PAD). And, even stranger, it is deployed not by conservatives but by liberals. In the debates about PAD, liberal proponents of legalization seem to accept without question that there is such a state or process as "death with dignity," which is juxtaposed to "undignified dying." It also seems to be accepted that both of these states can be fairly easily identified and that they carry great moral weight. This article provides an analysis of the current resurgence of "undignified" arguments and argues on the basis of that analysis (1) that a proper understanding of the concept of dignity shows that the previous reductive arguments against dignity are partially incomplete and therefore partially misguided and (2) that, despite dignity having meaning, the idea of an undignified death cannot carry the moral weight it is given by proponents of the legalization of PAD. PMID:26957448

  14. Temperature-dependent permittivity of annealed and unannealed gold films

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Po-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Due to local field enhancement and subwavelength confinements, nano-plasmonics provide numerous novel applications. Simultaneously, as an efficient nanoscale heat generator from inherent absorption, thermo-plasmonics is emerging as an important branch. However, although significant temperature increase is involved in applications, detailed characterization of metal permittivity at different temperatures is lacking. In this work, we extract the permittivity of gold film from 300K to the annealing temperature of 570K. By comparing annealed and unannealed films, more than one-order difference in thermo-derivative of permittivity is revealed, resulting in unexpectedly large variation of plasmonic properties. Our result is valuable not only for characterizing extensively used unannealed nanoparticles, but also for designing future thermo-nano-plasmonic systems.

  15. Trust arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Public Information Centre of JSC Mashinastroitelny Zavod ('Elemash' was founded in 1990. Before that any information about the enterprise (being, by the way' manufacturer of nuclear fuel for 20 NPPs, of Russia and a number of foreign countries) were forbidden to be given in mass medial conventional conversations outside the factory and even in the families of the employees. This caused the most fantastic ideas about materials and technologies used here as well as their impact on the environment in Electrostal (50 km on the east of Moscow) where the enterprise is situated. Since the moment of its creation the Centre is not only informing the population about the technological and ecological peculiarities of nuclear fuel manufacturing, but also forms positive attitude both, towards the activity of the enterprise atomic energy as a whole. During the 4 years of its existence te Center was visited by more than 5.000 people; the majority of them are schoolchildren students with whom we are in close contact because we realize that the 'pro-nuclear' orientation of the mentality should be founded in the early age when humans world outlook is-formed. In the more aged group the majority are the workers of the factories nearby, military and retired people and reporters of te town's newspapers. We've good amount of demonstration materials, which speak in favour of the atomic energy and enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle engaged in it. These are NPPs schemes, mock-ups of nuclear reactors, assemblies manufactured by the factory and a wide variety of films on nuclear energy. Video films made in the main workshops are of peculiar interest; automation of the technology process, providing not only for nuclear fuel quality but also for high level of nuclear and radiation safety during its production. We pay attention not only to traditional arguments in favour of the atomic energy, but draw attention of the public to the fact that a factory engaged in the nuclear fuel

  16. High permittivity gate dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    "The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects."

  17. Promoting Students' Attention to Argumentative Reasoning Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Kurtz, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Argument-based interventions in science education have largely been motivated by the perspective that students lack knowledge of argument. Recent studies, however, suggest that contextual factors influence students' argument quality. The authors hypothesize that a key limiting factor lies in students' abilities to recognize when to employ…

  18. Argumentation and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rubinelli; A.F. Snoeck Henkemans

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of argumentation in the health care domain. Argumentation and Health is a collection of essays by argumentation theorists reflecting on the way in which the institutional context of health care shapes the argumentative interaction. The v

  19. Can Pictures Be Arguments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that widening the study of argumentation to include the visual unjustifiably expands common understandings of argument, particularly those that define argument as a two-part, two-sided act. Contends that by calling pictures "arguments," it is possible that attention will be diverted away from the rhetorical functions pictures can and do…

  20. New material about Arguments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Argumentation set i lys af udvidet textbegreb, kommunikative funktioner, formel logik, Toulmins model, fejlslutninger samt retoriske virkemidler......Argumentation set i lys af udvidet textbegreb, kommunikative funktioner, formel logik, Toulmins model, fejlslutninger samt retoriske virkemidler...

  1. Argument based machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Možina, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis presents a novel approach to machine learning, called ABML (argument based machine learning). This approach combines machine learning from examples with some concepts from the field of defeasible argumentation, where arguments are used together with learning examples by learning methods in the induction of a hypothesis. An argument represents a relation between the class value of a particular learning example and its attributes and can be regarded as a partial explanation of this e...

  2. Den gode argumentations anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    God argumentation har tre dimensioner: Den er faktuelt retvisende, den er relevant, og den er vægtig. Desværre slipper politikerne ofte af sted med mangelfuld argumentation fordi de forklæder den godt. Derfor får du her de vigtigste redskaber til at spotte uskikkene i politisk argumentation...

  3. One-sided arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    When is an argument to be called one-sided? When is putting forward such an argument fallacious? How can we develop a model for critical discussion, such that a fallaciously one-sided argument corresponds to a violation of a discussion rule? These issues are dealt with within 'the limits of the dial

  4. On the variation of vacuum permittivity in Friedmann universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, William Q.

    1994-07-01

    Vacuum permittivity, the measure of strength of electric fields in a vacuum, is a function of the spacetime geometry of Einstein's general relativity. This dependence on geometry was noted over 40 years ago by C. Moller (1952) and has remarkable consequences. Variation in vacuum permittivity breaks the equivalence of physical measurements and mathematical coordinates postulated by Einstein. Physical lengths, as measured by a rigid rod, and physical times, as measured by an atomic clock, are not equivalent to the mathematical lengths and times of general relativity. This changes some concepts of space and time, invalidates stronger interpretations of the principle of equivalence, and requires that care be exercised in interpreting the speed of light. The laws of physics must be carefully used to understand the essential relationships between mathematical spacetime and physical measurements. For Friedmann universes, vacuum permittivity is directly proportional to the Friedmann radius and is therefore a function of time. As the size of the universe evolves, the changing strength of electrical force between charges shifts atomic energy levels, changing the wavelengths of emitted light. This shift in photon emission due to the evolution of electrical attraction in the atom is twice as large as evolutionary photon shift. Considered together, atomic and photon evolution reverse the interpretation of Hubble redshift to imply that the Friedmann universe is presently collapsing.

  5. Workshop i modtagerorienteret argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Klint Grønbæk, Cecilie; Blicher, Monique; Gudmand, Jonas; Lauritsen, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    This project studies how argumentation skills among young politicians can be improved by introducing rhetorical tools that will enable them to generate various arguments that support their cause and select the best ones, depending on which target group they wish to address. Studies have shown that a growing number of potential voters are losing interest in politics due to undifferentiated argumentation with little or no relevance to them, thus forming a democratic problem in Denmark. This pro...

  6. Modelling Contractual Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Chris; Daskalopulu, Aspassia

    2001-01-01

    One influential approach to assessing the "goodness" of arguments is offered by the Pragma-Dialectical school (p-d) (Eemeren & Grootendorst 1992). This can be compared with Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) (Mann & Thompson 1988), an approach that originates in discourse analysis. In p-d terms an argument is good if it avoids committing a fallacy, whereas in RST terms an argument is good if it is coherent. RST has been criticised (Snoeck Henkemans 1997) for providing only a partially function...

  7. Graduality in Argumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Cayrol, C; 10.1613/jair.1411

    2011-01-01

    Argumentation is based on the exchange and valuation of interacting arguments, followed by the selection of the most acceptable of them (for example, in order to take a decision, to make a choice). Starting from the framework proposed by Dung in 1995, our purpose is to introduce 'graduality' in the selection of the best arguments, i.e., to be able to partition the set of the arguments in more than the two usual subsets of 'selected' and 'non-selected' arguments in order to represent different levels of selection. Our basic idea is that an argument is all the more acceptable if it can be preferred to its attackers. First, we discuss general principles underlying a 'gradual' valuation of arguments based on their interactions. Following these principles, we define several valuation models for an abstract argumentation system. Then, we introduce 'graduality' in the concept of acceptability of arguments. We propose new acceptability classes and a refinement of existing classes taking advantage of an available 'gra...

  8. Assessment of Uncertainty-Infused Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Liu, Ou Lydia; Pallant, Amy; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Buck, Zoë E.

    2014-01-01

    Though addressing sources of uncertainty is an important part of doing science, it has largely been neglected in assessing students' scientific argumentation. In this study, we initially defined a scientific argumentation construct in four structural elements consisting of claim, justification, uncertainty qualifier, and uncertainty…

  9. Rethinking the Argumentative Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneer, David

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of the argumentative essay as it is commonly presented in academic writing textbooks and classrooms for English language learners. The author first examines the traditional three-stage structure (thesis-argument-conclusion) and then problematizes it within a genre-based approach to academic writing. He…

  10. Argumentation driven planning

    OpenAIRE

    Simari, Guillermo Ricardo; García, Alejandro Javier

    2001-01-01

    The research line reported here involves developing an argumentation-based formalism that an agent could use in constructing plans. The argumentation formalism will be combined with well known planning tecniques producing a novel way of constructing a plan. Below, we wil sketch the formalism and introduce some clarifying examples.

  11. Using Semantic Wikis for Structured Argument in Medical Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Groza, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This research applies ideas from argumentation theory in the context of semantic wikis, aiming to provide support for structured-large scale argumentation between human agents. The implemented prototype is exemplified by modelling the MMR vaccine controversy.

  12. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multi block copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a possibil......Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a...

  13. Permittivity and permeability tensors for cloaking applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on derivations of analytical expressions for stealth and cloaking applications. An optimal version of electromagnetic (EM) stealth is the design of invisibility cloak of arbitrary shapes in which the EM waves can be controlled within the cloaking shell by introducing a prescribed spatial variation in the constitutive parameters. The promising challenge in design of invisibility cloaks lies in the determination of permittivity and permeability tensors for all the layers. This book provides the detailed derivation of analytical expressions of the permittivity and permeability tensors for various quadric surfaces within the eleven Eisenhart co-ordinate systems. These include the cylinders and the surfaces of revolutions. The analytical modeling and spatial metric for each of these surfaces are provided along with their tensors. This mathematical formulation will help the EM designers to analyze and design of various quadratics and their hybrids, which can eventually lead to design of cloakin...

  14. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fourkal, E.; Velchev, I.; Ma, C-M.; Smolyakov, A.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). A finite thickness slab can be totally transparent to a \\textit{p}-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for certain values of ...

  15. On the Senses of "Argument."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    In order to clarify and define the subject matter of argumentation, this paper examines the two senses of argument identified by D. J. O'Keefe and then proposes a third sense of argument as another legitimate perspective in argumentation. As discussed in the paper, O'Keefe's two senses of argument are a thing people make and a kind of interaction…

  16. Guidelines for writing an argumentative essay

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Egurnova

    2014-01-01

    The guidelines below are intended for teachers, professors, students, and the public at large who are interested in the issues of English writing culture. They provide a detailed plan for completing the writing task–writing an argumentative essay.

  17. Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical

    OpenAIRE

    KELEŞ, Hamza; KİRİŞ, Ayten

    2010-01-01

    Writing a historical essay in argumentative genre is an important activity in learning and understanding the history. Argumentation is the symbol of good writing. In historical argumentation, what is expected from students is not to put the events into a chronologicalorder but to put a claim and then give a detailed discussion of the their claim based on evidence. In the present study, based on Toulmin’s argumentation model, general argumentation and historical argumentation are dealt with an...

  18. Defining Rhetorical Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a definition of rhetorical argumentation based on the theme of the argumentation, i.e., the issue in dispute - rather than its aim (e.g., to ‘win’) or its means (e.g., emotional appeals). The principal thinkers in the rhetorical tradition, from Aristotle onwards, saw...... rhetoric as practical reasoning, i.e., reasoning on proposals for action or choice, not on propositions that may be either true or false. Citing several contemporary philosophers, the article argues that such a definition acquits rhetorical argumentation of any culpable unconcern with truth and explains...... certain peculiar properties of it that tend to be under-theorized in argumentation theory....

  19. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  20. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  1. A simple method for reducing inevitable dielectric loss in high-permittivity dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, F. B.; Yu, L.; Mazurek, P.; Skov, A. L.

    2016-07-01

    Commercial viability of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is currently limited by a few obstacles, including high driving voltages (in the kV range). Driving voltage can be lowered by either decreasing the Young’s modulus or increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers, or a combination thereof. A decrease in the Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by a loss in mechanical stability, whereas increases in dielectric permittivity are usually followed by a large increase in dielectric loss followed by a decrease in breakdown strength and thereby the lifetime of the DE. A new soft elastomer matrix, with high dielectric permittivity and a low Young’s modulus, aligned with no loss of mechanical stability, was prepared through the use of commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil mixed into a tough commercial liquid silicone rubber silicone elastomer. The addition of chloropropyl-functional silicone oil in concentrations up to 30 phr was found to improve the properties of the silicone elastomer significantly, as dielectric permittivity increased to 4.4, dielectric breakdown increased up to 25% and dielectric losses were reduced. The chloropropyl-functional silicone oil also decreased the dielectric losses of an elastomer containing dielectric permittivity-enhancing TiO2 fillers. Commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil thus constitutes a facile method for improved silicone DEs, with very low dielectric losses.

  2. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Fourkal, E; Ma, C M; Smolyakov, A

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). A finite thickness slab can be totally transparent to a \\textit{p}-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for certain values of the incidence angle and wave frequency corresponding to the excitation of the surface modes. At the resonance, two evanescent waves have a finite phase shift providing non-zero energy flux through the non-transparent region.

  3. Dielectric permittivity of quantum plasma. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Yu. V.; Kuzelev, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The transverse and longitudinal dielectric permittivities of isotropic quantum plasma are calculated in the quantum plasma models based on the Dirac and Pauli equations. The dispersion relations for transverse-longitudinal waves in quantum particle beams are derived. Relativistic longitudinal and transverse waves in cold isotropic quantum plasma in models based on the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, as well as spin waves in the model based on the Pauli equation, are considered. Conditions for wave-particle resonance interactions in relativistic quantum plasma are analyzed.

  4. The argument from transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version of this argument is defended -- a version called the argument from transfer -- according to which, rather than having additional children and care for them in order to make them happy, many people in the West ought to abstain from procreation and take care of destitute children already existing. The reasoning leading up to this conclusion raises some philosophical questions, seldom discussed in connection with bioethics, which indicate that the argument from transfer, although supporting the claim above, cannot neutralise the obligation to create more happy people as easily as assumed by utilitarians. It is argued that the argument from transfer may place many people facing the choice of procreation in a peculiar moral dilemma. PMID:11653235

  5. The Argumentative Status of Foreign Legal Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the citation of foreign legal sources in judicial decisions is not essentially a free-standing justification. Rather it gives additional support to arguments that can be based on existing domestic legal sources by showing that these illustrate a principle or value shared by a number of other legal systems. Legal development does not work simply by reformulating the rules by borrowing words or rules from other jurisdictions. Law develops by re-interpreting existing principles and rules in the current context of the legal system as a whole. The article draws on the work of Markesinis and Waldron and on the European Legal Development project which the author led with Professor David Ibbetson.

  6. Electromagnetic scattering of high-permittivity particles on a substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, O. J. F.; Gay-Balmaz, P.

    2001-01-01

    We contribute to the study of the optical properties of high-permittivity nanostructures deposited on surfaces. We present what we believe is anew computational technique derived from the coupled-dipole approximation (CDA), which can accommodate high-permittivity scatterers. The discretized CDA equations are reformulated by use of the sampling theory to overcome different sources of inaccuracy that arise for high-permittivity scatterers. We first give the nonretarded filtered surface Green's ...

  7. Importance of Varying Permittivity on the Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenberger, Florian; Hickey, Owen A.; Smiatek, Jens; Holm, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved ions can alter the local permittivity of water; nevertheless most theories and simulations ignore this fact. We present a novel algorithm for treating spatial and temporal variations in the permittivity and use it to measure the equivalent conductivity of a salt-free polyelectrolyte solution. Our new approach quantitatively reproduces experimental results unlike simulations with a constant permittivity that even qualitatively fail to describe the data. We can relate this success to a change in the ion distribution close to the polymer due to the buildup of a permittivity gradient.

  8. Reasoning Serves Argumentation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The argumentative theory of reasoning (Mercier & Sperber, in press) claims that reasoning evolved for argumentation: to find and evaluate arguments in dialogic contexts. The theory has drawn most of its supportive evidence from work with adults, leaving open the possibility that argumentive features of reasoning are in fact entirely learned.…

  9. Events, Arguments, and Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj...

  10. Justification and Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In her paper “Argumentation theory and the conception of epistemic justification”, Lilian Bermejo-Luque presents a critique of deductivism in argumentation theory, as well as her own concept of epistemic justification inspired by the views of Stephen Toulmin. Reading this paper induced me to reflect on the mutual relation between the notions of justification and argumentation. In this work I would like to first draw the reader’s attention to a few issues which seem debatable to me, or which I find worth presenting from a slightly different point of view than that of Lilian Bermejo-Luque. I agree that deductivism is not suitable for a general theory of evaluation of arguments although the critique of deductivism presented by the Author appears as not fully adequate to me. Then I proceed to presenting my doubts about the “conception of justification as a proper outcome of good argumentation” presented in the work. I need to emphasise that due to a broad range of topics addressed by me in this short paper, the description of some of them will be neither fully precise nor exhaustive.

  11. The Language of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Using scientific debate focuses students on the real-life applications and implications of science and increases their reasoning skills, presentation skills, and science content knowledge. In this article, the author defines an "argument" as a position based on evidence and a "debate" as a formal setting in which two teams…

  12. Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza KELEŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Writing a historical essay in argumentative genre is an important activity in learning and understanding the history. Argumentation is the symbol of good writing. In historical argumentation, what is expected from students is not to put the events into a chronologicalorder but to put a claim and then give a detailed discussion of the their claim based on evidence. In the present study, based on Toulmin’s argumentation model, general argumentation and historical argumentation are dealt with and features and importance of writing historical argumentation in history courses are emphasized. Moreover, sample activities that can be used to encourage students to write historical argumentation texts and evaluation criteria for a historical text in argumentative genre are presented.

  13. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). At the resonance, two evanescent waves have a finite phase shift providing non-zero energy flux through the non-transparent region. It is also shown that the resonant excitation of a surface mode creates a condition for the total transparency of a finite thickness slab to a p-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for resonant values of the incidence angle and wave frequency

  14. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourkal, E. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)]. E-mail: eugene.fourkal@fccc.edu; Velchev, I. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Ma, C.-M. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Smolyakov, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2007-02-05

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). At the resonance, two evanescent waves have a finite phase shift providing non-zero energy flux through the non-transparent region. It is also shown that the resonant excitation of a surface mode creates a condition for the total transparency of a finite thickness slab to a p-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for resonant values of the incidence angle and wave frequency.

  15. Complex permittivity scaling of functionally graded composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we provide a fundamental understanding of dielectric loss behavior as a function of applied electric field and frequency in functionally graded composites with varying numbers of layers and compositions. A new power-law scaling relation in the form of ϵ′′∝fpEoq was derived based upon the ferroelectric hysteresis. The magnitude of the imaginary component of the dielectric permittivity (ϵ′′) was estimated from the polarization–electric field hysteresis loop. The changes in exponents of the scaling relation were correlated with the mechanism controlling the dielectric loss and interfacial coupling in graded structures. Building upon the scaling analysis, we investigated the effect of E-field on the domain mobility (μ) for various functionally graded systems. These results were correlated with the experimental investigation on ferroelectric domains using transmission electron microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy. (papers)

  16. Measuring the Permittivity on Mars: The Permittivity Sensor of the HP3 Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, G.; Stiegler, A.; Berghofer, G.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the development and first results from a bore-hole permittivity probe to be used on the surface of Mars. A permittivity probe covering the frequency range of 4 - 20 000 Hz with a 1 Hz resolution was developed as part of the HP3 instrument. The sensor approach follows the classical concept of a Wenner array [1] of equally spaced electrodes wrapped around the outer envelope of the HP3 payload compartment, where an electrical field is projected into the adjacent material. With the two receiver electrodes this field is measured back and compared with the output signal. From amplitude and gain changes the electrical properties of the ambient material can be inferred. For calibration, measurements were performed with three different environmental stable polymers, namely polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). We also used assorted Martian analogue materials As reference values for the sample permittivity data gained from a high precision impedance spectrometer were used. In comparison to common literature values and the reference samples, an accuracy of better than 5% can be achieved with the calibrated sensor breadboard for frequency ranges > 1 kHz.

  17. Argumentation not emotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The controversy about the introduction and extension of the peaceful use of nuclear energy has been going on in the Federal Republic of Germany and other countries for a number of years. The intensity with which it was conducted has changed frequently, varying topics were discussed, and shifting aims formed the object of resistance. Often emotion took the place of sober pro and con. There was increasing repression of points made, both on the part of the opponents of nuclear energy and its advocates. Endeavours to free the controversy from emotion are a prerequisite of sober analysis and a balanced judgement on questions of the energy supply of this country. The call for points is to be complied with by this book. To the emotional contentions and statements made in the course of the nuclear energy discussion the author opposes sober arguments. To corroborate the argumentation and make it verifiable a compilation of facts was appended, which corresponds to the main part of the book, provides further information and establishes connections to related problems. A register of important technical terms and their definitions and a bibliography round off the information and argumentation potential. The book is addressed to all - opponents and supporters alike - who want to deal unemotionally with the pro and con of nuclear energy. It provides useful aids for argumentation and the framing of opinions to anybody participating in the discussion at the level of politics, economy, education and society. Last not least it is helpful as a source of information and reference book on questions of energy supply. (orig.)

  18. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  19. Liquid crystal devices with continuous phase variation based on high-permittivity thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willekens, Oliver; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2016-03-01

    Most liquid crystal devices use transparent conductive electrodes such as indium tin oxide (ITO) to apply a potential difference in order to achieve electro-optic switching. As an alternative, we study a device with narrow metallic electrodes in combination with dielectric layers with large dielectric permittivity. In this approach the applied voltage can be a continuous function of the lateral distance from the electrode line. Simulations for a one-dimensional beam-steering device show that the switching of the liquid crystal (LC) director depends indeed on the distance from the addressing electrodes and on the value of the relative permittivity. We show that in a device with electrodes spaced 60 µm apart, the LC director halfway between the electrodes shows a considerable reorientation, when a dielectric layer with permittivity of Epsilonr = 550 is used, whereas no reorientation is observed for the uncoated reference sample at the same voltage. An added advantage is that the proposed configuration only contains dielectric materials, without resistive losses, which means that almost no heat is dissipated. This indicates that this technology could be used in low-power LC devices. The results show that using dielectric thin films with high relative permittivity in liquid crystal devices could form a cost-efficient and low-power alternative to many LC technologies where a gradient electric field is desirable.

  20. Evaluating science arguments: evidence, uncertainty, and argument strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Hahn, Ulrike

    2009-09-01

    Public debates about socioscientific issues are increasingly prevalent, but the public response to messages about, for example, climate change, does not always seem to match the seriousness of the problem identified by scientists. Is there anything unique about appeals based on scientific evidence-do people evaluate science and nonscience arguments differently? In an attempt to apply a systematic framework to people's evaluation of science arguments, the authors draw on the Bayesian approach to informal argumentation. The Bayesian approach permits questions about how people evaluate science arguments to be posed and comparisons to be made between the evaluation of science and nonscience arguments. In an experiment involving three separate argument evaluation tasks, the authors investigated whether people's evaluations of science and nonscience arguments differed in any meaningful way. Although some differences were observed in the relative strength of science and nonscience arguments, the evaluation of science arguments was determined by the same factors as nonscience arguments. Our results suggest that science communicators wishing to construct a successful appeal can make use of the Bayesian framework to distinguish strong and weak arguments. PMID:19751071

  1. Preliminary Broadband Measurements of Dielectric Permittivity of Planetary Regolith Analog Materials Using a Coaxial Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, A.; Tsai, C. A.; Ghent, R. R.; Daly, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    When considering radar observations of airless bodies containing regolith, the radar backscatter coefficient is dependent upon the complex dielectric permittivity of the regolith materials. In many current applications of imaging radar data, uncertainty in the dielectric permittivity precludes quantitative estimates of such important parameters as regolith thickness and depth to buried features (e.g., lava flows on the Aristarchus Plateau on the Moon and the flows that surround the Quetzalpetlatl Corona on Venus). For asteroids, radar is an important tool for detecting and characterizing regoliths. Many previous measurements of the real and/or complex parts of the dielectric permittivity have been made, particularly for the Moon (on both Apollo samples and regolith analogues). However, no studies to date have systematically explored the relationship between permittivity and the various mineralogical components such as presence of FeO and TiO2. For lunar materials, the presence of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3), which contains equal portions FeO and TiO2, is thought to be the dominant factor controlling the loss tangent (tanδ, the ratio of the imaginary and real components of the dielectric permittivity). Ilmenite, however, is not the only mineral to contain iron in the lunar soil and our understanding of the effect of iron on the loss tangent is insufficient. Beyond the Moon, little is known about the effects on permittivity of carbonaceous materials. This is particularly relevant for missions to asteroids, such as the OSIRIS-REx mission to (101955) Bennu, a carbonaceous asteroid whose regolith composition is largely unknown. Here we present preliminary broadband (300 Mhz to 14 GHz) measurements on materials intended as planetary regolith analogs. Our ultimate goal is to establish a database of the effects of a wide range mineralogical components on dielectric permittivity, in support of the OSIRIS REx mission and ongoing Earth-based radar investigation of the Moon

  2. Research Challenges for Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dix, Jürgen; Parsons, Simon; Prakken, Henry; Simari, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    The first articles on argumentation in computer science appeared circa 20 years ago. Since then we have seen great advances, establishing a solid theoretical basis, a broad canvas of applications, and, most recently, some realistic implementations. The field has gone from infancy to maturity, and the initial questions that researchers posed— "how do we do this?", "what is it good for?" and "how do we implement it’?"—are mostly answered.

  3. Statistics As Principled Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Abelson, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    In this illuminating volume, Robert P. Abelson delves into the too-often dismissed problems of interpreting quantitative data and then presenting them in the context of a coherent story about one's research. Unlike too many books on statistics, this is a remarkably engaging read, filled with fascinating real-life (and real-research) examples rather than with recipes for analysis. It will be of true interest and lasting value to beginning graduate students and seasoned researchers alike. The focus of the book is that the purpose of statistics is to organize a useful argument from quantitative

  4. Functional silicone copolymers and elastomers with high dielectric permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren;

    electrical field is necessary to operate the DE. The necessary electrical field can be lowered by creating silicone elastomers with higher dielectric permittivity, i.e. with a higher energy density.The aim of this work is to create new and improved silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity. This......, thereby forming a capacitor [1]. Silicone elastomers are one of the most used materials for DEs due to their high efficiency, fast response times and low viscous losses. The major disadvantage of silicone elastomers is that they possess relatively low dielectric permittivity, which means that a high...

  5. The anti-zombie argument

    OpenAIRE

    Frankish, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The zombie argument has come to occupy a central role in the case for a non-physicalist view of consciousness. This paper seeks to turn the tables on defenders of the argument ('zombists') by showing that a parallel argument can be run for physicalism. The argument invokes what I call anti-zombies – purely physical creatures that are nonetheless conscious. I show that, using the same resources as those employed by zombists, it is possible to construct an argument from the conceivability of an...

  6. Guidelines for writing an argumentative essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Egurnova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The guidelines below are intended for teachers, professors, students, and the public at large who are interested in the issues of English writing culture. They provide a detailed plan for completing the writing task–writing an argumentative essay.

  7. Leakage currents in high-permittivity thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, H; Schmitz, S.; Meuffels, P.

    2003-01-01

    Quite often leakage current data through high-permittivity thin films exhibit straight lines in the "Schottky" plot, i.e., log (current density j) versus sqrt (mean applied field), which suggests an electrode-limited current by field-enhanced thermionic emission. Unfortunately, the extracted permittivity at optical frequencies seldom is in agreement with experimental values and often is unacceptably small, i.e.,

  8. Konzeptbasierte Argumentation in dynamischen Umgebungen

    OpenAIRE

    Sprado, Jörn

    2010-01-01

    Argumentation systems play an important role when controversial points of views are to be considered in order to make decisions on inconsistent data. In this work a scalable framework for argumentation and decision support is outlined. This framework defines basic arguments and conflicts which refer to conceptual descriptions of the given state of affairs. Based on their meaning and preference relations that adopt specific viewpoints, it is possible to determine efficiently successful explana...

  9. Design and Implementation of an Induction Probe for Measuring Permittivity and Resistivity in Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Settimi, A; Baskaradas, J A; Bianchi, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a discussion concerning the design and implementation of an induction probe for electrical SPECTROscopy which performs simultaneous and not invasive measurements on the electrical RESistivity and dielectric PERmittivity of the terrestrial ground and concretes (SPECTRORESPER probe). In order to design a SPECTRORESPER which measures resistivity and permittivity with inaccuracies below a prefixed limit in a band of low frequencies, the probe should be connected to an appropriate analogical digital converter (ADC), which samples in uniform or in phase and quadrature (IQ) mode, otherwise to a lock-in amplifier. We develop a large number of numerical simulations, applying the Mathcad program, which provide the optimization of the height above ground, the electrode-electrode distance and working frequencies minimizing the inaccuracies of the SPECTRORESPER, in galvanic or capacitive contact with terrestrial soils or concretes, of low or high resistivity. As final findings, we underline that ...

  10. Why do humans reason? Arguments for an argumentative theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Hugo; Sperber, Dan

    2011-04-01

    Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments intended to persuade. Reasoning so conceived is adaptive given the exceptional dependence of humans on communication and their vulnerability to misinformation. A wide range of evidence in the psychology of reasoning and decision making can be reinterpreted and better explained in the light of this hypothesis. Poor performance in standard reasoning tasks is explained by the lack of argumentative context. When the same problems are placed in a proper argumentative setting, people turn out to be skilled arguers. Skilled arguers, however, are not after the truth but after arguments supporting their views. This explains the notorious confirmation bias. This bias is apparent not only when people are actually arguing, but also when they are reasoning proactively from the perspective of having to defend their opinions. Reasoning so motivated can distort evaluations and attitudes and allow erroneous beliefs to persist. Proactively used reasoning also favors decisions that are easy to justify but not necessarily better. In all these instances traditionally described as failures or flaws, reasoning does exactly what can be expected of an argumentative device: Look for arguments that support a given conclusion, and, ceteris paribus, favor conclusions for which arguments can be found. PMID:21447233

  11. Explicit argumentation instruction to facilitate conceptual understanding and argumentation skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda Cetin, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of argumentation-based chemistry lessons on pre-service science teachers' understanding of reaction rate concepts, their quality of argumentation, and their consideration of specific reaction rate concepts in constructing an argument. Moreover, students' perceptions of argumentation lessons were explored. Sample: There were 116 participants (21 male and 95 female), who were pre-service first-grade science teachers from a public university. The participants were recruited from the two intact classes of a General Chemistry II course, both of which were taught by the same instructor. Design and methods: In the present study, non-equivalent control group design was used as a part of quasi-experimental design. The experimental group was taught using explicit argumentation activities, and the control group was instructed using traditional instruction. The data were collected using a reaction rate concept test, a pre-service teachers' survey, and the participants' perceptions of the argumentation lessons questionnaire. For the data analysis, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, the Mann-Whitney U-test and qualitative techniques were used. Results: The results of the study indicated that an argumentation-based intervention caused significantly better acquisition of scientific reaction rate-related concepts and positively impacted the structure and complexity of pre-service teachers' argumentation. Moreover, the majority of the participants reported positive feelings toward argumentation activities. Conclusions: As students are encouraged to state and support their view in the chemistry classroom when studying reaction rate, it was

  12. Domain structure permittivity and relaxation of dielectric permittivity in cadmium pyroniobate monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependences of epsilon and tg delta in the frequency range of a measuring field 50-700 kHz as well as Cd2Nb2O7 domain structure in the plane perpendicular to [001] direction are studied. The resulting data testify to the fact that in the 188-193 K range the coexistence of the extrinsic and intrinsic ferroelectric phases is observed, i. e. the phase transition between them is smeared. The relaxation character of shifts of the epsilon maximum and the epsilon step in the 192-196 K range is shown. It is concluded that these anomalies of dielectric permittivity are connected with thermally-activated polarization reorientations of the coexisting polar phases

  13. Collaborative argumentation in academic education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, A.; Andriessen, J.; Kanselaar, G.

    2002-01-01

    The general purpose of this research is to discover principles for the design of educational tasks that provoke collaborative argumentation. The specific research question concentrates on the relationship between question asking and argumentation and is examined in three different collaborative lear

  14. Een Scotistisch argument voor dualisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de G.J.; Woudenberg, van R.

    2010-01-01

    In his recent book Waar geest is, is vrijheid [Where there is mind, there is freedom], Guus Labooy sets forth an original and intriguing argument, inspired by the work of John Duns Scotus, for substance dualism in the philosophy of mind. In this paper we argue that his argument, although worthy of s

  15. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  16. Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Twardy, Dr. Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Computer-based argument mapping greatly enhances student critical thinking, more than tripling absolute gains made by other methods. I describe the method and my experience as an outsider. Argument mapping often showed precisely how students were erring (for example: confusing helping premises for separate reasons), making it much easier for them to fix their errors.

  17. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  18. Super soft silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    elastomers. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE. New soft elastomer matrices with high dielectric permittivity and low Young’s modulus, with no loss of mechanical stability, were prepared by two different...... approaches using chloropropyl-functional silicone polymers. The first approach was based on synthesised chloropropyl-functional copolymers that were cross-linkable and thereby formed the basis of new silicone networks with high dielectric permittivity (e.g. a 43% increase). These networks were soft without...

  19. Adjusting Permittivity by Blending Varying Ratios of SWNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Stephenson, Jason J.; Higginbotham, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    A new composite material of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) displays radio frequency (0 to 1 GHz) permittivity properties that can be adjusted based upon the nanotube composition. When varying ratios of raw to functionalized SWNTs are blended into the silicone elastomer matrix at a total loading of 0.5 percent by weight, a target real permittivity value can be obtained between 70 and 3. This has particular use for designing materials for microwave lenses, microstrips, filters, resonators, high-strength/low-weight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antennas, waveguides, and low-loss magneto-dielectric products for applications like radome construction.

  20. Argument, Argumentation and Critical Thinking in Academic Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏君君

    2013-01-01

    Academic writing has been emphasized for years among English major students, and PhD students who need to pub-lish their work in English, but few of these people could produce essays academically. The key problem that they are faced with is argument, argumentation and critical thinking in academic writing. These three notions are reviewed and the followed teaching preliminary suggestions are presented in this essay.

  1. Een Scotistisch argument voor dualisme

    OpenAIRE

    Ridder, de, N.; Woudenberg, van, R.

    2010-01-01

    In his recent book Waar geest is, is vrijheid [Where there is mind, there is freedom], Guus Labooy sets forth an original and intriguing argument, inspired by the work of John Duns Scotus, for substance dualism in the philosophy of mind. In this paper we argue that his argument, although worthy of serious attention, is under-supported. In section 2 we question the significance of the particular scotistic notion of freedom he uses in his argument, even though we agree with his premise that hum...

  2. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Tavacoly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist , then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.   In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  3. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavacoli, Gh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist, then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences; the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  4. Permittivities of watermelon pulp and juice and correlation with quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permittivities from 10 to 4500 MHz at 24 'C were measured on pulp and juice of watermelons of different maturities with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. The dielectric constant of both materials decreased monotonically with increasing frequency and loss factor had minimum at ab...

  5. An electromagnetic trinity from "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability"

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, A

    2001-01-01

    An electromagnetic trinity comprising vacuum, anti--vacuum, and nihility is postulated -- after making use of materials with "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability" -- to illuminate the structure of electromagnetic theory, at least insofar as the relationship of phase velocity with Poynting vector is concerned.

  6. Parsing Argumentation Structures in Persuasive Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Stab, Christian; Gurevych, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present the first end-to-end approach for parsing argumentation structures in persuasive essays. We model the argumentation structure as a tree including several types of argument components connected with argumentative support and attack relations. We consider the identification of argumentation structures in several consecutive steps. First, we segment a persuasive essay in order to identify relevant argument components. Second, we jointly model the classification of arg...

  7. The deconstruction of safety arguments through adversarial counter-argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Deconstructive Evaluation of Risk In Dependability Arguments and Safety Cases (DERIDASC) has recently experimented with techniques borrowed from literary theory as safety case analysis techniques [Armstrong. Danger: Derrida at work. Interdiscipl Sci Rev 2003;28(2):83-94. ; Armstrong J, Paynter S. Safe systems: construction, destruction, and deconstruction. In: Redmill F, Anderson T, editors. Proceedings of the 11th safety critical systems symposium, Bristol, UK. Berlin: Springer; 2003. p. 62-76. ISBN:1-85233-696-X. ]. This paper introduces our high-level framework for 'deconstructing' safety arguments. Our approach is quite general and should be applicable to different types of safety argumentation framework. As one example, we outline how the approach would work in the context of the Goal Structure Notation (GSN)

  8. From connectives to argumentative markers: a quest for markers of argumentative moves and of related aspects of argumentative discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tseronis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the potential of systematically studying the linguistic surface of discourse for the purposes of identifying markers of argumentative moves and other related categories, such as types of arguments and argumentative strategies. Such a list of argumentative markers can prove u

  9. Zero expression of arguments in Old Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Old Scandinavian (represented here by Old Danish) allowed zero arguments (null-arguments) in any nominal (argument) position, that is: for NPs as subjects, objects and in PPs. In generative grammar, zero arguments are held to be variants of pronouns, but in this article, I shall claim that zero a...

  10. Omitted Arguments and Complexity of Predication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the licensing conditions and logical structure of understood-argument constructions, or complement-drop constructions, in English. There are two main types of such arguments: Indefinite Understood Arguments (IUA) and Definite Understood Arguments (DUA). IUA readings occur in such cases in "He ate, He cooked". In such cases,…

  11. Directional perfect absorption using deep subwavelength low permittivity films

    CERN Document Server

    Luk, Ting S; Kim, Iltai; Feng, Simin; Jun, Young Chul; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Catrysse, Peter B; Fan, Shanhui; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate single beam directional perfect absorption (to within experimental accuracy) of p-polarized light in the near-infrared using unpatterned, deep subwavelength films of indium tin oxide (ITO) on Ag. The experimental perfect absorption occurs slightly above the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequency of ITO where the permittivity is less than one. Remarkably, we obtain perfect absorption for films whose thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating free-space wavelength and whose single pass attenuation is only ~ 5%. We further derive simple analytical conditions for perfect absorption in the subwavelength-film regime that reveal the constraints that the ITO permittivity must satisfy if perfect absorption is to be achieved. Then, to get a physical insight on the perfect absorption properties, we analyze the eigenmodes of the layered structure by computing both the real-frequency/complex-wavenumber and the complex-frequency/real-wavenumber modal dispersion diagrams. These analyses allow u...

  12. Cloaking by shells with radially inhomogeneous anisotropic permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, V Yu; Pinkevych, I P; Sluckin, T J; Evans, D R

    2016-01-25

    We model electromagnetic cloaking of a spherical or cylindrical nanoparticle enclosed by an optically anisotropic and optically inhomogeneous symmetric shell, by examining its electric response in a quasi-static uniform electric field. When the components of the shell permittivity are radially anisotropic and power-law dependent (ε~rm) whereris distance to the shell center, and m a positive or negative exponent which can be varied), the problem is analytically tractable. Formulas are calculated for the degree of cloaking in the general case, allowing the determination of a dielectric condition for the shells to be used as an invisibility cloak. Ideal cloaking is known to require that homogeneous shells exhibit an infinite ratio of tangential and radial components of the shell permittivity, but for radially inhomogeneous shells ideal cloaking can occur even for finite values of this ratio. PMID:26832575

  13. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective.

  14. Unconventional permittivity noise and dielectric loss from tunneling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanayaka, A. N.; Sarabi, B. S.; Gladchenko, S.; Osborn, K. D.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of phase-coherent superconducting devices, e.g. resonators and qubits, are limited by tunneling two-level-systems (TLSs) contained within their dielectric layers. We have measured the power loss and 1/f permittivity noise of deposited dielectrics at microwave frequencies over a range of millikelvin temperatures. The experiments were carried out with a uniform microwave field amplitude applied throughout the dielectric as the center layer of a trilayer capacitor contained within a resonator circuit. Measurements of silicon nitride show deviations from the standard model of TLSs. The film absorption shows an unusual temperature dependence. In addition the 1/f permittivity noise increases as the temperature decreases, and also shows a decrease in 1/f noise above a particular electric field amplitude. The results will be compared to recent strong-interaction theories.

  15. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective. PMID:27118459

  16. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective. PMID:27118459

  17. A Versatile High-Permittivity Phantom for EIT

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Tzu-Jen; Saulnier, Gary J.; Isaacson, David; Szabo, Tomas L.; Newell, Jonathan C

    2008-01-01

    Phantoms are frequently used in medical imaging systems to test hardware, reconstruction algorithms, and the interpretation of data. This report describes and characterizes the use of powdered graphite as a means of adding a significant reactive component or permittivity to useful phantom media for electrical impedance imaging. The phantom materials produced have usable complex admittivity at the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) frequencies from a few kilohertz to 1 MHz, as measured by o...

  18. iQ Cavity for Material Permittivity Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Kenneth W.; Scott, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an X-band waveguide (WR90) and UHF waveguide (WR1500) measurement method that permits the extraction of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimen. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic (CEM) simulations; coupled with a genetic algorithm; to fit the experimental measurement and the simulated transmitted scattering parameter (S21) of the TE10 mode through the waveguide with the material specimen partially filling the cross-sect...

  19. A Collection of Complex Permittivity and Permeability Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.; Johnson, J.; Smithwick, J.

    1993-02-01

    We present the results of measurements of the complex permittivity and permeability over a frequency range of 0.1-5.1 GHz for a range of microwave absorbing materials used in a variety of accelerator applications. We also describe the automated measurement technique which uses swept-frequency S-parameter measurements made on a strip transmission line device loaded with the material under test.

  20. A classification model for rock typing using dielectric permittivity and petrophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric and petrophysical data for both carbonate and sandstone brine-saturated rocks have been used in a discriminant analysis for the purpose of developing a model for rock-type classification. A total of eight petrophysical and dielectric parameters were used in this study. The petrophysical parameters consist of a cation exchange capacity (CEC), a specific surface area (SA) and a rock porosity (φ). The dielectric parameters deduced from the impedance measurements consist of ζs and ζ∞, which are real numbers representing the static and the high-frequency relative dielectric permittivities of the water-saturated rock, respectively, the characteristic relaxation time τ, the spread parameter α and σs, which is the dc conductivity of the water-saturated rock. Outliers have been identified by computing the squared Mahalanobis distances to centroid. Multivariate data cases with relatively large values of the squared Mahalanobis distance associated with small probabilities in the order of 0.001 or less have been removed. Results of the discriminant analysis indicate that only four variables (ζs, ζ∞, φ, CEC) are sufficient to identify rock types. The analysis reveals the existence of a significant discriminant function to distinguish among two distinct rock types related to two broadly defined lithofacies: sandstones and carbonates. A rock-type classification model based on dielectric permittivity and petrophysical data is, therefore, introduced. The model has been validated by an independent set of testing samples. The results of this study indicate that the use of dielectric permittivity data, in conjunction with basic rock properties such as the porosity and the cation exchange capacity, appears to be a robust approach for hydrocarbon rock-type classification

  1. Eight Arguments against Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    I offer eight arguments against the Doctrine of Double Effect, a normative principle according to which in pursuing the good it is sometimes morally permissible to bring about some evil as a side-effect or merely foreseen consequence: the same evil would not be morally justified as an intended...

  2. Electron-pinned defect-dipoles for high-performance colossal permittivity materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanbiao; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L; Frankcombe, Terry J; Norén, Lasse; Snashall, Amanda; Kitchin, Melanie; Smith, Paul; Gong, Bill; Chen, Hua; Schiemer, Jason; Brink, Frank; Wong-Leung, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    The immense potential of colossal permittivity (CP) materials for use in modern microelectronics as well as for high-energy-density storage applications has propelled much recent research and development. Despite the discovery of several new classes of CP materials, the development of such materials with the required high performance is still a highly challenging task. Here, we propose a new electron-pinned, defect-dipole route to ideal CP behaviour, where hopping electrons are localized by designated lattice defect states to generate giant defect-dipoles and result in high-performance CP materials. We present a concrete example, (Nb+In) co-doped TiO₂ rutile, that exhibits a largely temperature- and frequency-independent colossal permittivity (> 10(4)) as well as a low dielectric loss (mostly temperature range from 80 to 450 K. A systematic defect analysis coupled with density functional theory modelling suggests that 'triangular' In₂(3+)Vo(••)Ti(3+) and 'diamond' shaped Nb₂(5+)Ti(3+)A(Ti) (A = Ti(3+)/In(3+)/Ti(4+)) defect complexes are strongly correlated, giving rise to large defect-dipole clusters containing highly localized electrons that are together responsible for the excellent CP properties observed in co-doped TiO₂. This combined experimental and theoretical work opens up a promising feasible route to the systematic development of new high-performance CP materials via defect engineering. PMID:23812129

  3. Electron-pinned defect-dipoles for high-performance colossal permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanbiao; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L.; Frankcombe, Terry J.; Norén, Lasse; Snashall, Amanda; Kitchin, Melanie; Smith, Paul; Gong, Bill; Chen, Hua; Schiemer, Jason; Brink, Frank; Wong-Leung, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    The immense potential of colossal permittivity (CP) materials for use in modern microelectronics as well as for high-energy-density storage applications has propelled much recent research and development. Despite the discovery of several new classes of CP materials, the development of such materials with the required high performance is still a highly challenging task. Here, we propose a new electron-pinned, defect-dipole route to ideal CP behaviour, where hopping electrons are localized by designated lattice defect states to generate giant defect-dipoles and result in high-performance CP materials. We present a concrete example, (Nb+In) co-doped TiO2 rutile, that exhibits a largely temperature- and frequency-independent colossal permittivity (> 104) as well as a low dielectric loss (mostly Nb25+Ti3+ATi (A  =  Ti3+/In3+/Ti4+) defect complexes are strongly correlated, giving rise to large defect-dipole clusters containing highly localized electrons that are together responsible for the excellent CP properties observed in co-doped TiO2. This combined experimental and theoretical work opens up a promising feasible route to the systematic development of new high-performance CP materials via defect engineering.

  4. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Piotr; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L.

    2014-03-01

    The research on soft elastomers with high dielectric permittivity for the use as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) has grown substantially within the last decade. The approaches to enhance the dielectric permittivity can be categorized into three main classes: 1) Mixing or blending in high permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content as for the traditionally applied thermoplastic encapsulation. The properties of the elastomers are investigated as function of the filler content and type. The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, conductivity, storage modulus as well as viscous loss are compared to elastomers with the same amounts of high permittivity fillers blended into the elastomer, and it is found that the encapsulation provides a technique to enhance some of these properties.

  5. An Argumentation Framework based on Paraconsistent Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Takehisa; Sawamura, Hajime

    Argumentation is the most representative of intelligent activities of humans. Therefore, it is natural to think that it could have many implications for artificial intelligence and computer science as well. Specifically, argumentation may be considered a most primitive capability for interaction among computational agents. In this paper we present an argumentation framework based on the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Tolerance and acceptance of inconsistency that this logic has as its logical feature allow for arguments on inconsistent knowledge bases with which we are often confronted. We introduce various concepts for argumentation, such as arguments, attack relations, argument justification, preferential criteria of arguments based on social norms, and so on, in a way proper to the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Then, we provide the fixpoint semantics and dialectical proof theory for our argumentation framework. We also give the proofs of the soundness and completeness.

  6. Den argumentative teksttype i reklamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1998-01-01

    The text-typology model developed by Jean-Michel Adam is one of the most well-defined and operational models if one wants to categorize whole texts or text fragments into smaller units. Given that a texttype is the result of specific functional and structural relations between micro- and...... macropropositions, it is a multicriterial model which takes into account both the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of texts. However, the model seems to offer some problems in establishing the limits between the argumentative and the descriptive text type. This imprecision is apparently due to the lack of...... distinction between the discourse potential of evaluative and referential propositions. This problem will be demonstrated on examples from the genre of advertising material which, because of its persuasive purpose, is particularly rich in argumentative features....

  7. In vivo and in situ measurement and modelling of intra-body effective complex permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Harslund, Jakob L F; Ramezani, Mohammad H; Kjeldsen, Jens; Johansen, Per Michael; Thiel, David; Tarokh, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Radio frequency tracking of medical micro-robots in minimally invasive medicine is usually investigated upon the assumption that the human body is a homogeneous propagation medium. In this Letter, the authors conducted various trial programs to measure and model the effective complex permittivity ε in terms of refraction ε', absorption ε″ and their variations in gastrointestinal (GI) tract organs (i.e. oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine) and the porcine abdominal wall under in vivo and in situ conditions. They further investigated the effects of irregular and unsynchronised contractions and simulated peristaltic movements of the GI tract organs inside the abdominal cavity and in the presence of the abdominal wall on the measurements and variations of ε' and ε''. They advanced the previous models of effective complex permittivity of a multilayer inhomogeneous medium, by estimating an analytical model that accounts for reflections between the layers and calculates the attenuation that the wave encounters as it traverses the GI tract and the abdominal wall. They observed that deviation from the specified nominal layer thicknesses due to non-geometric boundaries of GI tract morphometric variables has an impact on the performance of the authors' model. Therefore, they derived statistical-based models for ε' and ε'' using their experimental measurements. PMID:26713157

  8. Robust Location of Optical Fiber Modes via the Argument Principle Method

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Parry Y

    2016-01-01

    We implement a robust, globally convergent root search method for transcendental equations guaranteed to locate all complex roots within a specified search domain, based on Cauchy's residue theorem. Although several implementations of the argument principle already exist, ours has several advantages: it allows singularities within the search domain and branch points are not fatal to the method. Furthermore, our implementation is simple and is written in MATLAB, fulfilling the need for an easily integrated implementation which can be readily modified to accommodate the many variations of the argument principle method, each of which is suited to a different application. We apply the method to the step index fiber dispersion relation, which has become topical due to the recent proliferation of high index contrast fibers. We also find modes with permittivity as the eigenvalue, catering to recent numerical methods that expand the radiation of sources by eigenmodes.

  9. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  10. Persuasive argumentation as a cultural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Gałkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article author traces relation between argumentation and cultural practice. The first part focuses on definition of argumentation in informal logic tradition. In particular, it discusses argument in terms of verbal and social activity involving the use of everyday language. Author claims that there is no argumentation beyond language. The second part explains persuasive argumentation as a form of cultural practice. The persuasive arguments found in “social practice” can be understood as a social activity, analysable within the context of a given cultural system. Author refers to an approach taking the argumentative expression as a certain type of communicative practice, directed towards respecting, recognising or accepting specific actions. The inclusion of persuasive argumentation in the “circuit of cultural activities” to be studied makes it possible to compare this type of argumentation with other social practices, and to posit a clear historical dimension in the study of argumentation. It also makes it possible to view persuasive argumentation as one of many cultural activities aimed at changing or perpetuating behaviours, attitudes, thinking, etc. The third part of the paper concerns the problem of humanistic interpretation of persuasive argumentation. Author attempts to develop this intuition, at the same time demonstrating the problems that arise from this approach. In conclusion, author tries to analyze argumentation in terms of culture theory and humanistic interpretation.

  11. Free charge localization and effective dielectric permittivity in oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This review will deal with several types of free charge localization in oxides and their consequences on the effective dielectric spectra of such materials. The first one is the polaronic localization at the unit cell scale on residual impurities in ferroelectric networks. The second one is the collective localization of free charge at macroscopic interfaces like surfaces, electrodes and grain boundaries in ceramics. Polarons have been observed in many oxide perovskites mostly when cations having several stable electronic configurations are present. In manganites, the density of such polarons is so high as to drive a net lattice of interacting polarons. On the other hand, in ferroelectric materials like BaTiO3 and LiNbO3, the density of polarons is usually very small but they can influence strongly the macroscopic conductivity. The contribution of such polarons to the dielectric spectra of ferroelectric materials is described. Even residual impurities as for example Iron can induce well-defined anomalies at very low temperatures. This is mostly resulting from the interaction between localized polarons and the highly polarizable ferroelectric network in which they are embedded. The case of such residual polarons in SrTiO3 will be described in more detail, emphasizing the quantum polaron state at liquid helium temperatures. Recently, several nonferroelectric oxides have been shown to display giant effective dielectric permittivity. It is first shown that the frequency/temperature behavior of such parameters is very similar in very different compounds (donor-doped BaTiO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, LuFe2O4, Li-doped NiO, etc.). This similarity calls for a common origin of the giant dielectric permittivity in these compounds. A space charge localization at macroscopic interfaces can be the key for such extremely high dielectric permittivity.

  12. Measurement of mortar permittivity during setting using a coplanar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensor based on a coplanar waveguide structure was designed to perform non-destructive tests for material characterization in which the measurement can be done only on one side of the sample. The measurements were compared with the impedance of a capacitor filled with the same material. The permittivity and insertion loss of the sensor showed valuable information about the setting process of a mortar slab during the first 28 days of the hardening process, and a good correlation between both measurements was obtained, so the proposed setup can be useful for structural surveillance and moisture detection in civil structures

  13. Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Yan; Pacheco, Joe; Wu, Bae-Ian; Kong, Jin; Chen, Min

    2003-04-01

    The mathematical solution for Cerenkov radiation in a novel medium, left-handed medium (LH medium), which has both negative permittivity and permeability, is introduced in this paper. It is shown that the particle motion in the LH medium generates power that propagates backward. In this paper, both dispersion and dissipation are considered for the LH medium. The results show that in such a material, both forward power and backward power exist. In addition, we show that the losses will affect the Cerenkov angle. The idea of building a Cerenkov detector using LH medium is introduced, which could be useful in particle physics to identify charged particles of various velocities. PMID:19461784

  14. Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with simultaneously negative values of effective permeability μeff(ω) and permittivity εeff(ω) . This structure forms a ''left-handed'' medium, for which it has been predicted that such phenomena as the Doppler effect, Cherenkov radiation, and even Snell's law are inverted. It is now possible through microwave experiments to test for these effects using this new metamaterial. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. iQ Cavity for Material Permittivity Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    We present an X-band waveguide (WR90) and UHF waveguide (WR1500) measurement method that permits the extraction of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimen. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic (CEM) simulations; coupled with a genetic algorithm; to fit the experimental measurement and the simulated transmitted scattering parameter (S21) of the TE10 mode through the waveguide with the material specimen partially filling the cross-section. This technique provides the material measurement community with the ability to accurately extract material properties of low-loss material specimen.

  16. Plural marking in argument supporting nominalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexiadou, Artemis; Iordăchioaia, Gianina Nicoleta; Soare, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the conditions under which Argument Supporting Nominalizations (ASNs) can receive plural marking. Under ASNs, we discuss deverbal nouns that express an event and preserve argument structure. In our discussion we consider ASNs in Romanian, English and German.

  17. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  18. Social argumentation in online synchronous communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiono, Ivan

    In education, argumentation has an increasing importance because it can be used to foster learning in various fields including philosophy, history, sciences, and mathematics. Argumentation is also at the heart of scientific inquiry. Many educational technology researchers have been interested in finding out how technologies can be employed to improve students' learning of argumentation. Therefore, many computer-based tools or argumentation systems have been developed to assist students in their acquisition of argumentation skills. While the argumentation systems incorporating online debating tools present a good resource in formal settings, there is limited research revealing what argumentative skills students are portraying in informal online settings without the presence of a moderator. This dissertation investigates the nature of argumentative practices in a massively multiplayer online game where the system successfully incorporates the authentic use of online synchronous communication tools and the patterns that emerge from the interplay between a number of contextual variables including synchronicity, interest, authenticity, and topical knowledge.

  19. Experiments in automated support for argument reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Winkels, R.; Douw, J.; Veldhoen, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of experiments in automated support for argument reconstruction from natural language texts. We investigated several possibilities to support a manual process by using natural language processing, from classifying pieces of text as either argumentative or non-argumentative to clustering text fragments in the hope that these clusters would contain similar arguments. Results are diverse, but also show that we cannot come a long way without an extensive pre-tagg...

  20. AI & Law, logic and argument schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Prakken, Henry

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of AI & Law research from the perspective of argument schemes. It starts with the observation that logic, although very well applicable to legal reasoning when there is uncertainty, vagueness and disagreement, is too abstract to give a fully satisfactory classification of legal argument types. It therefore needs to be supplemented with an argument-scheme approach, which classifies arguments not according to their logical form but according to their content, in p...

  1. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content as for the......The research on soft elastomers with high dielectric permittivity for the use as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) has grown substantially within the last decade. The approaches to enhance the dielectric permittivity can be categorized into three main classes: 1) Mixing or blending in high...... permittivity fillers blended into the elastomer, and it is found that the encapsulation provides a technique to enhance some of these properties....

  2. Evaluating arguments based on Toulmin's scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Bart; Hitchcock, D; Verheij, B

    2006-01-01

    Toulmin's scheme for the layout of arguments (1958) represents an influential tool for the analysis of arguments. The scheme enriches the traditional premises-conclusion model of arguments by distinguishing additional elements, like warrant, backing and rebuttal. The present paper contains a formal

  3. Effects of Dyadic Interaction on Argumentative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Deanna; Shaw, Victoria; Felton, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that thinking about a topic enhances later reasoning quality about that topic. Found that, when young adolescents and adults discussed capital punishment, their range of different arguments increased, they shifted from one-sided to two-sided arguments, arguments were based within a framework of alternatives, and they were more…

  4. A versatile high-permittivity phantom for EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tzu-Jen; Saulnier, Gary J; Isaacson, David; Szabo, Tomas L; Newell, Jonathan C

    2008-11-01

    Phantoms are frequently used in medical imaging systems to test hardware, reconstruction algorithms, and the interpretation of data. This report describes and characterizes the use of powdered graphite as a means of adding a significant reactive component or permittivity to useful phantom media for electrical impedance imaging. The phantom materials produced have usable complex admittivity at the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) frequencies from a few kilohertz to 1 MHz, as measured by our EIT system (ACT4) and by a commercial bioimpedance analyzer (BIS 4000, Xitron). We have also studied a commercial ultrasound coupling gel, which is highly electrically conductive and semisolid but that permits objects to move within it. The mixture of agar-graphite and gel-graphite, increases in permittivity and conductivity are proportional to the graphite concentration. We also report the use of a porous polymer membrane to simulate skin. A thin layer of this membrane increased resistance and the characteristic frequency of the phantoms, providing a promising candidate to simulate the effect of skin and the layered structure of a breast or other anatomical structure. The graphite also provides a realistic level of "speckle" in ultrasound images of the phantom, which may be useful in developing dual-mode imaging systems with ultrasound and the EIT. PMID:18990630

  5. Microscopic dielectric permittivities of graphene nanoribbons and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingtian; Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2016-07-01

    We derive a microscopic Poisson equation using the density-density response function. This equation is valid for any realistic potential perturbation and permits the study of dielectric response in nanostructures, especially in one-dimensional nanostructures and quantum dots. We apply this equation to simulate a nanoscale parallel-plate capacitor (nanocapacitor) with graphene as dielectric and two nanocapacitors with a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) as dielectric. The density-density response function is calculated using first-order perturbation theory and empirical pseudopotentials. From the microscopic electric field of the graphene nanocapacitor, we calculate the out-of-plane microscopic dielectric constant of graphene and from the electric field of GNR nanocapacitors, we calculate the full microscopic dielectric tensor of several GNRs with different widths. We find that the out-of-plane microscopic dielectric constants of GNRs and graphene do not depend on their energy band gap. We also study the effect of a surrounding dielectric on the dielectric permittivity of graphene and we conclude that the surrounding dielectric barely affects the dielectric permittivity of graphene.

  6. Investigating Viable Arguments: Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Construction and Evaluation of Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated pre-service secondary teachers understanding of the term viable argument a new term introduced with the Common Core Standards. The research investigated how they define and understand viable argument, how they construct arguments, and how they evaluate mathematical arguments. The research was conducted using…

  7. Types of arguments in parents-children discussions:: an argumentative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bova, Antonio; Arcidiacono, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to single out the argumentative strategies most frequently used by parents to convince their children to accept their rules and prescriptions at mealtimes. The results of thestudy show that parents mostly put forward arguments based on the quality and quantity of food to persuade their childern to eat. Less frequently, the parents put forward other types of arguments such as the appeal to consistency, the arguments from expert opinion, and the argument from analogy. Whi...

  8. Peculiarities of capacitive characteristics of dielectrics with high permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid pace of development of microelectronics towards nano miniaturization dictates the inevitable introduction of dielectrics with high permittivity (high-k dielectrics), as alternative materials for replacing conventionally used silicon as insulating oxide. Therefore, studying these materials in terms of their characteristics, especially in terms of reliability, is of great importance for proper design and manufacture of devices that incorporate dielectrics with high permittivity. In this paper, different properties and behavior of a group of samples that contain dielectrics with high permittivity are investigated, by analyzing the characteristics of capacitive curves, which are product of this powerful technique for characterization, reflecting a great number of elements for the overall behavior of the material, especially their behavior in working conditions. Samples investigated here belong to the group of tantalum based metal oxides, whereas here we examine layers of pure Ta2O5, but also layers of Hf and Ti doped tantalum pentoxide, i.e. Ta2O5: Hf and Ta2O5: Ti. All samples are considered as ultrathin oxide layers with thicknesses less than 15 nm, and they are obtained by thermal oxidation or by radio frequency sputtering on p-type silicon substrate. From capacitive characteristics we have obtained the specific parameters that determine the properties of materials (capacitance in accumulation, equivalent oxide thickness of dielectric layer, the thickness and time evolution of the interfacial SiO2 layer, characteristic values of flat band and threshold voltage, density of oxide charges present in the layer, as well as interface and border states), and properties that show the behavior of the materials in working conditions (such as the process of creation of additional charges when voltage is applied, or charge trapping dynamics). Particular attention has been paid to determining the impact of the type of top electrode (the gate), on the overall

  9. Simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability in a coherent atomic vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Jian-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new quantum optical mechanism to realize simultaneously negative electric permittivity and magnetic permeability is suggested. In order to obtain a negative permeability, we choose a proper atomic configuration that can dramatically enhance the contribution of the magnetic-dipole allowed transition via the atomic phase coherence. It is shown that the atomic system chosen with proper optical parameters can give rise to striking electromagnetic responses (leading to a negative refractive index) and that the atomic vapour becomes a left-handed medium in an optical frequency band. Differing from the previous schemes of artificial composite metamaterials (based on classical electromagnetic theory) to achieve the left-handed materials, which consist of anisotropic millimetre-scale composite structure units, the left-handed atomic vapour presented here is isotropic and homogeneous at the atomic-scale level. Such an advantage may be valuable in realizing the superlens (and hence perfect image) with left-handed atomic vapour.

  10. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database.

  11. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database

  12. High-Temperature Permittivity and Data-Mining of Silicon Dioxide at GHz Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jie; WEN Bo; HOU Zhi-Ling; LU Ming-Ming; CAO Wen-Qiang; BA Chuan; FANG Xiao-Yong; CAO Mao-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The high-temperature permittivity of quartz fibre-reinforced silicon dioxide (SiO2/SiO2 ) nano-composites is studied on the basis of the multi-scale theoretical model.We obtain the permittivity of the SiO2/SiO2 at high temperature,which is dependent on the temperature by data-mining.The result shows that the permittivity and loss tangent obtained by data-mining are well consistent with the measured ones.The high-temperature permittivity can be well predicted for SiO2/SiO2 by the as-proposed model and the data-mining method.%The high-temperature permittivity of quartz fibre-reinforced silicon dioxide (SiO2/SiO2) nano-composites is studied on the basis of the multi-scale theoretical model. We obtain the permittivity of the SiO2/SiO2 at high temperature, which is dependent on the temperature by data-mining. The resuJt shows that the permittivity and loss tangent obtained by data-mining are well consistent with the measured ones. The high-temperature permittivity can be well predicted for SiO2/SiO2 by the as-proposed model and the data-mining method.

  13. Generalized plasma-like permittivity and thermal Casimir force between real metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, B [Center of Theoretical Studies and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leipzig University, D-04009, Leipzig (Germany); Klimchitskaya, G L [Center of Theoretical Studies and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leipzig University, D-04009, Leipzig (Germany); Mostepanenko, V M [Center of Theoretical Studies and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leipzig University, D-04009, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-11-02

    The physical reasons why the Drude dielectric function is not compatible with the Lifshitz formula, as opposed to the generalized plasma-like permittivity, are presented. Essentially, the problem is connected with the finite size of metal plates. It is shown that the Lifshitz theory combined with the generalized plasma-like permittivity is thermodynamically consistent.

  14. Generalized plasma-like permittivity and thermal Casimir force between real metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical reasons why the Drude dielectric function is not compatible with the Lifshitz formula, as opposed to the generalized plasma-like permittivity, are presented. Essentially, the problem is connected with the finite size of metal plates. It is shown that the Lifshitz theory combined with the generalized plasma-like permittivity is thermodynamically consistent

  15. Permittivity and electric conductivity of aqueous alumina (40 nm) nanofluids at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Opposite effects of temperature and concentration on the nanofluid permittivity. • Permittivity and electrical conductivity are enhanced with respect to the base fluid. • Patterns for permittivity and thermal conductivity enhancements are similar. • Opposite behaviors of permittivity and electrical conductivity when increasing nanoparticle size. - Abstract: Aiming to study the effect of nanoparticle size on electric properties, the effective relative permittivity and electric conductivity of suspensions of 40 nm particles of aluminium oxide (alumina) in base Milli-Q and Milli-Ro water were determined at six different temperatures in the range (298.15 to 348.15) K, and at eight different concentrations up to 7% mass (2% volume). Present results are compared with previously published values for the same colloids containing 15 nm particles. Empirical equations for describing the experimental data are given. This study demonstrates the importance of the particle size, volume fraction of nanoparticles, temperature and water purity on the effective relative permittivity and electric conductivity of alumina nanoparticles suspensions. Trends for changes in permittivity enhancement and in electric conductivity enhancement with temperature and concentration are examined and discussed. Classical theoretical models in the study of permittivity and conductivity are applied. A summary is given for the effect of size ((15 and 40) nm), concentration (0.25 to 2)% volume and temperature (298.15 to 348.15) K on the behavior of these nanofluids

  16. The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

    2005-07-01

    Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

  17. Argumentative Support for Structured HACCP Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Groza, A.; LETIA, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an argumentation based decision support system for implementing the Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) standard in food industry. Our analysis starts by identifying the adequate technical instrumentation needed for supporting different aspects of the HAACP system. An integrated architectural solution is presented. The framework is built around concept maps and it exploits the integration of ontologies with argumentation theory by using the Argument ...

  18. Argumentative Support for Structured HACCP Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROZA, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an argumentation based decision support system for implementing the Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP standard in food industry. Our analysis starts by identifying the adequate technical instrumentation needed for supporting different aspects of the HAACP system. An integrated architectural solution is presented. The framework is built around concept maps and it exploits the integration of ontologies with argumentation theory by using the Argument Interchange Format ontology.

  19. Origin of colossal dielectric permittivity of rutile Ti0.9In0.05Nb0.05O2: single crystal and polycrystalline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongli; Wang, Xianjie; Sui, Yu; Liu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yu; Zhan, Hongsheng; Song, Bingqian; Liu, Zhiguo; Lv, Zhe; Tao, Lei; Tang, Jinke

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigated the dielectric properties of (In + Nb) co-doped rutile TiO2 single crystal and polycrystalline ceramics. Both of them showed colossal, up to 104, dielectric permittivity at room temperature. The single crystal sample showed one dielectric relaxation process with a large dielectric loss. The voltage-dependence of dielectric permittivity and the impedance spectrum suggest that the high dielectric permittivity of single crystal originated from the surface barrier layer capacitor (SBLC). The impedance spectroscopy at different temperature confirmed that the (In + Nb) co-doped rutile TiO2 polycrystalline ceramic had semiconductor grains and insulating grain boundaries, and that the activation energies were calculated to be 0.052 eV and 0.35 eV for grain and grain boundary, respectively. The dielectric behavior and impedance spectrum of the polycrystalline ceramic sample indicated that the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) mode made a major contribution to the high ceramic dielectric permittivity, instead of the electron-pinned defect-dipoles.

  20. The Fine-Tuning Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Landsman, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Our laws of nature and our cosmos appear to be delicately fine-tuned for life to emerge, in way that seems hard to attribute to chance. In view of this, some have taken the opportunity to revive the scholastic Argument from Design, whereas others have felt the need to explain this apparent fine-tuning of the clockwork of the Universe by proposing the existence of a `Multiverse'. We analyze this issue from a sober perspective. Having reviewed the literature and having added several observations of our own, we conclude that cosmic fine-tuning supports neither Design nor a Multiverse, since both of these fail at an explanatory level as well as in a more quantitative context of Bayesian confirmation theory (although there might be other reasons to believe in these ideas, to be found in religion and in inflation and/or string theory, respectively). In fact, fine-tuning and Design even seem to be at odds with each other, whereas the inference from fine-tuning to a Multiverse only works if the latter is underwritten...

  1. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. PMID:22520196

  2. Examining Elementary Students' Development of Oral and Written Argumentation Practices Through Argument-Based Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye

    2016-05-01

    Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.

  3. Chronotopes: Forms of Time in Rhetorical Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2006-01-01

    The author examines how chronotopes--a term M. M. Bakhtin used to describe space-time relationships in literature--also characterize rhetorical arguments. She uses a case study of a series of debates about genetically modified foods (GMFs) in Canada to illustrate how chronotopes shape arguments along ideological lines. In particular, she suggests…

  4. Argument and Credibility Appeals in Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicated that (1) arguments perceived as strong by receivers generated both more favorable, supportive cognitive responses and attitude change than weak message arguments; and (2) perceived source expertise and attractiveness influenced cognitive responses, but not in a coherent fashion or to the extent that they effect attitude change. (JD)

  5. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  6. Design Argumentation in Academic Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We explore design argumentation as a resource when teaching interaction design in a university setting. We propose that design argumentation can help bridge between practice-based design education and theoretical issues from university curricula. In this paper, we outline the idea of design...

  7. Perspectives on Non-Policy Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Don, Ed.

    The purpose of this booklet is to disseminate limited-circulation papers relating to value proposition debating (nonpolicy argument). The six papers provide information on the following topics: the theoretical implications of debating nonpolicy propositions, criteria for evaluating nonpolicy argument, situationally guided standards for evaluating…

  8. Argument z důsledku a jeho varianty (Argument from Consequences and its variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Juříková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the use and evaluation of the argument from consequences, its historical origins since Aristotle through Blaise Pascal, David Hume until the inclusion of this argument into the textbooks of modern logic. The article also recapitulates current evaluation of this argument by Douglas Walton and along with Walton presents its two variants and criteria for evaluating their validity.

  9. The Determinants of Money Arguments between Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy B. Durband

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A commonly held view is that arguments about money are associated with marital problems, but relatively little is known about the nature of arguing about money within marriage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, this study uses a collective bargaining approach to examine the role of money arguments in marriage. The sample (N = 1,371 consists of married women. A collective bargaining framework provides a context for understanding money arguments within the marital relationship. Results indicate that costly communication is the dominant predictor of money arguments, followed by level and proportion of wife’s income, and household net worth. Because results suggest that both communication and financial resources are important components to understanding money arguments within marriage, a combination of professionals trained in marital therapy and/or financial planning is required for couples interested in seeking assistance to increase their satisfaction and/or avoid divorce.

  10. Focusing and negative refraction in anisotropic indefinite permittivity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sara; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2009-03-01

    Materials that exhibit negative refraction demonstrate physical phenomena that may be used for novel applications. This work serves to evaluate the possibility of hyperbolic focusing due to an indefinite anisotropic permittivity tensor. Two single-loop antennas were used to approximately achieve a transverse magnetic (TM) point source and detector. Using an Agilent 8510C Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), the frequency spectrum was scanned between 7 and 9 GHz. Relative gain or loss measurements were taken at equal spatial steps around the center of the sample. A scanning robot allowed for the automatic scanning of the space behind the sample in the x, y, and z directions, to establish the focusing patterns, and to compare the signal amplitudes in the presence and absence of the sample. The robot was controlled using LabVIEW, which also collected the data from the VNA and passed it to Matlab for processing. A soft focusing spot was observed when the antennas were placed in a symmetric configuration with respect to the sample. These results suggest a method of focusing electromagnetic waves using negative refraction in indefinite materials.

  11. Microwave permittivity and permeability of ferrite-polymer thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel-zinc ferrite-epoxy composites with different ferrite/epoxy ratios, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 80/20, have been prepared as thick films of thickness 100 μm. Different compositions of nickel-zinc ferrite, Ni1-xZnxFe2O4, where x=0.2,0.4 and 0.5 have been used to prepare the composite films. The complex permittivity (ε'-jε'') and the complex permeability (μ'-jμ'') of the films as well as of the sintered ferrites have been measured at X-band (8-12 GHz) microwave frequencies using the cavity perturbation technique. The dielectric constant and the permeability of the films are found to be different from those of the sintered ferrites. ε' of films is found to increase with increase in the ferrite content of the composites as well as with frequency while the permeability, μ', is observed to decrease with increase in ferrite content as well as frequency. The high permeability losses exhibited by the films at X-band frequencies, shows their potentiality for applications like suppression of electromagnetic interference in microwave circuits. The composites with the ferrite composition x=0.5 are observed to exhibit higher losses compared to the composites with other compositions. Also the ferrite/epoxy ratio 80/20 is observed to give comparatively higher losses

  12. Numerical calculation of the rock permittivity using micro computerized tomography image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Liu, Richard; Jin, Zhao; He, Zhili

    2014-05-01

    A numerical evaluation of the permittivity of sandstones through the micro computerized tomography (micro CT) images at 1.1 GHz is conducted by using an image porosity extracting algorithm and an improved Finite Difference Method (FDM). Within the acquired physical properties by 3D micro CT scanning, numerical method is used to compute the permittivity of the rock samples. A resonant cavity is used for experimental measurement. The simulated results of 2 clastic sandstone samples with dry state and saturated state are compared with experimental data for validating the accuracy of the proposed numerical method. The results show great agreement and the error of permittivity evaluation is less than 3%.

  13. Towards modelling dialectic and eristic argumentation on the social web

    OpenAIRE

    Blount, Thomas; Millard, David; Weal, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Modelling arguments on the social web is a key challenge for those studying computational argumentation. This is because formal models of argumentation tend to assume dialectic and logical argument, whereas argumentation on the social web is highly eristic. In this paper we explore this gap by bringing together the Argument Interchange Format (AIF) and the Semantic Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC) project, and modelling a sample of social web arguments. This allows us to explore which er...

  14. Revisiting the argument from fetal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most famous, and most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from potential, which maintains that the fetus' potential to become a person and enjoy the valuable life common to persons, entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. In this paper, I will revisit and offer a defense of the argument from potential. First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed. Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus.

  15. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way. PMID:25637083

  16. Dielectric elastomers, with very high dielectric permittivity, based on silicone and ionic interpenetrating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    permittivity and the Young's modulus of the elastomer. One system that potentially achieves this involves interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks from amino- and carboxylic acid-functional silicones. The applicability of these materials as DEs is...... demonstrated herein, and a number of many and important parameters, such as dielectric permittivity/loss, viscoelastic properties and dielectric breakdown strength, are investigated. Ionic and silicone elastomer IPNs are promising prospects for dielectric elastomer actuators, since very high permittivities are...... obtained while dielectric breakdown strength and Young's modulus are not compromised. These good overall properties stem from the softening effect and very high permittivity of ionic networks – as high as ε′ = 7500 at 0.1 Hz – while the silicone elastomer part of the IPN provides mechanical integrity as...

  17. Determining complex permittivity from propagation constant measurements with planar transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new two-standard calibration procedure is outlined for determining the complex permittivity of materials from the propagation constant measured with planar transmission lines. Once calibrated, a closed-form expression for the material permittivity is obtained. The effects of radiation and conductor losses are accounted for in the calibration. The multiline technique, combined with a recently proposed planar transmission-line configuration, is used to determine the line propagation constant. An uncertainty analysis is presented for the proposed calibration procedure that includes the uncertainties associated with the multiline technique. This allows line dimensions and calibration standards to be selected that minimize the total measurement uncertainty. The use of air and distilled water as calibration standards gives relatively small measurement uncertainty. Permittivity measurement results for five liquids, covering a wide permittivity range, agree very closely with expected values from 0.5–5 GHz. (paper)

  18. High-Temperature Permittivity and Data-Mining of Silicon Dioxide at GHz Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature permittivity of quartz fibre-reinforced silicon dioxide (SiO2/SiO2) nano-composites is studied on the basis of the multi-scale theoretical model. We obtain the permittivity of the SiO2/SiO2 at high temperature, which is dependent on the temperature by data-mining. The result shows that the permittivity and loss tangent obtained by data-mining are well consistent with the measured ones. The high-temperature permittivity can be well predicted for SiO2/SiO2 by the as-proposed model and the data-mining method. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Particle size influence on effective permittivity of particle-gas mixture with particle clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Xu; Chang Liu; Zhang Cao; Xiaomin Li

    2013-01-01

    The influence of particle size on the effective permittivity of a particle-gas mixture in the presence of particle clusters was studied using numerical analysis involving the three-dimensional finite element method.The effective permittivity of the mixture was obtained by calculating the electrostatic energy generated in the computation domain.Numerical results show that for fixed volume fraction of particles in the mixture,the effective permittivity of the mixture increases with decreasing particle size.Static experiments were carried out by using a differential capacitance sensor with parallel plates.The variation of the effective permittivity with particle size is shown by experimental data to agree with the numerical results.The methodology described and the results obtained in this paper may be used to help modify the measurement of particles volume fraction in the presence of particle clusters when a capacitance sensor is used.

  20. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  1. Experimental study of composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Qiang; LI Fang

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on a composite medium structure that exhibits simultan-eously negative values of effective permeability and permittivity, and our experimental study in an anechoic chamber. The experiment results show that the artificial medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous metallic wires, can have a simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity within a frequency region in the microwave regime under certain linearly polarized waves.

  2. A Rectangular Split Ring Double Negative Metamaterial having Simultaneous Negative Permittivity and Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waqas; Zeeshan Akbar; Muhammad Abid Saeed; Muhammad Junaid khan

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to design and simulate a novel structure having simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability so called double negative metamaterial or left handed material. The DNG structure consists of five rectangular split ring resonators on one side of dielectric medium and a couple of wires on other side. The complex permittivity, permeability and refractive index are determined from simulated Scattering parameters using direct retrieval method. Simulations of DNG struc...

  3. Chronology violation and the Cosmological Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, G E

    2003-01-01

    The Kalam Cosmological Argument is perhaps the most solid and widly discussed argument for a caused creation of the universe. The usual objections to the argument mainly focus on the second premise. In this paper we discuss the dependency of the first premise on the topological structure of the space-time manifold adopted for the underlying cosmological model. It is shown that in chronology-violating space-times the first premise is also violated. The chronology-violation, in turn, requires a massive violation of the so-called energy conditions which could have observational effects that are briefly discussed here. Hence, astronomical observations could be relevant for the validity of the metaphysical argument. In this sense, it is possible to talk of "observational theology".

  4. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, S.; Jennings, N.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  5. Support for argument structures review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argument structures are commonly used to develop and present cases for safety, security and for other properties of systems. Such structures tend to grow excessively, which causes problems with their review and assessment. Two issues are of particular interest: (1) systematic and explicit assessment of the compelling power of an argument, and (2) communication of the result of such an assessment to relevant recipients. The paper presents a solution to these problems. The method of Visual Assessment of Arguments (VAA), being this solution, is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence applied to the assessment of the strength of arguments, and a visual mechanism of issuing and presenting assessments, supported by the so-called opinion triangle. In the paper we explain theoretical grounding for the method and provide guidance on its application. The results of some validation experiments are also presented.

  6. Equivalence in Logic-Based Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Amgoud, Leila; Besnard, Philippe; Vesic, Srdjan

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper investigates when two abstract logic-based argumentation systems are equivalent. It defines various equivalence criteria, investigates the links between them, and identifies cases where two systems are equivalent with respect to each of the proposed criteria. In particular, it shows that under some reasonable conditions on the logic underlying an argumentation system, the latter has an equivalent finite subsystem, called core. This core constitutes a thres...

  7. L’usage de l’argumentation en publicité

    OpenAIRE

    Desîlets, Christian; Gauthier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Les professionnels de la publicité désignent par les locutions « argument publicitaire » ou « argument de vente » tout aspect du message ayant pour fonction de le livrer avec efficacité. L’a priori des auteurs est que cette conception très large est inadéquate en ce qu’elle ne permet pas de rendre compte de la spécificité de l’argumentation en publicité. Leur objectif est de cerner techniquement ce qu’est un argument publicitaire et, plus largement, l’usage de l’argumentation en publicité. Le...

  8. Modalne argumenty teistyczne (Modal Theistic Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Oppy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of Oppy’s paper is to provide a general ground for rejecting all kinds of modal theistic arguments. The author claims that all such arguments are questionbegging – before proving the existence of God (defined as a being which exists in every possible world theistic modalist must assume it when choosing his account of logical space (no matter which modal theory it relies on: Lewis’ modal realism, ersatz modal realism, combinatorialism or fictionalism. Two concrete arguments, Plantinga’s ontological argument and Leftow’s cosmological argument, are examples given by Oppy – both have premises which justification must refer to a non-modal question “Does God actually exist?”, concerning the nature of logical space.Oppy rejects suggestion that problems with modal theistic arguments show that there is simply something wrong with our standard modal analyses in terms of possible worlds. According to Oppy, problems with higher-level judgments about the nature of logical space are problems with propositional attitudes, not with modality, andthey need an analysis distinct from the analysis of ground-level modal judgments.

  9. The influence of charged-induced variations in the local permittivity on the static and dynamic properties of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenberger, Florian; Hickey, Owen A.; Smiatek, Jens; Holm, Christian

    2015-12-01

    There is a large body of literature investigating the static and dynamic properties of polyelectrolytes due both to their widespread application in industrial processes and their ubiquitous presence in biology. Because of their highly charged nature, polyelectrolytes tend to alter the local dielectric permittivity of the solution within a few nanometers of their backbone. This effect has, however, been almost entirely ignored in both simulations and theoretical work. In this article, we apply our recently developed electrostatic solver based on Maxwell's equations to examine the effects of the permittivity reduction in the vicinity of the polyelectrolyte. We first verify our new approach by calculating and comparing ion distributions around a linear fixed polyelectrolyte and find both quantitative and qualitative changes in the ion distribution. Further simulations with an applied electric field show that the reduction in the local dielectric constant increases the mobility of the chains by approximately ten percent. More importantly, variations in the local dielectric constant lead to qualitatively different behavior of the conductivity.

  10. The influence of charged-induced variations in the local permittivity on the static and dynamic properties of polyelectrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenberger, Florian; Hickey, Owen A; Smiatek, Jens; Holm, Christian

    2015-12-28

    There is a large body of literature investigating the static and dynamic properties of polyelectrolytes due both to their widespread application in industrial processes and their ubiquitous presence in biology. Because of their highly charged nature, polyelectrolytes tend to alter the local dielectric permittivity of the solution within a few nanometers of their backbone. This effect has, however, been almost entirely ignored in both simulations and theoretical work. In this article, we apply our recently developed electrostatic solver based on Maxwell's equations to examine the effects of the permittivity reduction in the vicinity of the polyelectrolyte. We first verify our new approach by calculating and comparing ion distributions around a linear fixed polyelectrolyte and find both quantitative and qualitative changes in the ion distribution. Further simulations with an applied electric field show that the reduction in the local dielectric constant increases the mobility of the chains by approximately ten percent. More importantly, variations in the local dielectric constant lead to qualitatively different behavior of the conductivity. PMID:26723625

  11. An Abstract Argumentation Framework for Supporting Agreements in Agent Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Stella; Botti, Vicente; Julián, Vicente

    In this paper we present an abstract argumentation framework for the support of agreement processes in agent societies. This framework takes into account arguments, attacks between them and the social contex of the agents that put forward arguments. Then, we define the semantics of the framework, providing a mechanism to evaluate arguments in view of other arguments posed in the argumentation process. Finally, the framework is illustrated with an example in a real domain of a water-rights transfer market.

  12. An automated method for mapping human tissue permittivities by MRI in hyperthermia treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farace, Paolo; Antolini, Renzo [CMBM-ITC, Centro Materiali e Biofisica Medica, 38050 Povo-Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Trento, 38050 Povo-Trento (Italy); Pontalti, Rolando; Cristoforetti, Luca [CMBM-ITC, Centro Materiali e Biofisica Medica, 38050 Povo-Trento (Italy); Scarpa, Marina [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Trento, 38050 Povo-Trento (Italy)

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an automatic method to obtain tissue complex permittivity values to be used as input data in the computer modelling for hyperthermia treatment planning. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired and the tissue water content was calculated from the signal intensity of the image pixels. The tissue water content was converted into complex permittivity values by monotonic functions based on mixture theory. To obtain a water content map by MR imaging a gradient-echo pulse sequence was used and an experimental procedure was set up to correct for relaxation and radiofrequency field inhomogeneity effects on signal intensity. Two approaches were followed to assign the permittivity values to fat-rich tissues: (i) fat-rich tissue localization by a segmentation procedure followed by assignment of tabulated permittivity values; (ii) water content evaluation by chemical shift imaging followed by permittivity calculation. Tests were performed on phantoms of known water content to establish the reliability of the proposed method. MRI data were acquired and processed pixel-by-pixel according to the outlined procedure. The signal intensity in the phantom images correlated well with water content. Experiments were performed on volunteers' healthy tissue. In particular two anatomical structures were chosen to calculate permittivity maps: the head and the thigh. The water content and electric permittivity values were obtained from the MRI data and compared to others in the literature. A good agreement was found for muscle, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white and grey matter. The advantages of the reported method are discussed in the light of possible application in hyperthermia treatment planning. (author)

  13. An automated method for mapping human tissue permittivities by MRI in hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an automatic method to obtain tissue complex permittivity values to be used as input data in the computer modelling for hyperthermia treatment planning. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired and the tissue water content was calculated from the signal intensity of the image pixels. The tissue water content was converted into complex permittivity values by monotonic functions based on mixture theory. To obtain a water content map by MR imaging a gradient-echo pulse sequence was used and an experimental procedure was set up to correct for relaxation and radiofrequency field inhomogeneity effects on signal intensity. Two approaches were followed to assign the permittivity values to fat-rich tissues: (i) fat-rich tissue localization by a segmentation procedure followed by assignment of tabulated permittivity values; (ii) water content evaluation by chemical shift imaging followed by permittivity calculation. Tests were performed on phantoms of known water content to establish the reliability of the proposed method. MRI data were acquired and processed pixel-by-pixel according to the outlined procedure. The signal intensity in the phantom images correlated well with water content. Experiments were performed on volunteers' healthy tissue. In particular two anatomical structures were chosen to calculate permittivity maps: the head and the thigh. The water content and electric permittivity values were obtained from the MRI data and compared to others in the literature. A good agreement was found for muscle, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white and grey matter. The advantages of the reported method are discussed in the light of possible application in hyperthermia treatment planning. (author)

  14. Argumentation Ethics and The Philosophy of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Dun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available When H.-H. Hoppe claimed (in A Theory of Socialism and Capitalism, 1989 that the principles of libertarianism were argumentatively irrefutable, both the logical coherence and the relevance of his “argument from argumentation” were criticized. While occasionally some of these criticisms still crop up, this paper defends Hoppe’s claim against them from the vantage point of the author’s own work (in Dutch on the ethics of dialogue in the nineteen-seventies. It presents a more detailed and systematic presentation of the “argument from argumentation” than Hoppe had need for in the particular context of his book. It makes a distinction between arguments about principles and arguments about particular cases in which these principles may be invoked; and between the normative validity (as a matter of principle of certain presumptions and the fact that in particular cases these presumptions hold only in principle and can be refuted by the evidence pertaining to the cases.

  15. A novel Multi-permittivity Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multi-permittivity cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna for wideband application is presented. The multi-permittivity cylinder is formed by combining two different permittivity material sectors in such a way that each sector (with constant permittivity is 90 degree apart. A direct microstrip line coupling terminated with T-stub at the open end is used to excite the multi-permittivity cylindrical dielectric resonator. The angular position of the multi sector dielectric resonator with respect to the longitudinal axis of the microstrip line and length of the additional strip at the open end of the feeding circuit is key parameters for wideband operation of the antenna. By optimizing all parameters of the proposed antenna, wideband impedance bandwidth of 56% (12.1 GHz - 21.65 GHz is achieved. The average gain of the antenna throughout the bandwidth is 5.9 dB with good radiation properties in both E-plane and H-plane. A well matched simulation and experimental results show that the antenna is suitable for wideband applications.

  16. Novel permittivity test for determination of yeast surface charge and flocculation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Szubzda, Bronisław

    2012-12-01

    Yeast flocculation has been found to be important in many biotechnological processes. It has been suggested that flocculation is promoted by decreasing electrostatic repulsion between cells. In this study, we used an unconventional rapid technique--permittivity test--for determination of the flocculation properties and surface charge values of three industrial yeast strains with well-known flocculation characteristics: Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 1017 (brewery, ale), S. pastorianus NCYC 680 (brewery, lager), and Debaryomyces occidentalis LOCK 0251 (unconventional amylolytic yeast). The measurements of permittivity were compared with the results from two classical methods for determination of surface charge: Alcian blue retention and Sephadex DEAE attachment. The permittivity values for particular strains correlated directly with the results of Alcian blue retention (r = 0.9). The results also confirmed a strong negative relationship between the capacitance of yeast suspensions and their flocculation abilities. The highest permittivity was noted for the ale strain NCYC 1017, with weak flocculation abilities, and the lowest for the flocculating lager yeast NCYC 680. This paper is the first to describe the possibility of using a rapid permittivity test to evaluate the surface charge of yeast cells and their flocculation abilities. This method is of practical value in various biotechnological industries where flocculation is applied as a major method of cell separation. PMID:22976039

  17. Temporal photonic crystals with modulations of both permittivity and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Juan Sabino; Becerra-Fuentes, O. M.; Halevi, P.

    2016-06-01

    We present an in-depth study of electromagnetic wave propagation in a temporal photonic crystal, namely, a nonconducting medium whose permittivity ɛ (t ) and/or permeability μ (t ) are modulated periodically by unspecified agents (these modulations not necessarily being in phase). Maxwell's equations lead to an eigenvalue problem whose solution provides the dispersion relation ω (k ) for the waves that can propagate in such a dynamic medium. This is a generalization of previous work [J. R. Zurita-Sánchez and P. Halevi, Phys. Rev. A 81, 053834 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.053834 that was restricted to the electric modulation ɛ (t ) . For our numerical work (only) we assumed the harmonic modulations ɛ (t ) =ɛ ¯[1 +mɛsin(Ω t ) ] and μ (t ) =μ ¯[1 +mμsin(Ω t +θ ) ] , where Ω is the circular modulation frequency; mɛ and mμ are, respectively, the strengths of the electric and magnetic modulations; and θ is the phase difference between these modulations. An analytic calculation for weak modulations (mɛ≪1 ,mμ≪1 ) leads to two k bands, k1(ω ) and k2(ω ) , that are separated by a k gap. If the modulations are in phase (θ =0 ) , this gap is proportional to | mɛ-mμ| , while the gap is proportional to (mɛ+mμ) if the modulations are out of phase (θ =π ) . The gap thus disappears for equal, in-phase, modulations (mɛ=mμ) . An exact solution of the eigenvalue equation confirms that these approximations hold reasonably well even for moderate modulations. In fact, there are no k gaps for equal modulations even if these are very strong (mɛ ,μ≲1 ) . The photonic band structure k (ω ) is periodic in ω , with period Ω , and there is an infinite number of bands k1(ω ) , k2(ω ) ,... Further, by allowing ɛ (t ) and μ (t ) to have imaginary parts, we examined the effects of damping [Im k (ω )] on the k bands. We also determined the optical response of a temporal photonic crystal slab, applying the above harmonic model for ɛ (t ) and μ (t

  18. Argument to Foster Scientific Literacy: A Review of Argument Interventions in K-12 Science Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of scientific literacy has led to a steady increase in argument-based interventions in science education contexts. It has been suggested that student participation in argument develops communication skills, metacognitive awareness, critical thinking, an understanding of the culture and practice of science, and scientific literacy.…

  19. Estimation of Relative Permittivity of Printed Circuit Board with Fiber Glass Epoxy as Dielectric for UHF Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ronal D. Montoya-Montoya; Natalia Gaviria-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measuring relative permittivity of fiber glass printed circuit board (PCB’s), using a rectangular resonant cavity. The relative permittivity is presented as function of frequency. To obtain resonant frequencies, the return loss was measured using a network analyzer. Relative permittivity was calculated by finding frequencies of resonant cavity modes. The results are presented in a frequency span of 1 to 3.5GHz. It was clearly shown the nonlinear behavior of ...

  20. On an Argument of David Deutsch

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, R D

    2003-01-01

    We analyse an argument of Deutsch (1999), which purports to show that the deterministic part of classical quantum theory together with deterministic axioms of classical decision theory, together imply that a rational decision maker behaves as if the probabilistic part of quantum theory (Born's law) is true. We uncover two missing assumptions in the argument, and show that the argument also works for an instrumentalist who is prepared to accept that the outcome of a quantum measurement is random in the frequentist sense: Born's law is a consequence of functional and unitary invariance principles belonging to the deterministic part of quantum mechanics. Unfortunately, it turns out that after the necessary corrections we have done no more than give an easier proof of Gleason's (1957) theorem under stronger assumptions. However, for some special cases the proof method gives positive results while using different assumptions to Gleason. This leads to the conjecture that the proof could be improved to give the same...

  1. PBR theorem and Einstein's quantum hole argument

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    This note discusses the latest hot topic: Quantum states: ontic or epistemic? and the PBR theorem. Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" general theory of relativity. In their paper, PBR write the following: "an important step towards the derivation of our result is the idea that the quantum state is physical if distinct quantum states correspond to non-overlapping distributions for [the set of possible physical states that a system can be in]", and they then refer to Einstein's argument and views.

  2. Colossal permittivity induced by lattice mirror reflection symmetry breaking in Ba7Ir3O13+x(0 <= x <= 1.5) epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ludi; Xin, Yan; Zhu, Huiwen; Xu, Hong; Luo, Sijun; Talbayev, Diyar; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Sirenko, A. A.; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Materials with colossal permittivity (CP) at room temperature hold tremendous promise in modern microelectronics as well as high-energy-density storage applications. Despite several proposed mechanisms that lead torecent discoveries of a series of new CP materials such as Nb, In co-doped TiO2 and CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics, it is imperative to find other approaches which can further guide the search for new CP materials. In this talk, we will demonstrate a new mechanism for CP: the breaking of mirror reflection symmetry of lattice can cause CP. This mechanism was revealed in a new layered iridate Ba7Ir3O13+x (BIO) thin film we recently discovered. Structural characterization of BIO films show that its mirror reflection symmetry is broken along b-axis, but preserved along a- and c-axes. Dielectric property measurements of BIO films at room temperature show a CP (103-10<4) along the in-plane direction, but a much smaller permittivity (10- 20) along the c-axis, in the 102- 106 Hz frequency range. Such unusually large anisotropy in permittivity testifies to the significant role of the structural in-plane mirror reflection symmetry breaking in inducing CP. This work is supported by DOD-ARO under Grant No. W911NF0910530.

  3. Advanced FeTiNbO6/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with a high dielectric permittivity near the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hou, Yudong; Wei, Qiaoyi; Zheng, Mupeng; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2015-12-01

    FeTiNbO6 (denoted as FTN) is a recently discovered giant dielectric material with high Curie temperature (550 K). In this work, well dispersive FTN particles with mean particle size about 500 nm were synthesized by the improved solid-state reaction method. Using FTN particles as fillers and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (denoted as PVDF) polymer as matrix, multi-volume ratio (0%-60%) homogeneous ceramic/polymer composites have been prepared through a hot-pressing technology. At the same filling content, the FTN/PVDF composites display higher dielectric permittivity compared to the normal reported BaTiO3/PVDF composites, even larger than that of PVDF based composites using giant dielectric CaCu3Ti4O12 as filler. Especially, for 40 vol. % FTN/PVDF composites, the dielectric permittivity is as high as 181 measured at 100 Hz and 25 °C. Through the theoretical analysis correlated with structure evolution observation, it is deduced that the high dielectric performance originates from the combined effect of a variety of factors, such as giant dielectric semiconducting FTN particles, the micro-capacitor structure, and percolation phenomenon at appropriate volume fraction of FTN. Moreover, FTN/PVDF composites present strong dielectric relaxation behavior, which results from the superposition of the dielectric relaxation between PVDF and FTN. These flexible, easy processing FTN/PVDF composites with large dielectric permittivity values could find applications as new generational embedded capacitors.

  4. Non-Discriminating Arguments and Their Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    an automatic analysis. Following this, we define a transformation procedure, called discriminator slicing, that removes the non-discriminating arguments, resulting in a program whose computation trees are isomorphic to those of the original program.  Finally, we show how the results of the original...... program can be reconstructed from trace of the transformed program with the original arguments.   Thus the overall result is a two-stage execution of a program, which can be applied usefully in several contexts;  we describe a case study in optimising computations in the probabilistic logic program...

  5. Method to translate human feelings into arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking as an example the status of nuclear power in Netherlands, it was shown that there is an emotional approach on the part of supporters and opponents, not open to rational argument, objective information of no avail, lack of public support (80% against), Government undecided. It was concluded that nuclear energy is a deep-rooted emotional conflict, and that the prospects of altering the situation are bleak. Proposed arguments for changeover in favor of nuclear energy are: electricity is a necessity, it is economical, safety is guaranteed, it protects the environment and conserves other resources

  6. Estimation of Relative Permittivity of Printed Circuit Board with Fiber Glass Epoxy as Dielectric for UHF Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronal D. Montoya-Montoya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measuring relative permittivity of fiber glass printed circuit board (PCB’s, using a rectangular resonant cavity. The relative permittivity is presented as function of frequency. To obtain resonant frequencies, the return loss was measured using a network analyzer. Relative permittivity was calculated by finding frequencies of resonant cavity modes. The results are presented in a frequency span of 1 to 3.5GHz. It was clearly shown the nonlinear behavior of the relative permittivity for the dielectric laminate evaluated, even what happens respect to the frequency of the resonant modes below and above to frequency of 2 GHz.

  7. Strategic Use of Multiple Texts for the Evaluation of Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether students use arguments with refutation in one text for evaluating the opposite arguments without refutation in another text. Undergraduate students read two conflicting texts in either of the two orders: pro arguments text first and con arguments text first. After reading each text, they evaluated…

  8. Magneto-Induced ac Electrical Permittivity of Metal-Dielectric Composites with a Two Characteristic Length Scales Periodic Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new effect was recently predicted in conducting composites that have a periodic microstructure: an induced strongly anisotropic dc magneto-resistance. This phenomenon is already verified on high mobility n-GaAs films. Here we discuss the possibility of observing analogous behavior in the ac electric permittivity of a metal-dielectric composite with a periodic microstructure in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We developed new analytical and numerical methods to treat the low-frequency magneto-optical properties in composite media with both disordered and periodic conducting micro-structures. Those methods allow us to study composites with inclusions of arbitrary shape (and arbitrary volume fraction) at arbitrarily strong magnetic field. This is exploited in order to calculate an effective dielectric tensor for this system as a function of applied magnetic field and ac frequency. We show that in a non-dilute metal-dielectric composite medium the magneto-plasma resonance and the cyclotron resonance depend upon both the applied magnetic field as well as on the geometric shape of the inclusion. Near such a resonance, it is possible to achieve large values for the ratio of the off-diagonal-to-diagonal electric permittivity tensor components, εxy/εxx, (since εxx→0, while εxy≠0), which is analogous to similar ratio of the resistivity tensor components, ρxy/ρxx, in the case of dc magneto-transport problem. Motivated by this observation and by results of previous studies of dc magneto-transport in composite conductors, we then performed a numerical study of the ac magneto-electric properties of a particular metal-dielectric composite film with a periodic columnar microstructure which has a two characteristic length scales. The unit cell of such composite is prepared as follows: We placed the conducting square (in cross section) rods (first characteristic length scale) along the perimeter of the unit cell in order to create a dielectric host with large

  9. Simultaneous reconstruction of permittivity and conductivity using multi-frequency admittance measurement in electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maomao; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2016-02-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an imaging method mainly capable of reconstructing dielectric permittivity. Generally, the reactance part of complex admittance is measured in a selected frequency. This paper presents for the first time an in depth and systematic analysis of complex admittance data for simultaneous reconstruction of both electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. A complex-valued forward model, Jacobian matrix and inverse solution are developed in the time harmonic excitation mode to allow for multi-frequency measurements. Realistic noise models are used to evaluate the performance of complex admittance ECT in a range of excitation frequencies. This paper demonstrates far greater potential for ECT as a versatile imaging tool through novel analysis of complex admittance imaging using a dual conductivity permittivity inversion method. The paper demonstrates that various classes of contactless capacitance based measurement devices can be analysed through complex multi-frequency ECT.

  10. Analysis of nonlocal effective permittivity and permeability in symmetric metal–dielectric multilayer metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    A generalized nonlocal effective medium theory is derived based on the transfer-matrix method to determine the nonlocal effective permittivity and permeability for the symmetric and periodic metal–dielectric multilayer metamaterials, with respect to both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarized light at arbitrary angle of incidence. The nonlocal effective permittivity and permeability tensors are analyzed in detail as functions of the wavelength, the angle of incidence, and the multilayer period. Our generalized nonlocal effective medium theory in consideration of both permittivity and permeability can accurately predict the dispersion relation, the transmission and reflection spectra, and the optical field distributions of symmetric metal–dielectric multilayer stacks with either subwavelength or wavelength-scale period of the unit cell.

  11. Multiphase permittivity imaging using absolute value electrical capacitance tomography data and a level set algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hosani, E; Soleimani, M

    2016-06-28

    Multiphase flow imaging is a very challenging and critical topic in industrial process tomography. In this article, simulation and experimental results of reconstructing the permittivity profile of multiphase material from data collected in electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) are presented. A multiphase narrowband level set algorithm is developed to reconstruct the interfaces between three- or four-phase permittivity values. The level set algorithm is capable of imaging multiphase permittivity by using one set of ECT measurement data, so-called absolute value ECT reconstruction, and this is tested with high-contrast and low-contrast multiphase data. Simulation and experimental results showed the superiority of this algorithm over classical pixel-based image reconstruction methods. The multiphase level set algorithm and absolute ECT reconstruction are presented for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in this paper and critically evaluated. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185966

  12. Simultaneous reconstruction of permittivity and conductivity using multi-frequency admittance measurement in electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an imaging method mainly capable of reconstructing dielectric permittivity. Generally, the reactance part of complex admittance is measured in a selected frequency. This paper presents for the first time an in depth and systematic analysis of complex admittance data for simultaneous reconstruction of both electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. A complex-valued forward model, Jacobian matrix and inverse solution are developed in the time harmonic excitation mode to allow for multi-frequency measurements. Realistic noise models are used to evaluate the performance of complex admittance ECT in a range of excitation frequencies. This paper demonstrates far greater potential for ECT as a versatile imaging tool through novel analysis of complex admittance imaging using a dual conductivity permittivity inversion method. The paper demonstrates that various classes of contactless capacitance based measurement devices can be analysed through complex multi-frequency ECT. (paper)

  13. Gain assisted nanocomposite multilayers with near zero permittivity modulus at visible frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizza, Carlo; Ciattoni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated a layered nano-composite by alternating metal and gain medium layers, the gain dielectric consisting of a polymer incorporating optically pumped dye molecules. Exploiting an improved version of the effective medium theory, we have chosen the layers thicknesses for achieving a very small value of the real part of the permittivity epsilon_\\| (parallel to the layers plane) at a prescribed visible wavelength. From standard reflection-transmission experiments on the optically pumped sample we show that, at a visible wavelength, both the real and the imaginary parts of the permittivity epsilon_\\ attain very small values and we measure | \\epsilon_\\| | = 0.04 at lambda = 604 nm, amounting to a 21.5-percent decrease of the minimum | \\epsilon_\\| | in the absence of optical pumping. Our investigation thus proves that a medium with a dielectric permittivity with very small modulus, a key condition which should provide efficient subwavelength optical steering, can be actually synthesized.

  14. Method for determining of the composite nanomaterials’ complex permittivity via electrodynamic characteristics of microwave resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance method for determining of the composite nanomaterials’ complex permittivity is presented. The formulas to calculate complex permittivity of a sample of dielectric nanomaterial by measurement of electrodynamic characteristics of a microwave resonator with and without the sample such as the microwave resonator’s resonant frequency, Q-factor, coefficients of reflection and transmission are presented. Both theoretical and experimental study rely on the model of a transmission-type resonator. The resonator represents itself a segment of planar waveguide. A flat piece of the material under study during measurements is fitted on the top surface of the resonator. The key idea of the method is to calculate, on the basis of measurement of reflection and transmission in two regimes - with and without the nanomaterial, the effective impedance of nanomaterial’s thin film to calculate its complex permittivity. (authors)

  15. Nondestructive relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements using a split-cylinder resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janezic, Michael Daniel

    To keep pace with the expanding wireless and electronics industries, manufacturers are developing innovative materials for improving system performance, and there is a critical need to accurately characterize the electrical properties of these new materials at microwave frequencies. To address this need, this thesis develops a nondestructive method for measuring the relative permittivity and loss tangent of dielectric substrates using a split-cylinder resonator. Three theoretical models for the split-cylinder resonator are derived using mode-matching, least-squares boundary residual, and Hankel-transform methods, from which one can calculate the relative permittivity and loss tangent of a dielectric substrate from measurements of the split-cylinder resonator's TE0np resonant frequency and quality factor. Each of these models has several advantages over previously published models. First, the accuracy of the relative permittivity measurement is increased because each model accurately models the fringing fields that extend beyond the cylindrical-cavity sections. Second, to increase the accuracy of the loss tangent measurement, each model accurately separates the conductive metal losses of the split-cylinder resonator from the dielectric losses of the substrate. Finally, in contrast to previous models for the split-cylinder resonator that use only the TE011 resonant mode, each of the new models include the higher-order TE0np resonant modes, thereby broadening the frequency range over which one can make relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements. In a comparison of the three models, the mode-matching method was found to be superior on the basis of measurement accuracy and computational speed. Relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements for several dielectric materials are performed using a split-cylinder resonator and are in good agreement with measurements made using a circular-cylindrical cavity, split-post resonator, and dielectric post resonator

  16. Magnetism at grain boundary interfacesin the colossal permittivity dielectric material; In+Nb Co-Doped Rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Cottrell, Stephen; Hu, Wanbiao; Liu, Yun

    With the emphasis in recent years on understanding novel materials with potential technological applications this work seeks to understand magnetic ordering within the colossal-permittivity material, In+Nb co-doped rutile (TiO2). Evidence for a spin-freezing transition was reported from a step like feature in the dielectic data below 50 K but this was largly glossed over. Within this work we show that below 300 K there is a slowing down of magnetic fluctuations associated with the electronic magnetism due to the defect-dipoles created by the co-doping, but the muon spectroscopy results are strongly suggestive of the behaviour being localised to the edges/interfaces of particles/grains. The TC is strongly dependent on the doping level of the samples that presents novel way to control the magnetism and ultimately magneto-electric coupling within a dielectric material.

  17. Negative real parts of the equivalent permittivity, permeability, and refractive index of sculptured-nanorod arrays of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films comprising parallel nanorods were deposited by directing silver vapor obliquely toward a plane substrate. The direction of the vapor flux was varied in two different ways to sculpture the nanorods in different shapes. The reflection and transmission coefficients of the thin films were measured at three wavelengths in the visible regime for normal-illumination conditions for two linear-polarization states, using walk-off interferometry and polarization interferometry. The authors found that sculpturing significantly affects the signs of the real parts of the equivalent permittivity, permeability, and refractive index of the silver thin films for the two polarization states at different wavelengths. Thus, vapor deposition combined with sculpturing can be useful for large-scale production of materials having different equivalent constitutive parameters with negative real parts.

  18. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzai, Masaki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nishikata, Atsuhiro [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Fukunaga, Kaori [NICT, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Miyaoka, Shunsuke [Industrial Research Centre of Ehime, Matsuyama, Ehime 791-1101 (Japan)

    2007-01-07

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process.

  19. Effects of dielectric permittivities on skin heating due to millimeter wave exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata Akimasa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the possibility of millimeter wave (MMW exposure has increased, public concern about the health issues due to electromagnetic radiation has also increased. While many studies have been conducted for MMW exposure, the effect of dielectric permittivities on skin heating in multilayer/heterogeneous human-body models have not been adequately investigated. This is partly due to the fact that a detailed investigation of skin heating in a multilayer model by computational methods is difficult since many parameters are involved. In the present study, therefore, theoretical analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between dielectric permittivities and MMW-induced skin heating in a one-dimensional three-layer model (skin, fat, and muscle. Methods Approximate expressions were derived for the temperature elevation and temperature difference in the skin due to MMW exposure from analytical solutions for the temperature distribution. First, the power absorption distribution was approximated from the analytical solution for a one-layer model (skin only. Then, the analytical expression of the temperature in the three-layer model was simplified on the basis of the proposal in our previous study. By examining the approximate expressions, the dominant term influencing skin heating was clarified to identify the effects of the dielectric permittivities. Finally, the effects of dielectric permittivities were clarified by applying partial differentiation to the derived dominant term. Results Skin heating can be characterized by the parameters associated with the dielectric permittivities, independently of morphological and thermal parameters. With the derived expressions, it was first clarified that skin heating correlates with the total power absorbed in the skin rather than the specific absorption rate (SAR at the skin surface or the incident power density. Using Debye-type expression we next investigated the effect of

  20. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2015-01-01

    High driving voltages currently limit the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers (DEs). One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the synthesis of...... phase. Thus, the space between the functional groups can be varied, by using different dimethylsiloxane spacer units between the dipolar molecules. Furthermore, the degree of functionalization can be varied accurately by changing the feed of dipolar molecules. As a result, a completely tunable elastomer...

  1. Polymethylmethacrylate/Fe3O4 composite nanofiber membranes with ultra-low dielectric permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. C.; Li, X.; Yang, Y.; Wang, C.

    2009-11-01

    Ultra-low dielectric permittivity poly (methyl methacrylate)/Fe3O4 composite fiber membranes have been successfully prepared using electrospinning. The composite membranes were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and a radio frequency (RF) impedance/capacitance material analyzer. The magnetic measurement showed that the composite membranes displayed the super-paramagnetic property. The results showed that the dielectric permittivity of the composite fiber membranes was decreasing with increasing Fe3O4 nanoparticle content.

  2. Permittivity and permeability determination for high index specimens using partially filled shorted rectangular waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Mark M; Bean, Jeffrey A; Allen, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    A method for determining the permittivity and permeability for specimens with high refractive index and variable shape is investigated. The method extracts the permeability and permittivity tensor elements from reflection measurements made with a partially-filled shorted rectangular waveguide on an electrically small specimen. Measurements are performed for two isotropic, heavily loaded coaxial magnetic composites. Supporting measurements from a stripline cavity and coaxial airline are used to validate the method. The results demonstrate the methods ability to handle frequency dispersive and high index materials.

  3. Coulomb interaction revised in the presence of material with negative permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Coulomb law is one of the fundamental laws in Physics. It describes the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two electric charges. Counterintuitively the repulsion force between two equal electric charges in a vacuum, stated by the Coulomb law, turn into the attraction force between the same electric charges when they are placed next to a material with negative permittivity and the distance between them is larger than some critical distance. As a result the equally charged particles "crystallize" occupying equilibrium positions. We prove this claim with the method of images for two charged particles placed next to a material with negative permittivity.

  4. A Rectangular Split Ring Double Negative Metamaterial having Simultaneous Negative Permittivity and Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to design and simulate a novel structure having simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability so called double negative metamaterial or left handed material. The DNG structure consists of five rectangular split ring resonators on one side of dielectric medium and a couple of wires on other side. The complex permittivity, permeability and refractive index are determined from simulated Scattering parameters using direct retrieval method. Simulations of DNG structure are carried out using CST MWS. MATLAB is used for verification of negative values of structure's parameter.

  5. An Approach to Measurment of Permeability/Permittivity Tensor of Ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The magnetic field acting on the ferrofluids causes microstructural conversions that result in a change of their permeability. For this physical phenomenon is referred to as field induced magnetism (FIMA). An experimental method is described for ferrofluids in this state to examine their permeability tensor. Also an analogous phenomenon is described also when there is a change of the ferrofluids permittivity. We call it field induced dielectric anisotropy (FIDA). The contribution describes the method of measuring of the permittivity tensor. It can be expected that the FIMA and FIDA of ferrofluids will find interesting applications in designing of various sensors, in measurement technology, in mechatronic and in other areas of practice.

  6. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process

  7. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of polymer electrolyte plasticized with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The maximum dielectric constant is observed for 30 wt. % of PEG content. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the complex dielectric permittivity has been studied with Havriliak-Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with inverse temperature obtained from HN formalism follows VTF nature.

  8. Ab initio calculation of relative permittivity of La-doped HfO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First principles calculations of HfO2 and La-doped HfO2 structures were carried out to investigate the effect of La doping on the relative permittivity of HfO2 films. In this study 6.25% of La was incorporated into HfO2. Upon examination, we found out that La addition increased the value of the relative permittivity from 19 to 26 and this was because the La-induced distortion increased the range of frequencies that contribute to the IR-active modes

  9. Carbon dots with aggregation induced emission enhancement for visual permittivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze Xi; Wu, Zhu Lian; Gao, Ming Xuan; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-26

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs), hydrothermally prepared using tannic acid (TA), show visual aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties at 455 nm when excited at 350 nm owing to the rotational hindering of the surface groups on CDs such as aromatic rings and phenolic hydroxyl ones, causing exponential decay between the ratio of the photoluminescence intensity in organic solvents to that in water and the permittivity of the solvent, and thus dazzling emissions of the CDs in the presence of solvents with small permittivity, tetrahydrofuran (THF), for instance, could be visually observed. PMID:26688276

  10. In-situ measurement of the permittivity of helium using microwave NbN resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Grabovskij, G. J.; Swenson, L. J.; Buisson, O.; Hoffmann, C; Monfardini, A.; Villégier, J. -C.

    2008-01-01

    By measuring the electrical transport properties of superconducting NbN quarter-wave resonators in direct contact with a helium bath, we have demonstrated a high-speed and spatially sensitive sensor for the permittivity of helium. In our implementation a $\\sim10^{-3}$ mm$^3$ sensing volume is measured with a bandwidth of 300 kHz in the temperature range 1.8 to 8.8 K. The minimum detectable change of the permittivity of helium is calculated to be $\\sim6\\times$$10^{-11}$ $\\epsilon_0$/Hz$^{1/2}$...

  11. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  12. Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Catherine Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the debates over the MacKinnon-Dworkin Anti-Pornography Ordinance to explore one instance of definitional argument: the attempt to effect a redefinition. Argues that advocates for a definitional shift created the possibility for a "terministic catharsis" by simultaneously locating pornography in multiple locations on the pentad,…

  13. On the First Anthropic Argument in Astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the little-known anthropic argument of Fontenelle dealing with the nature of cometary orbits, given a year before the publication of Newton's Principia. This is particularly interesting in view of the rapid development of the recently resurgent theories of cometary catastrophism and their role in the modern astrobiological debates, for instance in the "rare Earth" hypothesis of Ward and Brownlee.

  14. Annotation and Classification of Argumentative Writing Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the annotation and classification of students' revision behaviors in argumentative writing. A sentence-level revision schema is proposed to capture why and how students make revisions. Based on the proposed schema, a small corpus of student essays and revisions was annotated. Studies show that manual annotation is reliable with…

  15. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  16. The argumentative impact of causal relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1996-01-01

    causality, explanation and justification. In certain types of discourse, causal relations also imply an intentional element. This paper describes the way in which the semantic and pragmatic functions of causal markers can be accounted for in terms of linguistic and rhetorical theories of argumentation....

  17. Commensalism in Teaching: Parliamentary Procedure and Argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botan, Carl H.; Ziegelmueller, George W.

    Parliamentary procedure might best be taught in a context specific format; it would be better understood by students if not taught as a "stand alone" subject. Since the basic concepts of argumentation theory--propositions, stasis, and presumption and burden of proof--are reinforced by the rules of parliamentary procedure, instructors can teach…

  18. Brainstorming Versus Arguments Structuring in Online Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Alqahtani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We characterize electronic discussion forums as being of one of the following two types: Brainstorming Forums and Arguments Structuring Forums. In this work we analyze and classify the types of threading models occurring as a function of the type of forum. For our analysis we study forums attached to the 25 news sources most used by the aggregator Google News, as detected by a 2007 study. Most discussion forums associated with articles on these news sources seem to be designed not with the purpose of structuring arguments but mainly with the purpose of helping readers brainstorm easily their reactions to the corresponding news item. The forums were classified as to what user-supported metadata they gather and use in comment presentation. We compare the features observed for brainstorming forums, as learned via the aforementioned procedure, with the fea-tures of dedicated argument structuring forums. The argument structuring forums that were used as basis of the comparison are: YourView, DebateDecide, and Opinion Space. We notice significant differences in the obtained models for the two types of forums, as well as significant differences with respect to the the structuring of user submitted data in polls associated with major news channels. We believe that this is the first kind of work that deals with the issue above.

  19. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    (wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental...

  20. New remarks on the Cosmological Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal analysis of the Cosmological Argument in its two main forms: that due to Aquinas, and the revised version of the Kalam Cosmological Argument more recently advocated by William Lane Craig. We formulate these two arguments in such a way that each conclusion follows in first-order logic from the corresponding assumptions. Our analysis shows that the conclusion which follows for Aquinas is considerably weaker than what his aims demand. With formalizations that are logically valid in hand, we reinterpret the natural language versions of the premises and conclusions in terms of concepts of causality consistent with (and used in) recent work in cosmology done by physicists. In brief: the Kalam argument commits the fallacy of equivocation in a way that seems beyond repair; two of the premises adopted by Aquinas seem dubious when the terms `cause' and `causality' are interpreted in the context of contemporary empirical science. Thus, while there are no problems with whether the conclusions follow l...

  1. An Elegant Argument that P≠NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we present an elegant argument that P≠NP$ by demonstrating that the Meet-in-the-Middle algorithm must have the fastest running-time of all deterministic and exact algorithms which solve the SUBSET-SUM problem on a classical computer.

  2. Supporting Medical Decision Making with Argumentation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the collaborative decision-making and communicative discourse of groups of learners engaged in a simulated medical emergency in two conditions. In one condition subgroups used a traditional whiteboard (TW group) to document medical arguments on how to solve a medical emergency. In the other condition subgroups used…

  3. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permi...

  4. Dipolar cross-linkers for PDMS networks with enhanced dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Benslimane, Mohamed Yahia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    -(4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)phenoxy)-prop-1-yn-1-ylium, with a synthesized silicone compatible azide-functional cross-linker by click chemistry. The thermal, mechanical and electromechanical properties were investigated for PDMS films with 0 to 3.6 wt% of dipole-cross-linker. The relative dielectric permittivity was...

  5. Determining both the permittivity and the permeability of small samples using cavity perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a procedure for determining both the permittivity and the permeability of a small dielectric–magnetic sample by means of a cylindrical resonator supporting the circularly symmetrical TM010-mode. The method is based on perturbation theory and involves measurements of the shift of the resonance frequency and the quality factor Q for several different sample positions. (technical design note)

  6. Relative permittivity data of binary mixtures containing 2-butanol, 2-butanone, and cyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Kirkwood g factor values indicate parallel dipole association for s-BuOH and MEK. → Heterogeneous interactions are dominant in (s-BuOH + MEK) mixtures. → Mixing rules predict permittivity of s-BuOH and MEK in nonpolar media acceptably. - Abstract: Relative permittivity measurements were made on binary mixtures of (2-butanol + 2-butanone) and (2-butanol or 2-butanone + cyclohexane) for various concentrations at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K. Some experimental results are compared with those obtained from theoretical calculations and interpreted in terms of homo- and heterogeneous interactions and structural effects. The molecular dipole moments were determined using Guggenheim-Debye method within the temperature range of (298.2 to 318.2) K. The variations of effective dipole moment and correlation factor, g, with the mole fraction in these materials were investigated using Kirkwood-Frohlich equation. The pure compounds showed a negative and small temperature coefficient of effective dipole moment. In order to obtain valuable information about heterogeneous interaction (interactions between the unlike molecules), the Kirkwood correlation factor, the Bruggeman dielectric factor and the excess permittivity were calculated. In order to predict the permittivity data of polar-apolar binary mixtures, five mixing rules were applied.

  7. Dielectric properties of liquid systems: the ideal complex permittivity in liquid mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián H. Buep

    2009-01-01

    A general definition for ideal complex permittivity in a liquid mixture was reached by considering a thermodynamically ideal mixture under the effect of an applied harmonic electric field. The resulting definition is independent of any particular dielectric model, as well as the polarity of the components.

  8. Kramers-Kronig relations for plasma-like permittivities and the Casimir force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimchitskaya, G L [North-West Technical University, Millionnaya St. 5, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mohideen, U [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Mostepanenko, V M [Noncommercial Partnership ' Scientific Instruments' , Tverskaya St. 11, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-27

    The Kramers-Kronig relations are derived for the permittivity of the usual plasma model which neglects dissipation and of a generalized model which takes into account the interband transitions. The generalized plasma model is shown to be consistent with all precision experiments on the measurement of the Casimir force. (fast track communication)

  9. Kramers-Kronig relations for plasma-like permittivities and the Casimir force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kramers-Kronig relations are derived for the permittivity of the usual plasma model which neglects dissipation and of a generalized model which takes into account the interband transitions. The generalized plasma model is shown to be consistent with all precision experiments on the measurement of the Casimir force. (fast track communication)

  10. A boundary integral equation method for the calculation of the effective permittivity of periodic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Sareni, Bruno; Krähenbühl, Laurent; Beroual, Abderrahmane; Nicolas, Alain; Brosseau, C.

    1997-01-01

    We present a numerical method based upon the resolution of boundary integral equations for the calculation of the effective permittivity of a lossless composite structure consisting of a two component mixture, each with its own dielectric anti shape characteristics. The topological arrangements considered are periodic lattices inhomogeneities. Our numerical simulations are compared to the effective medium approach and with results of previous works.

  11. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    they do possess high permittivity. Combining two such polymers in a block copolymer allows for further crosslinking and presents the possibility of substantial improvements in the actuation response of the resulting dielectric elastomer – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesise a PDMS...

  12. High dielectric permittivity elastomers from well-dispersed expanded graphite in low concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata;

    2013-01-01

    The development of elastomer materials with a high dielectric permittivity has attracted increased interest over the last years due to their use in for example dielectric electroactive polymers. For this particular use, both the electrically insulating properties - as well as the mechanical prope...

  13. Optimising a modified free-space permittivity characterisation method for civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Wayne; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the electrical permittivity of civil engineering materials is important for a range of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and pavement moisture measurement applications. Compacted unbound granular (UBG) pavement materials present a number of preparation and measurement challenges using conventional characterisation techniques. As an alternative to these methods, a modified free-space (MFS) characterisation approach has previously been investigated. This paper describes recent work to optimise and validate the MFS technique. The research included finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling to better understand the nature of wave propagation within material samples and the test apparatus. This research led to improvements in the test approach and optimisation of sample sizes. The influence of antenna spacing and sample thickness on the permittivity results was investigated by a series of experiments separating antennas and measuring samples of nylon and water. Permittivity measurements of samples of nylon and water approximately 100 mm and 170 mm thick were also compared, showing consistent results. These measurements also agreed well with surface probe measurements of the nylon sample and literature values for water. The results indicate permittivity estimates of acceptable accuracy can be obtained using the proposed approach, apparatus and sample sizes.

  14. Study on the Microwave Permittivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolai; Zhao, Donglin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we studied the microwave permittivity of the complex of the single-walled carbon nanotube and paraffin in 2-18GHz. In the range, the dielectric loss of single-walled carbon nanotube is higher, and the real part and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant decrease with the increase of frequency, and the dielectric constant…

  15. Experimental study on size-dependency of effective permittivity of particle-gas mixture with agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaomin; Xu Lijun; Li Songyun

    2007-01-01

    The effective medium approximation (EMA) theory is the basis of a capacitance sensor used for concentration measurement of a particulate solid flow, its measurement result is independent on particle size. In existence of particle agglomeration or aggradation, however, it is found that the effective permittivity of a gas/solid mixture is dependent on particle size. In this paper, a parallel plate, differential capacitance sensor is utilized to investigate the influence of particle size on the effective permittivity of the mixture in such a case. Static experiments using three materials including glass, limestone and quartz particles were carried out in an off-line manner. The volume fraction of particles being tested ranged from 20×10-6 to 600×10-6, while the particle size was between 3 and 100 μm. Experimental results show that the effective permittivity of a particle-gas mixture with particle agglomeration is larger than that predicted by EMA and the smaller the particle size, the larger the effective permittivity. The experiment process and analysis results are discussed in detail in the paper.

  16. On the definition of dielectric permittivity for media with temporal dispersion in the presence of free charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in the presence of free charge carriers the definition of the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity requires additional regularization. As an example, the dielectric permittivity of the Drude model is considered and its time-dependent counterpart is derived and analyzed. The respective electric displacement cannot be represented in terms of the standard Fourier integral. The regularization procedure allowing the circumvention of these difficulties is suggested. For the purpose of comparison it is shown that the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of insulators satisfies all rigorous mathematical criteria. This permits us to conclude that in the presence of free charge carriers the concept of dielectric permittivity is not as well defined as for insulators and we make a link to widely discussed puzzles in the theory of thermal Casimir force which might be caused by the use of this kind of permittivities.

  17. The effect of filler on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of PTFE/ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.; Murali, K. P.; Jantunen, H.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    High permittivity and low-loss ceramic fillers have been prepared by means of the solid state ceramic route. Ceramic-filled composites were prepared by the Sigma Mixing, Extrusion, Calendering, which was followed by the Hot pressing (SMECH) process. The microwave dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-band waveguide cavity perturbation technique. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites was investigated in the 0-100 °C temperature range using a hot and cold chamber coupled with an impedance analyzer. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites showed strong dependence on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the filler material. In the present study, a high-permittivity polymer/ceramic composite, having τεr ∼63 ppm/K, has been realized. This composite is suitable for outdoor wireless applications.

  18. Mediating argumentative deconstruction of advertising discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    Drawing upon a social semiotic perspective, this paper examines the discursive features inherent to the argumentative discourse of Media Bites videos. The whole series of videos can be accessed at http://griid.org/category/media-bites/ and on YouTube. Each of the Media Bites videos instructively ...... the deceptive advertising messages.    ...... exposes how the advertising discourse of various companies is articulated when promoting well known products and services in their commercials. The original advertising discourse is deconstructed and reconstructed with additional visual material in front of the viewers' eyes who are instructed by a voice......-over narrator what to look at and how to identify and decode the persuasive strategies employed. The present multimodal analysis focuses on the characteristic features of these Media Bites argumentative discourses that challenge the legitimacy of the original advertising discourses. Looking specifically...

  19. Introducing Equational Semantics for Argumentation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides equational semantics for Dung’s argumentation networks. The network nodes get numerical values in [0,1], and are supposed to satisfy certain equations. The solutions to these equations correspond to the “extensions” of the network. This approach is very general and includes the Caminada labelling as a special case, as well as many other so-called network extensions, support systems, higher level attacks, Boolean networks, dependence on time, etc, etc. ...

  20. Contemporary educational argumentation: A multimodal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Coffin, C.

    2009-01-01

    In contemporary educational contexts there is considerable variation in how argumentation works and what forms and styles it takes. Influencing factors include the educational purpose and task, the level of education, and the discipline or curriculum subject in which it occurs. This paper offers a theoretical framework and a set of multimodal analytical tools which can provide a rich and systematic account of such variation. Using naturalistic data from three different educational sites I ill...

  1. How to Write Argumentation in English Persuasively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏祎甜

    2014-01-01

    <正>Some problems should be worked out first How to develop a good thesis statement?Thesis statement is the sentence that we look early in an essay for a one-or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow.It offers a concise solution to the issue being addressed and a brief summary of all explained reasons in the paper.

  2. Über die Beliebigkeit juristischer Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenzer, Ingeborg

    2000-01-01

    Im vorliegenden Aufsatz geht die Autorin der Frage nach, inwieweit sich im Familienrecht - wie dies im Obligationenrecht der Fall ist - eine gewisse Konsistenz und nachvollziebare juristische Argumentation finden lässt. Dafür wird, ausgehend vom Rechtsverständnis zu Beginn dieses Jahrhunderts, hintereinander die Entwicklung der Scheidungsgründe, des Unterhaltsrechts, des Güterrechts und des Vorsorgeausgleichs sowie des Kindesrechts betrachtet. Am Ende kommt die Autorin zum Schluss, dass von e...

  3. Logical Modes of Attack in Argumentation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Garcez, A. S. D. Avila

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies methodologically robust options for giving logical contents to nodes in abstract argumentation networks. It defines a variety of notions of attack in terms of the logical contents of the nodes in a network. General properties of logics are refined both in the object level and in the meta level to suit the needs of the application. The network-based system improves upon some of the attempts in the literature to define attacks in terms of defeasible proofs, the...

  4. Argumentation and Inference: A Unified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fouqueré

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper to use Ludics as a unified framework for the analysis of dialogue and the reasoning system. Not only is Ludics a logical theory, but it may also be built by means of concepts of game theory. We first present the main concepts of Ludics. A design is an abstraction and a generalization of the concept of proof. Interaction between designs is equivalent to cut elimination or modus ponens in logical theories. It appears to be a natural means for representing dialogues and also for reasoning. A design is a set of sequences of alternate actions, similar to a move in game theory. We apply Ludics to argumentative dialogues. We discuss how to model the speech acts of argumentative dialogues in terms of dialogue acts. A dialogue act is given by a Ludics action together with the expression that reveals the action in a turn of speech. We show also how arguments may be stored in a commitment state used for reasoning. Finally we revisit an example of juridical dialogue that has been analyzed by Prakken in a different framework.

  5. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships. PMID:12812183

  6. "Evidence" Under a Magnifying Glass: Thoughts on Safety Argument Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, P. J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Common definitions of "safety case" emphasize that evidence is the basis of a safety argument, yet few widely referenced works explicitly define "evidence". Their examples suggest that similar things can be regarded as evidence. But the category evidence seems to contain (1) processes for finding things out, (2) information resulting from such processes, and (3) relevant documents. Moreover, any item of evidence could be replaced by further argument. Normative models of informal argumentation do not offer clear guidance on when a safety argument should cite evidence rather than appeal to a more detailed argument. Disciplines such as the law address the problem with a practical, domain-specific epistemology. In this paper, we explore these problems associated with evidence citations in safety arguments, identify goals for a theory of safety argument evidence and a practical safety argument epistemology, propose a model of safety evidence citation that advances the identified goals, and present a related extension to the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN).

  7. Argumentative Discourse for the Effective Teaching of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Nafiz KAYA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the theoretical foundations of argumentation that science educators have recently suggested using as teaching approach of science, including its importance for science education. First, argumentation is discussed with respect to the significance of its social relations, and different definitions of argumentation in the literature are presented. Second, the components of an argument and relationships among its components are explained according to Toulmin‟s argument scheme that science educators have mostly used. Arguments that elementary school students made based on fundamental science topics are analyzed using Toulmin's argumentation model, and the limitations of the model are summarized. How argumentative discourse can improve students' meaningful learning, investigation capability and views of epistemology of science is discussed based on the literature findings.

  8. Speech act theory and the study of argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Henkemans A. Francisca Snoeck

    2014-01-01

    :In this paper, the influence of speech act theory and Grice’s the- ory of conversational implicature on the study of argumentation is discussed. First, the role that pragmatic insights play in van Eemeren and Grootendorst’s pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation and Jackson and Jacobs’ conver- sational approach to argumentation is described. Next, a number of examples of recent work by argumentation scholars is presented in which insights from speech act theory play a prominent role.

  9. Tracking Heroin Chic: The Abject Body Reconfigures the Rational Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Christine L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a recent fashion trend known as "heroin chic" challenges conventional modes of argumentation. Considers how its popularization of abject, emaciated bodies presents an alternative to a logic of rationalism that grounds traditional argumentation. Discusses how by foregrounding corporeal performativity as a form of argument, the…

  10. A generalization of Dung's Abstract Framework for Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Parsons, Simon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most widely studied systems of argumentation is the one described by Dung in a paper from 1995. Unfortunately, this framework does not allow for joint attacks on arguments, which we argue must be required of any truly abstract argumentation framework. A few frameworks can be said to al...

  11. A More Elegant Argument that P≠NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2011, Craig Alan Feinstein published a paper in Progress in Physics entitled “An elegant argument that P , NP ”. Since then, Craig Alan Feinstein has discovered how to make that argument much simpler. In this letter, we present this argument.

  12. Introducing High School Biology Students to Argumentation about Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Venville, Grady

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether teaching argumentation to high school biology students improved their argumentation skills, informal reasoning, and genetics understanding. Using a quasi-experiment with mixed methods of data collection, five teachers participated in professional learning on argumentation and socioscientific…

  13. From Formalism to Inquiry: A Model of Argument in "Antigone."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastely, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a definition for a formalist approach to teaching argument and discusses limitations and serious problems with this approach. Discusses "Antigone" as a representative text for teaching argument because it challenges the very possibility of argument. Proposes that literary texts such as "Antigone" be taught as theoretical works in…

  14. The Nature and Function of Argument in Organizational Bargaining Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Colleen M.

    Noting the call for research that links argument theory with negotiation, this paper examines the nature and function of argument negotiation in current organizational bargaining research theories. Five perspectives are extrapolated to define "argument" and demonstrate how different viewpoints can affect understanding of the negotiation process.…

  15. Well-Founded Argumentation Semantics for Extended Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Schweimeier, Ralf; Schroeder, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper defines an argumentation semantics for extended logic programming and shows its equivalence to the well-founded semantics with explicit negation. We set up a general framework in which we extensively compare this semantics to other argumentation semantics, including those of Dung, and Prakken and Sartor. We present a general dialectical proof theory for these argumentation semantics.

  16. Carlos Pereda y la cultura argumental

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Harada O.

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se discute la fenomenología de la atención argumental de Carlos Pereda. Se trata de mostrar que esta fenomenología toma en cuenta todos los aspectos de la argumentación, principalmente, las reglas y virtudes epistémicas que sirven para controlar esta actividad de manera interna así como evitar los vértigos argumentales, además, no sólo estudia a los argumentos o apoyos determinados o deductivos sino, igualmente, a los subdeterminados, pues sostiene que éstos son una parte imp...

  17. Reasoning about Action: An Argumentation - Theoretic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Foo, N Y; 10.1613/jair.1602

    2011-01-01

    We present a uniform non-monotonic solution to the problems of reasoning about action on the basis of an argumentation-theoretic approach. Our theory is provably correct relative to a sensible minimisation policy introduced on top of a temporal propositional logic. Sophisticated problem domains can be formalised in our framework. As much attention of researchers in the field has been paid to the traditional and basic problems in reasoning about actions such as the frame, the qualification and the ramification problems, approaches to these problems within our formalisation lie at heart of the expositions presented in this paper.

  18. Economic and ethical arguments inglobal climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate about the reduction of CO2-emissions, as seen for example at the UN climate conference in Kyoto, includes a mixture of economic and ethical arguments. Joint implementation using the market mechanisms is viewed as being unethical because the rich countries are able to pay others to carry out their redutions. This debate is seen as a continuation of a very old discussion about the ethics of the market. The Nordic electricity market is used as an example to demonstrate that the use of tradeable permissions has well defined positive consequences. (au) 26 refs

  19. Argumenter pour ou contre son opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudet, Céline; Alamargot, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Cette recherche évalue comment des étudiants en communication professionnelle peuvent composer un texte argumentatif en faisant abstraction de leurs convictions personnelles. L’analyse des arguments produits montre que l’accent est mis sur l’ethos et le pathos plutôt que sur le logos, pour influencer le lecteur par l’identification et les émotions. Des pistes didactiques pour amener les étudiants à se détacher de leurs propres opinions sont proposées en conclusion.

  20. Writing for publication: argument and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    The rules for writing a research report for publication are well defined but are much less clear for scholarly scientific papers. The purpose of this paper is to enable new writers to confidently apply the skills of scientific writing within a scholarly paper for publication. Similarities and differences between scientific argument and debating are discussed. Achieving the right 'tone' and emphasis in writing is considered. How to use the correct verb tense is outlined. The importance of a clearly defined question is explained. The elements of an effective scholarly paper are presented and examples given. The elements are the: question, thesis, introduction, body of the paper, conclusion and finally, an abstract. PMID:18585992

  1. Argumentation i debattråde

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Olsen, Anders; Bliddal, Anne Caroline Plesner; Holmen, Sebastian; Persson, Tine Meincke; Claessen Davidsen, Mathias; Fink, Mikkel Trøjborg; Andersen, Mia-Björk

    2013-01-01

    Dette projekt undersøger hvilke(t) formål argumentation i online debattråde tjener. Derudover analyseres og diskuteres det, hvorvidt der er opstilles normer i en debattråd, og i så fald, om disse normer følges. Denne problemstilling behandles igennem en pragmadialektisk, samt normativ pragmatisk argumentationsanalyse af online debatindlæggende, der er genereret udefra kronikken “Digter: Jeg er fucking vred på mine forældres generation” fra politiken.dk/debat. Projektet er teoretisk funderet u...

  2. Toward an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Lillo-Unglaube, Marco; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Navarrete, Gorka; Bravo, Claudio Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e., the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules), which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people’s behavior. We think the cur...

  3. Towards an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Marco eLillo-Unglaube; Andres eCanales-Johnson; Gorka eNavarrete; Claudio eFuentes

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e. the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules), which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people’s behavior. We think the curr...

  4. Fostering Learning through the Use of Argumentative Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzitaskos, Markos; Karacapilidis, Nikos

    As broadly admitted in the related literature, argumentation can promote learning, teamwork and leadership skills. These skills are central to the future of both developed and developing countries; however, related work reveals that students have difficulties in creating logical arguments. Motivated by the above, this paper proposes an innovative learning technology that aims at supporting argumentation through the use of serious games. Serious games have been shown to engage and motivate users and can be built with limited resources in mind. We comment on the suitability of their features for argumentation purposes, and we discuss how their use on teaching argumentation can be beneficial.

  5. Electron irradiation induced reduction of the permittivity in chalcogenide glass (As2S3) thin film

    KAUST Repository

    San-Román-Alerigi, Damián P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation on the dielectric properties of As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glass. By means of low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy, we derive the permittivity function, its dispersive relation, and calculate the refractive index and absorption coefficients under the constant permeability approximation. The measured and calculated results show a heretofore unseen phenomenon: a reduction in the permittivity of ? 40 %. Consequently a reduction of the refractive index of 20%, hence, suggests a conspicuous change in the optical properties of the material under irradiation with a 300 keV electron beam. The plausible physical phenomena leading to these observations are discussed in terms of the homopolar and heteropolar bond dynamics under high energy absorption. The reported phenomena, exhibited by As 2 S 3-thin film, can be crucial for the development of photonics integrated circuits using electron beam irradiation method. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  6. A new equation for dielectric permittivity of saturated soils based on polarization mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-peng CHEN; Yun-min CHEN; Wei XU; Zhi-gang LIANG; Wei FENG

    2008-01-01

    Based on polarization mechanisms, such as electronic, ionic and orientatioual polarizations, a new equation for dielectric permittivity of soil is proposed to interpret the dielectric behavior of a mixture like soil, in terms of polarization process of its components and the interactions between its components. The dielectric permittivity is expressed in terms of a frequency-dependent part and a frequency-independent part. These two parts correspond to polarizations occurred at different frequency range. It is a new volumetric mixing model with theoretical background. Based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements of saturated soil samples and test data from literature, comparisons of this model with some well established mixing models show that the curves for saturated sand soils and slurries resulted from the new equation, which agree well with TDR measurements, are close to those calculated from Birchak's model.

  7. Dispersion of the dielectric permittivity of dense and cold atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of general theoretical results developed previously in [JETP 112, 246 (2011)], we analyze the atomic polarization created by weak monochromatic light in an optically thick, dense, and cold atomic ensemble. We show that the amplitude of the polarization averaged over a uniform random atomic distribution decreases exponentially beyond the boundary regions. The phase of this polarization increases linearly with increasing penetration into the medium. On these grounds, we determine numerically the wavelength of the light in the dense atomic medium, its extinction coefficient, and the complex refractive index and dielectric constant of the medium. The dispersion of the permittivity is investigated for different atomic densities. It is shown that, for dense clouds, the real part of the permittivity is negative in some spectral domains.

  8. Dynamical Diffraction of Light from 1D Photonic Crystals with Sinusoidal Profile of Permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg reflection and transmission spectra of the 1D photonic crystals characterized by a spatially sinusoidal profile of permittivity are studied as a function of the crystal-plate thickness. Applicability of the dynamical theory of diffraction in describing such spectra is considered. In the framework of the dynamical theory, we (i) calculated and analysed the reflection and transmission spectra for oblique incidence of polarized light, (ii) computed the spectra making use of the transfer matrix technique, and (iii) compared quantitatively the results of the two approaches. As a result, the analytical dynamical theory of diffraction is found to be correct in calculating the Bragg spectra in the vicinity of single photonic band-gap when the plate thickness is equal to the integer number of the spatial periods, or the permittivity is symmetric about the middle plane of the structure

  9. Measurement of conductivity and permittivity on samples sealed in nuclear magnetic resonance tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a broadband impedance spectroscopy instrument designed to measure conductivity and/or permittivity for samples that are sealed in glass tubes, such as the standard 5 mm tubes used for nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The calibrations and corrections required to extract the dielectric properties of the sample itself are outlined. It is demonstrated that good estimates of the value of dc-conductivity can be obtained even without correcting for the effects of glass or air on the overall impedance. The approach is validated by comparing data obtained from samples sealed in nuclear magnetic resonance tubes with those from standard dielectric cells, using glycerol and butylmethylimidazolium-hexafluorophosphate as respective examples of a molecular and an ionic liquid. This instrument and approach may prove useful for other studies of permittivity and conductivity where contact to the metal electrodes or to the ambient atmosphere needs to be avoided

  10. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief ud Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin (AR based electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorporation of AC particles leads to systematic change in the morphology of composites especially the formation of porous structure. The dielectric measurements show that 30 wt% AC loading composite display higher relative permittivity value (~79 compared to pristine AR (~5. Further, the porous structure, electrical conductivity, and permittivity value contribute towards EMI shielding effectiveness value of −36 dB (attenuation of >99.9% of incident radiation for these composites, thereby demonstrating their suitability for making efficient EMI shielding coatings.

  11. Electrical permittivity of Ni and NiZn ferrite-polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzitte, A.C. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica de Materiales Ceramicos Electronicos (LAFMACEL), Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Capital Fedcral 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: arazzit@fi.uba.ar; Fano, W.G. [Departamento de Electronica, Facultad.de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Capital Fedcral 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jacobo, S.E. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica de Materiales Ceramicos Electronicos (LAFMACEL), Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Capital Fedcral 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-12-31

    Electrical properties of polymers, well known for their insulating properties, may be improved by adding various functional fillers. Polymer-ferrite composites have been a subject of recent extensive research. Electric properties of such composites depend on the size, shape and amount of added filler in general. When polymer-ferrite composites are particularly used as electromagnetic wave absorbers and EMI shielding materials, it is very important to explain the variation of permeability and permittivity in the measured frequency ranges. In this paper, acrylic-Ni ferrite composites and acrylic-NiZn ferrite composites were used. The effects of the weight fraction of ferrite on the frequency dispersion characteristics of the complex permittivity are studied.

  12. Experimental measurements and numerical simulation of permittivity and permeability of Teflon in X band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of an adequate characterization of radar absorbing materials, and consequently their development, the present study aims to contribute for the establishment and validation of experimental determination and numerical simulation of electromagnetic materials complex permittivity and permeability, using a Teflon® sample. The present paper branches out into two related topics. The first one is concerned about the implementation of a computational modeling to predict the behavior of electromagnetic materials in confined environment by using electromagnetic three-dimensional simulation. The second topic re-examines the Nicolson-Ross-Weir mathematical model to retrieve the constitutive parameters (complex permittivity and permeability of a homogeneous sample (Teflon®, from scattering coefficient measurements. The experimental and simulated results show a good convergence that guarantees the application of the used methodologies for the characterization of different radar absorbing materials samples.

  13. Measurement of the high-frequency complex permittivity and conductivity of magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W.; Vincent, D.; Giannitsis, A. T.

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of the permittivity, ɛ( ω)= ɛ'( ω)-i ɛ″( ω), and conductivity, σ( ω)= ωɛ0ɛ″( ω), of two ferrofluid samples of ferrite particles in a hydrocarbon carrier, isopar M, over the frequency range 0.1-6 GHz are presented. It is shown that the sample with the highest concentration of particles has the highest permittivity and by means of profile fitting it is demonstrated, for the first time, that σ( ω) has a Debye-type profile. The frequency limitation of the used measurement technique is highlighted and a possible alternative technique capable of measuring in the 20-30 GHz region is presented.

  14. Silicon electro-optic modulator with high-permittivity gate dielectric layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengxia Zhu; Zhiping Zhou; Dingshan Gao

    2009-01-01

    A high-permittivity (high-k) material is applied as the gate dielectric layer in a silicon metal-oxidesemiconductor (MOS) capacitor to form a special electro-optic (EO) modulator.Both induced charge density and modulation efficiency in the proposed modulator are improved due to the special structure design and the application of the high-k material.The device has an ultra-compact dimension of 691 μm in length.

  15. On Modeling Perfectly Conducting Sharp Corners With Magnetically Inert Dielectrics Of Extreme Complex Permittivities

    CERN Document Server

    Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A

    2012-01-01

    The idea of replacing an edgy perfectly conducting boundary by the corresponding interface filled with a dielectric material of extreme complex permittivities, is examined in the present work. A semi-analytical solution to the corresponding boundary value problems is obtained and the merit of the modeling has been checked. Certain conclusions for the effect of the constituent material parameters and the geometric features of the configuration on the model effectiveness, are drawn and discussed.

  16. Coulomb interaction revised in the presence of material with negative permittivity

    OpenAIRE

    Rangelov, A. A.; Karchev, N.

    2009-01-01

    Coulomb law is one of the fundamental laws in Physics. It describes the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two electric charges. Counterintuitively the repulsion force between two equal electric charges in a vacuum, stated by the Coulomb law, turn into the attraction force between the same electric charges when they are placed next to a material with negative permittivity and the distance between them is larger than some critical distance. As a result the equally charged particles "...

  17. Permittivity of oxidized ultra-thin silicon films from atomistic simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Penazzi, G.; KWOK, YH; Aradi, B.; Pecchia, A.; Frauenheim, T.; Chen, G.; Markov, SN

    2015-01-01

    We establish the dependence of the permittivity of oxidized ultra-thin silicon films on the film thickness by means of atomistic simulations within the density-functional-based tight-binding theory (DFTB). This is of utmost importance for modeling ultra- and extremely-thin silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs, and for evaluating their scaling potential. We demonstrate that electronic contribution to the dielectric response naturally emerges from the DFTB Hamiltonian when coupled to Poisson equation s...

  18. Novel permittivity test for determination of yeast surface charge and flocculation abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Szubzda, Bronisław

    2012-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been found to be important in many biotechnological processes. It has been suggested that flocculation is promoted by decreasing electrostatic repulsion between cells. In this study, we used an unconventional rapid technique—permittivity test—for determination of the flocculation properties and surface charge values of three industrial yeast strains with well-known flocculation characteristics: Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 1017 (brewery, ale), S. pastorianus NCYC 680 (...

  19. Level-Set Shape Reconstruction of Binary Permittivity Distributions from Near-Field Focusing Capacitance Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, S H; Garimella, S V

    2014-01-01

    A near-field focusing capacitance sensor consists of an array of long, coplanar electrodes offset by a small interface gap from an identical orthogonal array of electrodes. The sensor may be used to characterize permittivity inhomogeneities in thin dielectric layers. The sensor capacitance measurements represent a tessellated matrix of integral-averaged values describing void content in a series of zones corresponding to the electrode crossing points (junctions) of the sensor. The sensor does...

  20. Experimental measurements and numerical simulation of permittivity and permeability of Teflon in X band

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Luiz de Paula; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende; Joaquim José Barroso

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of an adequate characterization of radar absorbing materials, and consequently their development, the present study aims to contribute for the establishment and validation of experimental determination and numerical simulation of electromagnetic materials complex permittivity and permeability, using a Teflon® sample. The present paper branches out into two related topics. The first one is concerned about the implementation of a computational modeling to predict the ...

  1. Group decision support using Toulmin argument structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering; Sage, A.P. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the need for sound science, technology, and management assessment relative to environmental policy decision making through an approach that involves a logical structure for evidence, a framed decision-making process, and an environment that encourages group participation. Toulmin-based logic possesses these characteristics and is used as the basis for development of a group decision support system. This system can support several user groups, such as pesticide policy-making experts, who can use the support system to state arguments for or against an important policy issue, and pest management experts, who can use the system to assist in identifying and evaluating alternatives for controlling pests on agricultural commodities. The resulting decision support system assists in improving the clarity of the lines of reasoning used in specific situations; the warrants, grounds, and backings that are used to support claims and specific lines of reasoning; and the contradictions, rebuttals, and arguments surrounding each step in the reasoning process associated with evaluating a claim or counterclaim. Experts and decisions makers with differing views can better understand each other`s thought processes. The net effect is enhanced communications and understanding of the whole picture and, in many cases, consensus on decisions to be taken.

  2. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Grafen

    2008-12-01

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe on theoretical grounds that there is no sense of fitness that can usefully be said to be optimized. The current paper’s main objective is to provide a careful mathematical introduction to the project, and it also reflects on the project’s scope and limitations. The central argument is the proof of close ties between the mathematics of motion, as embodied in the Price equation, and the mathematics of optimization, as represented by optimization programmes. To make these links, a general and abstract model linking genotype, phenotype and number of successful gametes is assumed. The project has begun with simple dynamic models and simple linking models, and its progress will involve more realistic versions of them. The versions given here are fully mathematically rigorous, but elementary enough to serve as an introduction.

  3. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alen

    2008-12-01

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe on theoretical grounds that there is no sense of fitness that can usefully be said to be optimized. The current paper's main objective is to provide a careful mathematical introduction to the project, and it also reflects on the project's scope and limitations. The central argument is the proof of close ties between the mathematics of motion, as embodied in the Price equation, and the mathematics of optimization, as represented by optimization programmes. To make these links, a general and abstract model linking genotype, phenotype and number of successful gametes is assumed. The project has begun with simple dynamic models and simple linking models, and its progress will involve more realistic versions of them. The versions given here are fully mathematically rigorous, but elementary enough to serve as an introduction. PMID:19147931

  4. Effective complex permittivity of a weakly ionized vegetation litter fire at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal ionization of alkali species emitted from thermally decomposing vegetative matter into the combustion zone of a fire makes the zone a weakly ionized gaseous medium. Collision between the medium electrons and neutral flame particles is a dominant form of particle interaction and incident microwave energy absorption process. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of vegetation fire have implications for the safety of fire fighters during wildfire suppression where communication blackouts have been experienced. Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a vegetation fire could be deduced from its relative dielectric permittivity. In the experiment, a controlled fire burner was constructed where various dried natural vegetation could be used as fuel. The burner was equipped with thermocouples and used as a cavity for microwaves with a laboratory quality network analyser to determine effective complex permittivity from scattering parameters. A controlled vegetation fire with a maximum flame temperature of 1050 K was set in the burner and X-band microwaves (8.0-9.6 GHz) were made to propagate through the flame. For the flame, at temperatures of 800 and 1015 K, imaginary and real components of effective complex dielectric permittivity were measured to range from 0.113 to 0.119 and from 0.898 to 0.903, respectively

  5. Risk and Argument: A Risk-based Argumentation Method for Practical Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franqueira, Virginia N.L.; Tun, Thein Tan; Yu, Yijun; Wieringa, Roel; Nuseibeh, Bashar

    2011-01-01

    When showing that a software system meets certain security requirements, it is often necessary to work with formal and informal descriptions of the system behavior, vulnerabilities, and threats from potential attackers. In earlier work, Haley et al. [1] showed structured argumentation could deal wi

  6. Argument-Counterargument Structure in Indonesian EFL Learners' English Argumentative Essays: A Dialogic Concept of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusfandi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential use of the argument-counterargument structure in English L2 essays written by Indonesian EFL learners. It examines whether L2 proficiency affects the use of opposing views in their essays, and measures whether there is a correlation between the use of the rhetorical structure and the participants' overall…

  7. Experimental study and theoretical prediction of dielectric permittivity in BaTiO3/polyimide nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben-Hui; Zha, Jun-Wei; Wang, Dong-Rui; Zhao, Jun; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2012-02-01

    Theoretical models were used to predict dielectric permittivities of the thermosetting polyimide (PI) matrix nanocomposite films loading with BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles prepared by the alkoxide route. The observed dielectric permittivities are in good agreement with calculated values using Jayasundere equation and effective medium theory when the interactions of nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-polymer are considered. Additionally, temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity of the BT/PI nanocomposite films at 103 Hz was also studied for both heating from -50 to 150 °C and cooling from 150 to -50 °C. The transformation in crystal phase of BT and changes of free volume in PI were considered to be the main factors influencing the dielectric permittivities of the BT/PI nanocomposite films.

  8. Enhanced permittivity and energy density in neat poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) terpolymer films through control of morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O'Neil L; Kim, Yunsang; Kathaperumal, Mohanalingam; Gadinski, Matthew R; Pan, Ming-Jen; Wang, Qing; Perry, Joseph W

    2014-06-25

    Polymer materials with large dielectric constants are desirable for the development of high energy density capacitors. We show that the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] can be improved by the use of processing conditions that favor formation of a highly crystalline morphology of the nonpolar α-phase. Through the use of spin coating, thermal treatment above the melting temperature, and quenching, we were able to attain a highly crystalline, α-phase rich morphology that has a quite large dielectric constant of 77 ± 10 at 1 kHz. The final morphology and phase composition of the terpolymer films depend strongly on the postprocessing thermal treatment and the quality of the solvent. Evaluation of the polarization behavior of the terpolymer films as a function of electric field reveal that the polymer exhibits a relaxor-ferroelectric behavior and has a substantial energy density of 9.7 J/cm(3) at fields of up to approximately 470 V/μm. Under millisecond pulsed charge-discharge measurements a 3-fold increase in energy density (27 J/cm(3)) is obtained at high fields (∼600 V/μm). Our study demonstrates that the processing conditions and morphology of fluorinated terpolymer films are controlling factors for achievement of high dielectric permittivity and energy density that are critical for high performance capacitors. PMID:24873348

  9. Interface and permittivity simultaneous reconstruction in electrical capacitance tomography based on boundary and finite-elements coupling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangjie; Dong, Feng

    2016-06-28

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a non-destructive detection technique for imaging the permittivity distributions inside an observed domain from the capacitances measurements on its boundary. Owing to its advantages of non-contact, non-radiation, high speed and low cost, ECT is promising in the measurements of many industrial or biological processes. However, in the practical industrial or biological systems, a deposit is normally seen in the inner wall of its pipe or vessel. As the actual region of interest (ROI) of ECT is surrounded by the deposit layer, the capacitance measurements become weakly sensitive to the permittivity perturbation occurring at the ROI. When there is a major permittivity difference between the deposit and the ROI, this kind of shielding effect is significant, and the permittivity reconstruction becomes challenging. To deal with the issue, an interface and permittivity simultaneous reconstruction approach is proposed. Both the permittivity at the ROI and the geometry of the deposit layer are recovered using the block coordinate descent method. The boundary and finite-elements coupling method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with the simulation tests. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185960

  10. A Theological Argument for an Everett Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2012-01-01

    Science looks for the simplest hypotheses to explain observations. Starting with the simple assumption that {\\em the actual world is the best possible world}, I sketch an {\\it Optimal Argument for the Existence of God}, that the sufferings in our universe would not be consistent with its being alone the best possible world, but the total world could be the best possible if it includes an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God who experiences great value in creating and knowing a universe with great mathematical elegance, even though such a universe has suffering. God seems loathe to violate elegant laws of physics that He has chosen to use in His creation, such as Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism or Einstein's equations of general relativity for gravity within their classical domains of applicability, even if their violation could greatly reduce human suffering (e.g., from falls). If indeed God is similarly loathe to violate quantum unitarity (though such violations by judicious collapses of the w...

  11. On multiple zeta values of even arguments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Michael E. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    For k {<=} n, let E(2n,k) be the sum of all multiple zeta values with even arguments whose weight is 2n and whose depth is k. Of course E(2n,1) is the value {zeta}(2n) of the Riemann zeta function at 2n, and it is well known that E(2n,2)=(3)/(4){zeta}(2n). Recently Z. Shen and T. Cai gave formulas for E(2n,3) and E(2n,4) in terms {zeta}(2n) and {zeta}(2){zeta}(2n-2). We give two formulas form E(2n,k), both valid for arbitrary k{<=}n, one of which generalizes the Shen-Cai results; by comparing the two we obtain a Bernoulli-number identity. We also give an explicit generating function for the numbers E(2n,k).

  12. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    the characteristics and potential fallacies of the advertising discourse of commercials. The original advertising discourse is deconstructed and reconstructed with additional visual material in front of the viewers’ eyes who are instructed by a voiceover narrator what to look at and how to identify...... and decode the misleading strategies employed. The viewers are also instructed where else they can find information about these strategies and the consequences of misleading advertising discourse. The argumentation framework of the Media Bites videos is also persuasively articulated for engaging the...... viewers as active and critical participants in the process of message understanding. In this paper, I explore the Media Bites videos that identify and discuss problematic gender issues in commercials advertising various products. I adopt a multimodal approach in my discourse analysis and I establish which...

  13. India: Large and Small

    OpenAIRE

    Amartya Sen

    2007-01-01

    The past and present of India can be seen in many different perspectives. There is a case for focusing particularly on the long history of the argumentative tradition in India, and its continuing relevance today. The intellectual largeness of India links closely with the reach of our argumentative tradition. There are lots of economic and political issues which needs urgent attention. [Lecture at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi].

  14. Using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to develop effective argumentation skills in high school advanced placement physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heglund, Brian

    Educators recognize the importance of reasoning ability for development of critical thinking skills, conceptual change, metacognition, and participation in 21st century society. There is a recognized need for students to improve their skills of argumentation, however, argumentation is not explicitly taught outside logic and philosophy---subjects that are not part of the K-12 curriculum. One potential way of supporting the development of argumentation skills in the K-12 context is through incorporating Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to evaluate arguments. This quasi-experimental study tested the effects of such argument mapping software and was informed by the following two research questions: 1. To what extent does the collaborative use of Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate competing theories influence the critical thinking skill of argument evaluation, metacognitive awareness, and conceptual knowledge acquisition in high school Advanced Placement physics, compared to the more traditional method of text tables that does not employ Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping? 2. What are the student perceptions of the pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment? This study examined changes in critical thinking skills, including argumentation evaluation skills, as well as metacognitive awareness and conceptual knowledge, in two groups: a treatment group using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate physics arguments, and a comparison group using text tables to evaluate physics arguments. Quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to answer the research questions. Quantitative data indicated no significant difference between the experimental groups, and qualitative data suggested students perceived pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment, such as self-reported sense of improvement in argument

  15. Consciousness regained? Philosophical arguments for and against reductive physicalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper is an overview of recent discussions concerning the mind-body problem, which is being addressed at the interface between philosophy and neuroscience. It focuses on phenomenal features of consciousness or "qualia," which are distinguished from various related issues. Then follows a discussion of various influential skeptical arguments that question the possibility of reductive explanations of qualia in physicalist terms: knowledge arguments, conceivability arguments, the argument of multiple realizability, and the explanatory gap argument. None of the arguments is found to be very convincing. It does not necessarily follow that reductive physicalism is the only option, but it is defensible. However, constant conceptual and methodological reflection is required, alongside ongoing research, to keep such a view free from dogmatism and naivety. PMID:22577305

  16. Reliably measuring the condition of mineral-based transfer fluids using a permittivity sensor – practical application to thermal fluid heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ian Wright

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a series of experiments to assess the performance and suitability of a permittivity sensor in the area of heat transfer. The permittivity sensor measures condition index and temperature of a fluid. A series of 5 experiments was conducted. They assessed the reproducibility of the sensor using both clean and dirty fluid samples, and showed the sensor had good reproducibility based on calculations of coefficients of variation. The sensor also detected water contamination, assessed from construction of a stimulus-response curve to step-wise increases in water and from real-life samples where water content was reported to be out of specification. Further experiments tested the association between condition index and both water content and fluid cleanliness in a real-life setting. Results demonstrated the sensor that condition index reflected changes in fluid water and cleanliness and was therefore a measure of fluid condition. The implication of these findings is that the sensor can be used to make rapid and reliable assessments of fluid condition using only small samples (i.e., <50 ml. The sensor may be of benefit to customers that need to make a lot of regular samples over a large processing site, such as concentrated solar power plants.

  17. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    John Stachel

    2014-01-01

    This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s reformu...

  18. Argument graph as a tool for promoting collaborative online reading

    OpenAIRE

    Kiili, Carita

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the construction of an argument graph promotes students' collaborative online reading compared to note-taking. Upper secondary school students (n = 76) worked in pairs. The pairs were asked to search for and read source material on the Web for a joint essay and either construct an argument graph or take notes during online reading. The data consist of transcription protocols of student pairs' discussions and joint essays. The study indicated that argument graphs may be...

  19. Implicit internal arguments, event structure, predication and anaphoric reference

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, Francis

    2007-01-01

    International audience This chapter deals with zero or implicit internal arguments of predicates which may take one or two internal arguments, realizable syntactically. It begins by distinguishing implicit (internal) arguments in terms of a predicate's semantic valency in relation to the syntactic valency of the verb or adjective corresponding to that predicate (§2), and continues with an attempt to distinguish three semantic or discourse-referential values assumable by null complements (§...

  20. Prospective teachers’ opinions of argument culture in the classroom environment

    OpenAIRE

    Senar ALKIN-ŞAHİN; Nihan DEMİRKASIMOĞLU

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the opinions of prospective teachers’ related to argument culture in the classroom environment. The data stems from a phenomenological study including 12 prospective teachers attending the education faculty of a Turkish state university for the 2013-2014 academic year. Data collected from focus group interviews were thematically analyzed. Findings indicated that prospective teachers were aware of the pedagogical value of the argument culture. Argument culture was mostly ...

  1. Dynamic syntax account of argument realization in mandarin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenshan

    2011-01-01

    Natural languages are systems of forms and meanings; language understanding and language production are processes of establishing mappings between linguistic forms and meanings. The principles and rules governing the mapping between semantic roles and syntactic positions have long been a fundamental topic in contemporary linguistics. Such a mapping is usually called argument realization, argument mapping or argument linking. On the basis of the previous language specific and...

  2. 1D/2D Carbon Nanomaterial-Polymer Dielectric Composites with High Permittivity for Power Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ming-Sheng; Zha, Jun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    With the development of flexible electronic devices and large-scale energy storage technologies, functional polymer-matrix nanocomposites with high permittivity (high-k) are attracting more attention due to their ease of processing, flexibility, and low cost. The percolation effect is often used to explain the high-k characteristic of polymer composites when the conducting functional fillers are dispersed into polymers, which gives the polymer composite excellent flexibility due to the very low loading of fillers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNs), as one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterials respectively, have great potential for realizing flexible high-k dielectric nanocomposites. They are becoming more attractive for many fields, owing to their unique and excellent advantages. The progress in dielectric fields by using 1D/2D carbon nanomaterials as functional fillers in polymer composites is introduced, and the methods and mechanisms for improving dielectric properties, breakdown strength and energy storage density of their dielectric nanocomposites are examined. Achieving a uniform dispersion state of carbon nanomaterials and preventing the development of conductive networks in their polymer composites are the two main issues that still need to be solved in dielectric fields for power energy storage. Recent findings, current problems, and future perspectives are summarized. PMID:26865507

  3. Risk and arguments: a risk-based argumentation method for practical security

    OpenAIRE

    Franqueira, Virginia N.L.; Tun, Thein Tan; Yu, Yijun; Wieringa, Roel; Nuseibeh, Bashar

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed When showing that a software system meets certain security requirements, it is often necessary to work with formal and informal descriptions of the system behavior, vulnerabilities, and the threats from potential attackers. In earlier work, Haley et al. [4] showed structured argumentation could deal with such mixed descriptions. However, incomplete and uncertain information, and limited resources force practitioners to settle for good-enough security. To deal with t...

  4. Analysis of Discourse Markers in Chinese Students’ Argumentative Speech Chinese Students’ Argumentative Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; Jingwen; WANG; Yongli; DING; Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    DMs are a set of lexical and non-lexical forms which commonly appear in communication.Rather than other researches who focus on discourse markers in natural English speaking context,this paperexamines Chinese students’ usage of DMs in argumentative speeches and indicates that proper use of discourse markers could facilitate the communication process and more attention should be given to learning and teaching discourse markers by both students and teachers.

  5. A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

  6. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19 freshman students participated in the second year of the study. Two frameworks, an analytical and a holistic argument framework, were developed to evaluate the written argument generated by students. The analytical framework scored each argument component separately and allocated a Total Argument score while the holistic framework evaluated the arguments holistically. Three hundred and sixty-eight samples from 33 students were evaluated. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the evidence and the claims-evidence relationship components were identified as the most important predictors of the Total Argument and the Holistic Argument scores. Students' argument scores were positively correlated with their achievement, as measured by the final grade received for the general chemistry laboratory and the general chemistry lecture course.

  7. Fregego krytyka dowodu ontologicznego (FREGE'S CRITICISM OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gut

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs Frege's criticism of the ontological argument for the existence of God on the basis of various remarks scattered in his writings. The material is organized in such a way as to: (a reveal a logical structure of the argument; (b show and discern various presupposition of a logical, semantical and ontological character; and (c indicate some essential weaknesses of the ontological argument. It is argued that Frege's critical commentaries on this argument are essentially connected to four solutions, stating that: (1 the difference between a name and a predicate is categorical; (2 the existential judgement possesses a different logical structure than the singular judgement; (3 in the characteristic of concepts marks and properties should be distinguished; (4 the ascription of number contains the statement about a concept. In order to make Frege's argumentation as understandable as possible it is confronted with Kant's criticism of ontological argument. The analysis carried on in the above-described way reveals a number of shortcomings which discredit the ontological argument. For example, the paper shows that the analysis of predication of oneness (Einzigkeit does not lead to the affirmation of God's existence. Moreover, it shows that in that argument the term God is used in two different semantic roles; that some theses that should constitute the argument's conclusion, are already assumed; and that sense-condition and truth-conditions are not distinguished.Other author's publications:

  8. New ultra low permittivity composites for use in ceramic packaging of Ga:As integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, L. E.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents work performed to develop materials systems for use in the ceramic packaging of Ga:As integrated circuits. Topics under study at Penn State are: dielectrics produced from Macro-Defect-Free (MDF) cements. Both aluminate and silicate based cements have been studied. The objectives of the first year's work have been to show that suitable test tablets can be produced which exhibit dielectric losses less than 1% into the frequency range of 2.5 GHz. Current work is focused upon lowering the permittivity level using silica microballoons dispersed in the matrix. Sol-gel preparation of both thick (25 microns) and thin (0.5 microns) SiO2 and silica:alumina films has shown that in the diphasis system, it is possible to produce crack-free monoliths with permittivities in the range 1.6 to 2.0 and loss tangents below .003. In the thin films, capping of columnar sputtered etched films has been demonstrated. For etched Schott and Vycor glass structures, permittivities in the range 2.5 to 3.0 have been measured with excellent low loss properties. Sputtered silicon films have been sucessfully etched to yield highly planar columnar structures up to 25 microns meters thick. Experiments are in progress to convert the silicon to SiO2 by an oxidation step and capping of the columnar structure using sol-gel coatings has been achieved. In a parallel program at Interamics, new families of borosilicate glass bonded alumina ceramics are being developed.

  9. Design of Yagi-Uda antennas based on high-permittivity dielectric bulk materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Díez, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Dielectrics are insulators and they might therefore seem to be unlikely materials out of which to try and make antennas, but if they are excited in the right way they can be made to radiate very efficiently. Taking advantage of the properties of dielectric materials, a Yagi-Uda antenna based on a high-permittivity ceramic material operating at 3.68 GHz is described. The three-element array features a simulated directivity of approximately 8 dBi and a front-to-back ratio of 10.5 dB. M...

  10. High-Permittivity Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayers for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesters, Jurgen; Govaerts, Sanne; Pirotte, Geert; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Chevrier, Michèle; Van den Brande, Niko; Liu, Xianjie; Fahlman, Mats; Van Mele, Bruno; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Manca, Jean; Clément, Sébastien; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Maes, Wouter

    2016-03-16

    Conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) interfacial layers present a powerful way to boost the I-V characteristics of organic photovoltaics. Nevertheless, clear guidelines with respect to the structure of high-performance interlayers are still lacking. In this work, impedance spectroscopy is applied to probe the dielectric permittivity of a series of polythiophene-based CPEs. The presence of ionic pendant groups grants the formation of a capacitive double layer, boosting the charge extraction and device efficiency. A counteracting effect is the diminishing affinity with the underlying photoactive layer. To balance these two effects, we found copolymer structures containing nonionic side chains to be beneficial. PMID:26927416

  11. Tunable magnetic resonances of high-permittivity dielectric rings coated with graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a planar resonator made of a thin, high-permittivity dielectric ring coated on one side with graphene. It is shown that the resonant magnetic response of the ring to an axially applied time-harmonic magnetic field can be efficiently controlled by electrical gating of the graphene coating. Variations of the resonance frequencies and quality factors with the Fermi energy of graphene are investigated for the micrometer- and centimeter-size rings operating in the terahertz and gigahertz frequency ranges. (paper)

  12. The Microscopic Origin of the Macroscopic Dielectric Permittivity of Crystals: A Mathematical Viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Cancès, Eric; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a mathematical analysis of the Adler-Wiser formula relating the macroscopic relative permittivity tensor to the microscopic structure of the crystal at the atomic level. The technical level of the presentation is kept at its minimum to emphasize the mathematical structure of the results. We also briefly review some models describing the electronic structure of finite systems, focusing on density operator based formulations, as well as the Hartree model for perfect crystals or crystals with a defect.

  13. High electrical permittivity of ultrapure water at the water-platinum interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Francesco; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2014-10-01

    The discharge of a platinum parallel-plate capacitor filled with ultrapure water has been measured. The observed discharge trend can be described by a Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (MPB) only when the voltage is very low. Increasing the applied voltage creates an ‘exclusion zone' in which the MPB equation no longer fits, and the system capacitance shows a dependence on the spacing between the two platinum plates. The permittivity of water, calculated considering the system as a plane capacitor, appears to be very high. This implies that the exclusion zone could have extraordinary dielectric properties.

  14. Silicone films with high stiffness and increasing permittivity through dipole-grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krueger, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that can be optimized by modifying the dielectric or mechanical properties of the electroactive polymer. The incorporation of inorganic particles in silicone elastomers shows a permittivity enhancement and undesired stiffening. We present another concept to obtain comparable properties by dipole grafting. Therefore, the organic dipole N-ally-N-methyl-4-nitroaniline is grafted in competition with the vinyl terminated PDMS to a hydrosilane cross-linker forming the PDMS network. With this procedure PDMS films with up to 25 wt% of the dipole were solvent casted and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, plus electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.

  15. Pulsed nanosecond discharge development in liquids with various dielectric permittivity constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of pulsed nanosecond discharge development in liquid water, ethanol and hexane were investigated experimentally. High-voltage pulses with durations of 20 and 60 ns and amplitudes of 6–60 kV were used for discharge initiation. It is shown that the dynamics of discharge formation fundamentally differ between liquids with low and high dielectric permittivity coefficients. In water (high permittivity), two phases were observed in the process of discharge development. The first phase is connected with electrostriction compression of the media near the needle tip and the formation of a rarefaction wave in the surrounding liquid. The second phase (the discharge phase) has a pronounced start delay, which depends on the voltage of the high-voltage electrode. Thus, at low voltages, the pulse length is insufficient for the initiation of the discharge, and the process consists of the first phase only, i.e. the formation of an electrostriction rarefaction wave. At higher voltages, the discharge start delay time decreases rapidly, and the discharge commences simultaneously with the formation of hydrodynamic perturbations by the electrostriction forces present in the media. Shadowgraphic laser visualization of the process demonstrates the transition from a pure hydrodynamic density perturbation in the rarefaction wave to a developed streamer-leader process with a strong energy release in the channels and the formation of strong shock waves around the channels. Unlike in water, the first phase is essentially non-existent in liquids with low dielectric permittivity coefficients because of the small electrostriction forces and the low intensity of the rarefaction wave that is formed. The second phase in the process (discharge) begins at significantly higher voltages on the high-voltage electrode, immediately leading to the long branched structure of the streamer-leader flash. The difference in the nanosecond discharge development in liquid dielectrics may be explained

  16. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes

  17. Frequency depending permittivity of the Coulomb system with Bose-Einstein condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The second-order singularity is found in the low-frequency region of the permittivity of a homogeneous and isotropic system of charged particles consisting of electrons and boson nuclei. This singularity is caused by the existence of a Bose-Einstein condensate for nuclei. The result obtained leads to the existence of the "nuclei superconductivity", which can be experimentally verified in superfluid He II. The results of the proposed an experiment can be considered as a direct proof of the existence of a Bose-Einstein condensate in superfluid He II.

  18. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi [Department of Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.

  19. The flaw in the firewall argument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu; Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu

    2014-07-15

    A lot of confusion surrounds the issue of black hole complementarity, because the question has been considered without discussing the mechanism which guarantees unitarity. Considering such a mechanism leads to the following: (1) The Hawking quanta with energy E of order the black hole temperature T carry information, and so only appropriate processes involving E≫T quanta can have any possible complementary description with an information-free horizon; (2) The stretched horizon describes all possible black hole states with a given mass M, and it must expand out to a distance s{sub bubble} before it can accept additional infalling bits; (3) The Hawking radiation has a specific low temperature T, and infalling quanta interact significantly with it only within a distance s{sub α} of the horizon. One finds s{sub α}≪s{sub bubble} for E≫T, and this removes the argument against complementarity recently made by Almheiri et al. In particular, the condition E≫T leads to the notion of ‘fuzzball complementarity’, where the modes around the horizon are indeed correctly entangled in the complementary picture to give the vacuum.

  20. Evolution as represented through argumentation: A qualitative study on reasoning and argumentation in high school biology teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinoglu, Pelin

    This study aimed to explore high school biology teachers' epistemological criteria and their attention to reasoning and argumentation within their instructional practices. This study investigated: (1) what epistemological criteria do high school biology teachers use when justifying the validity of conclusions, (2) what is the frequency of the explicit use of reasoning and argumentation, if any, in high school biology teachers' instructional practices, and to what extend are reasoning and argumentation skills reflected, if at all, in high school biology teachers' modes of assessment. Three different data collection methods were employed in this study; face-to-face interviews, classroom observations, and document collections. Teachers' epistemological criteria were investigated to provide insight about their reasoning structures. This investigation was made possible by having teachers provide an argument about the validity of hypothetical conclusions drawn by the students based on two different scenarios related to evolution. Toulmin's Argument Pattern used to create rubric to analyze high school biology teachers' levels of reasoning through argumentation. Results of the data analysis suggested following findings. First, high school biology teachers participated in this study presented variety of epistemological criteria which were presented as high, moderate and low levels of reasoning through the argumentations. Second, elements of Toulmin's Argument Pattern were visible in the participants teaching practices, however students were not explicitly introduced to a well structured argument in those classrooms. High level of reasoning was not evident in the instructional practices of the observed teachers. High school biology classrooms which were observed in this study do not provide opportunities for students to practice high level of reasoning or improve their argumentation skills. Third, Interview Protocols designed for this study were found useful to identify the

  1. Analytical solution for the effect of the permittivity of coating layer on eddy current generated in an aluminum sample by EMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feiran; Sun, Zhenguo; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the ultrasonic wave amplitude excited by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), many researchers have proposed models. But they always ignored displacement current or the effect of the permittivity of the air or the metal sample during modeling, due to its low permittivity. However, more durable dielectric materials are replacing or coating with metals in many applications which have a much higher permittivity than air or metal sample so that the effect of permittivity cannot be ignored. Based on an analytical model, the effect of the permittivity of coating layer on the eddy current generated in an aluminum sample by EMAT has been studied. The analytical analysis indicates that the eddy current density excited by the spiral coil of EMAT slowly increases in the beginning and then decreases rapidly while the permittivity increases, and it has much relation to the thickness of the coating layer and the exciting frequency, which is verified by the simulation result.

  2. Factors Shaping Students' Opportunities to Engage in Argumentative Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Michal; Even, Ruhama

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students' opportunities to engage in argumentative activity are shaped by the teacher, the class, and the mathematical topic. It compares the argumentative activity between two classes taught by the same teacher using the same textbook and across two beginning algebra topics--investigating algebraic expressions and…

  3. Perceptions of the Qualities of Written Arguments by Japanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Japanese students perceive the qualities of written arguments that were constructed to have different forms. Based on the theoretical dimensions of verbal communication styles that Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) proposed, the research questions asked whether the respondents would perceive direct arguments to be of higher…

  4. Forming the basis of argumentative comments in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Filippova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the importance of the formation of argumentative statements in preschool children. Based on the analysis of educational programs of pre-school education are allocated and characterized ar-gumentative skills available for the formation of preschool children in the conditions of preschool educa-tional organizations.

  5. Learning about Plate Tectonics through Argument-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Perry D.; Samuels, Boba

    2010-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study (N = 60), grade 7/8 teachers students were taught to write arguments in content-area subjects. After instruction, students drew on document portfolios to write on a new topic: "Do the continents drift?" In a MANCOVA, students who participated in argument instruction scored significantly higher than a control class on…

  6. Zonal polynomials and hypergeometric functions of quaternion matrix argument

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fei; Xue, Yifeng

    2009-01-01

    We define zonal polynomials of quaternion matrix argument and deduce some important formulae of zonal polynomials and hypergeometric functions of quaternion matrix argument. As an application, we give the distributions of the largest and smallest eigenvalues of a quaternion central Wishart matrix $W\\sim\\mathbb{Q}W(n,\\Sigma)$, respectively.

  7. Speech act theory and the study of argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Snoeck Henkemans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of speech act theory and Grice’s theory of conversational implicature on the study of argumentation is discussed. First, the role that pragmatic insights play in van Eemeren and Grootendorst’s pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation and Jackson and Jacobs’ conversatio

  8. Argument and Evidence in the Case of the Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigelman, Candace

    2001-01-01

    Reviews arguments both for and against the personal as/in academic writing, suggesting that even supporters of experiential writing generally fall short of establishing its argument-based role. Examines the advantages as well as the dangers of conjuring stories as evidence in order to argue for the necessity of establishing effective standards of…

  9. Begging the Question: Some Pragmatic Aspects of Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kent

    Begging the question, or the "petitio" fallacy, is problematic for logicians because rules of logic dictate that if an argument of a particular form begs the question at issue, any other argument of the same form also begs the question; yet such questions can appear satisfactory in other contexts. The fallacy benefits from considering the…

  10. Conjunctions in Argumentative Writing of Libyan Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Muftah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was an attempt to investigate the use of conjunctions in argumentative essays written by English as a Foreign Language fourth-year undergraduate Libyan students majoring in English at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A corpus of 32 argumentative essays was collected from a sample of 16 students in order to be investigated…

  11. Fostering Argument Justification Using Collaboration Scripts and Content Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Birgitta; Mandl, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the manner in which learners' justifications for arguments are supported during collaborative task-solving in a virtual learning setting. In particular, it investigates the effects of a collaboration script and a content scheme on the learners' ability to provide adequate justifications for arguments pertaining to collaborative…

  12. "Argument!" Helping Students Understand What Essay Writing Is About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is a key requirement of the essay, which is the most common genre that students have to write. However, how argumentation is realised in disciplinary writing is often poorly understood by academic tutors, and therefore not adequately taught to students. This paper presents research into undergraduate students' concepts of argument…

  13. Teaching the Academic Argument in a University EFL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Nahla Nola

    2010-01-01

    An educational challenge that many university EFL students face is the production of written academic arguments as part of their required essays. Although the importance of argumentative writing in education is uncontested, and research shows that EFL students find difficulties in producing such texts, it is not adequately dealt with for the L1…

  14. Argument Graph as a Tool for Promoting Collaborative Online Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Carita

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the construction of an argument graph promotes students' collaborative online reading compared to note-taking. Upper secondary school students ("n"?=?76) worked in pairs. The pairs were asked to search for and read source material on the Web for a joint essay and either construct an argument graph or take notes during…

  15. Impact of Model-Based Teaching on Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Belek, Deniz Eren

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of model-based teaching on students' argumentation skills. Experimental design guided to the research. The participants of the study were pre-service physics teachers. The argumentative intervention lasted seven weeks. Data for this research were collected via video recordings and written…

  16. Validity Argument for Language Assessment: The Framework Is Simple...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    According to Kane (2006), the argument-based framework is quite simple and involves two steps. First, specify the proposed interpretations and uses of the scores in some detail. Second, evaluate the overall plausibility of the proposed interpretations and uses. Based on experience gained in developing that validity argument, Chapelle, Enright, and…

  17. Semiotic and Theoretic Control in Argumentation and Proof Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Sabena, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present a model to analyze the students' activities of argumentation and proof in the graphical context of Elementary Calculus. The theoretical background is provided by the integration of Toulmin's structural description of arguments, Peirce's notions of sign, diagrammatic reasoning and abduction, and Habermas' model for rational behavior.…

  18. Argumentation for Learning: Well-Trodden Paths and Unexplored Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterhan, Christa S. C.; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing consensus among psycho-educational scholars about argumentation as a means to improve student knowledge and understanding of subject matter. In this article, we argue that, notwithstanding a strong theoretical rationale, causal evidence is not abundant, definitions of the objects of study (argumentation, learning) are often not…

  19. Simulations of high permittivity materials for 7 T neuroimaging and evaluation of a new barium titanate-based dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuwisse, W M; Brink, W M; Haines, K N; Webb, A G

    2012-04-01

    High permittivity "dielectric pads" have been shown to increase image quality at high magnetic fields in regions of low radiofrequency transmit efficiency. This article presents a series of electromagnetic simulations to determine the effects of pad size and geometry, relative permittivity value, as well as thickness on the transmit radiofrequency fields for neuroimaging at 7 T. For a 5-mm thick pad, there is virtually no effect on the transmit field for relative permittivity values lower than ∼90. Significant improvements are found for values between 90 and ∼180. If the relative permittivity is increased above ∼180 then areas of very low transmit efficiency are produced. For a 1-cm thick pad, the corresponding numbers are ∼60 and ∼120, respectively. Based upon the findings, a new material (barium titanate, relative permittivity ∼150) is used to produce thin (∼5 mm) dielectric pads which can easily be placed within a standard receive head array. Experimental measurements of transmit sensitivities, as well as acquisition of T(2) - and T 2*-weighted images show the promise of this approach. PMID:22287360

  20. High permittivity Bi24Fe2O39 thin films prepared by a low temperature process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. H.; Defaÿ, E.; Lee, Y.; André, B.; Aïd, M.; Zhu, J. L.; Xiao, D. Q.; Zhu, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    High permittivity Bi24Fe2O39 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on platinized silicon substrates by a low temperature process combining rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and postdeposition annealing at 450 °C. A nearly pure tetragonal crystal structure with highly (201)-preferred orientation, determined by x-ray diffraction, was formed in the BFO thin film. The BFO film not only exhibits high dielectric permittivity (ɛr=113) and relatively low loss tangent (tan δ=0.012), but also shows a fairly small quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α ˜800 ppm/V2) and a small temperature coefficient of capacitance (αT˜790 ppm/°C). Moreover, the leakage current density, obeying the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, remains at a reasonably low level with the increase in applied electric field (J ˜10-6-10-4 A/cm2 under E=400 kV/cm). These attractive dielectric and electrical properties make the low temperature processed Bi24Fe2O39 thin film a promising candidate for high-k dielectric applications in silicon-based integrated circuits.

  1. High permittivity Bi24Fe2O39 thin films prepared by a low temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High permittivity Bi24Fe2O39 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on platinized silicon substrates by a low temperature process combining rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and postdeposition annealing at 450 deg. C. A nearly pure tetragonal crystal structure with highly (201)-preferred orientation, determined by x-ray diffraction, was formed in the BFO thin film. The BFO film not only exhibits high dielectric permittivity (εr=113) and relatively low loss tangent (tan δ=0.012), but also shows a fairly small quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α∼800 ppm/V2) and a small temperature coefficient of capacitance (αT∼790 ppm/deg. C). Moreover, the leakage current density, obeying the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, remains at a reasonably low level with the increase in applied electric field (J∼10-6-10-4 A/cm2 under E=400 kV/cm). These attractive dielectric and electrical properties make the low temperature processed Bi24Fe2O39 thin film a promising candidate for high-k dielectric applications in silicon-based integrated circuits.

  2. Catalytic pyrogenation synthesis of C/Ni composite nanoparticles: controllable carbon structures and high permittivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, B; Huang, H; Dong, X L; Lei, J P, E-mail: dongxl@dlut.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2010-03-17

    Catalytic pyrogenation of methane gas in the presence of Ni nanoparticles was employed to synthesize C/Ni composite nanoparticles at various reaction temperatures. The Ni nanoparticles prepared by the arc-discharge method served as a catalyst to decompose the hydrocarbon molecules and also provided isolated templates for the formation of carbon nanocapsules at 400 and 500 {sup 0}C or multi-walled carbon nanotubes at 600 and 650 {sup 0}C. The generation and growth mechanism of the carbon shells are discussed on the basis of structure evolution. By dispersing the nanoparticles homogeneously into a paraffin matrix, the electromagnetic parameters of the nanoparticles have been investigated in the frequency range 2-18 GHz. The samples exhibit high permittivities varying with the microstructures of the nanoparticles. The relationship between the dielectric properties and diverse carbon structures is indicated. The high permittivities of the nanoparticles are attributed to the better conductivity of the carbon shells and the charge polarizations at the defects or interfaces between metal cores and carbon shells.

  3. Level-set shape reconstruction of binary permittivity distributions using near-field focusing capacitance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A near-field focusing capacitance sensor consists of an array of long, coplanar electrodes offset by a small interface gap from an identical orthogonal array of electrodes. The sensor may be used to characterize permittivity inhomogeneities in thin dielectric layers. The sensor capacitance measurements represent a tessellated matrix of integral-averaged values describing void content in a series of zones corresponding to the electrode crossing points (junctions) of the sensor. The sensor does not lend itself to computed tomography because the individual capacitance measurements do not represent overlapping regions of sensitivity. An evolving level-set algorithm is proposed to reconstruct a binary permittivity distribution. A mathematical construct, based on the physics of inverse-square fields, is used to approximately reconstruct shape features too small to be captured by the raw measurements. The method accommodates the non-uniform area-sensitivity of the junction capacitance measurement. Effective use of the algorithm requires active management of the convergence criterion and evolution rate. The algorithm is demonstrated on a series of phantoms as well as measurements of a voided dielectric thermal interface material using a near-field focusing sensor. (paper)

  4. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  5. Einstein's Uniformly Rotating Disk and the Hole Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's first mention of the uniformly rotating disk in print was in 1912, in his paper dealing with the static gravitational fields. After the 1912 paper, the rotating disk problem occurred in Einstein's writings only in a 1916 review paper, "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity". Einstein did not mention the rotating disk problem in any of his papers on gravitation theory from 1912 until 1916. However, between 1912 and 1914 Einstein invoked the Hole Argument. I discuss the possible connection between the 1912 rotating disk problem and the Hole Argument and the connection between the 1916 rotating disk problem and the Point Coincident Argument. Finally, according to Mach's ideas we see that the possibility of an empty hole is unacceptable. In 1916 Einstein replaced the Hole Argument with the Point Coincidence Argument and later in 1918 with Mach's principle.

  6. Socioscientific Argumentation: The effects of content knowledge and morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Donnelly, Lisa A.

    2006-10-01

    Broad support exists within the science education community for the incorporation of socioscientific issues (SSI) and argumentation in the science curriculum. This study investigates how content knowledge and morality contribute to the quality of SSI argumentation among high school students. We employed a mixed-methods approach: 56 participants completed tests of content knowledge and moral reasoning as well as interviews, related to SSI topics, which were scored based on a rubric for argumentation quality. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant relationships among content knowledge, moral reasoning, and argumentation quality. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts supported the quantitative results in that participants very infrequently revealed patterns of content knowledge application. However, most of the participants did perceive the SSI as moral problems. We propose a “Threshold Model of Knowledge Transfer” to account for the relationship between content knowledge and argumentation quality. Implications for science education are discussed.

  7. Improving EFL argumentative writing: A dialogic critical thinking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Fahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ELT has traditionally practiced the teaching of argumentative writing through conventional writing instruction and as such has disregarded critical thinking, a capability essential to argumentative writing. The present study, therefore, aimed at enhancing EFL argumentative writing through the coupling of writing instruction and dialogic critical thinking. To this aim, 48 Iranian EFL learners, selected through cluster sampling, were randomly assigned to either the experimental group―receiving writing instruction in conjunction with doing tasks involving dialogic critical thinking―or the control group, only receiving writing instruction. To compare the writing performances of the two groups, a pretest prior to the treatment and a posttest after the treatment were administered, both in the form of in-class 180-word four-paragraph argumentative essays within a time limit of 30 minutes. While both groups made statistically significant improvements in writing argumentatively, the results indicated that the coalescence of writing instruction and dialogic critical thinking led to superior performances.

  8. Argument movement in the Tiv language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Taiwo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanism of argument movement in the derivation of grammatical Tiv construction. It examines Tiv as a syntactically ergative language and how ergative case is valued as well as the feature computation of T in ergative constructions. Raising constructions in Tiv is defined as hy­per-raising and this paper also provides insight on how features in such constructions are valued so as to avoid a situation which this paper also identifies as feature roaming. The paper also considers the effects of phase heads: whether strong phase heads block movement or not; it also seeks to account for the features re­sponsible for copy movement where it is operational in Tiv especially in subject to object movement. Using the framework of the Minimalist program, this work submits that DPs ergative constructions value their case in relationship with the verb before movement which makes the movement not for greed but to value the edge feature of T; therefore, T in ergative constructions is identified as mere Ts. In raising constructions, the mechanism of case delay has to be employed so as to avoid “feature roaming”. In this case copies left at the extraction sites, overt or covert are still useful in valuation of case in raising constructions in Tiv. In cases of copy movement, the paper accounts for such instances in terms of strong structural features such as Edge feature and complementation. The paper recommends that narrow syntax condition such as Earliness condi­tion is too strict for Tiv syntax and the syntax of other related languages and therefore should be relaxed.

  9. Integrating Argument-Based Science Inquiry with Modal Representations: Impact on Science Achievement, Argumentation, and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Gunel, Murat

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of integrating the Argument-Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) approach with multi-modal representations on students' achievement, and their argumentation and writing skills. The study was conducted with 62 female and 57 male college students at the Central Anatolian Turkish University. All participants…

  10. Teaching Critical Questions about Argumentation through the Revising Process: Effects of Strategy Instruction on College Students' Argumentative Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ferretti, Ralph P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of self-regulated strategy development revising instruction for college students that targeted the use of argumentation schemes and critical questions were assessed in three conditions. In the first condition, students were taught to revise their essays by asking and answering critical questions about the "argument from consequences"…

  11. Scientific Argumentation for All? Comparing Teacher Beliefs about Argumentation in High, Mid, and Low Socioeconomic Status Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; McNeill, Katherine L.; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring all students have opportunities to engage in scientific argumentation is a key goal for K-12 students. While research has shown that teachers' beliefs about argumentation can impact their classroom instruction and that students in low socioeconomic status (SES) schools are less likely to experience challenging science learning, there is…

  12. A Space for Debate. How diagrams support collaborative argumentation-based learning

    OpenAIRE

    van Amelsvoort, M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Discussion can lead to learning. Through discussion people can learn about other viewpoints and arguments, or construct new ideas together. However, discussion can also be difficult, due to problems with argumentation and collaboration. This dissertation investigates how argumentative diagrams can support collaborative argumentation-based learning. Argumentative diagrams are two-dimensional diagrams in which arguments are placed in boxes, and arrows are used to relate these arguments. In four...

  13. Against moral intuitions : Peter Singer's arguments against the use of moral intuitions in moral methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis I try to spot and examine Peter Singer's arguments against the use of moral intuitions in moral methodology, the subjectivism argument and the evolution argument. I try to show that neither of these argument are fully persuasive, as Singer fails to sufficiently clarify the concepts involved. I also suggest a third argument, the partiality argument, which at times seems implicit in Singer's philosophy, yet which he has never tried making into an explicit and independent argument...

  14. Complex permeability and permittivity variation of carbonyl iron rubber in the frequency range of 2 to 18 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Medeiros Gama

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The complex dielectric permittivity (e and magnetic permeability (m of Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM based on metallic magnetic particles (carbonyl iron particles embedded in a dielectric matrix (silicon rubber have been studied in the frequency range of 2 to 18 GHz. The relative permeability and permittivity of carbonyl iron-silicon composites for various mass fractions are measured by the transmission/reflection method using a vector network analyzer. The concentration dependence of permittivity and permeability on the frequency is analyzed. In a general way, the results show that e´ parameter shows a more significant variation among the evaluated parameters (e”, m”, m’. The comparison of dielectric and magnetic loss tangents (e”/e” and m”/m’, respectively shows more clearly the variation of both parameters (e and m according to the frequency. It is also observed that higher carbonyl iron content fractions favor both dielectric and magnetic loss tangents.

  15. Observation of high permittivity in Ho substituted BaZr0.1Ti0.9O3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors observed an extremely high permittivity (∼35 000 at TC) in barium zirconate titanate (BaZr0.1Ti0.9O3) ceramics with holmium substitution (1-5 mol %) in Ba site. Careful microstructural investigation and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of the 1-2 mol % of Ho substituted ceramics showed the enrichment of a Ho-phase along the grain boundaries with a composition close to the Ho2Ti2O7 pyrochlore. The formation of Ho rich phase resulted in the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism, which leads to this unusually high permittivity. Ceramics with 3 mol % or higher Ho content showed lesser permittivity values compared to 1-2 mol %, probably due to the increase in pyrochlore phase. These high dielectric constant ceramics are useful in nanoscale devices

  16. An electrode-free method of characterizing the microwave dielectric properties of high-permittivity thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovtun, V.; Pashkov, V.; Kempa, M.; Kamba, S.; Eremenko, A.; Molchanov, V.; Poplavko, Y.; Yakymenko, Y.; Lee, J. H.; Schlom, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    A thin dielectric resonator consisting of a dielectric substrate and the thin film deposited upon it is shown to suffice for microwave characterization and dielectric parameter measurement of high-permittivity thin films without electrodes. The TE01δ resonance mode was excited and measured in thin (down to 0.1 mm) rectangular- or disk-shaped low-loss dielectric substrates (D ˜10 mm) with permittivity ɛ'≥10 inserted into a cylindrical shielding cavity or rectangular waveguide. The in-plane dielectric permittivity and losses of alumina, DyScO3, SmScO3, and (LaAlO3)0.29(SrAl1/2Ta1/2O3)0.71 (LSAT) substrates were measured from 10 to 18 GHz. The substrate thickness optimal for characterization of the overlying thin film was determined as a function of the substrate permittivity. The high sensitivity and efficiency of the method, i.e., of a thin dielectric resonator to the dielectric parameters of an overlying film, was demonstrated by characterizing ultrathin strained EuTiO3 films. A 22 nm thick EuTiO3 film grown on a (100) LSAT substrate and strained in biaxial compression by 0.9% exhibited an increase in microwave permittivity at low temperatures consistent with it being an incipient ferroelectric; no strain-induced ferroelectric phase transition was seen. In contrast, a 100 nm thick EuTiO3 film grown on a (110) DyScO3 substrate and strained in biaxial tension by 1% showed two peaks as a function of temperature in microwave permittivity and loss. These peaks correspond to a strain-induced ferroelectric phase transition near 250 K and to domain wall motion.

  17. Null Arguments in the Yoruba Child’s Early Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Elizabeth Arokoyo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied null arguments in the early speech of the Yoruba child. We examined whether null subjects are more prominent than null objects and whether the usage of null subjects decreases with language development in the early utterance of the Yoruba child. We also examined the relationship between argument ellipses and finiteness. Minimalist Programme was adopted as the theoretical framework because of its provision for minimality in the processes of language acquisition.  The database was made up of longitudinal naturalistic speech output of three Yoruba-speaking children between 15and 36 months of age. We discovered the preponderance of null argument-NPs at the initial stage; subjects-NPs were easily omitted while object-NPs were hardly omitted; the three Yoruba-speaking children began to make use of overt argument-NPs from fifteen months and gradually, null argument-NPs gave way. We found no direct relationship between the acquisition of finiteness and the end of null arguments.Keywords: arguments, null, object, subject, finiteness, ellipses

  18. Negative permittivity of ZnO thin films prepared from aluminum and gallium doped ceramics via pulsed-laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodea, M. A.; Sbarcea, G.; Naik, G. V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Klar, T. A.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and gallium doped zinc oxide thin films with negative dielectric permittivity in the near infrared spectral range are grown by pulsed laser deposition. Composite ceramics comprising ZnO and secondary phase Al2O3 or Ga2O3 are employed as targets for laser ablation. Films deposited on glass...... from dense and small-grained ceramic targets show optical transmission larger than 70 % in the visible and reveal an onset of metallic reflectivity in the near infrared at 1100 nm and a crossover to a negative real part of the permittivity at approximately 1500 nm. In comparison to noble metals, doped...

  19. Effects of Finite-size Ions and Relative Permittivity in a Nanopore Model of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution, modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are applied to study the distribution and flow of protons within cylindrical, water-filled nanopores of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM). The model incorporates finite-size effects and an explicit expression for the relative permittivity. Due to the geometry, the problem decouples into a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the radial direction and the Stokes equation in the axial direction. Ion saturation near pore walls, radial permittivity profiles, conductivity and water drag are properties of particular interest. Shortcomings and the usefulness of continuum models are elucidated and how these models might be employed to simulate macroscopic membrane properties

  20. Interpenetrated polymer networks based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks with high dielectric permittivity and self-healing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliani, Elisa; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    applicability. One method used to avoid this limitation is to increase the dielectric permittivity of the material in order to improve the actuation response at a given field. Recently, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on covalently cross-linked commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks...... from amino- and carboxylic acid- functional silicones have been designed[2] (Figure 1). This novel system provides both the mechanical stability and the high breakdown strength given by the silicone part of the IPNs and the high permittivity and the softening effect of the ionic network. Thus these...

  1. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.

    2013-10-25

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  2. Molding of Plasmonic Resonances in Metallic Nanostructures: Dependence of the Non-Linear Electric Permittivity on System Size and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alabastri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres.

  3. 3D-Simulation of Topology-Induced Changes of Effective Permeability and Permittivity in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hallouet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed 3D simulations of complex effective permittivity and permeability for random binary mixtures of cubic particles below the percolation threshold. We compare two topological classes that correspond to different spatial particle arrangements: cermet topology and aggregate topology. At a low filling factor of f=10%, where most particles are surrounded by matrix material, the respective effective material parameters are indistinguishable. At higher concentrations, a systematic difference emerges: cermet topology is characterized by lower effective permittivity and permeability values. A distinction between topological classes might thus be a useful concept for the analysis of real systems, especially in cases where no exact effective-medium model is available.

  4. From gulf to bridge: when do moral arguments facilitate political influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

    2015-12-01

    Much of contemporary American political rhetoric is characterized by liberals and conservatives advancing arguments for the morality of their respective political positions. However, research suggests such moral rhetoric is largely ineffective for persuading those who do not already hold one's position because advocates advancing these arguments fail to account for the divergent moral commitments that undergird America's political divisions. Building on this, we hypothesize that (a) political advocates spontaneously make arguments grounded in their own moral values, not the values of those targeted for persuasion, and (b) political arguments reframed to appeal to the moral values of those holding the opposing political position are typically more effective. We find support for these claims across six studies involving diverse political issues, including same-sex marriage, universal health care, military spending, and adopting English as the nation's official langauge. Mediation and moderation analyses further indicated that reframed moral appeals were persuasive because they increased the apparent agreement between the political position and the targeted individuals' moral values. PMID:26445854

  5. An Abstract Framework for Argumentation-based Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Amgoud, Leila; Dimopoulos, Yannis; Moraïtïs, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an abstract framework for argumentation-based negotiation, in which the role of argumentation is formally analyzed. The framework makes it possible to study the outcomes of an argumentation-based negotiation. It shows what an agreement is, how it is related to the theories of the agents, when it is possible, and how this can be attained by the negotiating agents in this case. It defines also the notion of concession, and shows in which situation an agent will make one, as ...

  6. Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of

  7. Life and space dimensionality: A brief review of old and new entangled arguments

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A general sketch on how the problem of space dimensionality depends on anthropic arguments is presented. Several examples of how life has been used to constraint space dimensionality (and vice-versa) are reviewed. In particular, the influences of three-dimensionality in the solar system stability and the origin of life on Earth are discussed. New constraints on space dimensionality and on its invariance in very large spatial and temporal scales are also stressed.

  8. A utilitarian argument against torture interrogation of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Jean Maria

    2004-07-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the "ticking bomb" scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official U.S. program of torture interrogation from a practical perspective. The central element of program design is a sound causal model relating input to output. I explore three principal models of how torture interrogation leads to truth: the animal instinct model, the cognitive failure model, and the data processing model. These models show why torture interrogation fails overall as a counterterrorist tactic. They also expose the processes that lead from a precision torture interrogation program to breakdowns in key institutions-health care, biomedical research, police, judiciary, and military. The breakdowns evolve from institutional dynamics that are independent of the original moral rationale. The counterargument, of course, is that in a society destroyed by terrorism there will be nothing to repair. That is why the actual causal mechanism of torture interrogation in curtailing terrorism must be elucidated by utilitarians rather than presumed PMID:15362710

  9. In-situ measurement of the low frequency permittivity of sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, S.; Ingham, M.; Gouws, G.; Eicken, H.; Haskell, T.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-borehole resistivity tomography, previously used to measure the anisotropic resistivity structure of first-year sea ice, has been adapted to measure the low frequency electric permittivity over the frequency range 10 Hz - 100 kHz. Results from measurements made using a purpose built instrument in both McMurdo Sound, Antarctica and Barrow, Alaska are reported. These show dielectric relaxation to occur at a frequency of around 10 KHz, with prominent low frequency effects due to space charge polarization. Modelling of the results in terms of Debye and Cole-Cole models allows some insights into the variation of key parameters with factors such as brine volume fraction and temperature. Results from McMurdo Sound, where there is a depth transition from columnar ice to incorporated platelet ice, also suggest the existence of structural effects.

  10. Characterizing the complex permittivity of high-κ dielectrics using enhanced field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed a method to characterize the complex permittivities of samples based on the enhancement of the electric field strength. The enhanced field method significantly improves the measuring range and accuracy of the samples’ electrical properties. Full-wave simulations reveal that the resonant frequency is closely related to the dielectric constant of the sample. In addition, the loss tangent can be determined from the measured quality factor and the just obtained dielectric constant. Materials with low dielectric constant and very low loss tangent are measured for benchmarking and the measured results agree well with previous understanding. Interestingly, materials with extremely high dielectric constants (εr > 50), such as titanium dioxide, calcium titanate, and strontium titanate, differ greatly as expected

  11. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient in...... a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE...... equipped with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The...

  12. Zero permeability and zero permittivity band gaps in 1D metamaterial photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depine, Ricardo A. [Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez-Ricci, Maria L. [Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Monsoriu, Juan A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: jmonsori@fis.upv.es; Silvestre, Enrique [Departamento de Optica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Andres, Pedro [Departamento de Optica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-04-30

    We consider layered heterostructures combining ordinary positive index materials and dispersive metamaterials. We show that these structures can exhibit a new type of photonic gap around frequencies where either the magnetic permeability {mu} or the electric permittivity {epsilon} of the metamaterial is zero. Although the interface of a semi-infinite medium with zero refractive index (a condition attained either when {mu}=0 or when {epsilon}=0) is known to give full reflectivity for all incident polarizations, here we show that a gap corresponding to {mu}=0 occurs only for TE polarized waves, whereas a gap corresponding to {epsilon}=0 occurs only for TM polarized waves. These band gaps are scale-length invariant and very robust against disorder, although they may disappear for the particular case of propagation along the stratification direction.

  13. Characterizing the complex permittivity of high-κ dielectrics using enhanced field method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Hsien-Wen; Wong, Wei-Syuan; Chang, Tsun-Hsu, E-mail: thschang@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30024, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    This paper proposed a method to characterize the complex permittivities of samples based on the enhancement of the electric field strength. The enhanced field method significantly improves the measuring range and accuracy of the samples’ electrical properties. Full-wave simulations reveal that the resonant frequency is closely related to the dielectric constant of the sample. In addition, the loss tangent can be determined from the measured quality factor and the just obtained dielectric constant. Materials with low dielectric constant and very low loss tangent are measured for benchmarking and the measured results agree well with previous understanding. Interestingly, materials with extremely high dielectric constants (ε{sub r} > 50), such as titanium dioxide, calcium titanate, and strontium titanate, differ greatly as expected.

  14. Complex permittivity, complex permeability and microwave absorption properties of ferrite-polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex permittivity (ε'-jε''), complex permeability (μ'-jμ'') and microwave absorption properties of ferrite-polymer composites prepared with different ferrite ratios of 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% in polyurethane (PU) matrix have been investigated in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) frequency range. The M-type hexaferrite composition BaCo+20.9Fe+20.05Si+40.95Fe+310.1O19 was prepared by solid-state reaction technique, whereas commercial PU was used to prepare the composites. At higher GHz frequencies, ferrite's permeabilities are drastically reduced, however, the forced conversion of Fe+3 to Fe+2 ions that involves electron hopping, could have increased the dielectric losses in the chosen composition. We have measured complex permittivity and permeability using a vector network analyzer (HP/Agilent model PNA E8364B) and software module 85071. All the parameters ε', ε'', μ' and μ'' are found to increase with increased ferrite contents. Measured values of these parameters were used to determine the reflection loss at various sample thicknesses, based on a model of a single-layered plane wave absorber backed by a perfect conductor. The composite with 80% ferrite content has shown a minimum reflection loss of -24.5 dB (>99% power absorption) at 12 GHz with the -20 dB bandwidth over the extended frequency range of 11-13 GHz for an absorber thickness of 1.6 mm. The prepared composites can fruitfully be utilized for suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduction of radar signatures (stealth technology)

  15. Penetration Depth of Microwave into the Mixture of Goethite with Graphite Estimated by Permittivity and Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahira, Keita; Saito, Youichi; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Todoroki, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2013-11-01

    A study has been conducted to understand the penetration behavior of microwave into the mixture of goethite with carbon (C) aiming at providing an appropriate guidance to dehydrate the substances with hydroxides occasionally contained in industrial sludge. At first, it was observed that microwave could not sufficiently penetrate into the specimen with C/goethite molar ratios greater than 2, giving incomplete dehydration. To understand the penetration behavior of microwave, permittivity and conductivity were measured. Permittivity measurements were successfully made below 9 vol pct C. For carbon content greater than 8.56 vol pct C, the conductivity of the mixture abruptly increased by four orders of magnitude because of the occurrence of the conductivity percolation. Above 13.7 vol pct C close to an inflection point approximating 10 vol pct C, the mixture became sufficiently conductive. Transition from dielectric to conductive behavior occurred between 8.56 and 13.7 vol pct C. The Generalized Effective Medium approximation could satisfactorily express the variation of the conductivity values in the whole range of vol pct C measured. The penetration depth of microwave was determined by the above two measurements. It was found that penetration depth decreased with the increasing vol pct of C contained in the mixture specimen. Finally, guidance could be provided as for the blend ratio of C to treated material along with the size of a briquette or a pellet referring to the obtained relation between penetration depth and vol pct of C. Furthermore, it was proved that the numerical simulation was quite helpful to predict how microwave behaves in the mixture under given conditions.

  16. Complex bounds and microstructural recovery from measurements of sea ice permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea ice is a porous composite of pure ice with brine, air, and salt inclusions. The polar sea ice packs play a key role in the earth's ocean-climate system, and they host robust algal and bacterial communities that support the Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems. Monitoring the sea ice packs on global or regional scales is an increasingly important problem, typically involving the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with sea ice. In the quasistatic regime where the wavelength is much longer than the composite microstructural scale, the electromagnetic behavior is characterized by the effective complex permittivity tensor ε*. In assessing the impact of climate change on the polar sea ice covers, current satellites and algorithms can predict ice extent, but the thickness distribution remains an elusive, yet most important feature. In recent years, electromagnetic induction devices using low frequency waves have been deployed on ships, helicopters and planes to obtain thickness data. Here we compare two sets of theoretical bounds to extensive outdoor tank and in situ field data on ε* at 50MHz taken in the Arctic and Antarctic. The sea ice is assumed to be a two phase composite of ice and brine with known constituent permittivities. The first set of bounds assumes only knowledge of the brine volume fraction or porosity, and the second set further assumes statistical isotropy of the microstructure. We obtain excellent agreement between theory and experiment, and are able to observe the apparent violation of the isotropic bounds as the vertically oriented microstructure becomes increasingly connected for higher porosities. Moreover, these bounds are inverted to obtain estimates of the porosity from the measurements of ε*. We find that the temporal variations of the reconstructed porosity, which is directly related to temperature, closely follow the actual behavior

  17. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, August). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Presentation at EARLI, Exeter, UK.

  18. Hindman's Theorem: An Ultrafilter Argument in Second Order Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Towsner, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Hindman's Theorem is a prototypical example of a combinatorial theorem with a proof that uses the topology of the ultrafilters. We show how the methods of this proof, including topological arguments about ultrafilters, can be translated into second order arithmetic.

  19. The semantics of incorporation: from argument structure to discourse transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    Prefinal version of the manuscript. - Stanford: CSLI publications Distinguishing between discourse referents and thematic arguments, the analysis of incorporation proposed by Donka Farkas and Henriette de Swart accounts for the relationship between morphological and semantic number, the contrasts b

  20. Synthetic Biology and the Argument from Continuity with Established Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    ignores the distinction between what reasons we have and what we should do all things considered. I then illustrate the Continuity Argument and its problems in the case where human manipulation of organisms’ genetic makeup is a suggested reason for finding synthetic biology problematic. Finally, I suggest......Defenders of synthetic biology commonly make reference to the fact that established technologies, such as domestication or selective breeding, share some of the features of synthetic biology that critics argue make it ethically problematic. In this chapter, I reconstruct such references as...... instances of a type of argument which I dub the Continuity Argument. Roughly, the Continuity Argument seeks to show that if we are not disposed to reject the established technology, then features that this technology share with synthetic biology cannot provide reasons to find it ethically problematic. I...

  1. Cross-Linguistic Evidence and the Licensing of Implicit Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kardos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the occurrence and the licensing of implicit object arguments, also referred to in the literature as null complements or understood arguments. Functionalist accounts (such as those by Groefsema and Németh T. which are couched in a relevance-theoretic framework have repeatedly claimed that this phenomenon is fundamentally dependent on dis-course-interpretational factors. In particular, it has been stated that implicit arguments can be used in Hungarian in a rather unrestricted way, and their occurrence is only limited by considerations of interpretability. We argue against both of these positions and try to show that cross-linguistic data can assist in revealing the circular nature and ultimate inadequacy of existing functional accounts of implicit argument licensing.

  2. Electric permittivity and conductivity of nanofluids consisting of 15 nm particles of alumina in base Milli-Q and Milli-Ro water at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Opposite effects of temperature and concentration on the nanofluid permittivity. • Permittivity and electrical conductivity are enhanced with respect to the base fluid. • Patterns for permittivity and thermal conductivity enhancements are similar. • Conductivity enhancements are larger in the purer base water. -- Abstract: The effective relative permittivity and electric conductivity of suspensions of 15 nm particles of aluminium oxide (alumina) in base Milli-Q and Milli-Ro water were determined at six different temperatures in the range (298.15 to 348.15) K, and at eight different concentrations up to 7% mass (2% volume). Present results demonstrate the importance of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, temperature and water purity on the effective relative permittivity and electric conductivity of alumina nanoparticles suspensions. Empirical equations for describing the experimental data are given. Trends for changes in permittivity enhancement and in electric conductivity enhancement with temperature and concentration are examined and discussed. It is found that the conductivity enhancement is larger for alumina nanoparticles in the purer Milli-Q water than in the less-pure Milli-Ro water. Classic models for predicting the relative permittivity of binary systems fail when applied to these nanofluids because the latter exhibit positive relative permittivity changes on mixing. The effect of temperature on electric conductivity is discussed in terms of an Arrhenius-like equation

  3. Domestic Partners and "The Choice Argument": Quo Vadis?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Coetzee Bester; Anne Louw

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of formal legal recognition, domestic partners are required to regulate the consequences of their relationship by utilising alternative regulatory measures and remedies which are, for the most part, inadequate. The traditional justification used to differentiate between domestic partners and spouses is known by some as the choice argument. The choice argument is based on the rationale that persons who choose not to marry cannot claim spousal benefits. It understands choice narr...

  4. Introducing probabilistic reasoning in defeasible argumentation using labeled deductive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chesñevar, Carlos Iván; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    LabeledDeductive Systems (LDS)were developed as a rigorous but fexiblemethodology to formalize complex logical systems, such as temporal logics, database query languages and defeasible reasoning systems. LDSAR is a LDS-based framework for defeasible argumentation which subsumes diferent existing argumentation frameworks, providing a testbed for studying diferent relevant features (such as emerging logical properties, ontological aspects, semantic characterization, etc.) This paper discusse...

  5. Reflexivity and the diagonal argument in proofs of limitative theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Młynarski, Kajetan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses limitations of reflexive and diagonal arguments as methods of proof of limitative theorems (e.g. G\\"odel's theorem on Entscheidungsproblem, Turing's halting problem or Chaitin-G\\"odel's theorem). The fact, that a formal system contains a sentence, which introduces reflexitivity, does not imply, that the same system does not contain a sentence or a proof procedure which solves this problem. Second basic method of proof - diagonal argument (i.e. showing non-eqiunumerosity o...

  6. Muller's Critique of the Argument for Aim-Oriented Empiricism

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, N.

    2009-01-01

    For over thirty years I have argued that we need to construe science as accepting a metaphysical proposition concerning the comprehensibility of the universe. In a recent paper, Fred Muller criticizes this argument, and its implication that Bas van Fraassen’s constructive empiricism is untenable. In the present paper I argue that Muller’s criticisms are not valid. The issue is of some importance, for my argument that science accepts a metaphysical proposition is the first step in a broader ar...

  7. Three suggesting arguments for history of social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Three possible history of science arguments with related hints and suggestions, ranging from ethnoanthropological to psychoanalytic context, are here briefly outlined. The first one mainly concerns with some digressions on symbolism and its early origins drawn from economic anthropology; the second argument regards possible psychodynamic bases underlying racism; and, finally, the third one deals with some historiographical considerations about the early moments incipient the dawning of Freudi...

  8. Improving Undergraduates’ Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Mei Fung; Hooi Chee Mei

    2015-01-01

    When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003). This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL) learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to review their draft throughout the writing process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-assessment in group writing and how group work ...

  9. Homosexual marriage: The Victory of Political Correctness and Bad Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Sesardic

    2007-01-01

    Many Western intellectuals, especially those in humanities and socialsciences, think that it can be easily shown that the persistent and massive opposition to same-sex marriage is rationally indefensible and that it is merely a result of prejudice or religious fanaticism. But a more detailed analysis of some of these widely accepted arguments against the conservative position reveals that these arguments are in fact based on logical fallacies and serious distortions of conservative criticisms...

  10. Heuristics in Argumentation: A Game-Theoretical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Prakken, Henry; Riveret, Régis; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a game-theoretical investigation on how to determine optimal strategies in dialogue games for argumentation. To make our ideas as widely applicable as possible, we adopt an abstract dialectical setting and model dialogues as extensive games with perfect information where optimal strategies are determined by preferences over outcomes of the disputes. In turn, preferences are specified in terms of expected utility combining the probability of success of arguments with the co...

  11. Factorization of numbers with truncated Gauss sums at rational arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Wölk, S.; Feiler, C.; Schleich, W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Factorization of numbers with the help of Gauss sums relies on an intimate relationship between the maxima of these functions and the factors. Indeed, when we restrict ourselves to integer arguments of the Gauss sum we profit from a one-to-one relationship. As a result the identification of factors by the maxima is unique. However, for non-integer arguments such as rational numbers this powerful instrument to find factors breaks down. We develop new strategies for factoring numbers using Gaus...

  12. Negotiation and argumentation in multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) composed of autonomous agents representing individuals or organizations and capable of reaching mutually beneficial agreements through negotiation and argumentation are becoming increasingly important and pervasive.Research on both automated negotiation and argumentation in MAS has a vigorous, exciting tradition. However, efforts to integrate both areas have received only selective attention in the academia and the practitioner literature. A symbiotic relationship could significantly strengthen each area's progress and trigger new R&D challenges and prospects toward t

  13. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Determining both the permittivity and the permeability of small samples using cavity perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sten, Johan C.-E.; Koivisto, Päivi K.

    2009-05-01

    We report a procedure for determining both the permittivity and the permeability of a small dielectric-magnetic sample by means of a cylindrical resonator supporting the circularly symmetrical TM010-mode. The method is based on perturbation theory and involves measurements of the shift of the resonance frequency and the quality factor Q for several different sample positions.

  14. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2–4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study. PMID:27121618

  15. Negative permittivity behavior in Fe50Ni50/Al2O3 magnetic composite near percolation threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of conductor–insulator composites often take dramatic changes near the percolation threshold (fc), leading to interesting applications, such as double negative material. This phenomenon also will be enlarged by increasing the differences between the properties of the constitutive phases. In this paper, the Fe50Ni50/Al2O3 magnetic cermets with different Fe50Ni50 volume contents (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) were prepared via hot-pressing sintering. The permittivity of Fe50Ni50/Al2O3 composites has been studied in the radio frequency range. The results indicate that when the Fe50Ni50 content is below fc, the reactance of the composites takes a negative value, which indicates a capacitive character. The metallic Fe50Ni50 grains are isolated in the insulating ceramic matrix, leading to an insulator-like dielectric property. When the volume fraction of Fe50Ni50 reaches 40% which is above fc, the composites manifest an inductive character. In this case, the negative permittivity has been obtained over the whole test frequency range due to the percolation phenomenon, which makes Fe50Ni50/Al2O3 composites as promising candidates for double negative materials. - Highlights: • The negative permittivity in Fe50Ni50/Al2O3 composites was achieved. • The percolation phenomenon was observed when the volume fraction of Fe50Ni50 was between 30% and 40%. • The frequency range that the negative permittivity could be generated is tunable

  16. A nanonewton force facility and a novel method for measurements of the air and vacuum permittivity at zero frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Vladimir

    2009-08-01

    A nanonewton force facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, for the measurement of horizontal forces in the range below 1 µN, is presented. It consists of a measuring system and an identical reference system. Recent experiments with the nanonewton force facility have achieved agreement between an electrostatic force and a gravitational force of 80 nN with an uncertainty of less than 3%. A novel method for measurements of the air (vacuum) permittivity at zero frequencies by means of the nanonewton force facility is presented. First measurements in air show a permittivity of the air ɛ ≈ 8.71 × 10-12 F m-1 with an uncertainty of 3%. From a theoretical analysis, it follows that this method can be used for the measurement of the vacuum permittivity ɛ0 at zero frequencies with a relative uncertainty of about 10-5. The precise measurement of the vacuum permittivity ɛ0 for an electrostatic field would be another test for the correctness of Maxwell's equations.

  17. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3–5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors. (paper)

  18. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  19. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stachel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s reformulation and Darmois’ formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein’s adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  20. Correlation between temperature-dependent permittivity dispersion and depolarization behaviours in Zr4+-modified BiFeO3–BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Zeng; Changrong Zhou; Jianrong Xiao; Jiafeng Ma

    2015-12-01

    The correlation between permittivity frequency dispersion and depoling process upon heating was investigated in Zr4+-modified 0.75BiFeO3–0.25BaTiO3 (BF–BZT) ceramics. The temperature-dependent permittivity r() and the piezoelectric coefficient 33 for poled samples were measured under heating conditions to clarify the depolarization mechanism. The results indicate that the poling temperature plays a crucial role in the domains' alignment process, as expected. The temperature-dependent permittivity frequency dispersion and depolarization behaviours may have same origin. The aligned domains' break up into random state/nanodomains at depoling temperature ( d), which causes strong frequency dependence of the permittivity, simultaneously, induces the loss of piezoelectricity. It suggests that the temperature-dependent permittivity measurements method is a simple way to determine the depolarization temperature.

  1. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  2. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-06-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  3. Microwave effective permittivity of carbon black filled polymers: Comparison of mixing law and effective medium equation predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouazzaoui, S.; Achour, M. E.; Brosseau, C.

    2011-10-01

    Carbon black (CB) filled polymers have become the platform to study a number of interesting properties including percolation mechanisms, localization effects, and multiscale modeling of interface and interphase regions surrounding filler particles. A systematic microwave study of the effective complex permittivity of CB filled diglycidylic ether of bisphenol A based epoxy samples, determined by the impedance bridge (35 GHz) and the cavity perturbation (2.4 and 9.5 GHz) techniques, is reported. A series of composite materials was fabricated by mechanical mixing with three types of CB (Monarch and Sterling) particles differing with their average particle size and surface area. On the basis of the limited experimental evidence presented here, our distinctive features are seen in the data: (i) We found no enhancement of the effective permittivity near the dc percolation threshold; (ii) the calculation of the effective permittivity based on Lichteneker and Rother's mixing law with constant k close to zero reproduces the measured CB volume fraction dependence of the effective permittivity very well for the series of samples containing Monarch particles, (iii) the data are not well fit with the Bruggeman equation for supercolative samples. This is an indication that a mean field model is not strictly applicable because this simple model assumes a given microstructure for the composite material; and (iv) the two exponent phenomenological percolation equation (TEPPE) can yield good predictive values of the imaginary part of the effective complex permittivity over the range of frequencies and CB volume fractions with non-universal values of the percolation exponents. It is concluded that fitting the experimental data with mixing law and effective medium equation predictions has limited applicability because these models assume a given microstructure for the composite material.

  4. Goal-driven Changes in Argumentation: A theoretical framework and a tool

    OpenAIRE

    Bisquert, Pierre; Cayrol, Claudette; Dupin De Saint Cyr - Bannay, Florence; Lagasquie-Schiex, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper defines a new framework for dynamics in argumentation. In this framework, an agent can change an argumentation system (the target system) in order to achieve some desired goal. Changes consist in addition/removal of arguments or attacks between arguments and are constrained by the agent’s knowledge encoded by another argumentation system. We present a software that computes the possible change operations for a given agent on a given target argumentation sy...

  5. The Dielectric Permittivity of Crystals in the reduced Hartree-Fock approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Cancès, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In a recent article (Canc\\`es, Deleurence and Lewin, Commun. Math. Phys., 281 (2008), pp. 129-177), we have rigorously derived, by means of bulk limit arguments, a new variational model to describe the electronic ground state of insulating or semiconducting crystals in the presence of local defects. In this so-called reduced Hartree-Fock model, the ground state electronic density matrix is decomposed as $\\gamma = \\gamma^0_{\\rm per} + Q_{\

  6. Reconstruction of Vertical Profile of Permittivity of Layered Media which is Probed Using Vertical Differential Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Poyedinchuk, Anatoliy Y.; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla A.; Pochanina, Iryna Ye.

    2016-04-01

    Results of this research are intended to use at GPR investigations of layered media (for example, at roads' inspection) for the processing of collected data and reconstruction of dependence of permittivity on the depth. Recently, an antenna system with a vertical differential configuration of receiving module (Patent UA81652) for GPR was suggested and developed The main advantage of the differential antennas in comparison with bistatic antennas is a high electromagnetic decoupling between the transmitting and receiving modules. The new vertical differential configuration has an additional advantage because it allows collecting GPR data reflected by layered media without any losses of information about these layers [1] and, potentially, it is a more accurate instrument for the layers thickness measurements [2]. The developed antenna system is tested in practice with the GPR at asphalt thickness measurements [3] and shown an accuracy which is better than 0.5 cm. Since this antenna system is good for sounding from above the surface (air coupled technique), the mobile laboratory was equipped with the developed GPR [3]. In order to process big set of GPR data that collected during probing at long routes of the roads, for the data processing it was tested new algorithm of the inverse problem solution. It uses a fast algorithm for calculation of electromagnetic wave diffraction by non-uniform anisotropic layers [4]. The algorithm is based on constructing a special case solution to the Riccati equation for the Cauchy problem and enables a qualitative description of the wave diffraction by the electromagnetic structure of the type within a unitary framework. At this stage as initial data we used synthetic GPR data that were obtained as results of the FDTD simulation of the problem of UWB electromagnetic impulse diffraction on layered media. Differential and bistatic antenna configurations were tested at several different profiles of permittivity. Meanings of permittivity of

  7. Using Argument-Driven Inquiry to enhance students' argument sophistication when supporting a stance in the context of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Jonathon A.

    This quasi-experimental study assesses the extent to which the Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instructional model enhances undergraduate students' abilities to generate quality arguments supporting their stance in the context of a Socioscientific Issue (SSI) as compared to students experiencing a traditional style of instruction. Enhancing the quality of undergraduate students' arguments in the context of SSI can serve as an indirect measure of their scientific literacy and their ability to make sound decisions on issues that are inherently scientific but also involve social implications. Data collected in this study suggest that the undergraduate students experiencing the ADI instruction more readily provide rationales in their arguments supporting their decisions regarding two SSI-tasks as compared to a group of undergraduate students experiencing traditional instruction. This improvement in argument quality and gain in scientific literacy was achieved despite the overall lower SSI related content knowledge of the ADI students. Furthermore, the gap between the argument quality of those students with high versus low SSI related content knowledge was closed within the ADI group, while the same gap persisted post-intervention within the traditional instruction students. The role of students' epistemological sophistication was also investigated, which showed that neither instructional strategy was effective at shifting students' epistemological sophistication toward an evaluativist stance. However, the multiplists within the ADI group were able to significantly increase the sophistication of their arguments whereas the traditional students were not. There were no differences between the quality of arguments generated by the evaluativist students with either the treatment or comparison groups. Finally, the nature of the justifications used by the students revealed that the students (both comparison and treatment groups) did not invoke science-based justifications when

  8. For Argument's Sake: the shadow side of argumentation and debate in the science classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.

    2013-12-01

    Though the science on climate change is clear, those dismissive of current findings and future projections continue to influence the public sphere. This is never more problematic than in an educational setting, where a concern for fairness has driven the push for unscientific material to be used to balance the science. The introduction of the Next Generation Science Standards in many states across the country, which emphasizes the use of argumentation as a theme for engaging students in critical thinking, and the appeal of having students 'debate' politically controversial concepts such as climate change could unintentionally undermine the science by casting doubt and manufacturing 'controversy' where scientifically there is none. How can scientists help support teachers to use appropriate material for educating about climate change? Where is the line between supporting good science and activism? How can teachers separate the science from the politics without undermining its value in informing policy decisions? In this presentation, we will address how teachers can manage these challenges to engage students about politically and socially controversial topics while maintaining a clear, current and robust scientific basis for instruction.

  9. Arguments against the utilization of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attempt is made to treat the subject 'nuclear energy' on a large scale. In this brochure, all important problems can only be discussed quite briefly; a great number of footnotes indicating further literature shall guide the reader to thorough study. The text is supposed to serve as a systematic introduction to the problems as well as for looking up individual partial aspects. A lot of space has been given to the presentation of those aspects that concern the risk of nuclear facilities, and the threat to man and environment by their operation. Moreover, fundamental political, scientific-sociological, economic and other social problems are discussed. The objective of this was to give the reader an idea of the social background before which the controversy about the nuclear energy is taking place today and what factors decide its development. (orig./HP)

  10. Using History and Philosophy of Science to Promote Students' Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the effect of a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) based on the discovery of oxygen in promoting students' argumentation. It examines the written and oral arguments produced by 63 high school students (24 females and 39 males, 16-17 years old) in France during a complete TLS supervised by the same teacher. The data used in this analysis was derived from students' written responses, audio and video recordings, and written field notes. The first goal of this investigation was to provide evidence that an approach combining history and philosophy of science and argumentation could increase students' awareness of the relevance of experimentation and communication to scientific progress. The second goal was to assess the effectiveness of the TLS to engage students in argumentative classroom interactions (such as debates) relating to the discovery of oxygen at the end of the 18th century. The findings show that this historical case can be useful for promoting students' argumentation and is also appropriate for high school students. Future research should include students of other ages, other historical episodes and experiences in other parts of the world.

  11. Computing Preferred Extensions for Argumentation Systems with Sets of Attacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Parsons, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The hitherto most abstract, and hence general, argumentation system, is the one described by Dung in a paper from 1995. This framework does not allow for joint attacks on arguments, but in a recent paper we adapted it to support such attacks, and proved that this adapted framework enjoyed the sam...... these systems. In this paper we propose a method for enumerating preferred extensions of the potentially more complex systems, where joint attacks are allowed. The method is inspired by the one given by Doutre and Mengin.......The hitherto most abstract, and hence general, argumentation system, is the one described by Dung in a paper from 1995. This framework does not allow for joint attacks on arguments, but in a recent paper we adapted it to support such attacks, and proved that this adapted framework enjoyed the same...... formal properties as that of Dung. One problem posed by Dung's original framework, which was neglected for some time, is how to compute preferred extensions of the argumentation systems. However, in 2001, in a paper by Doutre and Mengin, a procedure was given for enumerating preferred extensions for...

  12. THE PROFILE OF ARGUMENTATION SKILL USING “TOULMIN ARGUMENTATION PATTERN” ANALYSIS IN THE ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPAL ON THE STUDENTS OF SMA KOTA BANDAR LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyanti -

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to indentify student’s argumentation skill which is seen from argumentation discourse and then it is analyzed using TAP (Toulmin Argumentation Pattern which consists of some components such as data, claim, warrant, backing and rebuttal on the topic of Archimedes Principle. The method used in this research is descriptive method. The result of this research shows based on the written assignment, the student’s scientific argumentation skill is not good. The student often do not use an appropriate argumentation, do not use adequate evidence, or try to straighten their own option or try to apply their own argument.

  13. Regarding the `Hole Argument' and the `Problem of Time'

    CERN Document Server

    Gryb, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The canonical formalism of general relativity affords a particularly interesting characterisation of the infamous hole argument. It also provides a natural formalism in which to relate the hole argument to the problem of time in classical and quantum gravity. In this paper, we examine the connection between these two much discussed problems in the foundations of spacetime theory along two interrelated lines. First, from a formal perspective, we consider the extent to which the two problems can and cannot be precisely and distinctly characterised. Second, from a philosophical perspective, we consider the implications of various responses to the problems, with a particular focus upon the viability of a `deflationary' attitude to the relationalist/substantivalist debate regarding the ontology of spacetime. Conceptual and formal inadequacies within the representative language of canonical gravity will be shown to be at the heart of both the canonical hole argument and the problem of time. Interesting and fruitful...

  14. Nephrarious goings on. Kidney sales and moral arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J R

    1996-08-01

    From all points of the political compass, from widely different groups, have come indignant outcries against the trade in human organs from live vendors. Opponents contend that such practices constitute a morally outrageous and gross exploitation of the poor, inherently coercive and obviously intolerable in any civilized society. This article examines the arguments typically offered in defense of these claims, and finds serious problems with all of them. The prohibition of organ sales is derived not from the principles and argument usually invoked in support of prohibition, but rather, from strong feelings of repugnance which exert an invisible but powerful influence on the debate, distorting the arguments [and working] to the detriment of the [very] people most in need of protection. PMID:8899539

  15. Fostering revision of argumentative writing through structured peer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Chin; Chuang, Min-Tun

    2013-02-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the effect of structured peer assessment on revision of an argumentative writing. Two intact classes (N = 22, 26) were randomly assigned to be the trained and control groups. The latter received no facilitative resources, while the former participated in structured peer assessment based on Calibrated Peer Review, a web-based program purposefully designed for students to receive peer-assessment training, assess their peers' writing, and make written commentary online. At the end of the treatment, both groups revised their writing. The trained group revised their writing more extensively, outperforming the control group on frequency and type of revision, as well as the holistic quality of argumentative writing. After structured peer assessment, participants of the trained group became critical of their own work and invested more effort in spontaneous revision to produce higher-quality argumentative writing. PMID:23829147

  16. A unified model for the permittivity and thermal conductivity of epoxy based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekmes, I. A.; Kochetov, R.; Morshuis, P. H. F.; Smit, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional models are presented that were developed for both the relative permittivity and the thermal conductivity of composites based on epoxy in an attempt to understand the way in which modified fillers interact with epoxy. Various ceramics were used as fillers, namely magnesium oxide, aluminium nitride, aluminium oxide, hexagonal boron nitride and cubic boron nitride with an average particle size between 22 and 150 nm. The concept of the models is mainly based on two competing mechanisms, i.e., polymer re-organization and water uptake. These were realized in the models by assuming two interfacial layers around the particles, an inner and an outer layer. The former refers to water uptake and the latter demonstrates the influence of the matrix by the presence of surface modified particles and exhibits different properties than both the filler and polymer matrix. The thickness of the inner layer is constant while the outer layer thickness has a dynamic behaviour which strongly depends on the interparticle distance and thus, on the filler content. The same assumptions were made for both models and an accurate fit was achieved between the experimental data and model results.

  17. Complex permittivity and conductivity of poly(-phenylenediazomethine) and its blends at microwave frequencies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Princy; Rani Joseph; Honey John; K T Mathew

    2010-06-01

    Poly(-phenylenediazomethine) was synthesized by the condensation reaction between glyoxal and -phenylene diamine in different solvents like methanol, toluene, -cresol and ,-dimethylformamide. The dielectric properties and microwave conductivity of the pelletized samples were measured using cavity perturbation technique. The measurements were done at 2.17 GHz at room temperature (25°C). The effect of dopants on the dielectric properties and conductivity was studied using HCl and HClO4. Dielectric properties like dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor and microwave conductivity increased on doping with HCl and HClO4. Conducting polymer composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of glyoxal and -phenylenediamine in different solvents containing different amounts of PVC, and silica. The microwave conductivity and complex permittivity of each sample was measured. The effect of dopants like HClO4 and HCl on these dielectric properties was also studied. The d.c. conductivity of the pressed samples measured by the two-probe method was also studied.

  18. Polyaniline coated cellulose fiber / polyvinyl alcohol composites with high dielectric permittivity and low percolation threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Anju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost effective, high performance dielectric composites based on polyvinyl alcohol, cellulose fibers and polyaniline were prepared and the dielectric properties were studied as a function of fiber content, fiber dimensions and polyaniline content over a frequency range of 40 Hz to 30 MHz. The short cellulose fibers were size-reduced to micro and nano levels prior to coating with polyaniline. Fiber surface was coated with Polyaniline (PANI by an in situ polymerization technique in aqueous medium. The composites were then prepared by solution casting method. Short cellulose fiber composites showed a dielectric constant (DEC of 2.3 x 105 at 40 Hz. For the micro- and nano- cellulose fiber composites the DEC was increased to 4.5 x 105 and 1.3 x 108, respectively. To gain insight into the inflection point of the dielectric data polynomial regression analysis was carried out. The loss tangent of all the composites remained at less than 1.5. Further, AC conductivity, real and imaginary electric moduli of all the composites were evaluated. PVA nanocomposite attained an AC conductivity of 3 S/m. These showed that by controlling the size of the fiber used, it was possible to tune the permittivity and dielectric loss to desired values over a wide range. These novel nanocomposites, combining high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss, can be effectively used in applications such as high-charge storage capacitors.

  19. Tunable Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductivity and Permittivity of Graphene Oxide Paper for Electrochemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Thomas; Bishop, Sean R; Perry, Nicola H; Sasaki, Kazunari; Lyth, Stephen M

    2016-05-11

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional graphitic carbon material functionalized with oxygen-containing surface functional groups. The material is of interest in energy conversion, sensing, chemical processing, gas barrier, and electronics applications. Multilayer GO paper has recently been applied as a new proton conducting membrane in low temperature fuel cells. However, a detailed understanding of the electrical/dielectric properties, including separation of the ionic vs electronic contributions under relevant operating conditions, has so far been lacking. Here, the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of GO paper are investigated in situ from 30 to 120 °C, and from 0 to 100% relative humidity (RH) using impedance spectroscopy. These are related to the water content, measured by thermogravimetric analysis. With the aid of electron blocking measurements, GO is demonstrated to be a mixed electronic-protonic conductor, and the ion transference number is derived for the first time. For RH > 40%, conductivity is dominated by proton transport (with a maximum of 0.5 mS/cm at 90 °C and 100% RH). For RH potential of GO for application not only as a proton conducting electrolyte but also as a mixed conducting electrode material under appropriate conditions. Such materials are highly applicable in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. PMID:27088238

  20. Characterization of samarium copper tantalate - a new perovskite material with high dielectric permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A permanent progress in miniaturization of electronic capacitive elements requires development of new materials exhibiting a high dielectric constant. The paper reports on synthesis and sintering conditions and dielectric properties of a new ceramic material with the composition Sm2/3CuTa4O12 . This material has a complex perovskite structure analogous to that of CuTa4O12 . Its high dielectric permittivity reaching 10 5 could be attributed to spontaneous formation of internal barrier layer capacitors (IBLC). Complex impedance spectroscopic studies carried out at frequencies of 10 Hz – 2 MHz and in a wide temperature range from -55 to 700°C reveal two types of dielectric response of the ceramic samples. A high-frequency and low-temperature response is related to grains, whereas a low-frequency and high-temperature response is attributed to grain boundaries. Scanning electron microscope images and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis confirmed the existence of semiconducting grains and more resistive grain boundaries in the investigated ceramic material. Key words: samarium copper tantalate, perovskite ceramic, dielectric properties, internal barrier layer capacitor

  1. Transformation optics and metamaterials at infrared wavelength: engineering of permittivity and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Rasta; Degiron, Aloyse; Leroux, Xavier; Lupu, Anatole; de Lustrac, André

    2013-05-01

    The transformation optics was introduced by J. Pendry and U. Leonhardt in 2006 [1,2]. In this method an initial space is transformed into a new space and this transformed space can be materialized by a material, which the electromagnetic parameters can be deduced from the metric of the transformed space. In the general case the electromagnetic parameters are anisotropic tensors. At microwave frequencies these materials can be realized using classical metamaterials like SRR form J. Pendry or ELC from D. Smith [3]. At infrared wavelengths this realization is a challenge because the dimensions of the metamaterials are much smaller than the wavelength and become nanometric. Then the design of these metamaterials must be simplified and original methods must be developed to allow the realization of these metamaterials with controlled electromagnetic properties. In this paper we describe the realization of a multilayer metamaterial working at infrared wavelength, which the permittivity and the permeability can be adjusted separately. We give some examples of realized multilayer materials operating around 150THz, with a comparison between the results of full wave simulations of these materials and their characterizations using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer.

  2. Electrically conductive polypropylene nanocomposites with negative permittivity at low carbon nanotube loading levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Yan, Xingru; He, Qingliang; Wei, Huige; Long, Jun; Guo, Jiang; Gu, Hongbo; Yu, Jingfang; Liu, Jingjing; Ding, Daowei; Sun, Luyi; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-03-25

    Polypropylene (PP)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by coating CNTs on the surface of gelated/swollen soft PP pellets. The electrical conductivity (σ) studies revealed a percolation threshold of only 0.3 wt %, and the electrical conductivity mechanism followed a 3-d variable range hopping (VRH) behavior. At lower processing temperature, the CNTs formed the network structure more easily, resulting in a higher σ. The fraction of γ-phase PP increased with increasing the pressing temperature. The CNTs at lower loading (0.1 wt %) served as nucleating sites and promoted the crystallization of PP. The CNTs favored the disentanglement of polymer chains and thus caused an even lower melt viscosity of nanocomposites than that of pure PP. The calculated optical band gap of CNTs was observed to increase with increasing the processing temperature, i.e., 1.55 eV for nanocomposites prepared at 120 °C and 1.70 eV prepared at 160 and 180 °C. Both the Drude model and interband transition phenomenon have been used for theoretical analysis of the real permittivity of the nanocomposites. PMID:25719265

  3. Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated yttrium scandate (YScO3) as an alternative high-permittivity (k) dielectric thin film for Ge gate stack formation. Significant enhancement of k-value is reported in YScO3 comparing to both of its binary compounds, Y2O3 and Sc2O3, without any cost of interface properties. It suggests a feasible approach to a design of promising high-k dielectrics for Ge gate stack, namely, the formation of high-k ternary oxide out of two medium-k binary oxides. Aggressive scaling of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) with promising interface properties is presented by using YScO3 as high-k dielectric and yttrium-doped GeO2 (Y-GeO2) as interfacial layer, for a demonstration of high-k gate stack on Ge. In addition, we demonstrate Ge n-MOSFET performance showing the peak electron mobility over 1000 cm2/V s in sub-nm EOT region by YScO3/Y-GeO2/Ge gate stack

  4. Observation of reduction in Casimir force without change of dielectric permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Banishev, A A; Castillo-Garza, R; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M; Mohideen, U

    2012-01-01

    Additional information is provided on the effect of the significant (up to 35%) reduction in the magnitude of the Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and an indium tin oxide film which was observed after UV treatment of the latter. A striking feature of this effect is that the reduction is not accompanied with a corresponding variation of the dielectric permittivity, as confirmed by direct ellipsometry measurements. The measurement data are compared with computations using the Lifshitz theory. It is shown that the data for the untreated sample are in a very good agreement with theory taking into account the free charge carriers in the indium tin oxide. The data for the UV-treated sample exclude the theoretical results obtained with account of free charge carriers. These data are found to be in a very good agreement with theory disregarding the free charge carriers in an indium tin oxide film. A possible theoretical explanation of our observations as a result of phase transition of indium tin oxide from ...

  5. Dielectric permittivity, ac conductivity and phase transition in hydroxyl ammonium sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Kader, M M; Aboud, A I; Abdelmonem, H [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Elzayat, M Y [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University (Egypt); Hammad, T R, E-mail: mmahmodakader@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University (Egypt)

    2011-03-15

    The complex dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}*={epsilon}'-j{epsilon}'') and ac conductivity {sigma} ({omega}, T) as a function of temperature (90-375 K) and frequency (0.4 kHz to {approx}100 kHz) were measured in this work for polycrystalline samples of hydroxyl ammonium sulfate, (NH{sub 3}OH){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The measured electrical parameters revealed the existence of a structural phase transition at T{approx}312 K, which was further confirmed by a differential thermal analysis thermogram, where a clear endothermic peak centered at {approx}312 K is observed. Regarding the charge transport mechanism, it is likely that the behavior of frequency-dependent conductivity follows the universal dynamic response {sigma} ({omega},T)=A(T) {omega}{sup s(T)}. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent s (0{<=}s{<=}1) suggests the quantum mechanical tunneling model to be the most likely one that describes the electrical transport mechanism. The data correlate with the crystal structure and the hydrogen-bonding system.

  6. Complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-poly aniline composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S.M. [Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dixit, A.K. [DMSRDE, G.T. Road, Kanpur 208013 (India); Chatterjee, R. [Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)]. E-mail: rmala@physics.iitd.ac.in; Goel, T.C. [BITS, Pilani Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa 403726 (India)

    2005-11-20

    BaTiO{sub 3}-polyaniline composites with different mixture ratios, 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75, have been prepared in polyurethane resin, keeping pigment to volume concentration (PVC) constant as {approx}25 in all the samples. For this, BaTiO{sub 3} powder by oxide route and polyaniline by chemical oxidation route have been synthesized. The complex permittivity ({epsilon}{sup '}{sub r}-j{epsilon}{sup '}'{sub r}) and reflection loss (dB) of the composites have been measured at different microwave frequencies in X-band (8.2-12.4GHz) employing vector network analyzer model PNA E8364B and software module 85071. Reflection loss (dB) has been calculated for different thicknesses of the composites using measured values of {epsilon}{sup '}{sub r} and {epsilon}{sup '}'{sub r}. It is found that the absorption properties of the composite improve with increasing % of polyaniline. A maximum reflection loss of -15dB (97% power absorption) at 10GHz with a bandwidth of 3GHz (full frequency width at half of the peak response) has been achieved. Materials can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI), and reduction of radar signature.

  7. Frequency dispersive complex permittivity and permeability of ferromagnetic metallic granular composite at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally studied the frequency dependent complex permittivity ε and permeability μ of composite composed of carbonyl iron powder (CIP) and epoxy resin in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. We found that the intrinsic ε and μ of CIP extracted from the measured ε and μ of composites follow the classical Maxwell equations and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, respectively. The dependences of ε and μ of composites on the volume fraction of CIP (vfCIP) were investigated using the two-exponent phenomenological percolation equation (TEPPE). We found that the TEPPE can fit the experimental results very well. Comparing the results of percolation parameters derived by experimental data at different frequencies, we show that the TEPPE is frequency independent for the composites at microwave frequencies. The results also show that the ε and μ spectrums of composites with definite vfCIP can be correctly calculated by combining the TEPPE with the theoretical models of intrinsic ε and μ. - Highlights: → Study on frequency dispersive properties of carbonyl iron/resin composite at 1-18 GHz. → Intrinsic properties of carbonyl iron particles were extracted and analyzed. → Effective properties of the composite were correctly described by the Mclachlan formula. → The Mclachlan formula was proved to be invariable versus frequency for dispersion mediums.

  8. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Fidan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs, including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS and time-of-flight (TOF-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments.

  9. Polyaniline coated cellulose fiber / polyvinyl alcohol composites with high dielectric permittivity and low percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, V. P.; Narayanankutty, Sunil K.

    2016-01-01

    Cost effective, high performance dielectric composites based on polyvinyl alcohol, cellulose fibers and polyaniline were prepared and the dielectric properties were studied as a function of fiber content, fiber dimensions and polyaniline content over a frequency range of 40 Hz to 30 MHz. The short cellulose fibers were size-reduced to micro and nano levels prior to coating with polyaniline. Fiber surface was coated with Polyaniline (PANI) by an in situ polymerization technique in aqueous medium. The composites were then prepared by solution casting method. Short cellulose fiber composites showed a dielectric constant (DEC) of 2.3 x 105 at 40 Hz. For the micro- and nano- cellulose fiber composites the DEC was increased to 4.5 x 105 and 1.3 x 108, respectively. To gain insight into the inflection point of the dielectric data polynomial regression analysis was carried out. The loss tangent of all the composites remained at less than 1.5. Further, AC conductivity, real and imaginary electric moduli of all the composites were evaluated. PVA nanocomposite attained an AC conductivity of 3 S/m. These showed that by controlling the size of the fiber used, it was possible to tune the permittivity and dielectric loss to desired values over a wide range. These novel nanocomposites, combining high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss, can be effectively used in applications such as high-charge storage capacitors.

  10. Electromagnetic wave propagation in media whose permittivity varies periodically in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Juan Carlos; Halevi, Peter

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a general theory for propagation of plane electromagnetic waves in a medium with permittivity that is varying periodically in time. The Bloch-Floquet theorem dictates that these are a superposition of harmonic modes whose frequencies differ by 2π/T, where T is the period of ɛ(t). For arbitrary periodicity, the dispersion relation φ(t) for the ``Bloch frequency'' is given in terms of the roots of an infinite determinant whose elements depend on the Fourier coefficients of ɛ(t). For small variation of ɛ(t) around an average ɛ0,φ(t) is characterized by regions of the wave vector k that are forbidden for propagation. These are centered at φ and k values that are, respectively, integer multiples of π/T and of πɛ0^1/2 /cT. The widths of the gaps are proportional to the corresponding Fourier coefficients of ɛ(t). In the special case of square-periodic variation of ɛ(t), there is no need to recur to a perturbational calculation, because the dispersion relation can be derived analytically, with no approximations. Again, we find wave vectors gaps whose edges are located at the frequencies φ=0,π/T,2π/T,... .

  11. Radiometric characterization of six soils in the microwave X-range through complex permittivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating and monitoring up-to-date soil moisture conditions over extensive areas through passive (or active) microwave remote sensing techniques requires the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (εr*) in function of soil moisture. X-band measurements of εr* for different moisture conditions were made in laboratory for soil samples of six important Soils (PV2, LV3, LRd, LE1, SAP and Sc). Using a theoretical model and computational programmes developed, these measurements allowed estimates of the emissive characteristics of the soils that would be expected with the X-Band Microwave Radiometer built at INPE. The results, new, for soils from tropical regions, showed that only the physical characteristics and properties of the soils are not sufficient to explain the behaviour of εr* in function of soil moisture, indicating that the chemical and/or mineralogical properties of the soils do have an important contribution. The results also showed thast εr* in function of soil moisture depends on soil class. (author)

  12. Using a modified argument-driven inquiry to promote elementary school students' engagement in learning science and argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lu, Ying-Yan; Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a modified argument-driven inquiry approach on Grade 4 students' engagement in learning science and argumentation in Taiwan. The students were recruited as an experimental group (EG, n = 36) to join a 12-week study, while another 36 Grade 4 students from the same schools were randomly selected to be the comparison group (CG). All participants completed a questionnaire at the beginning and end of this study. In addition, four target students with the highest and the other four students with the lowest pretest engagement in learning science or argumentation to be observed weekly and interviewed following the posttest. Initial results revealed that the EG students' total engagement in learning science and argumentation and the claim and warrant components were significantly higher than the CG students. In addition, the EG students' anxiety in learning science significantly decreased during the study; and their posttest total engagement in learning science scores were positively associated with their argumentation scores. Interview and observation results were consistent with the quantitative findings. Instructional implications and research recommendations are discussed.

  13. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using this...... connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical...

  14. Designing for students' science learning using argumentation and classroom debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip Laverne

    1998-12-01

    This research investigates how to design and introduce an educational innovation into a classroom setting to support learning. The research yields cognitive design principles for instruction involving scientific argumentation and debate. Specifically, eighth-grade students used a computer learning environment to construct scientific arguments and to participate in a classroom debate. The instruction was designed to help students integrate their science understanding by debating: How far does light go, does light die out over distance or go forever until absorbed? This research explores the tension between focusing students' conceptual change on specific scientific phenomena and their development of integrated understanding. I focus on the importance of connecting students' everyday experiences and intuitions to their science learning. The work reported here characterizes how students see the world through a filter of their own understanding. It explores how individual and social mechanisms in instruction support students as they expand the range of ideas under consideration and distinguish between these ideas using scientific criteria. Instruction supported students as they engaged in argumentation and debate on a set of multimedia evidence items from the World-Wide-Web. An argument editor called SenseMaker was designed and studied with the intent of making individual and group thinking visible during instruction. Over multiple classroom trials, different student cohorts were increasingly supported in scientific argumentation involving systematic coordination of evidence with theoretical ideas about light. Students' knowledge representations were used as mediating "learning artifacts" during classroom debate. Two argumentation conditions were investigated. The Full Scope group prepared to defend either theoretical position in the debate. These students created arguments that included more theoretical conjectures and made more conceptual progress in understanding

  15. Homosexual marriage: The Victory of Political Correctness and Bad Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Sesardic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many Western intellectuals, especially those in humanities and socialsciences, think that it can be easily shown that the persistent and massive opposition to same-sex marriage is rationally indefensible and that it is merely a result of prejudice or religious fanaticism. But a more detailed analysis of some of these widely accepted arguments against the conservative position reveals that these arguments are in fact based on logical fallacies and serious distortions of conservative criticisms of homosexual marriage. It is concluded that philosophers ought to resist the pressure of political correctness and that they should approach the debate with a more open mind than before.

  16. Children's Use of Inscriptions in Argumentation about Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sihan

    Engaging science in everyday life often means not advancing knowledge or making new claims, but evaluating given claims with available evidence. In everyday situations, evidence is usually presented in some type of inscription (e.g. tables, diagrams, and other images). This study explores elementary students' use of inscriptions as evidence in written arguments about socioscientific issues and how a school year of science instruction may play a role in that use. Three science teachers and their 102 students in 5th and 6th grades at a progressive urban K-6 school participated in this study. I administered a written argument task at the beginning and the end of the 2013--2014 school year, in which students were asked to justify their personal decisions about either alternative energy use or genetically modified organisms. Throughout the year, I worked closely with the teachers to organize classroom instruction towards promoting argumentation and coordination between claims and evidence, and videotaped their science lessons. Content analysis on students' written arguments reveals that photos were cited the most in students' written arguments, while tables were cited the least. Students tended to merely point to an inscription without articulate its relation to a particular claim, or to assert that an inscription "shows" a claim without saying how. They were also likely to credit inscriptions that aligned with their own position rather than discount those that supported counterclaims. From pre to post, these patterns did not change significantly. Analysis on science instruction further shows that the contestability of the claims students encountered in the classroom was low, meaning that they were not framed in arguable ways. The resources available to students for resolving these claims were also limited. The classroom discourse was not open enough for productive argumentation. These patterns may potentially account for the lack of change in students' use of

  17. A Tax Reform Analysis of the Laffer Argument

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Krause

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that tax reform techniques are well-suited to an examination of the Laffer argument, i.e., the possibility that an increase in a tax rate may reduce tax revenues (and vice versa). Our methodology allows us to examine the Laffer argument directly, without deriving the Laffer curve, which in turn allows us to conduct the analysis in a very general setting. Despite the high level of generality, we are able to reach some clear conclusions that provide formal support for the estab...

  18. The argument for justification of the complex Langevin method and the condition for correct convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The complex Langevin method is a promising approach to the complex-action problem based on a fictitious time evolution of complexified dynamical variables under the influence of a Gaussian noise. Although it is known to have a restricted range of applicability, the use of gauge cooling made it applicable to various interesting cases including finite density QCD in certain parameter regions. In this paper we revisit the argument for justification of the method. Starting with a finite Langevin step-size $\\epsilon$, we find that the $\\epsilon\\rightarrow 0$ limit is actually subtle, although the previous argument used a continuous Langevin time from the outset. We also point out a subtlety in the use of time-evolved observables, which play a crucial role in the argument. This subtlety appears when the probability of the drift term is not suppressed exponentially at large magnitude. We claim that the failures of the method previously considered to occur for different reasons should be understood in this way. Using...

  19. Individual Differences in the "Myside Bias" in Reasoning and Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined the "myside bias" in reasoning, evaluating written arguments, and writing argumentative essays. Previous research suggests that some people possess a fact-based argumentation schema and some people have a balanced argumentation schema. I developed reliable Likert scale instruments (1-7 rating) for these constructs and…

  20. Complex Permittivity and Permeability Measurements and Numerical Simulation of carbonyl iron rubber in X-Band frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz de Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of an adequate characterization of radar absorbing materials (RAM, and consequently their development, the present study aims to contribute for the establishment and validation of experimental determination and numerical simulation of complex permittivity and permeability of electromagnetic materials, using for this a carbonyl iron was seventy percent of the mass concentration. The present work branches out into two related topics. The first one is concerned with the implementation of a computational modeling to predict the behavior of electromagnetic materials in confined environment by using electromagnetic three-dimensional simulation. The second topic re-examines the Nicolson-Ross-Weir mathematical model to retrieve the constitutive parameters (complex permittivity and permeability of a homogeneous sample (carbonyl iron from scattering coefficient measurements. The measured and calculated results show a good convergence that guarantees the application of the used methodologies for the characterization of carbonyl iron rubber in x-band frequency.

  1. Refractive indices and static permittivities of systems containing n-hexane or n-heptane and isomeric chlorobutanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Refractive indices of n-hexane or n-heptane with isomeric chlorobutanes have been measured. • Static permittivities of the same mixtures have been also determined. • From experimental data the corresponding excess properties have been calculated and correlated. • Kirkwood correlation factors of the liquid mixtures have been estimated. - Abstract: Refractive indices and static permittivities at temperatures of (283.15, 298.15, and 313.15) K and at pressure of 99.0 kPa were determined for the binary mixtures formed by n-hexane or n-heptane with isomeric chlorobutanes. Excess properties were obtained from the experimental values and correlated by means of a Redlich–Kister type equation. In addition, these results were used, together with available density values, to estimate at T = 298.15 K the Kirkwood correlation factors of the liquid mixtures. The behavior of this magnitude with composition was also discussed

  2. An X-Band Waveguide Measurement Technique for the Accurate Characterization of Materials with Low Dielectric Loss Permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Kenneth W; Reid, David R; Bean, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Jeremy D; Morris, Andrew P; Marsh, Jeramy M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically-long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10e-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. ...

  3. Molecular beam deposition of high-permittivity polydimethylsiloxane for nanometer-thin elastomer films in dielectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Weiss, Florian; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Töpper, Tino;

    2016-01-01

    dielectric properties. To produce elastomer layers nanometers thin, molecular beam deposition was introduced. We pursue the synthesis of a high-permittivity oligomer, namely a chloropropyl-functional, vinyl-terminated siloxane to be thermally evaporated and subsequent UV curing to form an elastomer. The......To realize low-voltage dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for artificial muscles, a high-permittivity elastomer and a related thin-film deposition technique must be selected. For polydimethylsiloxane, fillers or functionalized crosslinkers have been incorporated into the elastomer to improve...... monitoring. Using atomic force microscopy, the film surface morphology and mechanics were characterized after growth termination and subsequent curing. The Young's modulus of the elastomer corresponded to (1.8 ± 0.2) MPa and is thus a factor of two lower than that of DMS-V05. Consequently, the properties of...

  4. Seventy seven ecological and ethical arguments in favor of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper 55 ecological and 22 ethical arguments are presented in favour of the nuclear energy alternative. Generally, the arguments are presented in comparison with the alternative electric energy sources, evidencing the advantages of the nuclear energy, as for instance the control and confinement of the nuclear waste as compared with the free discharge in the environment of the wastes from fossil fuel plants. Advantages of operating the equivalent nuclear power plants instead of operating fossil fuel power plants in reducing the CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, dust, ashes, CH4, heavy metals, etc. are also stressed. Reducing the emission of CO2, N2O, etc. results in attenuation of ozone layer depletion, greenhouse effects, global warming and climate changes, which we face today. Also, by replacing the fossil fuel power plants with nuclear power plants the environmental pollution (even radioactive) will be reduced as well as the risks of marine, ground and/or underground ecological accidents (during transport of the fossil fuels), and in addition, the requirements for mineral resources necessary in constructing and operating power plants will be diminished. Ethical arguments in favour of nuclear energy are presented as follows: - the preservation of the fossil fuels by bequeathing them to the generations to come for a higher, more efficient use in chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, etc; - the minimal degradation of the environment; - promotion of modern/advanced technologies, enhancing the general progress of human society and reducing the brain-drain from the countries/economies undergoing the development process. These arguments are extracted from a large variety of sources listed at the end of the paper. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterizations of high permittivity ultraviolet cured soft elastomeric networks and composites applicable as dielectric electroactive polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav

    The objective of this thesis was preparation and characterizations of high permittivity ultraviolet (UV) cured elastomeric networks and composites applicable as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs). At present, none of the commercially available elastomers such as acrylics, poly (dimethyl......-developed processes due to better control over the heterogeneity of the networks. The sequential curing approach was successfully used to incorporate conductive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in higher concentrations than usual without making the elastomers conductive. The PDMS-MWCNT composites also showed...

  6. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  7. Complex permittivity of FeCl3/AOT/CCl4 microemulsions probed by AC impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Pietro; Ruggirello, Angela; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo

    2009-09-01

    The complex permittivity of FeCl(3)/AOT/CCl(4) microemulsions in the 1-10(5) Hz frequency range has been measured by the conventional AC complex impedance technique. Measurements as a function of the volume fraction of the dispersed phase (FeCl(3)+AOT) and temperature at fixed salt-to-AOT molar ratio (R, R = 0.5) show that the entrapment of FeCl(3) clusters significantly enhances the local permittivity of the AOT reverse micelles and the number density of charge carriers resulting from the peculiar state of the confined inorganic salt. An estimate of the apparent static permittivity of the FeCl(3) ionic clusters entrapped in the core of AOT reverse micelles gives the very high and quite surprisingly value of about 237. Moreover, a thorough analysis of conductivity data and of their temperature dependence strongly supports the hypothesis that the charge transport in these systems is mainly sustained by a mechanism of hopping consisting in the continuous jumping of charged species within supra-micellar aggregates of AOT reverse micelles whose aggregation is driven by fluctuating opposite charges on contacting micelles. PMID:19481764

  8. A new approach for electrical properties estimation using a global integral equation and improvements using high permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rita; Webb, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) using MRI is a technique that has been developed to provide a new contrast mechanism for in vivo imaging. Currently the most common method relies on the solution of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation, which has limitations in accurate estimation at tissue interfaces. A new method proposed in this work combines a Maxwell's integral equation representation of the problem, and the use of high permittivity materials (HPM) to control the RF field, in order to reconstruct the electrical properties image. The magnetic field is represented by an integral equation considering each point as a contrast source. This equation can be solved in an inverse method. In this study we use a reference simulation or scout scan of a uniform phantom to provide an initial estimate for the inverse solution, which allows the estimation of the complex permittivity within a single iteration. Incorporating two setups with and without the HPM improves the reconstructed result, especially with respect to the very low electric field in the center of the sample. Electromagnetic simulations of the brain were performed at 3 T to generate the B1+ field maps and reconstruct the electric properties images. The standard deviations of the relative permittivity and conductivity were within 14% and 18%, respectively for a volume consisting of white matter, gray matter and cerebellum.

  9. Relationship between anisotropies of permeability, electrical conductivity, and dielectric permittivity, with application to the Ellenburger dolomite reservoir analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutemi, Titilope F.

    The steady-state flow technique was employed to measure the flow rate of clean dry air through thirty core plugs (approximately 1" diameter) of the Ellenburger dolomite, drilled normal and parallel to the dominant fractures. Porosity was estimated by the method of imbibition. Electrical parameters (electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity) were calculated from electrical resistance and capacitance measured as a function of frequency (100 Hz, 120 Hz, 1 KHz, and 10 KHz) and saturation (dry/ambient and brine saturated conditions). Another set of permeability data obtained by the method of pressure decay on similar samples was used for correlation. Anisotropies of permeability and electromagnetic parameters were established. Empirical relations between porosity (phi), permeability (k), electrical conductivity (sigma), and dielectric permittivity (epsilon) were defined via cross-plots and linear regressions. Prediction of k from sigma and epsilon was attempted; k from sigma was modeled from a combination of the Archie's relation and the Carman-Kozeny relation. Anisotropic EM responses are sensitive to saturation. Anisotropies of conductivity and permeability were observed to be controlled by the pore micro-structure. Although the rock is fractured, the fracture density appears insufficient to dominate the effects of primary structures in these samples of the Ellenburger dolomite. Model-based prediction of permeability from conductivity is generally unreliable, and is attributed to the underlying assumptions of the models, which are not consistent with the properties of the samples used for this study. Permeability was not predictable from dielectric permittivity.

  10. Value-based argumentation frameworks as neural-symbolic learning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Garcez, A. d'Avila; Gabbay, D. M.; Lamb, L C

    2005-01-01

    While neural networks have been successfully used in a number of machine learning applications, logical languages have been the standard for the representation of argumentative reasoning. In this paper, we establish a relationship between neural networks and argumentation networks, combining reasoning and learning in the same argumentation framework. We do so by presenting a new neural argumentation algorithm, responsible for translating argumentation networks into standard neural networks. W...

  11. Improving Students' PISA Scientific Competencies through Online Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The scientific competencies advocated by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) focus on the abilities needed in students' adult lives. This study investigated how such scientific competencies could be improved by using online argumentation. One hundred and thirty-eight 8th grade high school students took part in the study,…

  12. Gaps, Conflicts, and Arguments between Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflict appears to be similar across different immigrant generations and cultural groups in frequency and implications for adjustment. However, the same level of argumentation may mask hidden conflictual feelings that are not expressed. Why an acculturation gap leads to such conflictual feelings in some adolescents and not…

  13. Arguments for formulation program nuclear reactors and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on actual status and arguments for urgent actions for solution of serious ecological problems concerning undefined status of RA reactor, spent fuel storage pool, and intermittent radioactive waste storage in the Vinca Institute, including proposal for modernisation of zero power Reactor RB and design of small low flux ADS are given in this paper. (author)

  14. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    OpenAIRE

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 557-574. doi: 0.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00418.x

  15. Penguins and Pandas: A Note on Teaching Cantor's Diagonal Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    2008-01-01

    Cantor's diagonal proof that the set of real numbers is uncountable is one of the most famous arguments in modern mathematics. Mathematics students usually see this proof somewhere in their undergraduate experience, but it is rarely a part of the mathematical curriculum of students of the fine arts or humanities. This note describes contexts that…

  16. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  17. A threshold model of content knowledge transfer for socioscientific argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Fowler, Samantha R.

    2006-11-01

    This study explores how individuals make use of scientific content knowledge for socioscientific argumentation. More specifically, this mixed-methods study investigates how learners apply genetics content knowledge as they justify claims relative to genetic engineering. Interviews are conducted with 45 participants, representing three distinct groups: high school students with variable genetics knowledge, college nonscience majors with little genetics knowledge, and college science majors with advanced genetics knowledge. During the interviews, participants advance positions concerning three scenarios dealing with gene therapy and cloning. Arguments are assessed in terms of the number of justifications offered as well as justification quality, based on a five-point rubric. Multivariate analysis of variance results indicate that college science majors outperformed the other groups in terms of justification quality and frequency. Argumentation does not differ among nonscience majors or high school students. Follow-up qualitative analyses of interview responses suggest that all three groups tend to focus on similar, sociomoral themes as they negotiate socially complex, genetic engineering issues, but that the science majors frequently reference specific science content knowledge in the justification of their claims. Results support the Threshold Model of Content Knowledge Transfer, which proposes two knowledge thresholds around which argumentation quality can reasonably be expected to increase. Research and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Epistemic Modality in the Argumentative Essays of Chinese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Xuyan

    2015-01-01

    Central to argumentative writing is the proper use of epistemic devices (EDs), which distinguish writers' opinions from facts and evaluate the degree of certainty expressed in their statements. Important as these devices are, they turn out to constitute a thorny area for non-native speakers (NNS). Previous research indicates that Chinese EFL…

  19. Investigating Instruction for Improving Revision of Argumentative Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jodie A.; Britt, M. Anne

    2011-01-01

    Students are expected to come into the current college classroom already possessing certain skills including the ability to write at the appropriate academic level regardless of discipline and the ability to create well-structured arguments. Research indicates, however, that most students entering college are underprepared in both areas. One…

  20. Do Goals Affect the Structure of Students' Argumentative Writing Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Ralph P.; Lewis, William E.; Andrews-Weckerly, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Fourth- and sixth-grade students with and without learning disabilities wrote essays about a controversial topic after receiving either a general persuasion goal or an elaborated goal that included subgoals based on elements of argumentative discourse. Students in the elaborated goal condition produced more persuasive essays that were responsive…

  1. A Crosscultural Analysis of Argumentative Strategies in Student Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    A study of essays on a single topic (capital punishment) written by 22 American high school students and 30 second-year Japanese college students investigated: cultural differences in organizational patterns in argumentative essays; comparative use of rational and affective appeals; differences in content of rational and affective appeals;…

  2. Information on Quantifiers and Argument Structure in English Learner's Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas Hun-tak

    1993-01-01

    Lexicographers have been arguing for the inclusion of abstract and complex grammatical information in dictionaries. This paper examines the extent to which information about quantifiers and the argument structure of verbs is encoded in English learner's dictionaries. The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (1989), the Longman Dictionary of…

  3. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  4. Persuasive Argumentation and Social Comparison as Determinants of Attitude Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstein, Eugene; Vinokur, Amiram

    1977-01-01

    Several studies, developed by the authors, indicate that persuasive-arguments theory by itself is an adequate explanation of polarization. Sanders and Baron (AA 526 863) criticize this research. Here the authors answer their critique. Relevant portions of the standard literature are reviewed to demonstrate that social comparison is neither a…

  5. Common Arguments about the Strengths and Limitations of Home Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses why families choose home schooling. Summarizes the most common arguments put forth by advocates and critics of home schooling regarding the perceived strengths and limitations of this unique form of education. Concludes that parents have the right to determine what form of schooling best meets the needs of their children. (SG)

  6. Developing Argumentation Ability as a Way to Promote Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, Cilla; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Frank, Moti

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of three instructional methods on students' technological literacy (TL) and argumentation ability. Participants were 285 seventh grade Israeli boys and girls (12-13-year-old) who studied in 18 technology classes in four junior high schools. The three teaching methods were: (a) teaching…

  7. Concepts and Contexts – Argumentative Forms of Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas; Nørholm Just, Sine; Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    making this argument we combine theories of framing with the classical rhetorical theory of the stases, more precisely status definitio and status translatio. Our focus is primarily theoretical, but we illustrate our points by means of examples taken from public debates on the value of real estate....

  8. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  9. ArguBlogging: An Application for the Argument Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, Floris; Snaith, Mark; Lawrence, John; Reed, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software tool for ‘ArguBlogging’, which allows users to construct debate and discussions across blogs, linking existing and new online resources to form distributed, structured conversations. Arguments and counterarguments can be posed by giving opinions on one’s own blog

  10. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  11. The Analysis and Reconciliation of Students' Rebuttals in Argumentation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue…

  12. Students' Rationale for Topic Choice in Writing an Argumentative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Eleanor

    A research project surveyed 97 students enrolled in Composition 101 at the University of Illinois, Chicago, in an effort to determine what goes on in the mind of a student faced with three choices of argument topics. The hypothesis was that Topic C--profanity--would be chosen most often and that the reasons cited would be "universality," a…

  13. The customs union argument for a monetary union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIf the real exchange rate follows approximately a random walk and in the presence of nontraded goods, a monetary union may generate a Pareto improvement. The argument is based on the analogy with the advantages that derive from the formation of a customs union. A novel unit roots test ba

  14. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaghofer Richard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no. The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis. Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2% and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%. The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%, followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%. Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time

  15. Decay of a compound particle and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J.; Henestroza, E.; Mello, P. A.; Moshinsky, M.

    1981-01-01

    By analyzing the decay of a compound system into two praticles, we show that measurements on particle 1 will define with an arbitrary degree of precision the coordinate and momenta of particle 2 at times large compared with the lifetime of the compound system, i.e., when the two particles no longer interact. Thus we have an example of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument in which all the requirements of quantum mechanics are met. Criticism of the point of view they present should then center on their epistemological position (such as their definition of physical reality) rather than on their use of the quantum-mechanical formalism.

  16. L’argumentation dans le discours d’information médiatique Argumentation in Media Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Emediato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente quelques éléments de réflexion susceptibles de contribuer au développement d’une étude sur l’argumentation dans le discours d’information médiatique. Dans cette perspective, il poursuit deux objectifs complémentaires. L’un, d’ordre géneral, consiste à montrer comment les trois approches dominantes de l’argumentation (logique, linguistique et rhétorique sont à la fois différenciées, et étroitement imbriquées dans l’analyse du discours de presse. La seconde concerne le fonctionnement du discours d’information dans la presse et la façon dont il met en place, par des opérations de cadrage, d’effacement énonciatif, d’ellipses, etc. une « dimension argumentative » (Amossy 2000 : sans avoir une visée argumentative avouée, il se propose néanmoins d’agir sur les croyances et les représentations du lecteur. A titre d’exemple, l’étude traite d’un corpus de titres empruntés essentiellement à la presse brésilienne.This paper aims at contributing to the development of argumentation studies in the field of media discourse, and within this perspective, it presents two main complementary objectives. Firstly, it strives at showing how the three main approaches to argumentation (logical, linguistic and rhetoric are both distinct and closely interconnected in the analysis of media discourse. The second objective concerns the functioning of the selected genre of discourse: the paper examines how, through procedures of framing, obliteration of the enunciative modality, ellipses, etc., media discourse sets up an “argumentative dimension” (Amossy 2000. Although not overtly intended for persuasion, media discourse nevertheless sets out to act upon the reader’s beliefs and representations. These issues are tackled through the analysis of a sample of headlines mostly borrowed from the Brazilian press.

  17. Test of the Felzer and Brodsky (2006) argument for, and the Richards-Dinger et al (2010) argument against, remote dynamic triggering by small mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Toda, S.

    2013-12-01

    To understand earthquake interaction and forecast time-dependent seismic hazard, it is essential to determine whether static or dynamic stress change triggers most aftershocks and subsequent mainshocks. Felzer and Brodsky (2006) argued that the observed linear seismic density of small aftershocks with distance from small mainshocks is a product of the decay of seismic wave amplitude. They conclude that even small shocks can dynamically trigger remote earthquakes at distances more than ten source fault dimensions away. Richards-Dinger et al. (2010) counter-argue that the power law decay is an apparent product from independent aftershocks occurring along a large rupture zone or near-simultaneous occurrence in seismic swarms. To test the argument of Richards-Dinger et al. (2010), we use the Taiwanese earthquake catalog of the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network, whose quality is as good as that in California and Japan. Further, we take an advantage of the absence of major inland earthquakes and significant swarms in the period, 2001-2011. We follow the methodology of Felzer and Brodsky (2006) for selecting mainshocks using their declustering algorithm, and then seek all shocks that occurred within 5 minutes to make a diagram of linear aftershock density as a function of distance from mainshock. First we select as a ';mainshock' any event that is not preceded by a larger shock within 3 days (t1) and 100 km, and that is not followed by a large shock within 12 hr (t2) and 100 km. The ';mainshocks' and ';aftershocks' are 2≤Mratios of mainshock-aftershock pairs in the Taiwanese catalog, in comparison to California and Japan, are due to lack of any large rupture and the absence of significant swarms in Taiwan, which supports the argument of Richards-Dingers et al. and renders the possibility that these small shocks are dynamically triggered untenable.

  18. A two-phase system call arguments attribute analyzing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jiao; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    To detect more attacks aiming at key security data in program behavior-based anomaly detection, the data flow properties were formulated as unary and binary relations on system call arguments. A new method named two-phrase analysis (2PA) is designed to analyze the efficient relation dependency, and its description as well as advantages are discussed. During the phase of static analysis, a dependency graph was constructed according to the program's data dependency graph, which was used in the phase of dynamic learning to learn specified binary relations. The constructed dependency graph only stores the information of related arguments and events, thus improves the efficiency of the learning algorithm and reduces the size of learned relation de-pendencies. Performance evaluations show that the new method is more efficient than existing methods.

  19. Teaching of History: argumentation and the construction of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bastos de Azevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss the construction of meaning through argumentation in the teaching of History. The field research was carried out in a municipal school in Niterói – RJ. The research included 30 hours of recordings of History classes of a group of the 4th cycle of Elementary Education (also called 8th year of Elementary Education. The data analysis articulated the theoretical elements related to curriculum, language and culture. It can be pointed out a possibility of theoretical approximation of these three fields of knowledge relating them to the concrete space of the History class. The challenge is to create a dialogue among the theories from the curriculum, language and culture fields, aiming to understand the construction of meaning in the teaching of History by means of argumentation.

  20. Simplified Design for Concurrent Statistical Zero-Knowledge Arguments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Puwen; ZHANG Guoyan; ZHANG Lijiang; WANG Xiaoyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the protocol presented by Goyal et al. can be further simplified for a one-way function, with the simplified protocol being more practical for the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Goyal et al. provided a general transformation from any honest verifier statistical zero-knowledge argument to a concurrent statistical zero-knowledge argument. Their transformation relies only on the existence of one-way functions. For the simplified transformation, the witness indistinguishable proof of knowledge protocols in "parallel" not only plays the role of preamble but also removes some computational zero-knowledge proofs,which Goyal et al. used to prove the existence of the valid openings to the commitments. Therefore, although some computational zero-knowledge proofs are replaced with a weaker notion, the witness indistinguishable protocol, the proof of soundness can still go through.

  1. The analysis and reconciliation of students' rebuttals in argumentation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue reconciling strategies. The first one consists of teacher management, in which the teacher temporarily maintains the right to speak when students get mired in an emotional rebuttal situation. The second strategy involves the use of qualifiers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an opposing argument. The third strategy consists of providing students with guidance to keep both parties (i.e. the students taking, respectively, the affirmative and negative positions) on the same discussion topic and can be used to assist teachers with forming broad questions that prompt students to conduct deeper discussions. These reconciling strategies were beneficial in that they helped students to argue in a more reflective way.

  2. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  3. 名辩举隅%Cases of Name and Argument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔清田

    2012-01-01

    The discussion of name and argument begins at the Spring and Autumn Period,becomes strong at the Warring States Period and declines at the unity of six states by Qin.The methods of induction and listing are applied to analyse the thoughts of name and argument of Confucian,famous expert and Mohist.The theory of rectification name of Confucian starts and promotes a great discussion to the relationship between name and reality in Pre-qin dynasty,its beginning significance can not be neglected.The theory of the white horse is not a horse and predicative of Gongsun Long makes the discussion of the problem of name and reality separating from the theory of rectification name serving for the need for politics,going to an abstract study of the specialty decided by name,his academic thought can be a wonderful work in the history of China thought.Xun Zi pays attention to argument,but his argument is not for winning,but a talking skill in morality education.Mo Zi advocates and study talking argument and the late Mohist form a special argument theory,firstly defines and totally concludes the argument.The theory of name and argument have the contents on expressing and arguing method.Knowing this can help us passing on and carrying forward the attention to wisdom of traditional culture,and it also has the active reference significance to success of discussion,communication and learning in our daily life.%名与辩的讨论始于春秋,盛于战国,衰落于秦统一六国。运用归纳列举的方法,分析儒家、名家和墨家名与辩的思想。孔子的"正名"说开启并推动了先秦时期的名实关系大讨论,其开创意义不容忽视;公孙龙的"白马非马"和"唯谓"之说,已经使名实问题的讨论从服务于政治需求的"正名"说中分离出来,走向了"专决于名"的抽象研究,其学术思想,不失为中国思想史上的一朵奇葩;荀子重"辩",但荀子的辩并不是争胜的论辩,而是教化礼义的谈说

  4. The features of argumentation skills formation problem in Higher Educational Establishment students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamozhska I. V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deals with argumentation skill formation in future specialist's professional preparation: kinds and ways of argumentation, influence of communicative co-operation means on compromise zones defining and general decision making, strategy choice in communicators' behavior at argumentation phase in a dialogue, defining of effective factors of convincing argumentation influence in communicators. The work suggests the system of methodological research means for argumentation skill formation in Higher Educational Establishment students, which helps professional language problem solving in composition with theoretical questions argumentation basis.

  5. The Immortality of the Soul: History of a Political Argument

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Saralegui

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines a fundamental and little studied issue of political theology: the relationship between the defense of the immortality of the soul and the preservation of public order. It carries out a historical survey of authors such as Pietro Pomponazzi and Thomas More, who resort to political reasons in order to defend it, and David Hume, who feels that there are no political grounds to support such a relationship. Finally, the article analyzes the arguments proposed to show that its...

  6. Formalizing defeasible argumentation using a labeled deductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Chesñevar, Carlos Iván; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    In the last years there has been an increasing demand of a variety of logical systems, prompted mostly by applications of logic in AI, logic programming and other related areas. Labeled Deductive Systems (LDS) were developed as a flexible methodology to formalize such a kind of complex logical systems. In the last decade, defeasible argumentation has proven to be a confluence point for many approaches to formalizing commonsense reasoning. Different formalisms have been developed, many of them...

  7. Analysis of Discourse Markers in Chinese Students’Argumentative Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jingwen; WANG Yongli; DING Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    DMs are a set of lexical and non-lexical forms which commonly appear in communication.Rather than other researches who focus on discourse markers in natural English speaking context,this paperexamines Chinese students’ usage of DMs in argumentative speeches and indicates that proper use of discourse markers could facilitate the communication process and more attention should be given to learning and teaching discourse markers by both students and teachers.

  8. oblique main arguments as localizing predications in Hindi/Urdu

    OpenAIRE

    Montaut, Annie

    2003-01-01

    International audience the paper examines various sentence patterns with two arguments, including the ergative pattern, and concludes to the non specificity of the ergative pattern, which is simply sensitive to aspectual semantics rather than to the semantics of the predicate itself as other non nominative patterns. Hindi/Urdu can be considered a subjectless language, where the transitive action pattern is very marginal, and which may ultimately be related with cognitive scenari (Langacker...

  9. Oesophageal achalasia: an argument for primary surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, D S

    2009-04-01

    Achalasia is a primary oesophageal motility disorder resulting from damage to the ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus. Impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter and aperistalsis causes its cardinal symptoms of dysphagia, chest pain and reflux-type symptoms. Management is somewhat controversial, with options including systemic and local pharmacotherapy, dilatation and oesophagomyotomy. We review the presentation, investigation and management of oesophageal achalasia and make an argument for primary surgical management.

  10. Fostering Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Argumentation Skills through Bioethics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development an...

  11. Cultural Appeal as an Argument for Socio-spatial Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, María

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate how culture acts both as an argument for urban improvement and as an evicting agent of “undesirable inhabitants” in the city of Buenos Aires. In fact, certain state-fostered culture cults arise along with social deterioration and increasingly alarming spatial injustice. The hypothesis I intend to develop here is that, although it stems from a supposed spirit of universality, the state-driven cultural policy transforms the city into a unique, special ...

  12. Consistency argument and classification problem in λ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王驹; 赵希顺; 黄且圆; 蒋颖

    1999-01-01

    Enlightened by Mal’cev theorem in universal algebra, a new criterion for consistency argument in λ-calculus has been introduced. It is equivalent to Jacopini and Baeten-Boerboom’ s, but more convenient to use. Based on the new criterion, one uses an enhanced technique to show a few results which provides a deeper insight in the classification problem of λ-terms with no normal forms.

  13. Grammatical cohesion in argumentative essays by Norwegian and Russian learners

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this thesis is based on the seminal work of Halliday and Hasan (1976). The main goal of the thesis is to reveal what types of grammatical cohesive relations are displayed in argumentative essays of academic written English. To achieve this purpose the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) has been chosen to study how Norwegian and Russian learners of English construct their compositions. Four major types of grammatical cohesion have been studied: referenc...

  14. The QALY argument: a physician's and a philosopher's view.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawles, J.; Rawles, K

    1990-01-01

    The arguments used by Gavin Mooney in his scornful response to Castigating QALYs, are examined. In spite of the rhetoric there is a broad measure of agreement about the deficiencies of QALYs as a means of distributing scarce resources. The main area of conflict is that John Rawles favours compaigning for more resources while Gavin Mooney, constrained by his remit as a health economist, favours acceptance of the present level of funding and better methods of distributing resources.

  15. Improving Undergraduates’ Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Mei Fung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003. This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to review their draft throughout the writing process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-assessment in group writing and how group work improves students’ writing ability. An intact class comprising 22 first-year undergraduates participated in the study.  Data were collected from pre- and post-treatment writing tests, semi-structured interview and reflection entries. The results revealed that self-assessment has a significant effect on students’ writing performance. Group work also enhanced social and cognitive development of the students. This study provides insights into the use of self-assessment in writing class to develop learner autonomy and improve writing ability.Keywords: Argumentative essay, Self-assessment, Learner autonomy, Group writing, ESL learners 

  16. Explanations in Microphysics: a Response to van Fraassen's Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Seno Chibeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to offer a rejoinder to an argument against scientific realism put forward by van Fraassen, based on theoretical considerations regarding microphysics. At a certain stage of his general attack to scientific realism, van Fraassen argues, in contrast to what realists typically hold, that empirical regularities should sometimes be regarded as “brute facts”, which do not ask for explanation in terms of deeper, unobservable mechanisms. The argument from microphysics formulated by van Fraassen is based on the claim that in microphysics the demand for explanation leads to a demand for the so-called hidden-variable theories, which “runs contrary to at least one major school of thought in twentieth-century physics”. It is shown here that this argument does not represent an insurmountable obstacle to scientific realism, not even when a series of important theoretical and experimental results against hidden-variable theories — and not merely a conflict with a certain school of thought—is taken into account.

  17. Permittivity and Permeability for Floquet-Bloch Space Harmonics in Infinite 1D Magneto-Dielectric Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    For an infinite 1D periodic structure with unit cells consisting of two planar slabs of magnetodielectric materials, the electric field – as well as magnetic field, electric flux density, magnetic flux density, polarization, and magnetization – can be expressed as infinite series of Floquet......-Bloch space harmonics. We discuss how space harmonic permittivity and permeability can be expressed in seemingly different though equivalent forms, and we investigate these parameters of the zeroeth order space harmonic for a particular 1D periodic structure that is based on a previously reported 3D periodic...

  18. Entropy-Bayesian Inversion of Time-Lapse Tomographic GPR data for Monitoring Dielectric Permittivity and Soil Moisture Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Terry, Neil C.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-02-22

    In this study, we evaluate the possibility of monitoring soil moisture variation using tomographic ground penetrating radar travel time data through Bayesian inversion, which is integrated with entropy memory function and pilot point concepts, as well as efficient sampling approaches. It is critical to accurately estimate soil moisture content and variations in vadose zone studies. Many studies have illustrated the promise and value of GPR tomographic data for estimating soil moisture and associated changes, however, challenges still exist in the inversion of GPR tomographic data in a manner that quantifies input and predictive uncertainty, incorporates multiple data types, handles non-uniqueness and nonlinearity, and honors time-lapse tomograms collected in a series. To address these challenges, we develop a minimum relative entropy (MRE)-Bayesian based inverse modeling framework that non-subjectively defines prior probabilities, incorporates information from multiple sources, and quantifies uncertainty. The framework enables us to estimate dielectric permittivity at pilot point locations distributed within the tomogram, as well as the spatial correlation range. In the inversion framework, MRE is first used to derive prior probability density functions (pdfs) of dielectric permittivity based on prior information obtained from a straight-ray GPR inversion. The probability distributions are then sampled using a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) approach, and the sample sets provide inputs to a sequential Gaussian simulation (SGSIM) algorithm that constructs a highly resolved permittivity/velocity field for evaluation with a curved-ray GPR forward model. The likelihood functions are computed as a function of misfits, and posterior pdfs are constructed using a Gaussian kernel. Inversion of subsequent time-lapse datasets combines the Bayesian estimates from the previous inversion (as a memory function) with new data. The memory function and pilot point design takes advantage of

  19. Entropy-Bayesian Inversion of Time-Lapse Tomographic GPR data for Monitoring Dielectric Permittivity and Soil Moisture Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Z; Terry, N; Hubbard, S S; Csatho, B

    2013-02-12

    In this study, we evaluate the possibility of monitoring soil moisture variation using tomographic ground penetrating radar travel time data through Bayesian inversion, which is integrated with entropy memory function and pilot point concepts, as well as efficient sampling approaches. It is critical to accurately estimate soil moisture content and variations in vadose zone studies. Many studies have illustrated the promise and value of GPR tomographic data for estimating soil moisture and associated changes, however, challenges still exist in the inversion of GPR tomographic data in a manner that quantifies input and predictive uncertainty, incorporates multiple data types, handles non-uniqueness and nonlinearity, and honors time-lapse tomograms collected in a series. To address these challenges, we develop a minimum relative entropy (MRE)-Bayesian based inverse modeling framework that non-subjectively defines prior probabilities, incorporates information from multiple sources, and quantifies uncertainty. The framework enables us to estimate dielectric permittivity at pilot point locations distributed within the tomogram, as well as the spatial correlation range. In the inversion framework, MRE is first used to derive prior probability distribution functions (pdfs) of dielectric permittivity based on prior information obtained from a straight-ray GPR inversion. The probability distributions are then sampled using a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) approach, and the sample sets provide inputs to a sequential Gaussian simulation (SGSim) algorithm that constructs a highly resolved permittivity/velocity field for evaluation with a curved-ray GPR forward model. The likelihood functions are computed as a function of misfits, and posterior pdfs are constructed using a Gaussian kernel. Inversion of subsequent time-lapse datasets combines the Bayesian estimates from the previous inversion (as a memory function) with new data. The memory function and pilot point design takes

  20. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric (EC effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.