WorldWideScience

Sample records for argon calorimeter calibration

  1. Energy calibration of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Forward Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, J P; Heelan, L; Khakzad, M; Oakham, F G; Schram, M; Strickland, V [Physics Department, Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Artamonov, A; Epshteyn, V; Khovanskiy, V; Shatalov, P [ITEP Moscow, 117 259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Cadabeschi, M; Galt, C; Gorbounov, P; Krieger, P; Orr, R S [Physics Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Loch, P; Rutherfoord, J; Savine, A; Shaver, L; Shupe, M [Physics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 (United States)], E-mail: krieger@physics.utoronto.ca (and others)

    2008-02-15

    One of the two ATLAS Forward Calorimeters (FCal), consisting of three modules, one behind the other, was exposed to particle beams of known energies in order to obtain the energy calibration. The data were taken in the H6 beamline at CERN in the summer of 2003, using electron and hadron beams with energies from 10 to 200 GeV. The beam test setup and collected data samples are described in detail. Using data samples taken with a minimal amount of material upstream of the calorimeter, the FCal response to electrons and pions, as measured by the linearity and resolution as a function of energy, is extracted and compared to ATLAS performance requirements.

  2. Electronic Readout of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Calibration and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The LHC is a proton-proton collider with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The machine has been operated at energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV in 2009 and is expected to reach the energy of 7 TeV in 2010. The LAr calorimeter is designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. It consists of a set of sampling calorimeters with liquid argon as active medium kept into three separate cryostats. The LAr calorimeters are read out via a system of custom electronics. The electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters is divided into a Front End (FE) system of boards mounted in custom crates directly on the cryostat feedthroughs, and a Back End (BE) system of VME-based boards located in an off-detector underground counting room where there is no radiation. The FE system includes Front End boards (FEBs), which perform the readout and dig...

  3. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Aktas, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baron, S; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; BarreiroGuimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Bathe, S; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Bazalova, M; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Becerici, N; Bechtle, P; Beck, G A; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Bedajanek, I; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednár, P; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benincasa, G P; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bocci, A; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, J R A; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bosteels, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Brett, N D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brubaker, E; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Byatt, T; Caballero, J; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Campabadal-Segura, F; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Capasso, L; Capeans-Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N; Cataldi, G; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Cevenini, F; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Chareyre, E; Charlton, D G; Chavda, V; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, T; Chen, X; Cheng, S; Cheplakov, A; Chepurnov, V F; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V; Chesneanu, D; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chizhov, M; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Chren, D; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciobotaru, M D; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Clements, D; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coelli, S; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Cojocaru, C D; Colas, J; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collard, C; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colon, G; Coluccia, R; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conventi, F; Cook, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Côté, D; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cranshaw, J; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crupi, R; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cwetanski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dai, T; Dallapiccola, C; Dallison, S J; Daly, C H; Dam, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davison, A R; Dawson, I; Dawson, J W; Daya, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S; Deberg, H; Dedes, G; Dedovich, D V; Defay, P O; Degenhardt, J; Dehchar, M; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delruelle, N; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demirkoz, B; Deng, J; Deng, W; Denisov, S P; Dennis, C; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; DeWilde, B; Dhaliwal, S; Dhullipudi, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M A; Diblen, F; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Diglio, S; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D J; Dionisi, C; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djilkibaev, R; Djobava, T; 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Esposito, B; Etienne, F; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Fabbri, L; Fabre, C; Faccioli, P; Facius, K; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falou, A C; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farley, J; Farooque, T; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fatholahzadeh, B; Fayard, L; Fayette, F; Febbraro, R; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W; Feligioni, L; Felzmann, C U; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Fenyuk, A B; Ferencei, J; Ferland, J; Fernandes, B; Fernando, W; Ferrag, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, A; Ferrer, M L; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Fiascaris, M; Fiedler, F; Filipcic, A; Filippas, A; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, G; Fisher, M J; Flechl, M; Fleck, I; Fleckner, J; Fleischmann, P; Fleischmann, S; Flick, T; Flores-Castillo, L R; Flowerdew, M J; Föhlisch, F; Fokitis, M; Fonseca Martin, T; Forbush, D A; Formica, A; Forti, A; Fortin, D; Foster, J M; Fournier, D; Foussat, A; Fowler, A J; Fowler, K; Fox, H; Francavilla, P; Franchino, S; Francis, D; Franklin, M; Franz, S; Fraternali, M; Fratina, S; Freestone, J; French, S T; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gadfort, T; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Gallas, E J; Gallas, M V; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galyaev, E; Gan, K K; Gao, Y S; Gaponenko, A; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garcí­a, C; Garcí­a Navarro, J E; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia, H; Garonne, V; Gatti, C; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; Gauzzi, P; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gayde, J-C; Gazis, E N; Ge, P; Gee, C N P; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K; Gemme, C; Genest, M H; Gentile, S; Georgatos, F; George, S; Gerlach, P; Gershon, A; Geweniger, C; Ghazlane, H; Ghez, P; Ghodbane, N; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gianotti, F; Gibbard, B; Gibson, A; Gibson, S M; Gilbert, L M; Gilchriese, M; Gilewsky, V; Gillberg, D; Gillman, A R; Gingrich, D M; 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Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  4. LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER PERFORMANCE AT HIGH RATES

    CERN Document Server

    Kukhtin, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap and forward calorimeters has been projected at the planned high luminosity LHC option HL-LHC by exposing small calorimeter modules of the electromagnetic, hadronic, and forward calorimeters to high intensity proton beams at IHEP/Protvino accelerator. The results of HV current and of pulse shape analysis, and also the dependence of signal amplitude on beam intensity are presented.

  5. Readiness of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter for LHC collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

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O.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Otec, R.; P Ottersbach, J.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padhi, S.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Pal, A.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Park, S. J.; Park, W.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, S. I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passardi, G.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L. S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W. G.; Pleier, M.-A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D. M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, K. P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R. A.; Richter, D.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E. R.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchis Lozano, M. A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O. V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, S. M.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M. D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-12-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along η (averaged over φ) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained using the ATLAS readout, data acquisition, and reconstruction software indicate that the liquid argon calorimeter is well-prepared for collisions at the dawn of the LHC era.

  6. Commissioning of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaie, Erfan

    ATLAS, a multi-purpose detector built at the LHC at CERN, requires an extensive commissioning campaign to be ready for proton-proton collisions. In this work, we focus on the commissioning of the liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters, with emphasis on commissioning with cosmic rays. First we outline one phase of the commissioning work, which involves testing of the front-end electronics of the two endcap calorimeters. We then describe two cosmic ray generators as input to a Monte-Carlo simulation of cosmic rays in ATLAS, and compare their results. Finally, we explain a technique developed for this work which uses information from the Tile calorimeters to predict the timing of cosmic rays within the LAr calorimeters, because cosmic rays occur randomly in time whereas the electronics are clocked at [Special characters omitted.] . The results from this analysis tool are compared to default tools, using both simulated and real cosmic ray data in the calorimeters.

  7. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  8. Performance of a liquid argon accordion hadronic calorimeter prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, D.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Greeniaus, G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kitching, P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Olsen, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Pinfold, J.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Rodning, N.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Boos, E. [Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan); Schaoutnikov, B.O. [Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan); Aubert, B. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Bazan, A. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Beaugiraud, B. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Boniface, J. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Colas, J. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Jezequel, S. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Leflour, T. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Maire, M. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Rival, F. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Stipcevic, M. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Thion, J. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; VanDenPlas, D. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Wingerter-Seez, I. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Zolnierowski, Y.P. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules; Chmeissani, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Fernandez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Garrido, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Martinez, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Padilla, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Gordon, H.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); RD3 Colla...

    1995-02-15

    A liquid argon hadronic calorimeter using the ``accordion`` geometry and the electrostatic transformer readout scheme has been tested at CERN, together with a liquid argon accordion electromagnetic prototype. The results obtained for pions on the linearity, the energy resolution and the uniformity of the calorimeter response are well within the requirements for operation at the LHC. ((orig.))

  9. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  10. Liquid argon calorimeter performance at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $10^{12}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  11. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  12. LHCb calorimeter electronics. Photon identification. Calorimeter calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Machefert, F

    LHCb is one of the four large experiments installed on the LHC accelerator ring. The aim of the detector is to precisely measure CP violation observables and rare decays in the B meson sector. The calorimeter system of LHCb is made of four sub-systems: the scintillating pad detector, the preshower, the electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) calorimeters. It is essential to reconstruct B decays, to efficiently trigger on interesting events and to identify electrons and photons. After a review of the LHCb detector sub-systems, the first part of this document describes the calorimeter electronics. First, the front-end electronics in charge of measuring the ECAL and HCAL signals from the photomultipliers is presented, then the following section is an overview of the control card of the four calorimeters. The chapters three and four concern the test software of this electronics and the technological choices making it tolerant to radiations in the LHCb cavern environment. The measurements performed to ensure th...

  13. Radiation hard micro-coaxial cables for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Imbert, P; de La Taille, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has chosen for the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and for all the end-cap calorimeters a sampling technique, with liquid argon as the active medium. The read-out electronics and the calibration pulsers are located in boxes outside the cryostats housing the detectors. Signals are transmitted between the detectors and the electronic boxes through custom-designed micro- coaxial cables, which are the subject of this paper. These cables have to satisfy very stringent tolerances in terms of signal transmission, dimensions and radiation hardness. Following a successful pre-series production, these cables have been selected for equipping the ATLAS calorimeter. (16 refs).

  14. Cryogenic System for the Test Facilities of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, J; Chalifour, M; Haug, F; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    1998-01-01

    To perform cold tests on the different modules of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, a cryogenic system has been constructed and is now operated at the CERN North Experimental Area. Three different test cryostats will house the modules, which can also be exposed to particle beams for calibration purposes. The three cryostats share a common liquid argon and liquid nitrogen distribution system. The system is rather complex since it has to allow operations of the three cryostats at the same time. Liquid nitrogen is used as cold source for both the cool-down of the cryostats and for normal operation of the cryostats filled with liquid argon.

  15. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  16. The ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Henric; ATLAS LArg Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The various cryostats with the ATLAS LArg calorimeter are installed in the ATLAS cavern since several years. Following this, an effort to install and commission the front end read-out electronics (infrastructure, crates, boards) has been ongoing and is converging, in time for LHC start. After the mechanical installation of the LArg calorimeter 99.9 % of the read-out channels were working, hence great care was taken to assure the same high level of quality after the installation of the read-out electronics. Following cautious procedures and with continuous testing-campaigns of the electronics at each step of the installation advancement, the result is a fully commissioned calorimeter with its readout and a small number of non-functional channels.

  17. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  18. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  19. Calibration strategy of CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Paramatti, R

    2004-01-01

    Calibration is one of the main factors that set limits on the ultimate performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at LHC. Crystals raw intercalibration from lab measurements during assembly and CERN-SPS test beam of Supermodules will represent the precalibration at the start-up. In situ calibration with physics events will be the main tool to reduce the constant term to the design goal of 0.5%. The calibration strategy will be described in detail.

  20. The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...

  1. Cryogenic Tests of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, C; Chalifour, M; Gonidec, A; Passardi, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature...

  2. Calibration of the CREAM-I calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Y S; Bagliesi, M G; Bigongiari, G; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinin, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Nam, S; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) calorimeter is designed to measure the spectra of cosmic-ray particles over the energy range from ~10^11 eV to ~10^15 eV. Its first flight as part of the CREAM-I balloon-borne payload in Antarctica during the 2004/05 season resulted in a recordbreaking 42 days of exposure. Calorimeter calibration using various beam test data will be discussed in an attempt to assess the uncertainties of the energy measurements.

  3. The Calibration Stategy of CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Meridiani, P

    2004-01-01

    Calibration is one of the main factors that set limits on the ultimate performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) at LHC. Crystals raw intercalibration from laboratory measurements during assembly will be available for all the crystals and has been demonstrated to be a good precalibration value at the start-up; some crystals will be also intercalibrated using an electron beam. In situ calibration with physics events will be the main tool to reduce the constant term of the emergy resolution to the design goal of 0.5%. In the following the calibration strategy will be described in detail.

  4. Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration with $\\pi^{0}$

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, A

    2009-01-01

    Several methods can be used in order to achieve precise calibration of the LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) once reasonable cell equalization has been reached. At low transverse energy, the standard calibration procedure is an iterative method based on the fit of the $\\gamma\\gamma$ invariant mass distribution for each cell of the decay $\\pi^{0}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ with resolved photons. A new technique for generating the combinatorial background of such decays directly from data has been developed. Knowledge of the background could allow an alternative calibration method based on a event by event fit of the same $\\gamma\\gamma$ invariant mass distribution where contributions from groups of cells are considered in a single fit. The background generation procedure and this possible new calibration method are presented in this poster, in addition to an overview of the LHCb Calorimetry system and ECAL calibration techniques.

  5. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the co......The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...

  6. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kuwertz, Emma Sian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  7. Performance of the Signal Vacuum Cables of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter Endcap Cryostat Signal Feedthroughs

    CERN Document Server

    Axen, D A; Dowling, A; Dowling, A S; Fincke-Keeler, M; Hodges, T; Holness, F; Ince, T; Keeler, Richard K; Langstaf, R; Lefebvre, M; Lenckowski, M; Lindner, J; MacDonald, R; McDonald, R; Muzzeral, E; Poffenberger, P R; Van Uytven, J; Vowles, G; Wiggins, W

    2003-01-01

    This note presents of brief summary of the design specification and the performance under test of the signal vacuum cables which are used in the signal feedthroughs of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter endcap cryostats.

  8. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running -

    CERN Document Server

    Starz, Steffen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energ...

  9. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid ArgonCalorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of a...

  10. Electronics development for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter trigger and readout for future LHC running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Walter

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and 10 times greater total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of all cells will be available at the second trigger level operating at 1 MHz, in order to allow further mitigation of pile-up effects in energy reconstruction. Radiation tolerant, low-power front-end electronics optimized for high pile-up conditions are currently being developed, including pre-amplifier, ADC and serializer components in 65-180 nm technology. This contribution will give an overview of the future LAr readout electronics and present research results from the two upgrade programs.

  11. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of a...

  12. Electronics Development for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Trigger and Readout for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide up to 7.5 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. The radiation tolerance criteria and the improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger-readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated ...

  13. Installation of signal feedthroughs on an ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeter end-cap cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The liquid-argon calorimeters used for hadronic energy measurements in the end-cap regions of the ATLAS detector are housed in cryostats to maintain the argon at the very low temperature required. The cryostats are equipped with signal feedthroughs, through which pass the electrical lines carrying signals from the calorimeters. Photos 01, 02, 03: Installation of the signal feedthroughs on the first of the two end-cap cryostats.

  14. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasily L Morgunov

    2007-12-01

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution for the simple calorimeter energy sum.

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s${^-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. The calibration and performance of the LAr calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the LAr calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as we...

  16. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters Operation and Data Quality During the 2016 Proton Run

    CERN Document Server

    Pascuzzi, Vincent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS operated with high efficiency during the 2016 pp data-taking period with 25ns bunch spacing at ⎷s = 13 TeV, recording approximately 34 fb-1 of good physics data. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters contributed to to this effort by providing a high data quality efficiency. This poster highlights the overall status, operations, data quality and performance of the LAr Calorimeters in 2016.

  17. Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Astvatsaturov, A R; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Autiero, D; Azuelos, Georges; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bee, C P; Bellettini, Giorgio; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blaj, C; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Buono, S; Calôba, L P; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Casado, M P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chase, Robert L; Chekhtman, A; Chevaleyre, J C; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Cozzi, L; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; de La Taille, C; Del Prete, T; Depommier, P; de Saintignon, P; De Santo, A; Dinkespiler, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fouchez, D; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Gingrich, D M; Glagolev, V V; Golubev, V B; Gómez, A; González, J; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Hostachy, J Y; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Klioukhine, V I; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Laborie, G; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lebedev, A; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liba, I; Linossier, O; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lund-Jensen, B; Mahout, G; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miotto, A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicoleau, S; Noppe, J M; Olivetto, C; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Parrour, G; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Pétroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanders, H; Sauvage, G; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Scheel, C V; Schwemling, P; Schindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shchelchkov, A S; Shevtsov, V P; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephani, D; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tisserant, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Wagner, D; White, Alan R; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    1996-01-01

    The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300~GeV at an incident angle $\\theta$ of about 11$^\\circ$ is well-described by the expression $\\sigma/E = ((46.5 \\pm 6.0)\\%/\\sqrt{E} +(1.2 \\pm 0.3)\\%) \\oplus (3.2 \\pm 0.4)~\\mbox{GeV}/E$. Shower profiles, shower leakage, and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied.

  18. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmadaliev, S Z; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrieux, M L; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Barreiro, F; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bazizi, K; Bee, C P; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bonivento, W; Borgeaud, P; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Breton, D; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Caprini, M; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Cases, R; Castillo, M V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Citterio, M; Cleland, W E; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Coulon, J P; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delagnes, E; de La Taille, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; de Saintignon, P; Di Girolamo, B; Dinkespiler, B; Dita, S; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Eynard, G; Farida, F; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; García, G; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V; Glebov, V Yu; Gómez, A; González, V; González de la Hoz, S; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hébrard, C; Henriques, A; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Huet, M; Huston, J; Imbault, D; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jacquier, Y; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karst, P; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Klioukhine, V I; Kolachev, G M; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kozlov, V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Labarga, L; Laborie, G; Lacour, D; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Le Dortz, O; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; Leltchouk, M; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liapis, C; Linossier, O; Lissauer, D; Lobkowicz, F; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; López-Amengual, J M; Lottin, J P; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Maio, A; Makowiecki, D S; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marrocchesi, P S; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A M; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mirea, A; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Mosidze, M D; Moynot, M; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Nayman, P; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicod, D; Nicoleau, S; Niculescu, M; Noppe, J M; Onofre, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Parrour, G; Parsons, J; Pascual, J I; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Perrodo, P; Petroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Richer, J P; Riu, I; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Romero, P; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shaldaev, E; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Soloviev, I V; Snopkov, R; Söderqvist, J; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Spiwoks, R; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, P; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Sykora, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserand, V; Tisserant, S; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vincent, P; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Walter, C; White, A; Wielers, M; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2000-01-01

    A new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 10 to 300 GeV at an incident angle theta of about 12 degrees is well described by the expression sigma /E=((41.9+or-1.6)%/ square root E+(1.8+or-0.1)%)(+) (1.8+or-0.1)/E, where E is in GeV. The response to electrons and muons was evaluated. Shower profiles, shower leakage and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied. Results are compared with those from the previous beam test. (22 refs).

  19. Simulation of hadronic showers in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryunin, A E; Strízenec, P; Kish, J; Loch, P; Mazini, R

    2002-01-01

    Results of Geant4 based simulations of the response of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter to charged pions are presented. The first results of hadronic simulations with Geant4 for the ATLAS forward calorimeter are shown as well. Predictions of Geant4 and Geant3 on energy response and resolution for charged pions are compared. Where it is possible, the comparison with experimental results of beam tests is done. (6 refs).

  20. Calibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Leslie, Dawn Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter comprises 75848 lead tungstate scintillating crystals. The calibration of each channel is crucial to ensure excellent energy resolution. During data-taking in 2010 and 2011 a number of physics channels were used to compute the inter-calibration and absolute energy scale of the calorimeter. These included low mass di-photon resonances, electrons from Z and W decays and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits from minimum bias events. The acquisition of the required data samples is described and results are presented for the precision of each method, together with the combined precision of the inter-calibration and absolute energy scale.

  1. Test beam results of a stereo preshower integrated in the liquid argon accordion calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, R; Greenious, G; Kitching, P; Olsen, B; Pinfold, James L; Rodning, N L; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Eynard, G; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Linossier, O; Nicoleau, S; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Citterio, M; Gordon, H A; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Makowiecki, D S; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rescia, S; Stephani, D; Takai, H; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Delagnes, E; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Simion, S; Taguet, J P; Teiger, J; Walter, C; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Hostachy, J Y; Mahout, G; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; García, J; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Romero, P; Scheel, C V; Chekhtman, A; Cousinou, M C; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Resconi, S; Sala, P R; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Augé, E; Breton, D; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; González, J; Hrisoho, A T; Jacquier, Y; Merkel, B; Nikolic, I A; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Puzo, P; Richer, J P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Veillet, J J; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Astbury, Alan; Keeler, Richard K; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S; White, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of an integrated preshower within the RD3 liquid argon accordion calorimeter. It has a stereo view which enables the measurement of two transverse coordinates. The prototype was tested at CERN with electrons, photons and muons to validate its capability to work at LHC ( Energy resolution, impact point resolution, angular resolution, $\\pi^o$/$\\gamma$ rejection ).

  2. A liquid argon calorimeter prototype for forward region at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artamonov, A. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epstein, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorbunov, P. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jemanov, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khovansky, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuchenkov, A. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kruchinin, S. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maslennikov, A. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rjabinin, M. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, P. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaitsev, V. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeldovich, S. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zuckerman, I. [Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-02-21

    We report on the design and on beam test results of a liquid argon calorimeter prototype. This technology was proposed as an option for the forward region of an experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The measurements were performed using electrons from the ITEP PS with an energy range of 1 to 5 GeV. (orig.).

  3. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Aktas, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antos, J; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baron, S; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; 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Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  4. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

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S.; Haywood, S. J.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Hemperek, T.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Hershenhorn, A. D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N. P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Homma, Y.; Homola, P.; Horazdovsky, T.; Hori, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M. A.; Hoummada, A.; Howe, T.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huang, G. S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilyushenka, Y.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issakov, V.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.; Jahoda, M.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jared, R. C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarron, P.; Jeanty, L.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jez, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. W.; Jones, T. J.; Jonsson, O.; Joos, D.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P. M.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V. V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L. V.; Kalinowski, A.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz Unel, M.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kastoryano, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M. S.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V. A.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Kazi, S. I.; Keates, J. R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P. T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-Zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Kholodenko, A. G.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kilvington, G.; Kim, H.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, P. C.; Kim, S. H.; Kind, O.; Kind, P.; King, B. T.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G. P.; Kirsch, L. E.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Klute, M.; Kluth, S.; Knecht, N. S.; Kneringer, E.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koblitz, B.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Köpke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kokott, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kolos, S.; Kolya, S. D.; Komar, A. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Kononov, A. I.; Konoplich, R.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Koperny, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Koreshev, V.; Korn, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Korotkov, V. A.; Kortner, O.; Kostka, P.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotamäki, M. J.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotov, K. Y.; Koupilova, Z.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, H.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Krepouri, A.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, P.; Krobath, G.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurchaninov, L. L.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Kvasnicka, O.; Kwee, R.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Labbe, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lane, J. L.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Larionov, A. V.; Larner, A.; Lasseur, C.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Maner, C.; Le Menedeu, E.; Le Vine, M.; Leahu, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebel, C.; Lecompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; Legeyt, B. C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lellouch, J.; Leltchouk, M.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leonhardt, K.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J.-R.; Lester, C. G.; Leung Fook Cheong, A.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levitski, M. S.; Levonian, S.; Lewandowska, M.; Leyton, M.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lichtnecker, M.; Lie, K.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lilley, J. N.; Lim, H.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S. C.; Lindsay, S. W.; Linhart, V.; Linnemann, J. T.; Liolios, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lipinsky, L.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, C.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, M.; Liu, S.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Lockwitz, S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lovas, L.; Love, J.; Love, P.; Lowe, A. J.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, D.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Luehring, F.; Luisa, L.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lutz, G.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Macana Goia, J. A.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R. J.; Mader, W. F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P. J.; Magradze, E.; Magrath, C. A.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahmood, A.; Mahout, G.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makouski, M.; Makovec, N.; Malecki, Pa.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Manabe, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P. S.; Manjavidze, I. D.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marques, C. N.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, R.; Marshall, Z.; Martens, F. K.; Marti I Garcia, S.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F. F.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, T. A.; Martin Dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martini, A.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Maruyama, T.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massaro, G.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mathes, M.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S. J.; May, E. N.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mazzanti, P.; Mc Donald, J.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; McGlone, H.; McHedlidze, G.; McLaren, R. A.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. R.; McPherson, R. A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Melamed-Katz, A.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Merkl, D.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A. M.; Messmer, I.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T. C.; Meyer, W. T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R. P.; Migas, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, W. J.; Mills, C. M.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Miñano, M.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Misawa, S.; Miscetti, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Mladenov, D.; Moa, T.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Mönig, K.; Möser, N.; Mohn, B.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Möck, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Moloney, G.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R. W.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Llácer, M. Moreno; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, J. D.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Müller, T. A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Garcia, R.; Murray, W. J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N. R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S. K.; Neal, H. A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T. K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R. N.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nožička, M.; Nugent, I. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Odino, G. A.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A. G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. 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T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W. G.; Pleier, M.-A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D. M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, K. P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R. A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E. R.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchis Lozano, M. A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmid, P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y. D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O. V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, S. M.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M. D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-12-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0.54^{+0.06}_{-0.04})% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61±0.07 mm/μs at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  5. Design, Performance and Calibration of the CMS Forward Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnager, V; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Arun; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Meshcheryakov, Gleb; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevski, A V; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N P; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Oulyanov, A; Safronov, S; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Gribushin, Andrey; Demianov, A; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, Konstantin; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Korablev, Andrey; Khmelnikov, V A; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L K; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Kuzucu, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Ozkurt, Halil; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Gamsizkan, Halil; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Wang, Lei; Wetstein, Matthew; Ayan, S; Akgun, Ugur; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Vodopyanov, I; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using charged particles of the CMS Forward Calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3\\l |\\eta| \\le 5), and is essential for large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h \\approx 5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed...

  6. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Read-out Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Newcomer, Mitchel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide a 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters and their read-out system. An improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency and a better radiation tolerance require an upgrade of the read-out electronics. Concepts for the future read-out of the 183.000 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16 bit dynamic range, and the development of radiation tolerant, low noise, low power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented.

  7. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tiankuan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  8. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end electronics for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5–7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40–80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented in this paper.

  9. Performance and Calibration of CASTOR Calorimeter at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    CASTOR trigger was developed and activated during beam injections and ramp-ups. The triggered events correspond to an isolated particle penetrating the calorimeter parallel to the beam axis. Analysis of the obtained spectra provides relative response to a muon per individual read-out channel. An absolute CASTOR calibration is not discussed here.

  10. Comparisons of Electron and Muon Signals in the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeters with GEANT4 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchekroun, D.; Karpetian, G.; Mazini, R.; Kiryunin, A.; Salihagic, D.; Strizenec, P.; Kish, J.; Kordas, K.; Parrour, G.; Leltchouk, M.; Negroni, S.; Seligman, W.; Loch, P.; Soukharev, A.

    2002-01-01

    Signals from electrons and muons taken at testbeams with different modules of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter have been compared to corresponding simulations using the GEANT4 toolkit. These simulations have also been compared in some detail with GEANT3 based predictions. Results for signal linearity, energy resolution, and shower shapes all generally indicate a good agreement between experiment and the two simulation packages, typically at the level of a few percent.

  11. The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axen, D.; Bougerolle, S.; Sobie, R. (Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Eigen, G.; De Jongh, F.; Hitlin, D.; Kelsey, M.; Klein, M.; Mincer, A.; Wisniewski, W.; Wolf, R. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Arroyo, C.; Au, Y.; Baltay, C.; Bolton, T.; Bazarko, A.; Camilleri, L.; Hyatt, E.; Manly, S.; Rabinowitz, S.; Rowson, P.C.; Seligman, S.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Smith, S.; Steiner, R.V. (Columbia Univ., Nevis Lab., Irvington, NY (United States)); Abt, I.; Alzofon, D.; Arnett, D.; Barrera, F.; Bell, R.; Bes, S.C.; Bogart, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Candia, A.; Claus, R.; Cutler, H.; Davis, R.; Dubois, R.; Foss, M.; Fox, J.; Fox, M.; Gioumousis, A.; Grebenyuk, A.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, V.; Hodgson, J.; Huffer, M.; Junk, T.; Kim, P.; Labs, J.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nordby, M.; Paffrath, L.; Putallaz, G.; Rogers, H.; Russell, J.J.; Saez, P.; Seward, P.; Sherden, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Schindler, R.H.; Waite, A.P.; Watt, R. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA

    1993-05-01

    The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector is one of the largest detectors employing cryogenic liquids now in operation. This paper details the design and performance considerations, the mechanical and cryogenic systems, the absorber design and tower segmentation, the data acquisition electronics, and the control systems of the detector. The initial operational performance of the device is discussed. Detailed resolution studies will be presented in a later paper. (orig.).

  12. Monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; 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Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; 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Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter is a key component of the ATLAS detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The primary purpose of this calorimeter is the measurement of electrons and photons. It also provides a crucial input for measuring jets and missing transverse momentum. An advanced data monitoring procedure was designed to quickly identify issues that would affect detector performance and ensure that only the best quality data are used for physics analysis. This article presents the validation procedure developed during the 2011 and 2012 LHC data-taking periods, in which more than 98% of the proton–proton luminosity recorded by ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy of 7–8 TeV had calorimeter data quality suitable for physics analysis.

  13. Geometric calibration of the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, A A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of the software alignment procedure used to perform geometric calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the Spherical Neutral Detector (SND) which is used for HEP experiments at the VEPP-2000 $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider (BINP, Novosibirsk). This procedure is based on the mathematical model describing the relative calorimeter position. The parameter values are determined by minimizing a $\\chi^{2}$ function using the difference between directions reconstructed in these two subdetectors for the $e^{+}e^{-}\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ scattering data events. The results of the calibration and its application to the data and MC simulation fit the model and give an improvement of the reconstructed particle parameters. They are used already in the actual experimental data analysis and more realistic MC simulation. We think that the ideas implemented in the calibration procedure can be useful for other experiments with hete...

  14. Calibration of the BABAR CsI (Tl) calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Joerg, E-mail: marks@physi.uni-heidelberg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-04-01

    After nine years of operation, the BABAR experiment at the e{sup +}e{sup -} B factory PEP-II (Standford Linear Accelerator Center) stopped data taking in April 2008. An important part of the experiment is the electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 6580 CsI crystals doped with thallium and read out by Si-PIN photodiodes. The light yield of the CsI crystals is changing in time due to radiation exposure. In addition to the changing light yield, passive material in front of and between the crystals as well as signal thresholds during the reconstruction influence the reconstructed energies. This requires a time-dependent calibration of the calorimeter. The calibration issues are reviewed and the calibration results obtained from various data samples are presented.

  15. Calibration of the BABAR CsI (Tl) calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jörg; Calorimeter Group of BARBAR Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    After nine years of operation, the BABAR experiment at the e+e- B factory PEP-II (Standford Linear Accelerator Center) stopped data taking in April 2008. An important part of the experiment is the electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 6580 CsI crystals doped with thallium and read out by Si-PIN photodiodes. The light yield of the CsI crystals is changing in time due to radiation exposure. In addition to the changing light yield, passive material in front of and between the crystals as well as signal thresholds during the reconstruction influence the reconstructed energies. This requires a time-dependent calibration of the calorimeter. The calibration issues are reviewed and the calibration results obtained from various data samples are presented.

  16. Calibration of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter using muons

    CERN Document Server

    van Woerden, M C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. TileCal , together with the electromagnetic calorimeter, provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. Cosmic rays muons and muon events produced by scraping 450 GeV protons in one collimator of the LHC machine have been used to test the calibration of the calorimeter. The analysis of the cosmic rays data shows: a) the response of the third longitudinal layer of the Barrel differs from those of the first and second Barrel layers by about 3-4%, respectively and b) the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at beam tests using electrons are found to range between -3% and +1%. In the case of the scraping beam data, the responses of all the layer pairs were found to be consisten...

  17. Calibration for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter-Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, F.

    2007-12-19

    This thesis describes developments and tests that are necessary to operate the Pre-Processor of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for data acquisition. The major tasks of Pre-Processor comprise the digitizing, time-alignment and the calibration of signals that come from the ATLAS calorimeter. Dedicated hardware has been developed that must be configured in order to fulfill these tasks. Software has been developed that implements the register-model of the Pre-Processor Modules and allows to set up the Pre-Processor. In order to configure the Pre-Processor in the context of an ATLAS run, user-settings and the results of calibration measurements are used to derive adequate settings for registers of the Pre-Processor. The procedures that allow to perform the required measurements and store the results into a database are demonstrated. Furthermore, tests that go along with the ATLAS installation are presented and results are shown. (orig.)

  18. Geometric calibration of the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, A. A.; Melnikova, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of the software alignment procedure used to perform geometric calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the SND detector which is taking data at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk). This procedure is based on the mathematical model describing the relative calorimeter position. The parameter values are determined by minimizing a χ2 function using the difference between particle directions reconstructed in these two subdetectors for e+e- →e+e- scattering events. The results of the calibration applied to data and MC simulation fit the model well and give an improvement in particle reconstruction. They are used in data reconstruction and MC simulation.

  19. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  20. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kamenev, Alexey; Konoplianikov, V; Kosarev, Ivan; Moissenz, K; Moissenz, P; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Semenov, Roman; Sergeyev, S; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexander; Kudinov, Vladimir; Orlov, Alexandre; Smetannikov, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; de Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankoc, K; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grynev, B; Lyubynskiy, Vadym; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; ODell, V; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gusum, K; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2008-01-01

    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\\% to 5\\%.

  1. In-situ Calibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter is a key instrument to exploit the energy frontier represented by LHC, expected to deliver proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. High performance of the ECAL, in particular precise energy measurement of electrons and protons, will enhance the discovery potential of CMS. In-situ calibration with physics events will be the main tool to minimize the constant term in the resolution function. The calibration strategies and the studies performed on simulated data to achieve this goal are presented.

  2. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS forward calorimeter wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Kalinin, A.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sharma, S.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qiang, W. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Kim, H.; Spezziga, M.; Thomas, R.; Wigmans, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Varela, F.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Bakirci, M.N.; Cerci, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Koylu, S.; Kurt, P.; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Ozkurt, H.; Sogut, K.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Yetkin, T. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey); Baarmand, M.; Mermerkaya, H.; Vodopiyanov, I. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States); Babich, K.; Golutvin, I.; Kalagin, V.; Kosarev, I.; Ladygin, V.; Mescheryakov, G.; Moissenz, P.; Petrosyan, A.; Rogalev, E.; Smirnov, V.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Wang, L.; Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    2008-01-15

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using high energy electrons, pions and muons with the CMS forward calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3{<=} vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke {<=}5), and is essential for a large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels in Higgs production. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h{approx}5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as (a)/({radical}(E))+b. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a=280% and b=11%. (orig.)

  3. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters Readout Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388354; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters and their readout system. An improved trigger system with a higher acceptance rate of 1 MHz and a longer latency of up to 60 micro-seconds together with a better radiation tolerance require an upgrade of the readout electronics. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40/80 MHz and 16 bit dynamic range, and the development of low-noise, low-power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented. These include ASIC developments towards radiation-tolerant low-noise pre-amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters up to 14 bits and low-power optical links providing transfer rates of at least 10 Gb/s per fiber.

  4. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters Readout Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388354; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters and their readout system. The improved trigger system has a higher acceptance rate of 1 MHz and a longer latency of up to 60 micro-seconds. This requires an upgrade of the readout electronics, a better radiation tolerance is also required. This paper will present concepts for the future readout of the 182,468 calorimeter channels at 40 or 80 MHz with a 16 bit dynamic range. Progress of the development of low-noise, low-power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented. These include radiation-tolerant preamplifiers, analog-to-digital converters (ADC) up to 14 bits and low-power optical links providing transfer rates of at least 10 Gbps per fiber.

  5. Calibration of the CALICE analog hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Sarah; Ramilli, Marco; Laurien, Sebastian; Matysek, Michael; Buhmann, Peter; Garutti, Erika [Institute for Experimental Physics, Hamburg University, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CALICE AHCAL technological prototype is a hadronic calorimeter prototype for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} - collider (ILC and CLIC). It is designed as a sampling calorimeter alternating tungsten or steel absorber plates and active readout layers, segmented in single plastic scintillator tiles of 3 x 3 x 0.3 cm{sup 3} volume. Each tile is individually coupled to a silicon photomultiplier, read out by a dedicated ASIC with energy measurement and time stamping capability. The high granularity is meant to enable imaging and separation of single showers, for a Particle Flow approach to the jet energy measurement. The prototype aims to establish this technology as a scalable solution for an ILC detector. The first 14 layers of this prototype have been assembled and commissioned. The first 10 layers in the stack are used as tracker to determine the position of the first hard interaction of a pion shower in the first interaction length (λ) of the calorimeter. Four full size layers (72 x 72 cm{sup 2}) are distributed between 1 and 3λ depth in the steel absorber. Data has been collected with muon, electron and pion beams at the CERN PS (2014). The first results on energy calibration with muons are presented, together with a comparison to the bench calibration obtained during tile production.

  6. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12bit precision at 40MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  7. Computer Simulation of the Cool Down of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korperud, N; Fabre, C; Owren, G; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter consists of a liquid argon detector with a total mass of 120 tonnes. This highly complicated structure, fabricated from copper, lead, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy will be placed in an aluminum cryostat. The cool down process of the detector will be limited by the maximum temperature differences accepted by the composite structure so as to avoid critical mechanical stresses. A computer program simulating the cool down of the detector by calculating the local heat transfer throughout a simplified model has been developed. The program evaluates the cool down time as a function of different contact gasses filling the spaces within the detector.

  8. Calibration and Monitoring of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    La Licata, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is an homogeneous and hermetic calorimeter with high granularity and fast response, designed to provide high resolution measurements of electron and photon energy. Precise calibration of the ECAL must be performed in situ at the LHC, in order to achieve and maintain its design performance and to fully exploit the physics reach of CMS. Several techniques have been developed for the inter-calibration of ECAL using collision data. These methods are based on the reconstruction of the invariant mass peak of unconverted photons from low mass particle decays (pi0 and eta) and the azimuthal symmetry of the average energy deposition at a given pseudorapidity. Further inter-calibration is carried out by using isolated electrons from W and Z bosons to compare the energy measured in ECAL to the momentum of the reconstructed track. The absolute calibration of the energy scale is performed using Z decays into electron-positron pairs. Changes in the ECAL response due to crystal rad...

  9. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter After Three Years of LHC Operation and Plans for a Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose detector built for analyzing LHC collision data. In July 2012, ATLAS announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last undiscovered particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter played a crucial role in the discovery by providing accurate measurements of Higgs final states such as photons, electrons and jets. The LAr detector is a sampling calorimeter consisting of four subsystems: an electromagnetic barrel (EMB), electromagnetic end-caps (EMEC), hadronic end-caps (HEC), and forward calorimeters (FCAL). The liquid argon purity, temperature and time stability remained well above the required levels throughout the data-taking period. Overall the calorimeter performed very well, with over 99% of data it collected in 2012 proton-proton collisions being suitable for physics analysis. In order to maintain good LAr detector performance, several upgrades are currently being implemented and planned.

  11. Upgrade of the Trigger System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and build to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm^-2s^-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals, which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for each triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2019, instantaneous luminosities of (2-3)×1034 cm^-2s^-1 are expected, far beyond that for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is pro...

  12. Upgrade of the Trigger System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS detector was designed and build to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals, which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for each triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2020, instantaneous luminosities of (2-3)×1034 cm-2s-1 are expected, far beyond that for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is proposed, t...

  13. ATLAS Liquid Argon Endcap Calorimeter R and D for sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schacht, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap has been studied for luminosities as expected for the operation at sLHC. The increase of integrated luminosity by a factor of ten has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operation of the forward liquid argon calorimeters. The response has been studied with small modules of the type as built for ATLAS in a very high intensity beam at IHEP/Protvino. The highest intensity obtained was well above the level of energy impact expected for ATLAS at sLHC. The signal processing of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeters employs the concept of 'active pads' which keeps the detector capacities at the input of the amplifiers small and thereby achieves a fast rise time of the signal. This concept is realized using highly integrated amplifier and summing chips in GaAs technology. With an increase of luminosity by a factor of ten the safety factor for the radiation hardness is essentially eliminated. Therefore new more radiati...

  14. ATLAS Liquid Argon Endcap Calorimeter R and D for sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schacht, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap has been studied for luminosities as expected for the operation at sLHC. The increase of integrated luminosity by a factor of ten has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the forward liquid argon calorimeters. The response has been studied with small modules of the type as built for ATLAS in a very high intensity beam at IHEP/Protvino. The highest intensity obtained was well above the level of energy impact expected for ATLAS at sLHC. The signal processing of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter employs the concept of 'active pads' which keeps the detector capacities at the input of the amplifiers small and thereby achieves a fast rise time of the signal. This concept is realized using highly integrated amplifier and summing chips in GaAs technology. With an increase of luminosity by a factor of ten the safety factor for the radiation hardness is essentially eliminated. Therefore new more radiati...

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Tom; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of up to 7.5 times the original design value, will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. This contribution highlights the particular impacts on the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system, together with an overview of the various upgrade plans leading up to the HL-LHC. The higher luminosities are of particular importance for the forward calorimeters (FCal), where the expected increase in the ionization load poses a number of problems that can degrade the FCal performance such as beam heating and space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps and high-voltage drop due to increased current drawn over the current-limiting resistors. A proposed FCal replacement as a way to counter some of these problems is weighed against the risks associated with the replacement. To further mitigate the effects of increased pile-up, the installation of a high-granularity timing detector...

  16. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic EndCap Calorimeter Construction and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rodier, S; Del Peso, J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis has been carried out within the ATLAS collaboration. ATLAS is one of the two multipurpose experiments approved for data taking at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main goals of this experiment are, to find the Higgs boson, the missing piece in the otherwise so succesful Standard Model of Particle Physics, and to look for physics beyond the Standard Model up to a scale of 1TeV. For this purpose, electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry play a key role. The ATLAS Collaboration has chosen a Liquid Argon (LAr) option with lead as passive material. The liquid Argon Calorimeter is divided into two main subdetectors, the barrel and the end caps (EC). The design and construction of the LAr EM EC calorimeter is the responsability of the groups at Centre de Physique de Marseille (CPPM) and the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)following the guideline developed by the research and development working, group 3 for LHC detectors (RD3). The sharing of responsabilities is such that CPPM provides spacers an...

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters for the High-Luminosity LHC arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Thomas G.

    The increased particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of up to 7.5 times the original design value, will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. This contribution highlights the particular impacts on the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system, together with an overview of the various upgrade plans leading up to the HL-LHC. The higher luminosities are of particular importance for the forward calorimeters (FCal), where the expected increase in the ionization load poses a number of problems that can degrade the FCal performance such as beam heating and space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps and high-voltage drop due to increased current drawn over the current-limiting resistors. A proposed FCal replacement as a way to counter some of these problems is weighed against the risks associated with the replacement. To further mitigate the effects of increased pile-up, the installation of a high-granularity timing detector...

  18. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|$ < 3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=$1.5 to $|\\eta|=$4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 $\\times 10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$ is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate,...

  19. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |eta|=1.5 to |eta|=4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitizedand processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 x 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primi...

  20. CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter: Calibration and Response to Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2014-01-01

    The large CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype (DHCAL) was built in 2009 - 2010. The DHCAL uses Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active media and is read out with 1 x 1 cm2 pads and digital (1 - bit) resolution. With a world record of about 0.5M readout channels, the DHCAL offers the possibility to study hadronic interactions with unprecedented spatial resolution. This talk reports on the results from the analysis of pion events of momenta between 2 to 60 GeV/c collected in the Fermilab test beam with an emphasis on the intricate calibration procedures.

  1. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter: upgrade plans for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Novgorodova, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, plans for a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are already being developed for operation of the collider and associated detectors at luminosities of up to (5-7)×1034 cm-2s-1, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. The proposed instantaneous and integrated luminosities are both well beyond the values for which the detectors were designed. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters will be able to tolerate the increased particle flux, but the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal) will be affected. Two solutions for this are un...

  2. Calibration of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter with LHC collision data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertino, M. M.; CMS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The CMS ECAL is a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter which relies upon precision calibration in order to achieve and maintain its design performance. Variations in light collected from the lead tungstate crystals, due to intrinsic differences in crystals/photodetectors, as well as variations with time due to radiation damage for example, need to be taken into account. Sophisticated and effective methods of inter-crystal and absolute calibration have been devised, using collision data from the 2011 LHC run and a dedicated light injection system. For inter-calibration, low mass particle (π0 and η) decays to two photons are exploited, as well as the azimuthal symmetry of the average energy deposition at a given pseudorapidity. The light injection system monitors the channel response in real-time and enables the re-calibration of the measured energies over time. This is cross-checked by the comparison of E/p measurements of electrons from W decays (where the momentum is measured in the CMS tracker) with/without these re-calibrations applied. Absolute calibration has been performed using Z decays into electron-positron pairs.

  3. Energy reconstruction and calibration algorithms for the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Delmastro, M

    2003-01-01

    The work of this thesis is devoted to the study, development and optimization of the algorithms of energy reconstruction and calibration for the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the ATLAS experiment, presently under installation and commissioning at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in Geneva (Switzerland). A deep study of the electrical characteristics of the detector and of the signals formation and propagation is conduced: an electrical model of the detector is developed and analyzed through simulations; a hardware model (mock-up) of a group of the EMC readout cells has been built, allowing the direct collection and properties study of the signals emerging from the EMC cells. We analyze the existing multiple-sampled signal reconstruction strategy, showing the need of an improvement in order to reach the advertised performances of the detector. The optimal filtering reconstruction technique is studied and implemented, taking into account the differences between the ionization and calibration waveforms as e...

  4. Calibration and reconstruction performances of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; Lucia, E. De; Robertis, G. De; Sangro, R. De; Simone, P. De; Zorzi, G. De; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Falco, S. Di; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U.V.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S. E-mail: stefano.miscetti@lnf.infn.it; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2001-04-01

    The main aim of the KLOE experiment at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory, is to study CP violation in the K{sup 0}-K-bar{sup 0} system. Requirements on shower detection are very stringent. An hermetic, lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter has been chosen and built. A review of the methods used to calibrate and reconstruct energy and timing is reported in this paper. Emphasis is given to the calibration procedures developed using the 2.4 pb{sup -1} collected in 1999. An energy resolution of 5.7% E/GeV is achieved together with a linearity in energy response better than 1% above 50 MeV. A time resolution of {approx}54 ps E/GeV is also measured on samples of radiative Bhabha and PHI decays.

  5. Calibration and reconstruction performances of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; Lucia, E D; Robertis, G D; Sangro, R D; Simone, P D; Zorzi, G D; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Domenico, A D; Donato, C D; Falco, S D; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Von Hagel, U; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Panareo, M; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Pirozzi, G; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the KLOE experiment at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory, is to study CP violation in the K sup 0 -K-bar sup 0 system. Requirements on shower detection are very stringent. An hermetic, lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter has been chosen and built. A review of the methods used to calibrate and reconstruct energy and timing is reported in this paper. Emphasis is given to the calibration procedures developed using the 2.4 pb sup - sup 1 collected in 1999. An energy resolution of 5.7% E/GeV is achieved together with a linearity in energy response better than 1% above 50 MeV. A time resolution of approx 54 ps E/GeV is also measured on samples of radiative Bhabha and PHI decays.

  6. Calibration and Monitoring of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Licata, C.

    2014-06-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is a homogeneous and hermetic calorimeter with high granularity and fast response, designed to provide high resolution measurements of electron and photon energy. Precise calibration of the ECAL must be performed in situ at the LHC, in order to achieve and maintain its design performance and to fully exploit the physics reach of CMS. Several techniques have been developed for the intercalibration of ECAL using collision data. These methods are based on the reconstruction of the invariant mass peak of unconverted photons from low mass particle decays (π0and η) and on the azimuthal symmetry of the average energy deposition at a given pseudorapidity. Further intercalibration is carried out by using isolated electrons from W and Z bosons decays to compare the energy measured in ECAL to the momentum of the reconstructed tracks. The absolute calibration of the energy scale is performed using Z decays into electron-positron pairs. Changes in the ECAL response due to crystal radiation damage and changes in photo-detector output must be monitored. A system based on the injection of laser light into each crystal is used to track and correct for these variations during LHC operations.

  7. Kali: The framework for fine calibration of LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Puig, A; Graciani, R; Belyaev, I

    2011-01-01

    The precise calibration (at a level of below 1 %) of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the LHCb experiment is an essential task for the fulfilment of the LHCb physics program. The final step of this task is performed with two calibration methods using the real data from the experimental setup. It is a very CPU-consuming procedure as both methods require processing of $\\mathcal{O}10^8$ events which must be selected, reconstructed and analyzed. In this document we present the Kali framework developed within the LHCb software framework, which implements these two final calibration methods. It is integrated with Grid middleware and makes use of parallelism tools, such as python parallel processing modules, to provide an efficient way, both time and disk wise, for the final ECAL calibration. The results of the fine calibration with the very first data collected by the LHCb experiment will also be presented. With the use of the Kali framework it took only two days of processing and allowed to achieve a cali...

  8. Kali: The framework for fine calibration of LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, I; Puig, A; Savrina, D

    2011-01-01

    The precise calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the LHCb experiment is an essential task for the fulfilment of the LHCb physics program. The goal of the calibration of the ECAL is to intercalibrate the 6016 cells at a alevel better than 2% and provide an overall calibration below the 1% level. The final step of this task is performed with two calibration methods using the real data from the experimental setup. Both of them require processing of $\\mathcal{O}(10^8)$ events which must be selected, reconstructed and analyzed. The analysis is very CPU-consuming, since one method performs an adaptive multi-pass fitting of $\\mathcal{O}(2\\times( 10^5)$ histograms and the other one the minimization of $\\mathcal{O}(1.5\\times10^5)$ data-based functions.In this document we present the Kali framework developed within the LHCb software framework, which implements these two final calibration methods. It is integrated with Grid and makes use of parallelism tools, such as python parallel processing module...

  9. Calibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter with LHC collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Obertino, Margherita Maria

    2012-01-01

    The CMS ECAL is one of the highest resolution electromagnetic calorimeters ever constructed, but relies upon precision calibration in order to achieve and maintain its design performance. Variations in light collected from the lead tungstate crystals, due to intrinsic differences in crystals/photodetectors, as well as variations with time due to radiation damage for example, need to be taken into account. Sophisticated and effective methods of inter-crystal and absolute calibration have been devised, using collision data from the 2011 LHC run and a dedicated light injection system. For inter-calibration, low mass particle decays ($\\pi^0$ and $\\eta$) to two photons are exploited, as well as the azimuthal symmetry of the average energy deposition at a given pseudorapidity. Absolute calibration has been performed using Z decays into electron-positron pairs. The light injection system monitors the channel response in real-time and enables the re-calibration of the measured energies over time. This is cross-checke...

  10. LHCb: Kali: the Framework for Fine Calibration of LHCb Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Belyaev, I; Puig, A; Savrina, D

    2010-01-01

    The fine calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter of LHCb with real data requires the processing of O(10$^8$) events. They must be selected, reconstructed and analyzed in an iterative procedure to obtain optimal results.The dedicated calibration framework, Kali, within the LHCb software framework has been developed to fulfill these tasks. It consists of the two major components: a C++ module for data selection and a Python module for the extraction of calibration coefficients. The data selection component is a Gaudi-based application that allows to achieve a drastical reduction of input data sets by only storing the physically relevant data of the selected events. The obtained reduction is around 10$^3$ . The design of the module integrates well with the standard Grid tools for processing of large input data sets. The tool produces different output data formats: ROOT ntuples and femto-DST. While the ntuple allows various physics-driven algorithms to be used for calibration, namely iterative and global c...

  11. Study of a Readout System for a Liquid Argon Calorimet er at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Norm

    A readout system for the liquid argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector was built and tested at CERN in 1996. This system contained an analog pipeline and was designed to operate in a dual gain mode as m-el1 as a single gain mode. Koise, linearity. dynamic range. and electron energy resolution of the system were rneasured. The total noise introduced by the electronics was found to be approsimately 100 MeI,' to 220 MeV per channel. The nonlinearity of the system was less than 0.3% over a dynamic range of 11.2 bits. The measured electroti energv resolution was less than 1.9% for the 100 GeV, 150 GeV, and 200 GeV electrons. The effects of different operating parameters were studied.

  12. Update on the high speed serializer ASIC development for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We have been developing a serializer application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on a commercial 0.25-μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS technology for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter front-end electronics upgrade. The first prototype, a 5 Gbps 16:1 serializer has been designed, fabricated, and tested in lab environment and in a 200 MeV proton beam. The test results indicate that the first prototype meets the design goals. The second prototype, a double-lane, 8 Gbps per lane serializer is under development. The post-layout simulation indicates that 8 Gbps is achievable. In this paper we present the design and the test results of the first prototype and the design and status of the second prototype.

  13. A high speed serializer ASIC for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing a serializer application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on a commercial 0.25-μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS technology for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter front-end electronics upgrade. The first prototype, a 5 Gbps 16:1 serializer has been designed, fabricated, and tested in lab environment and in 200 MeV proton beam. The test results indicate that the first prototype meets the design goals. The second prototype, a double-lane, 8 Gbps per lane serializer is under development. The post layout simulation indicates that 8 Gbps is achievable. In this paper we present the design and the test results of the first prototype and the design and status of the second prototype.

  14. Calibration of BGO Calorimeter of the DAMPE in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explore (DAMPE) is a satellite based experiment which launched on December 2015 and aims at indirect searching for dark matter by measuring the spectra of high energy e±, γ from 5GeV up to 10TeV originating from deep space. The 3D imaging BGO calorimeter of DAMPE was designed to precisely measurement the primary energy of the electromagnetic particle and provides a highly efficient rejection of the hadronic background by reconstruct the longitudinal and lateral profiles of showers. To achieve the expected accuracy on the energy measurement, each signal channel has to be calibrated. The energy equalization is performed using the signal that Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIP) leave in each BGO bar, the MIPs measurement method with orbit data and, data quality, time stability using MIPs data will be presented, too.

  15. Results on the calibration of the L3 BGO calorimeter with cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, J.A.; Barone, L.; Bay, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Boutigny, D.; Brock, I.C.; Buisson, C.; Capell, M.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Diemoz, M.; Duchesneau, D.; El Mamouni, H.; Extermann, P.; Fay, J.; Ferroni, F.; Gailloud, M.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gupta, V.K.; Hilgers, K.; Ille, B.; Janssen, H.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasser, A.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Krenz, W.; Lebrun, P.; Lecoq, P.; Leonardi, E.; Linde, F.L.; Lindemann, B.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Martin, J.P.; Merk, M.; Micke, M.; Morganti, S.; Newman, H.; Organtini, G.; Piroue, P.A.; Read, K.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, P.; Sauvage, G.; Schmitz, D.; Schneegans, M.; Schwenke, J.; Stickland, D.P.; Tully, C.; Valente, E.; Vivargent, M.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Weber, A.; Weill, R.; Wenninger, J. (1. Physikalisches Inst., RWTH-Aachen (Germany) National Inst. for High Energy Physics, NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) Lab. d' Annecy-l; L3 BGO Collaboration

    1994-04-11

    During 1991 two cosmic rays runs took place for the calibration of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. In this paper we present the results of the first high statistics cosmic ray calibration of the calorimeter in situ, including the end caps. Results show that the accuracy on the measurement of the calibration constants that can be achieved in one month of data taking is of 1.3%. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of GEANT4 Simulations with Testbeam Data and GEANT3 for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Benchekroun; G.Karapetian; 等

    2001-01-01

    We present several comparisons of GEANT4 simulations with test beam data and GEANT3 simulations for different liquid argon(LAr) calorimeters of the ATLAS detector,All relevant parts of the test beam setup(scintilators,multi wire proportional chambers,cryostat etc.)are described in GEANT4 as well as in GEANT3.Muon and electron data at different energies have been compared with Monte Carlo prediction.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforou, Nikiforos

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as hadronic calorimetry in the endcaps. After installation in 2004--2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three--year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, approximately 27~fb$\\mathbf{^{-1}}$ of data have been collected at an unprecedented center of mass energy. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with a performance very close to specifications. This paper covers all aspects of these first years of operation. The excellent performance achieved is especially presented in the context of the discovery of the elusive Higgs boson. The future plans to preserve this performance until the end of the LHC program are also presented.

  18. A high speed serializer ASIC for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The current front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. This upgrade calls for an optical link system of 100 Gbps per front-end board (FEB). A high speed, low power, radiation tolerant serializer is the critical component in this system. In this paper, we present the design and test results of a single channel 16:1 serializer and the design of a double-channel 16:1 serializer. Both designs are based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The single channel serializer consists of a serializing unit, a PLL clock generator and a line driver implemented in current mode logic (CML). The serializing unit multiplexes 16 bit parallel LVDS data into 1-bit width serial CMOS data. The serializing unit is composed of a cascade of 2:1 multiplexing circuits based on static D-flip-fl...

  19. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  20. Upgrade readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger ch...

  1. Upgraded readout and trigger electronics for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters for future LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that must be digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first-level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34/cm^2/s. However, in future higher-luminosity phases of LHC operation, the luminosity (and associated pile-up noise) will be 3-7 times higher. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed, in order to improve the trigger performance at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards are being designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). This applies digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger chan...

  2. Phase - I Trigger Readout Electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dinkespiler, Bernard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for shut-down period of 2018-2019, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to use digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be tr...

  3. Performance of the ATLAS liquid argon forward calorimeter in beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, J P; Cadabeschi, M; Epshteyn, V; Galt, C; Gillberg, D; Gorbounov, P; Heelan, L; Khakzad, M; Khovanskiy, V; Krieger, P; Loch, P; McCarthy, T G; Oakham, F G; Orr, R S; Rutherfoord, J; Savine, A; Schram, M; Shatalov, P; Shaver, L; Shupe, M; Strickland, V; Thompson, P; Tsukerman, I

    2013-01-01

    One of two ATLAS Forward Calorimeters, consisting of threemodules, one behind the other, was exposed to particle beams ofknown energies in order to study the detector performance with andwithout the presence of upstream material in the beam, and at theinner edge of the acceptance where shower energy containment isincomplete. Data were taken in the H6 beamline at CERN usingelectron and hadron beams with energies from 10 to 200 GeV.Results related to the intrinsic detector calibration, based on datataken with a minimal amount of material in front of the detector,have been previously published, but are updated here. This paperfocuses on studies of data taken with additional upstream materialin place. The effects of this additional material on the linearityand resolution of the response are presented. The response at theinner edge of the acceptance is also investigated. For all analyses,results based on a GEANT4 simulation of the beam-test setup anddetector response are also presented.

  4. The Calibration of Hadron Calorimeter Tilecal for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Pribyl, L

    2003-01-01

    This diploma thesis describes calibration of hadron calorimeter Tilecal by muon and electron beams. In the first chapter, some calorimetry concepts and basic variables are mentioned or defined. In the second chapter, a detailed Tilecal description is given, special attention was given to provide an up-to-date information (written in April 2003). In this chapter, Tilecal calibration systems and data-taking during testbeams at CERN laboratory in summer 2002 are described. In the third chapter, results of data analyses of muon theta=90 deg and eta-projective runs taken during June, July and August 2002 testbeam periods are given. Results of analyses of calibration by electron beams measured in August 2002 are shown as well. It is also shown, that results of analyses mentioned above are important for the calorimeter calibration for ATLAS detector and also for checking the status of calibrated calorimeter modules.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Strizenec, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a parallel plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at 88.5 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then...

  6. Evaluation of the local hadronic calibration with combined beam-test data for the endcap and forward calorimeters of ATLAS in the pseudorapidity region 2.5<|η|<4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, J.; Soukup, J.; Archambault, J. P.; Cojocaru, C.; Khakzad, M.; Oakham, G.; Schram, M.; Vincter, M. G.; Datskov, V.; Drobin, V.; Fedorov, A.; Golubykh, S.; Javadov, N.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kakurin, S.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Lazarev, A.; Neganov, A.; Petrova, L.; Pisarev, I.; Rousakovitch, N.; Serochkin, E.; Shilov, S.; Shalyugin, A.; Usov, Yu.; Pecsy, M.; Stavina, P.; Strizenec, P.; Barreiro, F.; Gabaldon, C.; Labarga, F.; Nebot, E.; Oliver, C.; Rodier, S.; Del Peso, J.; Belkin, A.; Heldmann, M.; Koepke, L.; Othegraven, R.; Schliephake, T.; Schroff, D.; Secker, H.; Thomas, J.; Benchouk, C.; Djama, F.; Hubaut, F.; Monnier, E.; Niess, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Raymond, M.; Resende, B.; Sauvage, D.; Serfon, C.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Azuelos, G.; Delsart, P.; Leroy, C.; Mehdiyev, R.; Akimov, A.; Blagov, M.; Komar, A.; Snesarev, A.; Speransky, M.; Sulin, V.; Yakimenko, M.; Epshtein, V.; Khovansky, V.; Shatalov, P.; Barillari, T.; Erdmann, J.; Kiryunin, A.; Kurchaninov, L.; Menke, S.; Nagel, M.; Oberlack, H.; Pospelov, G.; Salihagic, D.; Schacht, P.; Chen, T.; Ping, J.; Qi, M.; Maslennikov, A.; Soukharev, A.; Talyshev, A.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Cavalleri, P.; Schwemling, P.; Chekulaev, S.; Denisov, S.; Evdokimov, V.; Levitsky, M.; Minaenko, A.; Mitrofanov, G.; Moiseev, A.; Pleskatch, A.; Stoyanova, D.; Zakamsky, L.; Bieri, M.; Rani, J.; Schouten, D.; Vetterli, M.; Loch, P.; Rutherfoord, J.; Savin, A.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Galt, C.; Gorbounov, P.; Knecht, N.; Krieger, P.; Ma, L.; Mazini, R.; Orr, R.; Losty, M.; Oram, C. J.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Hughes, T.; Kanaya, N.; Keeler, R. K.; Langstaff, R.; Lefebvre, M.; McPherson, R.; Shaw, W.; Wielers, M.; Braun, H. M.; Thadome, J.; Zeitnitz, Ch.; Atlas Liquid Argon Endcap Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The local hadronic calibration scheme developed for the reconstruction and calibration of jets and missing transverse energy in ATLAS has been evaluated using data obtained during combined beam tests of modules of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap and forward calorimeters. These tests covered the pseudorapidity range of 2.5GEANT4 simulation of a detailed beam-test setup. The evaluation itself has been performed through the careful study of specific calorimeter performance parameters such as e.g. energy response and resolution, shower shapes, as well as different physics lists of the GEANT4 simulation.

  7. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Coutinho, Y.Amaral; Santos, S.P.Amor Dos; Anderson, K.J.; Arabidze, G.; Araque, J.P.; Artamonov, A.; Asquith, L.; Astalos, R.; Mayes, J.Backus; Bartos, P.; Batkova, L.; Bertolucci, F.; Bylund, O.Bessidskaia; Castro, A.Blanco; Blazek, T.; Bohm, C.; Boumediene, D.; Boveia, A.; Brown, H.; Busato, E.; Calkins, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R.Camacho; Armadans, R.Caminal; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castro, N.F.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Chadelas, R.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekanov, S.; Chen, X.; Chikovani, L.; Choudalakis, G.; Cinca, D.; Ciubancan, M.; Clement, C.; Cole, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costin, T.; Crouau, M.; Crozatier, C.; Cuciuc, C.M.; De Sousa, M.J.Da Cunha Sargedas; Darmora, S.; Davidek, T.; Prete, T.Del; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dotti, A.; Dubreuil, E.; Dunford, M.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, S.; Errede, D.; Faltova, J.; Farbin, A.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Feng, E.J.; Ferrer, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Francavilla, P.; Torregrosa, E.Fullana; Galhardo, B.; Gellerstedt, K.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.L.; Gomes, A.; Parra, G.Gonzalez; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Guicheney, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Hard, A.S.; Harkusha, S.; Heelan, L.; Helsens, C.; Correia, A.M.Henriques; Jiménez, Y.Hern; Hernandez, C.M.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Plante, I.Jen-La; Jennens, D.; Johansson, K.E.; Jon-And, K.; Jorge, P.M.; Rozas, A.Juste; Kapliy, A.; Karpov, S.N.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Klimek, P.; Korolkov, I.; Kruse, A.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y.A.; Lafarguette, P.; Lambert, D.; LeCompte, T.; Leitner, R.; Leone, S.; Liao, H.; Lie, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lundberg, O.; Martins, P.J.Magalhaes; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maneira, J.; Filho, L.Manhaes de Andrade; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Martin, B.; Mchedlidze, G.; Meehan, S.; Garcia, B.R.Mellado; Meoni, E.; Merritt, F.S.; Meyer, C.; Miller, D.W.; Milstead, D.A.; Minashvili, I.A.; Mir, L.M.; Molander, S.; Berlingen, J.Montejo; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A.G.; Nemecek, S.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nguyen, D.H.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nilsson, P.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Ohm, C.C.; Olariu, A.; Seabra, L.F.Oleiro; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Hernandez, D.Paredes; Morales, M.I.Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Martins, F.M.Pedro; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pina, J.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Podlyski, F.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Poveda, J.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; de Lima, J.G.Rocha; Roda, C.; Santos, D.Roda Dos; Saez, S.M.Romano; Rossetti, V.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Ferrando, B.M.Salvachua; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J.G.; Says, L.P.; Schwartzman, A.; Scuri, F.; Shimizu, S.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S.B.; Solans, C.A.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Spalla, M.; Stanek, R.W.; Starchenko, E.A.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Stoicea, G.; Succurro, A.; Suhr, C.; Sumida, T.; Sykora, I.; Tas, P.; Delgado, A.Tavares; Tokár, S.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tudorache, V.; Tudorache, A.; Tuggle, J.M.; Tylmad, M.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Gallego, E.Valladolid; Ferrer, J.A.Valls; Vazeille, F.; Veloso, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Volpi, M.; Wang, C.; Weng, Z.; White, A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Yanush, S.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.; Zinonos, Z.; Zutshi, V.; Ženiš, T.; van Woerden, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the Atlas hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC. First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Finally, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  8. Development of Digital Signal Processing with FPGAs for the Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen; Zuber, K

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN in Geneva is supposed to be equipped with advanced readout electronics for the operation at High Luminosity LHC. In this diploma thesis the aspect of fast serial data transmission and data processing to be used for the communication between different readout modules and data storage buffers of the trigger shall be further developed. Furthermore, the main focus is put on first preparation of the detector raw data with regard to a signal correction using a FIR filter. It is aimed at a most efficient, most resource economising and minimal latency causing solution that allows to process the huge amount of upcoming detector raw data in real time. Therefore a via UDP/IP reconfigurable prototype of a 5-stage FIR filter with Gigabit Ethernet Interface was implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. The performance reached is fully within the the requirements for the upgraded calorimeter readout of ATLAS.

  9. Comparisons of the Electron and Muon Testbeam Response of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters with GEANT4 Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Benchekroun, D; Karapetian, G V; Kiryunin, A E; Kish, J; Kordas, K; Leltchouk, M; Loch, P; Mazini, R; Negroni, S; Parrour, G; Salihagic, D; Seligman, W; Soukharev, A M; Strízenec, P; Unal, G

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4, a new simulation toolkit, is now in use by the different sub-detectors which are currently being built and tested for the ATLAS experiment. The validation of the GEANT4 electromagnetic physics is done by comparing the response of the various modules of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters to electron and muon test beams to the results of GEANT4 simulations. Comparisons to the corresponding GEANT3 predictions has been done as well. This note presents the status of the work on this validation.

  10. A low-latency, low-overhead encoder for data transmission in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Le; Li, Xiaoting; Gong, Datao; Chen, Jinghong; Deng, Binwei; Fan, Qingjun; Feng, Yulang; Guo, Di; He, Huiqin; Hou, Suen; Huang, Guangming; Liu, Chonghan; Liu, Tiankuan; Sun, Xiangming; Tang, Yuxuan; Teng, Ping-Kun; Vosooghi, Bozorgmehr; Xiang, Annie C.; Ye, Jingbo; You, Yang; Zuo, Zhiheng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the design and test results of an encoder integrated circuit for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade. The encoder implements a low-latency and low-overhead line code called LOCic. The encoder operates at 320 MHz with a latency of no greater than 21 ns. The overhead of the encoder is 14.3%. The encoder is an important block of the transmitter ASIC LOCx2, which is prototyped with a commercial 0.25 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS technology and packaged in a 100-pin QFN package.

  11. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  12. High precision, low disturbance calibration system for the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter High Voltage apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, G.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillation lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3%/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  13. The Simulation of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, J P; Carli, T; Costanzo, D; Dell'Acqua, A; Djama, F; Gallas, M; Fincke-Keeler, M; Khakzad, M; Kiryunin, A; Krieger, P; Leltchouk, M; Loch, P; Ma, H; Menke, S; Monnier, E; Nairz, A; Niess, V; Oakham, G; Oram, C; Pospelov, G; Rajagopalan, S; Rimoldi, A; Rousseau, D; Rutherfoord, J; Seligman, W; Soukharev, A; Strízenec, P; Tóth, J; Tsukerman, I; Tsulaia, V; Unal, G; Grahn, K J

    2008-01-01

    In ATLAS, all of the electromagnetic calorimetry and part of the hadronic calorimetry is performed by a calorimeter system using liquid argon as the active material, together with various types of absorbers. The liquid argon calorimeter consists of four subsystems: the electromagnetic barrel and endcap accordion calorimeters; the hadronic endcap calorimeters, and the forward calorimeters. A very accurate geometrical description of these calorimeters is used as input to the Geant 4-based ATLAS simulation, and a careful modelling of the signal development is applied in the generation of hits. Certain types of Monte Carlo truth information ("Calibration Hits") may, additionally, be recorded for calorimeter cells as well as for dead material. This note is a comprehensive reference describing the simulation of the four liquid argon calorimeteter components.

  14. Design, performance, and calibration of the CMS hadron-outer calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S.; Gavrilov, V.; Ilyina, N.; Kaftanov, V.; Kisselevich, I.; Kolossov, V.; Krokhotin, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Ulyanov, A. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Kalinin, A.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bose, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Deshpande, P.V.; Dugad, S.; Ganguli, S.N.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kalmani, S.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V.S.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sharma, S.; Sudhakar, K.; Tonwar, S.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adam, N.; Fisher, W.; Halyo, V.; Hunt, A.; Jones, J.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Marlow, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Adams, M.; Bard, R.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Berntzon, L.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Jeong, C.; Kim, H.; Lee, S.W.; Popescu, S.; Roh, Y.; Spezziga, M.; Thomas, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wigmans, R.; Yazgan, E. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E.; Ayan, S.; Clarida, W.; Debbins, P.; Duru, F.; Ingram, D.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Moeller, A.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Schmidt, I.; Yetkin, T. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Hazen, E.; Heister, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Varela, F.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Bakirci, M.N.; Cerci, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Erturk, S.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozkurt, H.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K. [and others

    2008-10-15

    The Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL HO) of the CMS detector is designed to measure the energy that is not contained by the barrel (HCAL HB) and electromagnetic (ECAL EB) calorimeters. Due to space limitation the barrel calorimeters do not contain completely the hadronic shower and an outer calorimeter (HO) was designed, constructed and inserted in the muon system of CMS to measure the energy leakage. Testing and calibration of the HO was carried out in a 300 GeV/c test beam that improved the linearity and resolution. HO will provide a net improvement in missing E{sub T} measurements at LHC energies. Information from HO will also be used for the muon trigger in CMS. (orig.)

  15. A low-latency, low-overhead encoder for data transmission in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Le [Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Li, Xiaoting [Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Gong, Datao, E-mail: dgong@mail.smu.edu [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Chen, Jinghong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Deng, Binwei [School of Electric and Electronic Information Engineering, Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, Hubei 435003 (China); Fan, Qingjun; Feng, Yulang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Guo, Di [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); He, Huiqin [Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Hou, Suen [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nangang 11529, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guangming, E-mail: gmhuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Liu, Chonghan; Liu, Tiankuan [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Sun, Xiangming [Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Tang, Yuxuan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Teng, Ping-Kun [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nangang 11529, Taipei, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we present the design and test results of an encoder integrated circuit for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade. The encoder implements a low-latency and low-overhead line code called LOCic. The encoder operates at 320 MHz with a latency of no greater than 21 ns. The overhead of the encoder is 14.3%. The encoder is an important block of the transmitter ASIC LOCx2, which is prototyped with a commercial 0.25 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS technology and packaged in a 100-pin QFN package. - Highlights: • We present the design and test results of an encoder integrated circuit for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger upgrade. • The encoder implements a low-latency and low-overhead line code called LOCic. The encoder operates at 320 MHz with a latency of no greater than 21 ns. The overhead of the encoder is 14.3%. • The encoder is an important block of the transmitter ASIC LOCx2, which is prototyped with a commercial 0.25 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS technology for radiation-tolerance and packaged in a 100-pin QFN package.

  16. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-1 Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosities of $L > 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The front end (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. In order to exploit the higher luminosity while keeping the same trigger bandwidth of 100 kHz, higher transverse granularity, higher resolution and longitudinal shower shape information will be provided from the LAr calorimeter to the Level-1 trigger processors. New trigger readout electronics have been designed for this purpose, which wil...

  17. A liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the MEG and MEG II liquid xenon calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, G., E-mail: giovanni.signorelli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Galli, L.; Gallucci, G.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Sergiampietri, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Venturini, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We designed, built and operated a liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the liquid xenon calorimeter of the MEG experiment. The target was used throughout the entire data taking period, from 2008 to 2013 and it is being refurbished and partly re-designed to be integrated and used in the MEG-II experiment.

  18. Radioactive source control and electronics for the ATLAS tile calorimeter cesium calibration system

    CERN Document Server

    Shalanda, N A; Kopikov, S; Shalimov, A; Soldatov, M; Solodkov, A; Starchenko, E A

    2003-01-01

    A system using a radioactive /sup 137/Cs source to calibrate and monitor the Hadron Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is described. The system includes a set of sensors to monitor the position of the source which moves via hydraulic propulsion. The design of the sensors, the corresponding electronic modules and their performance are detailed. (6 refs).

  19. Kinematic Fit for the Radiative Bhabha Calibration of BaBar's Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    For the radiative Bhabha calibration of BaBar's electromagnetic calorimeter, the measured energy of a photon cluster is being compared with the energy obtained via a kinematic fit involving other quantities from that event. The details of the fitting algorithm are described in this note, together with its derivation and checks that ensure that the fitting routine is working properly.

  20. Calibration of the BaBar CsI(Tl) Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Jorg; Marks, Joerg; /Heidelberg U.

    2011-11-23

    After nine years of operation, the BABAR experiment at the e{sup +}e{sup -} B factory PEP-II (Standford Linear Accelerator Center) stopped data taking in April 2008. An important part of the experiment is the electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 6580 CsI crystals doped with thallium and read out by Si-PIN photodiodes. The light yield of the CsI crystals is changing in time due to radiation exposure. In addition to the changing light yield, passive material in front of and between the crystals as well as signal thresholds during the reconstruction influence the reconstructed energies. This requires a time-dependent calibration of the calorimeter. The calibration issues are reviewed and the calibration results obtained from various data samples are presented.

  1. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters are foreseen to be improved for the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, in 2019, in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back-end components. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system is being developed, with the intention of installing it on the ATLAS detector for operation during the data-taking period beginning in 2015. Results from system tests of the analog signal treatment, the trigger digitizer, the optical signal transmission and the FPGA-based back-end modules will be reported.

  2. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters will be improved for the Phase- I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back- end electronics. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system has been set up, many off-detector tests have been done. Analog signal parameters including the noise and cross-talk, as well as digital signal treatment, high speed data transmission have been measured and verified. After a series of tests, the demonstrator system has been installed on the ATLAS detector before the LHC run-2.

  3. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer are presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  4. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Mescheryakov, G; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Ulyanov, A; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Cankocak, Kerem; Ozok, Ferhat; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchishin, V; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumu, K; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Cushman, Priscilla; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Mans, Jeremy; Tully, Christopher; De Barbaro, Pawel; Bodek, Arie; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Imboden, Matthias; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%.

  5. Calibration and Data Quality systems of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run-I operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zenis, Tibor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It consists of thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibres coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. The calibration scheme of the Tile Calorimeter comprises Cs radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. Each stage of the signal production of the calorimeter from scintillation light to digitization is monitored and equalized. Description of the different TileCal calibration systems as well as results on their performance in terms of calibration factors, linearity and stability will be given. The data quality procedures and data quality efficiency of the Tile Calorimeter during the LHC data-taking period are presented as well.

  6. Calibration and Data Quality systems of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run-I operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zenis, Tibor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It consists of thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibres coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. The calibration scheme of the Tile Calorimeter comprises Cs radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. Each stage of the signal production of the calorimeter from scintillation light to digitization is monitored and equalized. Description of the different TileCal calibration systems as well as the results on their performance in terms of calibration factors, linearity and stability are given. The data quality procedures and data quality efficiency of the Tile Calorimeter during the LHC data-taking period are presented as well.

  7. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-I Trigger Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosities of $\\mathcal{L} > 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The Front End (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. The FE electronics were qualified for radiation levels corresponding to 10 years of LHC operations. The high luminosity running of the LHC (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of $5 \\times 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^ {-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and an integrated luminosity of $3000 \\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ will exceed these d...

  8. A new in situ electrical calibration system for high temperature Calvet calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razouk, Refat; Hay, Bruno; Himbert, Marc

    2013-09-01

    A new in situ high temperature electrical calibration system was developed at Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais, Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie and integrated into a heat flux Calvet calorimeter in order to perform accurate and reliable measurements of enthalpy of fusion that are directly traceable to the International System of Units (SI). This system has been designed to enable the calibration of the calorimeter by electrical substitution (Joule effect) as well as the measurement of enthalpy of fusion in perfectly identical experimental conditions. The metrological features (repeatability, linearity, etc.) of the calorimeter have been evaluated with this system by investigating the influence of some parameters (level of energy, dissipation time, and temperature) on the determination of the sensitivity factor of its thermopiles. Two different procedures, for the calibration and the enthalpy measurements with this new electrical calibration system, have been implemented and tested by measuring the enthalpy of fusion of high purity 6N tin. The results obtained are in very good agreement with those measured by other National Metrology Institutes on the same material.

  9. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tatsuya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This document for NEC’2015 proceedings gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade on the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer is also overviewed. Performance results from the prototype boards in the demonstrator system are shown. First measurements of noise levels and linearity on response from the demonstrator system are shown.

  10. Cosmic ray energetics and mass (CREAM) calibrating a cosmic ray calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, S H; Alford, R; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Malinin, A; Schindhelm, E; Wang, J Z; Wu, J; Beatty, J J; Coutu, S; Minnick, S A; Nutter, S; Duvernois, M A; Choi, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Park, I H; Swordy, S P

    2002-01-01

    CREAM is slated to fly as the first NASA ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) payload in late 2003. On this 60-plus-day flight CREAM is expected to collect more direct high-energy cosmic ray events than the current world total. With three such flights CREAM is expected to have a proton energy reach above 5*10/sup 14/ eV, probing near 100 Te V for the predicted kink in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. With a transition radiation detector (TRD) above a sampling tungsten /scintillator calorimeter, an in-flight cross-calibration of the absolute energy scale becomes possible with heavy ions. We report on results from a 2001 beam test of the calorimeter in an SPS beam at the European High Energy Physics lab (CERN) and on the planned in- flight calibration. (7 refs).

  11. Study of the response of ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeters to muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwemling, P.; Lanni, F.; Aharrouche, M.; Colas, J.; Di Ciaccio, L.; El Kacimi, M.; Gaumer, O.; Gouanere, M.; Goujdami, D.; Lafaye, R.; Laplace, S.; Le Maner, C.; Neukermans, L.; Perrodo, P.; Poggioli, L.; Prieur, D.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sauvage, G.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Lanni, F.; Ma, H.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Takai, H.; Belymam, A.; Benchekroun, D.; Hakimi, M.; Hoummada, A.; Gao, Y.; Lu, L.; Stroynowski, R.; Aleksa, M.; Carli, T.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Hervas, L.; Lampl, W.; Collot, J.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Malek, F.; Martin, P.; Viret, S.; Leltchouk, M.; Parsons, J.A.; Simion, S.; Barreiro, F.; DelPeso, J.; Labarga, L.; Oliver, C.; Rodier, S.; Barrillon, P.; Djama, F.; Hubaut, F.; Mangeard, P.S.; Monnier, E.; Niess, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Resende, B.; Sauvage, D.; Serfon, C.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Zhang, H.; Banfi, D.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Kotov, K.; Maslennikov, A.; Pospelov, G.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Bourdarios, C.; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Kado, M.; Parrour, G.; Plamondon, M.; Puzo, P.; Rousseau, D.; Sacco, R.; Serin, L.; Unal, G.; Zerwas, D.; Dekhissi, B.; Derkaoui, J.; El Kharrim, A.; Maaroufi, F.; Cleland, W.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Schwemling, Ph.; Ghazlane, H.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A.; Boonekamp, M.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, P.; Schwindling, J.; Lund-Jensen,B.; Tayalat, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The response of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter to muons has been studied in this paper. Results on signal over noise ratio, assessment of the detector response uniformity, and position resolution are presented. The possibility to study fine details of the structure of the detector through its response to muons is illustrated on a specific example. Finally, the performance obtained on muons in test-beam is used to estimate the detector uniformity and time alignment precision that will be reachable after the commissioning of the ATLAS detector with cosmic rays.

  12. Beam test calibration of the balloon-borne imaging calorimeter for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Marrocchesi, P S; Bagliesi, M G; Basti, A; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Ciocci, M A; Di Virgilio, A; Lomtatze, T; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Ligabue, F; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Wu, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass) is a multi-flight balloon mission designed to collect direct data on the elemental composition and individual energy spectra of cosmic rays. Two instrument suites have been built to be flown alternately on a yearly base. The tungsten/Sci-Fi imaging calorimeter for the second flight, scheduled for December 2005, was calibrated with electron and proton beams at CERN. A calibration procedure based on the study of the longitudinal shower profile is described and preliminary results of the beam test are presented.

  13. RT2016 Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)478829; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC, a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz. The data is transferred via optical links to a digital processing system which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance and on the performance of the prototype boards in the demonstrator system based on various measurements with the 13 TeV collision data. R...

  14. Liquid Argon Calorimeter - Barrel Cryostat Construction and Testing May-June 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    US, ATLAS

    1999-01-01

    Photo 1 - Outer Cold Cryostat showing 'Y' support. Photo 2 - Outer Cold Vessel half showing 'X' and 'Z' stops and 'Y' supports. Photo 3 - Cold Vessel Bulkhead, End 'C'. Photo 4 - Outer Cold Vessel half, showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 5 - End of Outer Cold Vessel showing EM Calorimeter support rail. Photo 6 - Al/SST Transitions for Signal and High Voltage feedthroughs. Test weld blocks shown in background. Photo 7 - Welding of Al/SST Transitions onto Outer Cold Vessel. Photo 8 - Al/SST Transitions, including test pumpouts. Photo 9 - Machining of Inner Cold vessel. Photo 10 - Warm Vessel being assembled for leak testing Photo 11 - Setting up Warm Vessel on test stand. Photo 12 - Warm Vessel assembly for testing complete. Photo 13 - Dial indicators mounted against the Warm Vessel Bulkhead during testing. Photo 14 - Pumping on Warm Vessel. Photo 15 - Pumping on the Warm Vessel. Photo 16 - Checking the Solenoid Chimney. Photo 17 - Leak checking the Inner Warm Vessel/Bulkhead flange in the area of ID co...

  15. Onboard Calibration Circuit for the Front-end Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, De-Liang; Zhang, Jun-Bin; Wang, Qi; Ma, Si-Yuan; Gao, Shan-Shan; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Jiang, Di; Guo, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    An onboard calibration circuit has been designed for the front-end electronics (FEE) of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter. It is mainly composed of a 12 bit DAC, an operation amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0 ~ 30 pC with a precision of 5 fC was achieved, which meets the requirements of the front-end electronics. Furthermore, it is used to test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite will be launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will perform onboard calibration in space.

  16. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, J P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The readout of the trigger signals of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters is foreseen to be upgraded in order to prepare for operation during the first high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Signals with improved spatial granularity are planned to be received from the detector by a Digitial Processing System (DPS) in ATCA technology and will be sent in real-time to the ATLAS trigger system using custom optical links. These data are also sampled by the DPS for monitoring and will be read out by the regular Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of ATLAS which is a network-based PC-farm. The bandwidth between DPS module and DAQ system is expected to be in the order of 10 Gbit/s per module and a standard Ethernet protocol is foreseen to be used. DSP data will be prepared and sent by a modern FPGA either through a switch or directly to a Read-Out System (ROS) PC serving as buffer interface of the ATLAS DAQ. In a prototype setup, an ATCA blade equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA is used to send da...

  17. Upgraded Readout and Trigger Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at the LHC at the Horizons 2018-2022

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics is summing analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. However, the pile-up noise expected during the High Luminosity phases of LHC will be increased by factors of 3 to 7. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the first upgrade phase in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new digital processing system (DPS). The DPS applies...

  18. Development of the Trigger Readout System for Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and at instantaneous luminosities up to 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. An LHC upgrade is planned to enhance the luminosities to 2-3 x 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 and to deliver an integrated luminosity of about 300 fb^-1 during Run 3 from 2019 through 2021. In order to improve the identification performance for electrons, photons, taus, jets, missing energy at high background rejection rates, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives has been proposed. Therefore, a new trigger readout system is being designed to digitize and process the signals with higher spatial granularity. A demonstrator system has been developed and installed on the ATLAS detector to evaluate the technical and performance aspects. Analog signal parameters including noise and cross-talk have been analyzed. The performance of the new readout system is...

  19. Development of the Trigger Readout System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and at instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. An LHC upgrade is planned to enhance the luminosities to 2-3 x 1034cm-2s-1 and to deliver an integrated luminosity of about 300 fb-1 during Run 3 from 2019 through 2021. In order to improve the identification performance for electrons, photons, taus, jets, missing energy at high background rejection rates, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives has been proposed. Therefore, a new trigger readout system is being designed to digitize and process the signals with higher spatial granularity. A demonstrator system has been developed and installed on the ATLAS detector to evaluate the technical and performance aspects. Analog signal parameters including noise and cross-talk have been analyzed. The performance of the new demonstrator system in the ...

  20. Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tatsuya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is foreseen to be upgraded during the shut-down period of 2018-2019 to deliver about 3 times the instantaneous design luminosity. Since the ATLAS trigger system, at that time, will not support such an increase of the trigger rate an improvement of the trigger system is required. The ATLAS LAr Calorimeter readout will therefore be modified and digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity will be provided to the trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 Super Cells which achieves a 5-10 better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The Super Cell readout is composed of custom developed 12-bit combined SAR ADCs in 130 nm CMOS technology which will be installed on-detector in a radiation environment and digitizes the detector pulses at 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the back end using a custom serializer and optical converter applying 5.44 Gb/s optical links. These components are install...

  1. Kali: The framework for fine calibration of the LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Ivan; Savrina, Daria; Graciani, Ricardo; Puig, Albert; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The precise calibration (at a level of below 1%) of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the LHCb experiment is an essential task for the fulfilment of the LHCb physics program. The final step of this task is performed with two calibration methods using the real data from the experimental setup. It is a very CPU-consuming procedure as both methods require processing of Script O(108) events which must be selected, reconstructed and analyzed. In this document we present the Kali framework developed within the LHCb software framework, which implements these two final calibration methods. It is integrated with Grid middleware and makes use of parallelism tools, such as python parallel processing modules, to provide an efficient way, both time and disk wise, for the final ECAL calibration. The results of the fine calibration with the very first data collected by the LHCb experiment will also be presented. With the use of the Kali framework it took only two days of processing and allowed to achieve a calibration accuracy of 2-2.5% for the different ECAL areas.

  2. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-1 Read-out Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milic, A. [Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters are designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, an upgrade of the read-out electronics is being launched to cope with luminosities of up to 3x10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which are beyond the original design by a factor of 3. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the upgrade Phase-1 in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new LAr digital processing system (LDPS). The LDPS applies a digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger channel. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the first level trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures. The read-out of the trigger signals will process 34000 so-called Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at a frequency of 40 MHz. The new LTDB on-detector electronics is designed to be radiation tolerant in order to be operated for the remaining live-time of the ATLAS detector up to a total luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. For the analog-to-digital conversion (12-bit ADC at 40 MSPS), the data serialization and the fast optical link (5.44 Gb/s) custom components have been developed. They have been qualified for the expected radiation environment of a total ionization dose of 1.3 kGy and a hadron fluence of 6 x 10{sup 13} h/cm{sup 2} with energies above

  3. Energy cross-calibration from the first CREAM flight: transition radiation detector versus calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maestro, P; Allison, P S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Boyle, P J; Brandt, T J; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Marrocchesi, P S; Malinine, A; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S; Nutter, S; Park, H; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Swordy, S; Wakely, S P; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon experiment had two successful flights in 2004/05 and 2005/06. It was designed to perform energy measurements from a few GeV up to 1000 TeV, taking advantage of different detection techniques. The first instrument, CREAM-1, combined a transition radiation detector with a calorimeter to provide independent energy measurements of cosmicraynuclei. Each detector was calibrated with particle beams in a limited range of energies. In order to assess the absolute energy scale of the instrument and to investigate the systematic effects of each technique, a cross-calibration was performed by comparing the two independent energy estimates on selected samples of oxygen and carbon nuclei.

  4. High Speed Peltier Calorimeter for the Calibration of High Bandwidth Power Measurement Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Damien F

    2015-01-01

    Accurate power measurements of electronic components operating at high frequencies are vital in determining where power losses occur in a system such as a power converter. Such power measurements must be carried out with equipment that can accurately measure real power at high frequency. We present the design of a high speed calorimeter to address this requirement, capable of reaching a steady state in less than 10 minutes. The system uses Peltier thermoelectric coolers to remove heat generated in a load resistance, and was calibrated against known real power measurements using an artificial neural network. A dead zone controller was used to achieve stable power measurements. The calibration was validated and shown to have an absolute accuracy of +/-8 mW (95% confidence interval) for measurements of real power from 0.1 to 5 W.

  5. Onboard calibration circuit for the DAMPE BGO calorimeter front-end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Liang; Feng, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Bin; Wang, Qi; Ma, Si-Yuan; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Jiang, Di; Gao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yun-Long; Guo, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-05-01

    DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite which is mainly aimed at indirectly searching for dark matter in space. One critical sub-detector of the DAMPE payload is the BGO (bismuth germanium oxide) calorimeter, which contains 1848 PMT (photomultiplier tube) dynodes and 16 FEE (Front-End Electronics) boards. VA160 and VATA160, two 32-channel low power ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), are adopted as the key components on the FEEs to perform charge measurement for the PMT signals. In order to monitor the parameter drift which may be caused by temperature variation, aging, or other environmental factors, an onboard calibration circuit is designed for the VA160 and VATA160 ASICs. It is mainly composed of a 12-bit DAC (Digital to Analog Converter), an operational amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0-30 pC with a precision of 5 fC (Root Meam Square, RMS) was achieved, which covers the VA160’s input range. It can be used to compensate for the temperature drift and test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented for the front-end electronics of the BGO Calorimeter and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite was launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will operate periodically in space. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04040202-4), and National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China (2010CB833002) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11273070)

  6. A NEW ELECTRONIC BOARD TO DRIVE THE LASER CALIBRATION SYSTEM OF THE ATLAS HADRON CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00086824; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LASER calibration system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter aims at monitoring the ~10000 PMTs of the TileCal. The LASER light injected in the PMTs is measured by sets of photodiodes at several stages of the optical path. The monitoring of the photodiodes is performed by a redundant internal calibration system using an LED, a radioactive source, and a charge injection system. The LASer Calibration Rod (LASCAR) electronics card is a major component of the LASER calibration scheme. Housed in a VME crate, its main components include a charge ADC, a TTCRx, a HOLA part, an interface to control the LASER, and a charge injection system. The 13 bits ADC is a 2000pc full-scale converter that processes up to 16 signals stemming from 11 photodiodes, 2 PMTs, and 3 charge injection channels. Two gains are used (x1 and x4) to increase the dynamic range and avoid a saturation of the LASER signal for high intensities. The TTCRx chip (designed by CERN) retrieves LHC signals to synchronize the LASCAR card with the collider. T...

  7. Upgrade of the Laser Calibration System for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration constants of the individual cells of TileCal. The laser system is mainly used to correct for short term (one month) drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration constants is required to keep the systematics effects introduced by relative cell miscalibration below the irreducible systematics in determining the parameters of the reconstructed hadronic jets. To achieve this goal in the LHC Run 2 conditions, a new laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the laser, to readout the system optical monitors and to interface the system with the Atlas readout, trigger, and slow...

  8. Modelling of thermal hydraulics in a KAROLINA calorimeter for its calibration methodology validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luks Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical calculations of heat exchange in a nuclear heating detector for nuclear reactors are presented in this paper. The gamma radiation is generated in nuclear reactor during fission and radiative capture reactions as well as radioactive decay of its products. A single-cell calorimeter has been designed for application in the MARIA research reactor in the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ in Świerk near Warsaw, Poland, and can also be used in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR, which is under construction in the research centre in Cadarache, France. It consists of a cylindrical sample, which is surrounded by a gas layer, contained in a cylindrical housing. Additional calculations had to be performed before its insertion into the reactor. Within this analysis, modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD methods have been used for assessing important parameters, for example, mean surface temperature, mean volume temperature, and maximum sample (calorimeter core temperature. Results of an experiment performed at a dedicated out-of-pile calibration bench and results of numerical modelling validation are also included in this paper.

  9. Calibration of liquid argon and neon detectors with $^{83}Kr^m$

    CERN Document Server

    Lippincott, W H; Gastler, D; Kastens, L W; Kearns, E; McKinsey, D N; Nikkel, J A

    2009-01-01

    We report results from tests of $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$, as a calibration source in liquid argon and liquid neon. $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ atoms are produced in the decay of $^{83}$Rb, and a clear $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ scintillation peak at 41.5 keV appears in both liquids when filling our detector through a piece of zeolite coated with $^{83}$Rb. Based on this scintillation peak, we observe 6.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid argon with a resolution of 6% ($\\sigma$/E) and 3.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid neon with a resolution of 19% ($\\sigma$/E). The observed peak intensity subsequently decays with the $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ half-life after stopping the fill, and we find evidence that the spatial location of $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ atoms in the chamber can be resolved. $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ will be a useful calibration source for liquid argon and neon dark matter and solar neutrino detectors.

  10. Energy-calibration of the forward calorimeter CASTOR with particle decays in the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehrmann, Hauke [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The CMS(Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment is a detector system to analyse hadronic collisions at the LHC(Large Hadron Collider). For studying high energy physics CMS covers a large rapidity range at LHC. One subdetector of CMS to measure in this high rapidity region around 6 is the CASTOR(Centauro And STrange Object Research) calorimeter. CASTOR has an electromagnetic(20 X{sub 0}) and hadronic(10{lambda}{sub I}) section where each is build of alternative layers of tungsten- and quartz-plates. The charged particles produce cherenkov-photons in this quartz-plates. Because of a residual magnetic field at the detector location an energy calibration is difficult. For this purpose we investigate the approach to use the electromagnetic two-body-decay of well known particles like Z or {pi}{sup 0}. Therefore we run over 50 pb{sup -1} of data and determine clean electromagnetic signals in the detector.

  11. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, F

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), one of the ATLAS detectors, has four partitions, where each one contains 64 modules and each module has up to 48 PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), totalizing more than 10,000 electronic channels. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports data quality analyses at channels level. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance, presenting the problematic known channels list from the official database that stores the detector conditions data (COOL). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator during analyses in order to identify new problematic channels. Through the system, it is also possible to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS generates results, as eta-phi plots and comparative tables with masked channels percentage, which concerns TileCal status, and it is accessible by all ATLAS collaboration. Annually, there is an intervention on LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) when the detector equipments (P...

  12. Toward Improvements in Inter-laboratory Calibration of Argon Isotope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, S. R.; Deino, A. L.; Heizler, M. T.; Hodges, K. V.; McIntosh, W. C.; Renne, P. R.; Swisher, C. C., III; Turrin, B. D.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to continue to develop strategies to improve our ability to compare results between laboratories chronometers. The U-Pb community has significantly reduced inter-laboratory biases with the application of a community tracer solution and the distribution of synthetic zircon solutions. Inevitably sample selection and processing and even biases in interpretations will still lead to some disagreements in the assignment of ages. Accordingly natural samples that are shared will be important for achievement of the highest levels of agreement. Analogous improvements in quality and inter-laboratory agreement of analytical aspects of Ar-Ar can be achieved through development of synthetic age standards in gas canisters with multiple pipettes to deliver various controlled amounts of argon to the mass spectrometer. A preliminary proof-of concept comes from the inter-laboratory calibration experiment for the 40Ar/39Ar community. This portable Argon Pipette Intercalibration System (APIS) consists of three 2.7 L canisters each equipped with three pipettes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc volumes. The currently traveling APIS has the three canisters filled with air and 40Ar*/39Ar of 1.73 and canister 2 has a 40Ar*/39Ar of 40.98 (~ Alder Creek and Fish Canyon in the same irradiation). With these pipettes it is possible to combine them to provide 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 (0.1+0.2), 0.4, 0.5 (0.1+0.4), 0.6 (0.2+0.4), and 0.7 (0.1+0.2+0.4) cc. The configuration allows a simple test for inter-laboratory biases and for volume/pressure dependent mass fractionation on the measured ratios for a gas with a single argon isotope composition. Although not yet tested, it is also possible to mix gas from any one of the three canisters in proportions of these increments, allowing even more tightly controlled calibration of measurements. We suggest that ultimately each EARTHTIME lab should be equipped with such a system permanently, with a community plan for a traveling system to periodically repeat the

  13. Simulation of the upgraded Phase-1 Trigger Readout Electronics of the Liquid-Argon Calorimeter of the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00338138

    In the context of an intensive upgrade plan for the LHC in order to provide proton beams of increased luminosity, a revision of the data readout electronics of the Liquid-Argon-Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is scheduled. This is required to retain the efficiency of the trigger at increased event rates despite its fixed bandwidth. The focus lies on the early digitization and finer segmentation of the data provided to the trigger. Furthermore, there is the possibility to implement new energy reconstruction algorithms which are adapted to the specific requirements of the trigger. In order to constitute crucial design decisions, such as the digitization scale or the choice of digital signal processing algorithms, comprehensive simulations are required. High trigger efficiencies are decisive at it for the successful continuation of the measurements of rare Standard Model processes as well as for a high sensitivity to new physics beyond the established theories. It can be shown that a significantly improved res...

  14. Energy Reconstruction and high-speed Data Transmission with FPGAs for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN near Geneva is equipped with improved readout and trigger electronics for the operation at higher luminosity LHC in the frame of several upgrades (Phase-0, I, and II). Special attention is given to an early digitisation of detector raw data and their following digital data transmission and processing via FPGAs already for the Level-1 trigger. The upgrades additionally foresee to provide higher spatial granularity information for the Level-1 trigger in order to improve its performance for low momentum single particles at increased collision rates. The first part of this dissertation contains the development and implementation of a modular detector simulation framework, AREUS, which allows to analyse different filter algorithms for the energy reconstruction as well as their performance with respect to the expected digitised detector raw data. In this detector simulation framework the detailed algorithmic functionality of the FPGAs has been taken into ac...

  15. Calibration of the HyCal calorimeter for the PRad Experiment at JLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; PRad Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ``Proton Charge Radius Puzzle'' refers to the large discrepancy observed between the proton charge radius extracted from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements and that from the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift and e-p elastic scattering measurements. In order to get a better understanding of this puzzle, the PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was recently performed with 1.1 and 2.2 GeV unpolarized electron beam in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The experiment aims to extract the electric form factor and the charge radius of proton by simultaneously measuring the e - p elastic scattering cross section and the M øller cross section at very low Q2(2 × 10-4 10-1(GeV / c) 2) region, with sub-percent precision. A windowless hydrogen gas flow target was used to better control the background. A high-efficiency and high-resolution calorimeter (HyCal) and a pair of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers were used in the experiment. Before the production run, a very careful calibration of HyCal was performed with 0.3 GeV - 1.07 GeV tagged photon beam. This talk will present detailed calibration results as well as some preliminary results on ep and ee scattering data. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contacts No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Mississippi State University and PRad collaboration.

  16. Direct observation of muon-pair production by high-energy muons in the liquid-argon calorimeter BARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anikeev, VB; Gurzhiev, SN; Denisov, SP; Zolina, OS; Kelner, [No Value; Kirina, TM; Kokoulin, RP; Lipaev, VV; Petrukhin, AA; Rybin, AM; Sergiampietri, F; Yanson, EE

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data accumulated over a long-term exposure of the big liquid-argon spectrometer BARS at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP, Protvino) in a horizontal flux of cosmic rays are analyzed with the aim of selecting events that correspond to muon-pair production by mucus in the sensit

  17. A study of the electrical properties and of the signal shapes in the ATLAS Liquid ARgon Accordion Calorimeter using a hardware model

    CERN Document Server

    Citterio, M; Fanti, M

    2001-01-01

    The Milano group realized an apparatus that reproduces a small part of the EM calorimeter barrel. It consists of four electrodes sandwiched among five absorbers, and connected together by summing boards, with the possibility of injecting electrical pulses at the electrode and summing board level, thus allowing to mimic signals produced by EM cascades or injected by the calibration network. This note describes in detail the apparatus and presents first results on the understanding of the signal waveforms and amplitudes, in terms of the characteristic parameters of the apparatus. Electrical models of the detector are also proposed and discussed. The effects of the asymmetry in the ground reference configuration of some back summing boards are also investigated, and prooved to provide a distortion of at most 1.6% on the calibrated signal amplitude.

  18. Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    FRAGNAUD, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The trigger readout electronics of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters will be improved for the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC to enhance the trigger feature extraction. Signals with higher spatial granularity will be digitized and processed by newly developed front-end and back-end components. In order to evaluate technical and performance aspects, a demonstrator system is being set up which is planned to be installed on the ATLAS detector during the upcoming LHC run. Results from system tests of the analog signal treatment, the trigger digitizer, the optical signal transmission and the FPGA-based back-end are reported.

  19. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abat, E; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T.P A; Aleksa, M; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Arik, E; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K; Banfi, D; Baron, S; Barr, A J; Beccherle, R; Beck, H P; Belhorma, B; Bell, P J; Benchekroun, D; Benjamin, D P; Benslama, K; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Bernabeu, J; Bertelsen, H; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Boonekamp, M; Bosman, M; Bourdarios, C; Broklova, Z; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Calvet, D; Canneri, M; Capeans Garrido, M; Caprini, M; Cardiel Sas, L; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Catinaccio, A; Cauz, D; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cetin, S A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chouridou, S; Ciobotaru, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, B; Cobal, M; Cogneras, E; Conde Muino, P; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Cornelissen, T; Correard, S; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cuneo, S; Cwetanski, P; Da Silva, D; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Darbo, G; Davidek, T; De, K; Defay, P O; Dekhissi, B; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Dobos, D; Dobson, M; Dolgoshein, B A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Drasal, Z; Dressnandt, N; Driouchi, C; Drohan, J; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, P; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Eifert, T F; Einsweiler, K; El Kacimi, M; Elsing, M; Emelyanov, D; Escobar, C; Etienvre, A I; Fabich, A; Facius, K; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farthouat, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fayard, L; Febbraro, R; Fedin, O L; Fenyuk, A; Fergusson, D; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Filippini, G; Flick, T; Fournier, D; Francavilla, P; Francis, D; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Gallas, M; Gallop, B J; Gameiro, S; Gan, K K; Garcia, R; Garcia, C; Gavrilenko, I L; Gemme, C; Gerlach, P; Ghodbane, N; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Glonti, G; Gottfert, T.; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gomez, M D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Goujdami, D; Grahn, K J; Grenier, P; Grigalashvili, N; Grishkevich, Y; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwe, M; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hance, M; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Harvey, A., Jr; Hawkings, R J; Heinemann, F.E W; Henriques Correia, A; Henss, T; Hervas, L; Higon, E; Hill, J C; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hruska, I; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Hulsbergen, W; Hurwitz, M; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Jansen, E; Jen-La Plante, I; Johansson, P.D C; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Jorgensen, S; Joseph, J; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Karyukhin, A; Kataoka, M; Kayumov, F; Kazarov, A; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Kerschen, N; Kersten, S; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Khramov, E; Khristachev, A; Khubua, J; Kittelmann, T H; Klingenberg, R; Klinkby, E B; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Kolos, S; Konovalov, S P; Konstantinidis, N; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T Z; Kruger, K.; Kramarenko, V; Kudin, L G; Kulchitsky, Y; Lacasta, C; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Lari, T; Le Bihan, A C; Lechowski, M; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lelas, D; Lester, C G; Liang, Z; Lichard, P; Liebig, W; Lipniacka, A; Lokajicek, M; Louchard, L; Loureiro, K F; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Ma, H; Mackeprang, R; Maio, A; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mandelli, L; Maneira, J; Mangin-Brinet, M; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marti i Garcia, S; Martin, F; Mathes, M; Mazzanti, M; McFarlane, K W; McPherson, R; Mchedlidze, G; Mehlhase, S; Meirosu, C; Meng, Z; Meroni, C; Mialkovski, V; Mikulec, B; Milstead, D; Minashvili, I; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Moed, S; Monnier, E; Moorhead, G; Morettini, P; Morozov, S V; Mosidze, M; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E.W J; Munar, A; Myagkov, A; Nadtochi, A V; Nakamura, K; Nechaeva, P; Negri, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nesterov, S Y; Newcomer, F M; Nikitine, I; Nikolaev, K; Nikolic-Audit, I; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S B; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, S; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paolone, V; Parodi, F; Parsons, J; Parzhitski, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passmore, S M; Pater, J; Patrichev, S; Peez, M; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petti, R; Phillips, P W; Pilcher, J; Pina, J; Pinto, B; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Poppleton, A; Poveda, J; Pralavorio, P; Pribyl, L; Price, M J; Prieur, D; Puigdengoles, C; Puzo, P; Ragusa, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reeves, K; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Reznicek, P; Ridel, M; Risso, P; Riu, I; Robinson, D; Roda, C; Roe, S; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Ruiz, A; Rusakovich, N; Rust, D; Ryabov, Y F; Ryjov, V; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Salzburger, A; Sandaker, H; Santamarina Rios, C.Santamarina; Santi, L; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Sauvage, G; Says, L P; Schaefer, M; Schegelsky, V A; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, C; Schultes, J; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seixas, J M; Seliverstov, D M; Serin, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalanda, N; Shaw, C; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Silva, J; Simion, S; Simonyan, M; Sloper, J E; Smirnov, S.Yu; Smirnova, L; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, O; Soloviev, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Spano, F; Speckmayer, P; Stancu, S; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Straessner, A; Suchkov, S I; Suk, M; Szczygiel, R; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, F; Tas, P; Tayalati, Y; Tegenfeldt, F; Teuscher, R; Thioye, M; Tikhomirov, V O; Timmermans, C.J.W P; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Tremblet, L; Troncon, C; Tsiareshka, P; Tyndel, M; Karagoz Unel, M.; Unal, G; Unel, G; Usai, G; Van Berg, R; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vandelli, W; Vannucci, F; Vartapetian, A; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vasilyeva, L; Vazeille, F; Vernocchi, F; Vetter-Cole, Y; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; de Vivie, J B; Volpi, M; Vu Anh, T; Wang, C; Warren, M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Wells, P S; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wiesmann, M; Wilkens, H; Williams, H H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yasu, Y; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zhang, H; Zhelezko, A; Zhou, N

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  20. Status of the KLOE Electromagnetic Calorimeter: final optimization, progress in construction and first calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Caloi, R.; Cabibbo, G.; Campana, P.; Cervelli, F.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Di Falco, S.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, S.W.; Incagli, M.; Kim, W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Miscetti, S.; Murtas, F.; Scuri, F.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Woelfle, S.; Zhang, J.Q. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy)]|[Institute of High Energy Physics of Academica Sinica, Beijing (China)]|[Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell`INFN, Frascati (Italy)]|[Physics Department, Columbia University, New York (United States)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Pisa (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Roma I (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Roma II (Italy)]|[Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Sezione INFN, ISS, Roma (Italy)]|[Physics Department, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e Sezione INFN, Trieste/Udine (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    The design and the status of construction of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter are described in this report. 18 out of 24 barrel modules have been fully assembled and more than 50% of the end-cap modules are built. All experimental specifications are fulfilled as shown by the test beam results of the final size prototype. Since the quality of fibers and photomultipliers have gone through improvements, the final calorimeter performances will exceed our expectations. The main parameters of each calorimeter module (light yield, attenuation length and time resolution) are fully surveyed using cosmic rays. Extrapolating the results to electromagnetic showers, a time resolution of 55 ps/{radical}(E(GeV)) and a resolution of 0.9 cm/{radical}(E(GeV)) on the coordinate along the fibers are obtained. An energy resolution of 4.7%/{radical}(E(GeV)) can also be quoted. (orig.).

  1. Numerical and Experimental Thermal Responses of Single-cell and Differential Calorimeters: from Out-of-Pile Calibration to Irradiation Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, J.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Jagielski, J. [National Center of the Nuclear Research (Poland); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, 13108 Saint- Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear radiation energy deposition rate (usually expressed in W.g{sup -1}) is a key parameter for the thermal design of experiments, on materials and nuclear fuel, carried out in experimental channels of irradiation reactors such as the French OSIRIS reactor in Saclay or inside the Polish MARIA reactor. In particular the quantification of the nuclear heating allows to predicting the heat and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices or/and structural materials. Various sensors are used to quantify this parameter, in particular radiometric calorimeters also called in-pile calorimeters. Two main kinds of in-pile calorimeter exist with in particular specific designs: single-cell calorimeter and differential calorimeter. The present work focuses on these two calorimeter kinds from their out-of-pile calibration step (transient and steady experiments respectively) to comparison between numerical and experimental results obtained from two irradiation campaigns (MARIA reactor and OSIRIS reactor respectively). The main aim of this paper is to propose a steady numerical approach to estimate the single-cell calorimeter response under irradiation conditions. (authors)

  2. A Study of Hadronic Calibration Schemes for Pion Test Beam Data in the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Thomas G

    The ATLAS forward calorimeters constitute a small though important fraction of the detector's calorimeter system, designed in part to accurately and precisely measure the energy of particles and jets of particles originating from the collisions of high-energy protons at the detector's centre. The application of hadronic weights, a practice common in high-energy calorimetry, provides a means of compensation for the fraction of energy which is deposited by particles in the detector, but which is invisible to the detector due to the nature of hadronic showers. Explored here are various schemes of extracting hadronic weights, as well as the application of such weights, based on pion data from the 2003 ATLAS forward calorimeter test beam. During the collection of test beam data, beams of both pions and electrons of known energy, ranging from 10 to 200 GeV, were fired at specific points of an isolated detector in order to understand its response. The improvement in noise-subtracted energy resolution with respect to...

  3. Energy calibration and resolution of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Selvaggi, Michele; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure

    2013-01-01

    The energy calibration and resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the CMS detector have been determined using proton-proton collision data from LHC operation in 2010 and 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with integrated luminosities of about 5 inverse femtobarns. Crucial aspects of detector operation, such as the environmental stability, alignment, and synchronization, are presented. The in-situ calibration procedures are discussed in detail and include the maintenance of the calibration in the challenging radiation environment inside the CMS detector. The energy resolution for electrons from Z-boson decays is better than 2% in the central region of the ECAL barrel (for pseudorapidity abs(eta) < 0.8) and is 2-5% elsewhere. The derived energy resolution for photons from 125 GeV Higgs boson decays varies across the barrel from 1.1% to 2.6% and from 2.2% to 5% in the entraps. The calibration of the absolute energy is determined from $Z \\to e^+e^-$ decays to a precision of 0....

  4. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS hadron-barrel calorimeter wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W. [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Thomas, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey); Baarmand, M.; Ralich, R.; Vodopiyanov, I. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bawa, H.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J.; Kumar, A.; Singh, J. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Baiatian, G.; Sirunyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Bencze, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zalan, P. [KFKI-RMKI, Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)] [and others

    2008-05-15

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. The energy dependent time slewing effect was measured and tuned for optimal performance. (orig.)

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, Valerio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta| < 4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformity and time resolution. These results demonstrate that the LAr and Tile calorimeters perform excellently within their design requirements. The calorimetry system thu...

  6. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G. E-mail: gaia.lanfranchi@lnf.infn.it; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P

    2002-11-21

    The KLOE calorimeter is a fine lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter. We describe in the following the calibration procedures and the calorimeter performances obtained after 3 years of data taking. We get an energy resolution for electromagnetic showers of 5.4%/{radical}E(GeV) and a time resolution of 56 ps/{radical}E(GeV). We also present a measurement of efficiency for low-energy photons.

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters using Cosmic Ray Muons

    OpenAIRE

    Santoni, C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The ATLAS calorimeters provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC proton-proton collisions. High granularity liquid-argon electromagnetic and hadronic sampling calorimeters are used. An iron-scintillator hadronic calorimeter surrounds the liquid-argon detectors. Results assessing the calorimeter performance obtained using cosmic ray muons are presented. The non-uniformity of the barrel electromagnetic ca...

  8. First physics pulses in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter with cosmics

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Serin

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter has been installed in its final position in October 2005. Since then, the calorimeter is being equipped with front-end electronics. Starting in April 2006, electronics calibration runs are taken a few times per week to debug the electronics and to study the performance in the pit (stability, noise). Today, 10 out of the 32 Front End crates are being read out, amounting to about 35000 channels. cool down, few little typos --> After a 6-week cool down, the barrel cryostat was filled with Liquid Argon in May. The presence of a few shorts (~1MΩ) at the edges of the modules was indicating the possibility of conducting dust having entered into the calorimeter with the flowing liquid. In order to try to improve this situation, the calorimeter was emptied and filled again, but this time by condensating the argon instead of flowing it in liquid phase. The new High Voltage tests are not showing any significant improvement but the situation is statisfactory for ATLAS runn...

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Tile Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new two-level hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubbl...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Ryne Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubble form...

  11. Calibration of a T-History calorimeter to measure enthalpy curves of phase change materials in the temperature range from 40 to 200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Schmit, Henri; Hennemann, Peter; Hiebler, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) provides high storage capacities in small temperature ranges. For the design of efficient latent heat storage, the enthalpy curve of a PCM has to be measured with high precision. Measurements are most commonly performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The T-History method, however, proved to be favourable for the characterization of typical PCMs due to large samples and a measuring procedure close to conditions found in applications. As T-History calorimeters are usually individual constructions, performing a careful calibration procedure is decisive to ensure optimal measuring accuracy. We report in this paper on the calibration of a T-History calorimeter with a working range from 40 to 200 °C that was designed and built at our institute. A three-part procedure, consisting of an indium calibration, a measurement of the specific heat of copper and measurements of three solid-liquid PCMs (stearic acid, dimethyl terephthalate and d-mannitol), was performed and an advanced procedure for the correction of enthalpy curves was developed. When comparing T-History enthalpy curves to literature data and DSC step measurements, good agreement within the uncertainty limits demanded by RAL testing specifications was obtained. Thus, our design of a T-History calorimeter together with the developed calibration procedure provides the measuring accuracy that is required to identify the most suitable PCM for a given application. In addition, the dependence of the enthalpy curve on the sample size can be analysed by comparing results obtained with T-History and DSC and the behaviour of the bulk material in real applications can be predicted.

  12. A Radiation-Hard Dual Channel 4-bit Pipeline for a 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC Prototype with extended Dynamic Range for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics Upgrade at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kuppambatti, Jayanth; Andeen, Timothy; Kinget, Peter; Brooijmans, Gustaaf

    2013-01-01

    The design of a radiation-hard dual channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC with extended dynamic range is presented, for use in the readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters with nominal 12-bit resolution each. The design, fabricated in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 68 dB SNDR at 18 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s while consuming 55 mW/channel from a 2.5 V supply, and exhibits no performance degradation after irradiation. Various gain selection algorithms to achieve the extended dynamic range are implemented and tested.

  13. A water calorimeter for on-site absorbed dose to water calibrations in 60Co and MV-photon beams including MRI incorporated treatment equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prez, Leon; de Pooter, Jacco; Jansen, Bartel; Aalbers, Tony

    2016-07-01

    In reference dosimetry the aim is to establish the absorbed dose to water, D w, under reference conditions. However, existing dosimetry protocols are not always applicable for rapidly emerging new treatment modalities. For primary standard dosimetry laboratories it is generally not feasible to acquire such modalities. Therefore it is strongly desired that D w measurements with primary standards can be performed on-site in clinical beams for the new treatment modalities in order to characterize and calibrate detectors. To serve this need, VSL has developed a new transportable water calorimeter serving as a primary D w standard for 60Co and MV-photons including MRI incorporated treatment equipment. Special attention was paid to its operation in different beam geometries and beam modalities including the application in magnetic fields. The new calorimeter was validated in the VSL 60Co beam and on-site in clinical MV-photon beams. Excellent agreement of 0.1% was achieved with previous 60Co field calibrations, i.e. well within the uncertainty of the previous calorimeter, and with measurements performed in horizontal and vertical MV-photon beams. k Q factors, determined for two PTW 30013 ionization chambers, agreed very well with available literature data. The relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) for D w measurements in 60Co and MV-photons is 0.37%. Calibrations are carried out with a standard uncertainty of 0.42% and k Q -factors are determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.40%.

  14. Qualification procedure of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector; Conception et mise au point de la procedure de qualification du calorimetre electromagnetique a argon liquide du detecteur ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, N

    2000-04-19

    LHC is the next collider based at CERN in Europe. The purpose of this machine is the Higgs boson and SUSY particles search. The detectors must have an excellent electromagnetic calorimetry to measure electron and photon energy. To maximize the signal to noise ratio for a low mass Higgs, it is fundamental to obtain a constant term as small as possible. LAPP is participating in the construction of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS collaboration. This technology is well adapted to the LHC experimental conditions. A systematic procedure to qualify the modules of this detector is an essential step to guarantee a 0,7% constant term, which is the collaboration objective. The procedure detailed in this thesis consists of quality monitoring during mechanical assembly and of a set of electrical tests such as electrical continuity, cell and cross-talk capacitance measurement, and high-voltage behaviour. For the whole test, it has been necessary to develop dedicated electronic cards, to develop measurement methods, and the whole operation software. Making the procedure automatic will guarantee the quality of each module during assembly, cabling, and test in liquid argon. (author)

  15. Calorimeter insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  16. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont Dayot, Nicolas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements will be reported.

  17. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont Dayot, Nicolas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements will be reported.

  18. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C. E-mail: cesare.bini@roma1.infn.it; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P

    2002-04-11

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb{sup -1} we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/{radical}E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/{radical}E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.

  19. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Barbiellini, G; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Cabibbo, G; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giannasi, A; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Keeble, L; Kim, W; Kuo, C; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, T A; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Mei, W; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Pacciani, L; Palomba, M; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passeri, A; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Sciascia, B; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spiriti, E; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Ventura, A; Wu, Y; Wölfle, S; Xie, Y G; Zema, P F; Zhang, C D; Zhang, J Q; Zhao, P P

    2002-01-01

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e sup + e sup - collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb sup - sup 1 we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/sq root E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/sq root E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.

  20. Validation of the Correction of the Energy Modulation Effect in eta in the LAr Calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed Ahmed Salem, Salma

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Liquid Argon Calorimeter is used for measuring the energy of electromagnetic interacting particles. To validate results, different calibration procedures are performed with respect to different variables. The energy modulation in a single cell is one of the effects that need to be corrected. The eta modulation calibration was introduced to counteract this effect. Different quantities describing the deposited energy were used to test the calibration. This summer student project report focuses on showing the effect of the eta mod correction on different samples from data taken in run-II and Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  2. Participation to the study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration for the CMS experiment and to the study of avalanche photodiodes; Participation a l'etude de la calibration du calorimetre electromagnetique de l'experience CMS et a l'etude de photodiodes a avalanche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Ponte Puill, V

    1999-12-13

    The electromagnetic calorimeter CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) has been chosen to study the Higgs boson production. This calorimeter will be constituted of more than 80000 lead tungstate scintillating crystals radiation resistant. Photodiodes have been especially optimized to detect the scintillating light of these crystals: avalanche photodiodes (APD). This thesis includes two separate parts. A first part deals with the APD submitted to high rate of radiations and tested in the Ulysse reactor of the Cea. The second part deals with the calorimeter calibration. (A.L.B.)

  3. Comparative investigation of laser ablation plumes in air and argon by analysis of spectral line shapes: Insights on calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Jörg, E-mail: hermann@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [LP3, CNRS — Aix Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Gerhard, Christoph [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Axente, Emanuel [Laser–Surface–Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Dutouquet, Christophe [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-En-Halatte (France)

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the characteristic features of plume expansion in air and argon resulting from ultraviolet laser ablation of solid matter in conditions typically applied in material analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Barite crown glass is chosen as a target material for the characteristic emission spectrum suitable for plasma diagnostics. The space-integrated plasma emission spectrum recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector is compared to the computed spectral radiance of a nonuniform plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, resonance lines of neutral sodium atoms and barium ions are observed to probe gradients of temperature and density within the plume. It is shown that laser ablation in argon leads to an almost uniform plasma whereas gradients of temperature and density are evidenced in ambient air. The discrepancy is attributed to the different physical properties of both gases leading to a stronger vapor–gas energy exchange in the case of air. However, strong gradients occur only in a thin peripheral zone, close to the vapor–gas contact front. The larger plasma core appears almost uniform. The peripheral zone of low temperature mostly contributes to the plasma emission spectrum by absorption and material analysis via calibration-free LIBS in air may ignore the nonuniform character of the plasma if only transitions of small optical thickness are considered. - Highlights: • Investigation of laser ablation plumes by analysis of spectral line shapes • Simulation of emission spectra from nonuniform laser-produced plasma • Plasma is more uniform for ablation in argon. • Plasma nonuniformity mostly affects optically thick lines. • Calibration-free LIBS may ignore gradients if optically thin lines are chosen.

  4. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  5. A 12bits 40MSPS SAR ADC with a redundancy algorithm and digital calibration for the ATLAS LArg calorimeter readout

    CERN Document Server

    Zeloufi, Mohamed; The ATLAS collaboration; Rarbi, Fatah-ellah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a SAR ADC with a generalized redundant search algorithm offering the flexibility to relax the requirements on the DAC settling time. The redundancy allows also a digital background calibration, based on a code density analysis, to compensate the capacitors mismatching effects. The total of capacitors used in this architecture is limited to a half of the one in a classical SAR design. Only 211 unit capacitors were necessary to reach 12bit resolution, and the switching algorithm is intrinsically monotonic. The design is fully differential featuring 12-bit 40MS/s in a CMOS 130nm 1P8M process.

  6. A 12bits 40MSPS SAR ADC with a redundancy algorithm and digital calibration for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter readout

    CERN Document Server

    Zeloufi, Mohamed; The ATLAS collaboration; Rarbi, Fatah-ellah

    2015-01-01

    We present a SAR ADC with a generalized redundant search algorithm offering the flexibility to relax the requirements on the DAC settling time. The redundancy allows also a digital background calibration, based on a code density analysis, to compensate the capacitors mismatching effects. The total of capacitors used in this architecture is limited to a half of the one in a classical SAR design. Only 2^11 unit capacitors were necessary to reach 12bits resolution, and the switching algorithm is intrinsically monotonic. The design is fully differential featuring 12-bit 40MS/s in a CMOS 130nm 1P8M process.

  7. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  8. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  9. Development and Construction of Large Size Signal Electrodes for the ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Colas, Jacques; Girard, C; Jérémie, A; Jézéquel, S; Lesueur, J; Sauvage, G; Lissauer, D; Makowiecki, D S; Radeka, V; Rescia, S; Wolniewicz, K; Belymam, A; Hoummada, A; Cherif, A; Chevalley, J L; Hervás, L; Marin, C P; Fassnacht, P; Szeless, Balázs; Collot, J; Gallin-Martel, M L; Hostachy, J Y; Martin, P; Leltchouk, M; Seman, M; Dargent, P; Djama, F; Monnier, E; Olivier, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Tartarelli, F; Augé, E; Bonivento, W; Fournier, D; Puzo, P; Serin, L; de La Taille, C; Astesan, F; Canton, B; Imbault, D; Lacour, D; Rossel, F; Schwemling, P

    2005-01-01

    We describe the electric circuits (electrodes) which polarize and read out the Lead-Liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter for the ATLAS detector. The paper covers design and material choices of the circuits as well as their production in industry. We also show how the electrodes integrate into the calorimeter and conclude with results from groups of electrodes making up calorimeter modules.

  10. Future liquid Argon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, A

    2013-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides $dE/dx$ information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after a long maturing process, its holds today the potentialities of opening new physics opportunities by providing excellent tracking and calorimetry performance at the relevant multi-kton mass scales, outperforming other techniques. In this paper, we review future liquid argon detectors presently being discussed by the neutrino physics community.

  11. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of {approx}1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 {plus_minus} 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  12. Calibration of Nu-Instruments Noblesse multicollector mass spectrometers for argon isotopic measurements using a newly developed reference gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M.A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The greatest challenge limiting 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements is the availability of appropriate standard gasses to intercalibrate detectors. In particular, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed detector array (i.e., Nu Instruments Noblesse) makes intercalibration of multiple detectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different mass stations. We have found that detector efficiency and mass discrimination are affected by changes in ion-optic tuning parameters. Reliance upon an atmospheric Ar standard to calibrate the Noblesse is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate atmospheric 40Ar and 36Ar to measurements of 40Ar and 39Ar if they are measured on separate detectors. After exploring alternative calibration approaches, we have concluded that calibration of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, detector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. To accomplish this, we have developed synthetic reference gasses containing 40Ar, 39Ar and 38Ar produced by mixing gasses derived from neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike. We present a new method for calibrating the Noblesse based on use of both atmospheric Ar and the synthetic reference gasses. By combining atmospheric Ar and synthetic reference gas in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from 0.5 to 460. These correction factors are reproducible to better than ??0.5??? (2?? standard error) over intervals spanning ~24h but can vary systematically by ~4% over 2weeks of continuous use when electron multiplier settings are held constant. Monitoring this variation requires daily calibration of the instrument. Application of the calibration method to 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements of widely used sanidine reference materials

  13. Calorimeter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

  14. Calibration of the Atlas electromagnetic calorimeter. Search for the Higgs boson in its invisible decays; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique d'ATLAS. Recherche du boson de Higgs dans ses desintegrations invisibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukermans, L

    2002-05-01

    The most promising channels for an intermediate mass Higgs boson discovery at LHC are leptonic and photonic decays. Therefore, a good uniformity of response of the electromagnetic calorimeter is required to reach the 0.7% constant term needed. This thesis deals with the absolute calibration of this detector. An electrical description of the calibration system, the detector and its read-out chain has been made for a better comprehension of the signal pulse shapes. A method, using a convolution of the calibration waveforms, has been developed to predict physics response, leading to absolute calibration. The level of accuracy obtained allows to reach the 0.3% contribution to the constant term required. Test beam analysis of a prototype module showed the performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter in terms of local resolution and linearity. A uniformity study has been made, leading to a 0.8% dispersion on a {delta}{eta} x {delta}{phi} = 1.2 x 0.75 area. In a second part, the observability of an invisible Higgs boson produced via weak boson fusion at the LHC is presented. A level 1 trigger strategy for this purely jet and missing E{sub T} final states is discussed. A method to measure the level of background using physics events is presented. This analysis shows that an invisible branching ratio of 25% could be reached at 95% CL with only 30 fb{sup -1} for a Higgs boson mass of 120 GeV/c{sup 2}. (author)

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Shima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range |η|<4.9. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb−1 of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb−1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformit...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|<4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established through beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~\\ifb of proton-proton collision data were collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~\\ifb of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in the first year. We present a summary of the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale...

  18. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cuciuc, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The calorimeter performance and its stability has been evaluated with the rich sample of collision data in 2011 but also with calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and splash events. Results on the absolute energy scale calibration precision, on the energy and timing uniformity, on the time resolution and on the synchronization precision are presented...

  19. A linear Fick's law calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Seymour S.; Bryant, Pat D.; Woodside, William F.

    1982-10-01

    A small animal calorimeter is described that is based on the direct application of Fick's law. Heat flow is channeled through a circular disk of magnesium and the temperature difference between the inside and outside surface of the disk is detected by means of solid-state temperature transducers. The device is calibrated using a light-weight electrical resistive source and is shown to be linear in its response and to have an e-folding time of 4.8 min. A rat was introduced into the calorimeter and its heat energy expenditure rate was observed in both the sedated and unsedated states.

  20. Design, Construction and Installation of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Scintillator-Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; Davidek, M; David, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, J; Silva, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using steel as the absorber structure and scintillator as the active medium. The scintillator is located in "pockets" in the steel structure and the wavelength-shifting fibers are contained in channels running radially within the absorber to photomultiplier tubes which are located in the outer support girders of the calorimeter structure. In addition, to its role as a detector for high energy particles, the tile calorimeter provides the direct support of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel region, and the liquid argon electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcap region. Through these, it indirectly supports the inner tracking system and beam pipe. The steel absorber, and in particular the support girders, provide the flux return for the solenoidal field from the central solenoid. Finally, the end surfaces of the barrel calorimeter are used to mount services, power supplies and readout crates for the inner tr...

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL crystal calorimeter (EB + EE) The Barrel and Endcaps ECAL calorimeters have been used routinely in global runs. The CRAFT data have confirmed that ECAL performance is the same with or without magnetic field. The CRUZET and CRAFT runs have allowed experience to be gained with ECAL operation in many areas, in particular for the trigger and the calibration sequence using gap events (laser events and LED pulsing). More details can be found in the Commissioning/DPG report in this bulletin.   The last components remaining to be installed and commissioned are the specific Endcap Trigger modules (TCC-48). Most of the modules have been delivered to LLR and half of them are already at CERN. In parallel, large progress has been made on the validation of the TCC-48 firmware. Preshower (ES) The Preshower project has also made impressive progress during Autumn. All the elements required to complete the detector assembly are at hand. Ladder assembly, test and calibration with cosmic rays at the operating ...

  2. ATLAS-Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hall 180 work on Hadronic Calorimeter The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53 (2006) 1275-81)

  3. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  4. Overview of the LHCb Calorimeter Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Perret, P

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb calorimeter system is composed of four subdetectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). In addition the system includes in front of them the Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and Pre-Shower (PS). It is used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and it provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for monitoring and calibration during data taking will be detailed in all aspects. Scintillating fibres, plastics and photomultipliers suffer from ageing due to radiation damage or high currents. Different methods which are used to calibrate the detectors and to recover the initial performances will be presented. The performances achieved will be illustrated in selected channels of interest for B physics.

  5. Calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the Atlas detector: reconstruction of events with non-pointing photons in the frame of a GMSB supersymmetric model; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique du detecteur Atlas: reconstruction des evenements avec des photons non pointants das le cadre d'un modele supersymetrique GMSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, D

    2005-04-15

    The analysis of test-beam data is focused on the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. An electrical model has been developed to predict the shape of the physics pulse out of the calibration signal in order to produce optimal filtering coefficients. They are used to compute energy while minimizing electronic noise and getting rid of any possible time shift. Using these coefficients, the uniformity response is 0.6%, in agreement with the 0.7% global constant term required for the whole calorimeter. The study of non pointing photon is driven by the detection of long lived neutralinos predicted by GMSB SUSY models. A systematic study with a detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector was performed to determine the electromagnetic calorimeter angular resolution for such photons. Results were used to parametrized the detector response and to reconstruct SUSY events from this model. (author)

  6. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/..sqrt..E was achieved.

  7. Detector Control System of Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Arabidze, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is to describe the Detector Control System (DCS) implementation for Tile Calorimeter sub-detector. It describes hardware layout and software components for main, infrastructure related and sub-detector calibration systems. It discusses implementation of the top level software Finite State Machine (FSM)and discusses state models of FSM objects. Presentation shows usage of Configuration and Conditions Data Bases, for Tile Calorimeter DCS.

  8. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  9. ATLAS: last few metresfor the Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows the ...

  10. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector; Controle et etalonnage par lumiere laser et par faisceaux de muons du calorimetre hadronique a tuiles scintillantes d'ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, V

    2003-10-15

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  11. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Green

    The organization of CMS HCAL contains four “geographic” efforts, HB, HO, HE and HF. In addition there are presently five “common” HCAL activities. These ef¬forts are concentrated on electronics, on controls (DCS), on physics objects (JetMet), on Installation and Commissioning (I&C), and on Test Beam (TB) and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) data taking. HCAL has begun planning to re-organize to be synchronized with the overall CMS management structure. HF The full production of the wedges is completed for some time. The 2004 test beam work has established the radioactive source calibration system for HF works at the 5 % level or better and a note is completed. The calibration of the complete HF is complete. HF is now in the UX cavern and will be hooked up and read out as soon as the services are available. HE The two HE calorimeters are installed and an initial calibration has been established. In the MTCC the HE was read out and muon data was observed. Event b...

  12. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  13. Tridimensional Event Visualization for the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, L M A; The ATLAS collaboration; Vitillo, R; Martin, B

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been commissioned with cosmic rays. For this commissioning phase, a bunch of software tools has been developed for supporting data analysis. Among ATLAS subdetectors, commissioning the calorimeter system demanded a considerable effort due to its segmentation into seven detection layers, which produces more than a hundred thousand readout channels. Tasks like performance evaluation of the calorimeter, calibration and noisy or dead channel detection benefit a lot from cosmic muon track visualization, which facilitates the identification of the activated cells in the calorimeter. The coherence of the reconstructed data can be visually checked and potential problems can be detected in a easier way. This work presents a 3-D visualization tool for the ATLAS calorimeter system, which provides a smooth integration with analyses currently performed by the ATLAS community. The tool structure and some applications with reconstructed data are presented. Due to its 3-D graphical interface, the propo...

  14. Peltier ac calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, D. H.; Moon, I. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ac calorimeter, utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF A DC POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER COMPATIBILIDAD ELECTROMAGNÉTICA EN EL SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE CORRIENTE CONTINUA PARA EL CALORÍMETRO DE ARGÓN LÍQUIDO EN ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Blanchot

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is powered by DC/DC converters nearby the front-end crates. They are fed by AC/DC converters located in a remote control room through long power cables. The stability of the power distribution scheme is compromised by the impedance of the long interconnection cable, and proper matching of the converters dynamic impedances is required. Also, the long power cable fed by a powerful AC/DC converter is a source of electromagnetic interferences in the experimental area. The optimal grounding and shielding configuration to minimize these EMI is discussed.El Calorímetro de Argón Líquido en ATLAS es alimentado por convertidores DC/DC localizados cerca de sus compartimientos. Ellos son alimentados por convertidores AC/DC localizados en una sala de control lejana conectados mediante cables largos de poder. La estabilidad del sistema de distribución es sensible a la impedancia del cable largo de interconexión y son requeridos los convertidores apropiados para estabilizar la dinámica de la impedancia. También, el cable largo alimentado por el convertidor AC/DC es una fuente de interferencia electromagnética en el área experimental. En este trabajo se analiza La óptima configuración de aterrizamiento y blindaje para minimizar los efectos de EMI.

  16. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Splash and Collision Data HCAL recorded the beam-on-collimator (splash) and the first collision data in November and December 2009, and provided triggers to CMS with the forward calorimeter, HF. Splash events were used to improve the energy inter-calibration of the HB and HE channels, with the basic assumption that the energy deposited in the detector by the large flux of muons that passed through in splash events was a smooth function in eta and phi. The new HB and HE calibration coefficients were applied prior to the collision data taking. For HO, a similar analysis is being finalized. Splash events were also used to determine the relative timing between channels in HB and HE, and new delay settings were calculated based on splashes from one beam, applied and verified with the splash events from the other beam. During Fall 2009, the HF technical trigger was improved in order to be effectively used as one of the main CMS triggers during the collision data taking. Collisions were successfully recorded by all...

  17. Performance of the CREAM calorimeter in accelerator beam test

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Y S; Bagliesi, M G; Bigongiari, G; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Jeon, J A; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Nam, S W; Park, H; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    The CREAM calorimeter, designed to measure the spectra of cosmic-ray nuclei from under 1 TeV to 1000 TeV, is a 20 radiation length (X0) deep sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter is comprised of 20 layers of tungsten interleaved with 20 layers of scintillating fiber ribbons, and is preceded by a pair of graphite interaction targets providing about 0.42 proton interaction lengths (\\lambda int). The calorimeter was placed in one of CERN's SPS accelerator beams for calibration and testing. Beams of 150 GeV electrons were used for calibration, and a variety of electron, proton, and nuclear fragment beams were used to test the simulation model of the detector. In this paper we discuss the performance of the calorimeter in the electron beam and compare electron beam data with simulation results.

  18. Study of the signal H{sup 0}/A{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{mu} in hadron colliders and inter-calibration of the Ddiameter calorimeter with RUN 2 of Tevatron; Etude du signal H{sup 0}/A{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{mu} aux collisionneurs hadroniques et intercalibration du calorimetre de Ddiametre au RUN 2 du Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsart, P.A

    2003-10-01

    D0 is one of the 2 detectors settled on the Tevatron at Fermilab. This thesis has been made in collaboration with the 'theory' group and the D0 group of IPNL (nuclear physics institute of Lyon). Within the D0 group we have worked on the calibration of the detector's calorimeter: intercalibration. Using the fact that the physics is phi-symmetric in D0 we have created and applied statistical methods for a relative calibration of some phi-symmetric parts of the calorimeter. Work on particle physics concerned the two Higgs doublet model. In such models leptonic number violation is possible: we have simulated the H{sup 0}/A{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{mu} signal in order to study the discovery potential and the constraints on the coupling responsible for this decay. (author)

  19. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Summary of Warm-Up After Draining for the D-Zero LAr Calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1996-03-14

    After a very successful physics run, the D-Zero detector Liquid Argon Calorimeters were drained in preparation of the detector rollout. During the roll out process, the calorimeters were without cooling. Information regarding the temperatures, estimated heat transfer, and pressure maintenance are documented in this engineering note.

  20. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0

  1. Self consistently calibrated photopyroelectric calorimeter for the high resolution simultaneous absolute measurement of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zammit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature resolution study of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity over the smecticA-nematic and nematic-isotropic phase transitions in octylcynobephenyl liquid crystal using a new photopyroelectric calorimetry configuration are reported, where, unlike previously adopted ones, no calibration is required other than the procedure used during the actual measurement. This makes photopyroelectric calorimetry suitable for “absolute” measurements of the thermal parameters like most other existing conventional calorimetric techniques where, however, the thermal conductivity cannot be measured.

  2. LAr Calorimeter Performance and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Spettel, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of $8 \\times 10^{33} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. During the next run, peak luminosities of $1.5 \\times 10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$ and even higher are expected at a 25ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminos...

  3. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    HCAL installation and commissioning is approaching completion. Work continues on commissioning of HE-, HF- and the minus wheels of HO. We expect that all commissioning will be completed by mid-March. HCAL commissioning is interleaved with integration of HCAL and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT). HCAL is attempting to take data using the HPD self-trigger as part of the GCT trigger path. Initial attempts in mid-February have not succeeded. Work continues on HCAL and the GCT. HPD lifetimes at 4 Tesla are being measured in Princeton. After more than a month of testing in a 4 Tesla field there are no sur¬prises. As the lifetime measurements proceed, the HPD response at intermediate fields of 1 Tesla will be verified and analyzed. Work also continues on HCAL calibration and DCS/DSS at Point 5. More details for some of the subsystems are presented in what follows. HE HE plus The cooling system of HE+ is functional now. The HE+ final connections to the LV system are complete. LV and HV tests to ev...

  4. CMD-2 barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V.M. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Baibusinov, B.O. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Bondar, A.E. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Kuzmin, A.S. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Leontiev, L.A. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Okhapkin, V.S. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Pestsov, L.V. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Smakhtin, V.P. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Sukhanov, A.I. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Shwartz, B.A. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-11-15

    The barrel calorimeter of the CMD-2 detector for the VEPP-2M collider is described. The calorimeter contains 892 CsI crystals read by PM tubes. Operation with it during the last year demonstrated good performance as well as energy and spatial resolution which are close to the corresponding project values. (orig.)

  5. LHCb : First years of running for the LHCb calorimeter system and preparation for run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors: a Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and a Pre-Shower detector (PS) in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) which is followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). They are used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and they provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The calorimeter has been pre-calibrated before its installation in the pit. The calibration techniques have been tested with data taken in 2010 and used regularly during run 1. For run 2, new calibration methods have been devised to follow and correct online the calorimeter detector response. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for...

  6. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development

    CERN Multimedia

    Felix Sefkow

    2013-01-01

    AIDA – the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide – aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. Among the highlights reported at AIDA’s recent annual meeting in Frascati was the completion of an impressive calorimeter test beam programme, conducted by the CALICE collaboration over the past two years at CERN’s PS and SPS beam lines.   The CALICE tungsten calorimeter prototype under test at CERN. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost 500,000 individually read-out electronics channels – more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. Calorimeter development in AIDA is mainly motivated by experiments at possible future electron-positron colliders, namely ILC or CLIC. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry. This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa...

  7. The spaghetti calorimeter. Research, development, application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, C.V.

    1994-12-22

    The Spaghetti Calorimeter (SPACAL) is a detector intended primarily for the energy measurement of high-energy particles, but also provides spatial information and particle identification. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of plastic scintillating fibers, oriented in the direction of the particle, embedded in lead. The scintillation light is read out by photomultipliers, which are coupled to bunches of fibers through light guides, each forming a tower. It was developed as an electromagnetic (e.m.) and compensating hadronic calorimeter for use in future multi-TeV collider experiments. The largest prototype was installed for an alternative application as an hadronic calorimeter in the WA89 experiment, where it is used for the detection of neutrons resulting from {Sigma} decays. The basic concepts behind calorimetry are discussed in detail. Several prototypes were tested in beams of electrons and pions with energies up to 150 GeV. Resonable e.m. energy resolution, at {sigma}/E=12.9%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.23%, was measured. Excellent hadronic energy resolution was found, at 30.6%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.0%, but the calorimeter was found to be slightly undercompensating with e/h=1.15. The position of the shower barycenter for both electrons and pions was easily found according to the relative energy deposits in the calorimeter towers. The calorimeter was also found to be able to provide effective discrimination between electrons and hadrons. The performance of SPACAL in the WA89 experiment at the Omega spectrometer at CERN was studied with the reconstruction of beam {Sigma}{sup -}particles via its decay {Sigma}{sup -}{yields}n{pi}{sup -}. Details of the calibration of SPACAL with electrons and protons are presented. (orig.).

  8. Performance of the D0 end calorimeter electromagnetic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Hiroaki.

    1990-10-01

    We have constructed a uranium liquid argon calorimeter which serves as the end calorimeter electromagnetic module for the DO experiment at Fermilab. We present details of the construction and the results of the tests made using electron beams ranging from 10 GeV to 150 GeV. We find the energy resolution is 15.5%/{radical}E(GeV) with a small constant term of {approximately}0.5% and the response is linear to better than {plus minus}0.5%. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  10. Software studies of GLD calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Matsunaga

    2007-12-01

    The baseline design of the GLD calorimeter is scintillator-strip arrays interleaved with absorber plates. We present preliminary performance studies of the hit clustering with this calorimeter using a simulator. Also, simulation results of a `digital' calorimeter, which is an option of the GLD calorimeter, are presented.

  11. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer components The Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  12. BGO* electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1988-01-01

    * Short for Bismuth-Germanium-Oxyde, a scintillator of high atomic number Z used in electromagnetic crystal calorimeters. BGO is characterized by fast rise time (a few nanoseconds) and short radiation length (1.11 cm).

  13. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer componentsThe Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  14. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  15. The high resolution neutrino calorimeter KARMEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexlin, G.; Eberhard, V.; Gemmeke, H.; Giorginis, G.; Grandegger, W.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hucker, H.; Husson, L.; Kleinfeller, J.; Maschuw, R.; Plischke, P.; Spohrer, G.; Schmidt, F.K.; Wochele, J.; Woelfle, S.; Zeitnitz, B. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik 1 Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik); Bodman, B.; Burtak, F.; Finckh, E.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Schilling, F.; Voetisch, D. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Edgington, J.A.; Gorringe, T.; Malik, A. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK)); Booth, N.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK)); Dodd, A.; Payne, A.G.D. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (UK))

    1990-04-15

    KARMEN is a 56 t scintillation calorimeter designed for beam dump neutrino experiments at the neutron spallation facility ISIS of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The calorimetric properties are demonstrated by cosmic muons and laser calibration. The measured energy resolution of the detector is {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx equal}11.5%/{radical}E(MeV), the position resolution {sigma}{sub x}=5 cm and the timing resolution {sigma}{sub t}{approx equal}350 ps. (orig.).

  16. Operation of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters at sLHC luminosities, an experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Ferencei, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at sLHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters (EMEC, HEC, FCAL) in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built. The layout and the components used are very close to the ones used in the construction of the ATLAS calorimeter. The goal is to simulate in the high intensity proton beam at IHEP /Protvino the particle impact as expected for ATLAS in sLHC. Depending on the position in pseudorapidity |η|, each forward calorimeter has to cope with a different particle and energy flux. Placing absorber elements in-between the various small calorimeter modules, the particle and energy flux as expected in ATLAS later - given the variation due to |η| and longitudinal position - can be simulated very well.

  17. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, T.;

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found...... at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95 % confidence level) for X-ray measurement....

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  19. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  20. Calibration of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter. Identification of the tau leptons and search for a Higgs boson in the channel qqH {yields} qq {tau}{tau} in the Atlas experiment at LHC; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique tonneau. Identification des leptons taus et recherche d'un boson de Higgs dans le canal qqH {yields} qq {tau}{tau} dans l'experience ATLAS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrade, F

    2006-09-15

    The Standard Model is the theory which describes the fundamental interactions most accurately. However, the Higgs mechanism and its associated boson have not yet been discovered. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will play an important role in its discovery if it exists. In the first part of this work, a final mapping of all barrel electromagnetic calorimeter cells, and in particular the problematic ones, was made. Then, the code for the calorimeter calibration was migrated into the ATLAS software environment (ATHENA), where it was tested and validated with the 2004 test beam data. In this code, the optimal filtering coefficients, which enable to reconstruct the energy deposited in the calorimeter while minimizing the electronic and pile-up noises, are calculated. For this, a model was developed to predict the physics signal waveform from the calibration waveform. In a third part, two algorithms for reconstructing and identifying {tau} leptons in their hadronic decay mode were studied and compared. Finally in a fourth part, one amongst the most important Standard Model Higgs production and decay channels was investigated, namely the weak boson fusion production followed by the Higgs decay into a tau lepton pair, for a low mass Higgs (115 < m{sub Higgs} < 145 GeV/c{sup 2}). This study was performed for 30 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity using fast and fully simulated data. A study of the dominant background Z + n jets (n {<=} 5) was also performed. (author)

  1. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was moved with the help of the rails and this calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  2. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  3. Geant4 simulations of the lead fluoride calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenko, A A; Dabagov, S B; Anastasi, A; Venanzoni, G; Strikhanov, M N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we simulate the emission by charged particles in complex structures with help of Geant4. We take into account Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation, bremsstrahlung, pair production and other accompanying processes. As an application we investigate the full size electromagnetic calorimeter for the muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab. A calorimeter module (24 are expected in the experiment) consists of a Delrin front panel for installation of the laser calibration system, 54 PbF2 Cherenkov crystals wrapped by the black Millipore paper, and silicon photo-multiplier sensors. We report here on a simulation of radiation from positrons passing through the calorimeter system. We carry out the simulation using Geant4 toolkit, which provides a complete set of tools for all areas of detector simulation: geometry, tracking, detector response, run, event and track management, and visualization. We consider Cherenkov photons expansion when a positron moves down through the calorimeter at the arbitrary angle o...

  4. Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Fopma, Johan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gurriana, Luis; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hollander, David; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Michael; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Ottersbach, John; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Popule, Jiri; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potekhin, Maxim; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Potter, Keith; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qi, Ming; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renkel, Peter; Rescia, Sergio; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Ribeiro, Nuno; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Roa Romero, Diego Alejandro; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sanny, Bernd; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savine, Alexandre; Savinov, Vladimir; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yuri; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stastny, Jan; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Sturm, Philipp; Su, Dong; Soh, Dart-yin; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Yu; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szymocha, Tadeusz; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Ryan P.; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thomson, Evelyn; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomasek, Michal; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuggle, Joseph; Tunnell, Christopher; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasilyeva, Lidia; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Villa, Mauro; Villani, Giulio; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vudragovic, Dusan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Manuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Dennis; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xu, Da; Xu, Neng; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zambrano, Valentina; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector successfully collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the Tile Calorimeter performance as measured using random triggers, calibration data, data from cosmic ray muons and single beam data. The detector operation status, noise characteristics and performance of the calibration systems are presented, as well as the validation of the timing and energy calibration carried out with minimum ionising cosmic ray muons data. The calibration systems' precision is well below the design of 1%. The determination of the global energy scale was performed with an uncertainty of 4%.

  5. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  6. Construction and initial beam tests of the ATLAS tungsten forward calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, J.; Babukhadian, L.; Dixit, M.; Donkers, M.; Embry, T.; Gravelle, P.; Hamm, J.; Kamnitzer, J.; Khan, N.; Khovanskii, V.; Koolbeck, D.; Loch, P.; Losty, M.; Mazini, R.; Mayer, J.K.; O' Neill, M.; Oakham, F.G.; Orr, R.S.; Paterson, D.; Ryabin, M.; Rutherfoord, J.; Savin, A.; Seely, J.; Shatalov, P.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Stairs, G.G.; Tompkins, D.; Trischuk, W.; Vincent, K.; Waller, D.; Zayteev, Y

    1999-08-01

    Due to the severe radiation environment, the ATLAS experiment has chosen a compact tungsten/liquid argon forward hadronic calorimeter. The electrode design is unique and consists of hexagonally packed, tubular, thin gap electrodes running parallel to the beam direction. We describe the design criteria, the novel construction methods based on sintered tungsten components, and initial high energy beam tests at CERN.

  7. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  8. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  9. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  10. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  11. Performance of ATLAS L1 Calorimeter Trigger with data

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters. After more than two years of commissioning in situ with calibration data and cosmic rays, the system has now been extensively used to select the most interesting proton-proton collision events. Final tuning of timing and energy calibration has been carried out in 2010 to improve the trigger response to physics objects. An analysis of the performance of the level-1 calorimeter trigger will be presented, along with the techniques used to achieve these results.

  12. Energy Reconstruction of Hadron Showers in the CALICE Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed highly granular electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for the use in detector systems at the future International Linear Collider. These calorimeters have been tested extensively in particle beams at CERN and at Fermilab. We present analysis results for hadronic events recorded at CERN with a SiW ECAL, a scintillator tile HCAL and a scintillator strip tail catcher, the latter two with SiPM readout, focusing both on the HCAL alone and on the complete calorimeter setup. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of the linearity of the detector response and on the single particle energy resolution. The high granularity of the detectors was used to perform first studies of software compensation based on the local shower energy density, yielding significant improvements in the energy resolution. The required calibration precision to achieve this resolution, and the effect of calibration uncertainties, for the CALICE HCAL as well as fo...

  13. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  14. ATLAS LAr calorimeters readout electronics upgrade R&D for sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hucheng

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters consist of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. A total of 182,468 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the Level-1 trigger. A luminosity upgrade of the LHC will occur in the years 2018. The current readout electronics will need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The front-end readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links, the data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms. This article is an overview of the R&D activities and architectural studies the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Group is developing.

  15. Construction and Performance of an Iron-Scintillator Hadron Calorimeter with Longitudinal Tile Configuration

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD34 \\\\ \\\\ In a scintillator tile calorimeter with wavelength shifting fiber readout significant simplifications of the construction and the assembly are possible if the tiles are oriented $^{\\prime\\prime}$longitudinally$^{\\prime\\prime}$, i.e.~in a r-$\\phi$ planes for a barrel configuration. For a hybrid calorimeter consisting of a scintillator tile hadron compartment and a sufficiently containing liquid argon electromagnetic (EM) compartment, as proposed for the ATLAS detector, good jet resolution is predicted by simulations, which is not affected by this particular orientation of the tiles. \\\\ \\\\The aim of the proposed development program is to construct a calorimeter test module with longitudinal tiles and to check the simulation results by test beam measurements. In addition several component tests and further simulations and engineering studies are needed to optimize the design of a large calorimeter structure to be used in collider experiments. The construction of a test module will also provide valua...

  16. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Rusack

    Occupancy of the trigger primitives during a global run: the observed pattern is consistent with the polar angle dependence of the transverse energy equivalent of the electronic noise in the endcaps.   Progress on ECAL since the last CMS week has been mostly on three major fronts: we have continued with the installation and commissioning of the preshower detectors; the endcap calorimeter trigger has been installed and tested; and there have been many changes to the calorimeter detector control and safety systems. Both Preshower (ES) endcaps were installed in CMS on schedule, just before Easter. There followed a campaign of "first commissioning" to ensure that all services were correctly connected (electrical, optical, cooling, etc.). Apart from some optical ribbons that had to be replaced the process went rather smoothly, finishing on 23rd April. All power supplies are installed and operational. The cooling system (two branches of the joint Tracker-Preshower system) is fully fun...

  17. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  18. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northrop, Richard [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Frisch, Henry [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Elagin, Andrey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ramberg, Erik [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apresyan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  19. Liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Bukin, A.D.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Leontiev, L.A.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Onuchin, A.P.; Panin, V.S.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Pivovarov, S.G.; Rodyakin, V.A.; Tayursky, V.A.; Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Yurchenko, V.I. (Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russia)); Lanni, F.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maggi, B.; Palombo, F.; Sala, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Milan (Italy) INFN, Milan (Italy)); Cantoni, P.; Frabetti, P.L.; Stagni, L. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Bologna (Italy) INFN, Bologna (Italy)); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. (Dipt. di Elettronica, Univ. Pavia (Italy) INFN, Milan (Italy))

    1993-03-20

    A calorimeter using 30 tons of liquid krypton for the KEDR detector is being constructed. The main effects which determine the energy and space resolution have been studied. An energy resolution of 1.7% at 1.2 GeV was obtained with the prototype. A space resolution of 0.4 mm for relativistic particles has been reached with the prototype. (orig.).

  20. Belle electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Miyabayashi, K

    2002-01-01

    We report the performance of the Belle electromagnetic calorimeter for the first three years operation. Good mass resolutions for pi sup 0 and eta are obtained to be 4.8 and 12.1 MeV/c sup 2 , respectively. The degradation of light output due to the radiation damage is small, about 3% for the radiation dose of 40 rad. These performances promise further study of B physics with neutral particle reconstruction.

  1. Energy loss correction for a crystal calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Miao; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MAO Ze-Pu; MO Xiao-Hu; QIU Jin-Fa; WANG Yi-Fang; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Ji-Ke; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; YANG Ming; YOU Zheng-Yun; YU Guo-Wei; BIAN Jian-Ming; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZANG Shi-Lei; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Ling; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Zhi-Peng; ZHU Yong-Sheng; CAO Guo-Fu; ZOU Jia-Heng; DENG Zi-Yan; HE Kang-Lin; HUANG Bin; JI Xiao-Bin; LI Gang

    2008-01-01

    Material effect of inner-detectors on the performances of the BESⅢ Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC)is investigated.The BESⅢ Time-Of-Flight counters(TOF)have been utilized to improve the energy resolution and detection efficiency for photons after a careful energy calibration.A matching algorithm between TOF and EMC energy deposits is developed,and the effects of beam-related background are discussed.The energy resolution is improved and the photon detection efficiency can be increased by the combined measurement of EMC and TOF detectors.

  2. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  3. The HPS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Balossino, Ilaria; Battaglieri, Marco; Bondi, Mariangela; Buchanan, Emma; Calvo, Daniela; Celentano, Andrea; Charles, Gabriel; Colaneri, Luca; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Napoli, Marzio; De Vita, Raffaella; Dupre, Raphael; Ehrhart, Mathieu; Filippi, Alessandra; Garcon, Michel; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Guidal, Michel; Holtrop, Maurik; Iurasov, Volodymyr; Kubarovsky, Valery; McCarty, Kyle; McCormick, Jeremy; Osipenko, Mikhail; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Randazzo, Nunzio; Rauly, Emmanuel; Raydo, Benjamin; Rindel, Emmanuel; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosier, Philippe; Sipala, Valeria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Szumila-Vance, Holly; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) is searching for a new gauge boson, the so-called "heavy photon". Through its kinetic mixing with the Standard Model photon, this particle could decay into an electron-positron pair. It would then be detectable as a narrow peak in the invariant mass spectrum of such pairs, or, depending on its lifetime, by a decay downstream of the production target. The HPS experiment is installed in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab. This article presents the design and performance of one of the two detectors of the experiment, the electromagnetic calorimeter, during the runs performed in 2015-2016. The calorimeter's main purpose is to provide a fast trigger and reduce the copious background from electromagnetic processes through matching with a tracking detector. The detector is a homogeneous calorimeter, made of 442 lead-tungsten (PbWO$_4$) scintillating crystals, each read-out by an avalanche photodiode coupled to a custom trans-impedance amplifier.

  4. Calibration of HF Based on Minimisation of Missing E_t

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, E

    1999-01-01

    The algorithm for calibration of the CMS Very Forward calorimeter is proposed. Calibration accuracy is estimated versus of number of events. Tagging jets are used for control of the results of calibration.

  5. Cosmic ray teststand for the CASTOR calorimeter of CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus Damiao, Dilson de; Santoro, Alberto [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Grothe, Monika [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The very forward region of the CMS experiment at the LHC will house a quartz-tungsten sampling calorimeter CASTOR (''Centauro And STrange Object Research) with rapidity coverage 5.1calibrating the calorimeter response with the help of mip signals originating from muons in cosmic-ray-initiated particle showers.

  6. Detector Control System of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Arabidze, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Ribeiro, G; Santos, H; Vinagre, F

    2011-01-01

    The main task of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter Detector Control System (DCS) is to enable the coherent and safe operation of the calorimeter. All actions initiated by the operator, as well as all errors, warnings and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector are handled by DCS. The Tile calorimeter DCS controls and monitors mainly the low voltage and high voltage power supply systems, but it is also interfaced with the infrastructure (cooling system and racks), the calibration systems, the data acquisition system, configuration and conditions databases and the detector safety system. The system has been operational since the beginning of LHC operation and has been extensively used in the operation of the detector. In the last months effort was directed to the implementation of automatic recovery of power supplies after trips. Current status, results and latest developments will be presented.

  7. Photomultipliers on an LHCb calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    An engineer attaches photomultiplier tubes to the electromagnetic calorimeter on the LHCb experiment. These large wall detectors will be used to study the bottom quark, a heavy, short-lived version of quarks found in protons and neutrons. The electromagnetic calorimeter will be used to detect photons, electrons and positrons produced by the decay of these short-lived quarks.

  8. Construction and test results of the ATLAS EM barrel calorimeter and presampler

    CERN Document Server

    Hostachy, J Y

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic (EM) barrel calorimeter and presampler is well under way: modules and sectors for more than half a barrel have now been produced. Particular emphasis will be put on the qualification tests allowing this construction. The system: calorimeter module +2 presampler sectors has been exposed several times to muon, electron and photon beams at CERN. Results concerning muons and photons are shown. Energy resolution and the uniformity studies performed with electrons are presented in the same proceedings by Dr. M. Fanti.

  9. A correction to Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations for highly ionizing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, Sergey [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Horbatsch, Marko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Taylor, Wendy, E-mail: taylorw@yorku.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    We present a study of the performance of Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations as applied to highly ionizing particles, such as particles with multiple electric charges or with magnetic charge. We used Birks' Law to model recombination effects in a GEANT4 simulation of heavy ions in a liquid argon calorimeter. We then compared the simulation to published heavy-ion data to extract a highly ionizing particle correction to Birks' Law.

  10. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  11. The PANDA backward calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR is being devised for a broad physics programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. Full and accurate reconstruction of scattering events, reliable particle identification and an almost complete solid angle coverage are required. An important tool for meeting this requirements will be the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC). It is required to measure particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs with a relative resolution of 1% + 2%/√(E/GeV), assuring a compact geometry and radiation hardness at the same time. For these reasons PbWO{sub 4} was chosen as scintillation material. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). The BWEC, under development at Mainz, will cover scattering polar angles between 140 and 170 and will be made of 524 PbWO{sub 4} crystals. The scintillation light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes which will be read out by customised front-end ASIC chips. A status report on the development of the BWEC will be given in this contribution.

  12. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) Photodetectors The main activity of the HCAL group during the present shutdown is the replacement of a small fraction of the Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) photodetectors -- the Hybrid Photo-Detectors (HPDs). During the MTCC of 2006 it was established that all HPDs exhibit a low rate of discharge generating large random pulses. This behaviour persists at the full CMS field. However, at relatively low fields (0.5 Tesla) this discharge rate increases dramatically and becomes very large for a fraction of the HPDs. The HO HPDs which sit in the gap of the return yoke are thus adversly affected. These discharge pulses have been labelled "HPD noise" (which must be distinguished from low level electronic noise which manifests itself as pedestal noise for all HPD readout channels). Additional intermediate level noise can be generated by ion-feedback arising from thermal and field emission electrons. Ion feedback noise never exceeds the equivalent of few 10s of GeV, the...

  13. Space-charge effects in liquid argon ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfoord, J. P.; Walker, R. B.

    2015-03-01

    We have uniformly irradiated liquid argon ionization chambers with betas from high-activity 90Sr sources. The radiation environment is similar to that in the liquid argon calorimeters which are part of the ATLAS detector installed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We measured the resulting ionization current over a wide range of applied potential for two different source activities and for three different chamber gaps. These studies provide operating experience at exceptionally high ionization rates. In particular they indicate a stability at the 0.1% level for these calorimeters over years of operation at the full LHC luminosity when operated in the normal mode at an electric field E = 1.0 kV / mm. We can operate these chambers in the normal mode or in the space-charge limited regime and thereby determine the transition point between the two. This transition point is parameterized by a positive argon ion mobility of μ+ = 0.08 ± 0.02mm2 / V s at a temperature of 88.0±0.5 K and at a pressure of 1.02±0.02 bar. In the space-charge limited regime the ionization currents are degraded and show signs of instability. At the highest electric fields in our study (6.7 kV/mm) the ionization current is still slowly rising with increasing electric field.

  14. Testbeam Studies of Production Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A; Batkova, L; Batusov, V; Beck, H P; Bednar, P; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Caprini, M; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Corso-Radu, A; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Djobava, T; Dobson, M; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eriksson, D; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Febbraro, R; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Francis, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gorini, B; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Gruwé, M; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; Isaev, A; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Kazarov, A; Khandanyan, H; Khramov, J; Khubua, J; Kolos, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Lesser, J; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Makouski, M; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Mosidze, M; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Nordkvist, B; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Petersen, J; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsev, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevitch, I; Says, L-P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Da Silva, P; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Soloviev, I; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Stavina, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tremblet, L; Tsiareshka, P; Tylmad, M; Underwood, D; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200~calorimeter cells the variation of the response was {2.4\\,\\%}. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5\\,\\% for 91~measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of {1.4\\,\\%} for the modules and projective angles studied. The respon...

  15. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolucci Federico

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal, the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The results demonstrate a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is well within the design expectations.

  16. Operation of the enhanced ATLAS First Level Calorimeter Trigger at the start of Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Palka, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2015 the LHC will operate with a higher center-of-mass energy and proton beams luminosity. To keep a high trigger efficiency against an increased event rate, part of ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger electronics have been re-designed or newly introduced (Pre-Processors, Merging Modules and Topological Processors). Additionally, to achieve the best possible resolution for the reconstructed physics objects, complex calibration and monitoring systems are employed. Hit rates and energy spectra down to channel level, based on reconstructed events, are supervised with the calorimeter trigger hardware. The performance of the upgraded Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger at the beginning of LHC Run-2 is illustrated.

  17. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  18. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  19. High density fluoride glass calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

    2014-04-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

  20. A Luminosity Calorimeter for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Sadeh, I

    2009-01-01

    For the relative precision of the luminosity measurement at CLIC, a preliminary target value of 1% is being assumed. This may be accomplished by constructing a finely granulated calorimeter, which will measure Bhabha scattering at small angles. In order to achieve the design goal, the geometrical parameters of the calorimeter need to be defined. Several factors influence the design of the calorimeter; chief among these is the need to minimize the error on the luminosity measurement while avoiding the intense beam background at small angles. In this study the geometrical parameters are optimized for the best performance of the calorimeter. In addition, the suppression of physics background to Bhabha scattering is investigated and a set of selection cuts is introduced.

  1. The AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert-Hermel, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, H.; Coignet, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J.M.; Falchini, E.; Franzoso, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Kossakowski, R.; Lieunard, B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F. E-mail: federico.pilo@pi.infn.it; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Venanzoni, G.; Vialle, J.P.; Yu, Z.; Zhuang, H

    2002-12-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a lead-scintillating fibers sampling calorimeter characterized by high granularity that allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron/hadron discrimination. The light collection system and the FE electronics are designed to let the calorimeter operate over a wide energy range from few GeV up to 1 TeV. A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter was tested at CERN in October 2001 using electrons and pions beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. Effective sampling thickness, linearity and energy resolution were measured.

  2. The AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cadoux, F; Chambert-Hermel, V; Chen, G; Chen, H; Coignet, G; Di Falco, S; Dubois, J M; Falchini, E; Franzoso, A; Fougeron, D; Fouque, N; Galeotti, S; Girard, L; Goy, C; Hermel, R; Incagli, M; Kossakowski, R; Lieunard, B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lomtadze, T A; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Rosier-Lees, S; Spinella, F; Turini, N; Valle, G D; Venanzoni, G; Vialle, J P; Yu, Z; Zhuang, H

    2002-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a lead-scintillating fibers sampling calorimeter characterized by high granularity that allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron/hadron discrimination. The light collection system and the FE electronics are designed to let the calorimeter operate over a wide energy range from few GeV up to 1 TeV. A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter was tested at CERN in October 2001 using electrons and pions beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. Effective sampling thickness, linearity and energy resolution were measured. (8 refs).

  3. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: Status and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger seeds all the calorimeter-based triggers in the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The inputs to the system are analogue signals of reduced granularity, formed by summing cells from both the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. Several stages of analogue then digital processing, largely performed in FPGAs, refine these signals via configurable and flexible algorithms into identified physics objects, for example electron, tau or jet candidates. The complete processing chain is performed in a pipelined system at the LHC bunch-crossing frequency, and with a fixed latency of about 1us. The first LHC run from 2009-2013 provided a varied and challenging environment for first level triggers. While the energy and luminosity were below the LHC design, the pile-up conditions were similar to the nominal conditions. The physics ambitions of the experiment also tested the performance of the Level-1 system while keeping within the rate limits set by detector readout. This presentation will ...

  4. Construction and initial beam tests of the ATLAS tungsten forward calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Armitage, J; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Embry, T; Gravelle, P; Hamm, J; Kamnitzer, J; Khan, N A; Khovanskii, V D; Kookbeck, D; Loch, P; Losty, Michael J; Mazini, R; Mayer, J K; O'Neill, M; Oakham, F G; Orr, R S; Paterson, D; Ryabinin, M S; Rutherfoord, John P; Savin, A; Seely, J; Shatalov, P; Shaver, L; Shupe, M A; Stairs, G G; Tompkins, D H; Trischuk, W; Vincent, K; Waller, D; Zayteev, Y

    1998-01-01

    Due to the severe radiation environment, the ATLAS experiment has chosen a compact tungsten/liquid argon forward hadronic calorimeter. The electrode design is unique and consists of hexagonally packed, tubular, thin gap electrodes $9 running parallel to the beam direction. We describe the design criteria, the novel construction methods based on sintered tungsten components, and initial high energy beam tests at CERN. (3 refs).

  5. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter in beam tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowler, B.; Pinfold, J.; Soukup, J.; Vincter, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Datskov, V.; Fedorov, A.; Javadov, N.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kakurin, S.; Kazarinov, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Ladygin, E.; Lazarev, A.; Neganov, A.; Pisarev, I.; Serochkin, E.; Shilov, S.; Shalyugin, A.; Usov, Yu.; Ban, J.; Bruncko, D.; Chytracek, R.; Jusko, A.; Kladiva, E.; Strizenec, P.; Gaertner, V.; Hiebel, S.; Hohlfeld, M.; Jakobs, K.; Koepke, L.; Marschalkowski, E.; Meder, D.; Othegraven, R.; Schaefer, U.; Thomas, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Zeitnitz, C.; Leroy, C.; Mazini, R.; Mehdiyev, R.; Akimov, A.; Blagov, M.; Komar, A.; Snesarev, A.; Speransky, M.; Sulin, V.; Yakimenko, M.; Aderholz, M.; Brettel, H.; Cwienk, W.; Dulny, B.; Fent, J.; Fischer, A.; Haberer, W.; Huber, J.; Huber, R.; Karev, A.; Kiryunin, A.; Kobler, T.; Kurchaninov, L.; Laskus, H.; Lindenmayer, M.; Mooshofer, P.; Oberlack, H.; Salihagic, D.; Schacht, P. E-mail: phys@mppmn.mpg.de; Stenzel, H.; Striegel, D.; Tribanek, W.; Chekulaev, S.; Denisov, S.; Levitsky, M.; Minaenko, A.; Mitrofanov, G.; Moiseev, A.; Pleskatch, A.; Sytnik, V.; Benoit, P.; Hoyle, K.W.; Honma, A.; Maharaj, R.; Oram, C.J.; Pattyn, E.W.; Rosvick, M.; Sbarra, C.; Wellisch, H-P.; Wielers, M.; Birney, P.S.; Dobbs, M.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fortin, D.; Hodges, T.A.; Keeler, R.K.; Langstaff, R.; Lefebvre, M.; Lenckowski, M.; McPherson, R.; O' Neil, D.C.; Forbush, D.; Mockett, P.; Toevs, F.; Braun, H.M.; Thadome, J

    2002-04-11

    Modules of the ATLAS liquid argon Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) were exposed to beams of electrons, muons and pions in the energy range 6{<=}E{<=}200 GeV at the CERN SPS. A description of the HEC and of the beam test setup are given. Results on the energy response and resolution are presented and compared with simulations. The ATLAS energy resolution for jets in the end-cap region is inferred and meets the ATLAS requirements.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic End-Cap Calorimeter in Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Dowler, B; Soukup, J; Vincter, M G; Cheplakov, A P; Datskov, V I; Fedorov, A; Javadov, N; Kalinnikov, V; Kakurin, S; Kazarinov, M; Kukhtin, V; Ladygin, E; Lazarev, A B; Neganov, A B; Pisarev, I; Serochkin, E; Shilov, S N; Shalyugin, A N; Usov, Yu; Bán, J; Bruncko, Dusan; Chytracek, R; Jusko, A; Kladiva, E; Strízenec, P; Gärtner, V; Hiebel, S; Hohlfeld, M; Jakobs, K; Köpke, L; Marschalkowski, E; Meder, D; Othegraven, R; Schäfer, U; Thomas, J; Walkowiak, W; Zeitnitz, C; Leroy, C; Mazini, R; Mehdiyev, R; Akimov, A; Blagov, M I; Komar, A; Snesarev, A A; Speransky, M N; Sulin, V; Yakimenko, M; Aderholz, M; Brettel, H; Cwienk, W D; Dulny, B; Fent, J; Fischer, A; Haberer, W; Huber, J; Huber, R; Karev, A; Kiryunin, A E; Kobler, T; Kurchaninov, L L; Laskus, H; Lindenmayer, M; Mooshofer, P; Oberlack, H; Salihagic, D; Schacht, P; Stenzel, H; Striegel, D; Tribanek, W; Chekulaev, S V; Denisov, S; Levitsky, M; Minaenko, A A; Mitrofanov, G Ya; Moiseev, A; Pleskatch, A; Sytnik, V V; Benoit, P; Hoyle, K; Honma, A; Maharaj, R; Oram, C J; Pattyn, E; Rosvick, M; Sbarra, C; Wellisch, H P; Wielers, M; Birney, P; Dobbs, M; Fincke-Keeler, M; Fortin, D; Hodges, T; Keeler, Richard K; Langstaf, R; Lefebvre, M; Lenckowski, M; McPherson, R A; O'Neil, D C; Forbush, D

    2002-01-01

    Modules of the ATLAS liquid argon Hadronic End-cap calorimeter (HEC) were exposed to beams of electrons, muons and pions in the energy range 6GeV

  7. Argon in action

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few days, the SPS has been accelerating argon ions, which have started to be sent to the NA61/SHINE experiment. This operating mode, using a new type of ion, required a number of modifications to the accelerator.   Picture 1: a “super-cycle” of the SPS, featuring a proton cycle for the LHC, followed by an argon ion cycle for the North Area. Today, the accelerators are once again juggling particles and even performing completely new tricks. The SPS is supplying beams of argon ions for the first time, at energies never before achieved for this type of beam. They are destined for the NA61/SHINE experiment (see box) located in the North Area, which began receiving the beams on 11 February. Argon ions have a relatively large mass, as they consist of 40 nucleons, so they can be used in a similar way to lead ions. The main difficulty in accelerating them lies in the SPS, where the variation in acceleration frequency is limited. “The SPS was designed for a...

  8. Performance of an endcap prototype of the ATLAS accordion electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Maire, M; Rival, F; Stipcevic, M; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Gordon, H A; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Stephani, D; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Teiger, J; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Dzahini, D; Hostachy, J Y; Laborie, G; Mahout, G; Merchez, E; Pouxe, J; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Scheel, C V; Chekhtman, A; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Martin, O; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Resconi, S; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Sala, P R; Azuelos, Georges; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Serman, M; Augé, E; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; Hrisoho, A T; Merkel, B; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S; White, J

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a lead-liquid argon endcap calorimeter prototype using an accordion geometry and conceived as a sector of the inner wheel of the endcap calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC is described. The performance obtained using electron beam data is presented. The main results are an energy resolution with a sampling term below $11\\%/\\sqrt{E(\\rm GeV)}$ and a small local constant term, a good linearity of the response with the incident energy and a global constant term of 0.8\\% over an extended area in the rapidity range of $2.2 < \\eta <2.9$. These properties make the design suitable for the ATLAS electromagnetic endcap calorimeter.

  9. Performance of an endcap prototype of the ATLAS accordion electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, D.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Greeniaus, G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kitching, P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Olsen, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Pinfold, J.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Rodning, N.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Boos, E.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Boniface, J.; Colas, J.; Jezequel, S.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Rival, F.; Stipcevic, M.; Thion, J.; Van Den Plas, D.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Fernandez, E.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Padilla, C.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Chevalley, J.L.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Poggioli, L.; Richter, W.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Schwindling, J.; Teiger, J.; Collot, J.; Saintignon, P. de; Dzahini, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Laborie, G.; Mahout, G.; Merchez, E.; Pouxe, J.; Hervas, L.; Labarga, L.; Scheel, C.V.; Chekhtman, A.; Dargent, P.; Dinkespiller, B.; Etienne, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fouchez, D.; Martin, L.; Martin, O.; Miotto, A.; Monnier, E.; Nagy, E.; Olivetto, C.; Tisserant, S.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Fedyakin, N.; Ferrari, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Sala, P.; Azuelos, G.; Beaudoin, G.; Depommier, P.; Leon-Florian, E.; Leroy, C.; Roy, P.; Seman, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Hrisoho, A.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Tisserand, V.; Vichou, I.; Canton, B.; David, J.; Genat, J.F.; Imbault, D.; Le Dortz, O.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwemling, P.; Eek, L.O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Soederqvist, J.; Lefebvre, M.; Robertson, S.; White, J.; RD3 Collaboration

    1997-04-21

    The design and construction of a lead-liquid-argon endcap calorimeter prototype using an accordion geometry and conceived as a sector of the inner wheel of the endcap calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC is described. The performance obtained using electron beam data is presented. The main results are energy resolution with a sampling term below 11%/{radical}(E(GeV)) and a small local constant term, good linearity of the response with the incident energy and a global constant term of 0.8% over an extended area in the rapidity range 2.2 < {eta} < 2.9. These properties make the design suitable for the ATLAS electromagnetic endcap calorimeter. (orig.).

  10. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  11. Study of Liquid Argon Dopants for LHC Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron calorimetry based on the Liquid Argon Ionisation Chamber technique is one of the choice techniques for LHC-experimentation. A systematic study of the effect of selected dopants on Liquid Argon (LAr) will be carried out with the aim to achieve an improvement on: \\item (i)~``Fast Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the drift velocity. It has been already shown that CH&sub4. added at a fraction of one percent increases the drift velocity by a factor of two or more. \\item (ii)~``Compensated Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the response to densely ionising particles, resulting in improved compensation, such as photosensitive dopants. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Monitoring of the parameters involved in understanding the response of a calorimeter is essential. In case of doped LAr, the charge yield, the non-saturated drift velocity and the electron lifetime in the liquid should be precisely and simultaneously monitored as they all vary with the level of dopant concentrati...

  12. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the entire proton-proton run of 2011, all HCAL calorimeters operated very efficiently. Over 99% of HCAL readout and trigger channels were alive. However, during the year we did face two hardware problems. One major operation problem was the occasional loss of data from a single RBX caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The rate of RBX data loss was on average one incident per 10 pb–1 of integrated luminosity. This led to approximately 1% of CMS data loss. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation was restored within about one minute. The final hardware correction of the problem will be possible only during a long shutdown (LS1) in 2013-’14. Another hardware problem that developed in 2011 was the failure of QPLL (quartz phase lock loops) chips. This led to the loss of phase of the readout clock with respect to the LHC clock. As a consequence, in two sections in HCAL (10 degree in φ on HB and 1...

  13. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    During the last 3 months commissioning of HCAL has continued for HO and HE+. We have also started the commissioning of the first wedge of HB+. Progress continues to be made by our Trigger/DAQ, DCS and DPG colleagues. HF will be used to obtain a Luminosity measurement for CMS. A first test of the modifications to the HF electronics was made in the August CMS global run. In addition to installation and commissioning of various parts of HCAL, we also completed a very successful summer Test Beam period which saw measurements of the combined HE/EE/ES calorimeter system in the H2 test beam. Installation and Commissioning a. HB commissioning This week, part of the final water-cooling system for HB was commissioned. Eighteen HB- wedges and two pilot wedges on HB+ have been connected to the water circuit on YB0. On Sept 6, 2007 cabling and commissioning was started for the first HB readout box (RBX) using temporary set of cables. We have connected RBX-17 to the Low Voltage PS and the HCAL Detector Control Sy...

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  15. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  16. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  17. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    All the HCAL calorimeters are ready for data-taking in 2011 and participated fully in the cosmic running and initial beam operations in the last few weeks. Several improvements were made during the winter technical stop, including replacement of the light-guide sleeves in HF, improvements to the low voltage power connections, and separation of HF from HB and HE in the DAQ partitions. During the 2010 running a form of anomalous noise in the HF was identified as being caused by scintillation when charged particles pass through a portion of the air light-guide sleeve. This portion was constructed from a non-conductive mirror-like material called “HEM”. To suppress these anomalous signals, during the recent winter technical stop all sleeves in the detector were replaced with sleeves made of Tyvek. The detector has been recommissioned with all channels fully operational. Recalibration of the detector will be required due to the differing reflectivity of the new sleeves compared with the HEM sl...

  18. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    by J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Operations and Maintenance All HCAL sub-detectors participated throughout the recent data taking with 7 TeV collisions. A timing scan of HF was performed to optimize the timing across the detectors and to set the overall time position of the ~10-ns wide signals within the 25-ns integration time slice. This position was chosen to ensure that the trigger primitives in physics events are generated synchronously at the desired bunch crossing, while also providing discrimination between the calorimeter signals and anomalous signals due to interactions within the photomultiplier tubes. This timing discrimination is now used in the standard filter algorithms for anomalous signals. For HB and HE, once the statistics needed to assess the timing of a sufficient number of channels was accumulated, it was verified that the time settings determined with cosmic, splash events and initial collision data were appropriate for the 7 TeV collision data taking. A further fine-tuning of the HB and HE time settings will be perfo...

  19. Opticle fibre calibration system and adaptive power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Cvach, J; Kovalcuk, M; Kvasnicka, J; Polak, I; Smolik, J

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the recent activity of our group in the calibration, monitoring and gain stabilization of photodetectors, primarily silicon photomultipliers, in calorimeters using scintillator as active medium. The task originally solved for the CALICE analog hadron calorimeter founds application in other experiments.

  20. Pulse simulations and heat flow measurements for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter under high-luminosity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758133; Zuber, Kai

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is an important step for further and more detailed studies of the Standard Model of particle physics as well as searches for new physics. The necessary upgrade of the ATLAS detector is a challenging task as the increased luminosity entails many problems for the different detector parts. The liquid-argon Forward Calorimeter suffers signal-degradation effects and a high voltage drop of the supply potential under high-luminosity conditions. It is possible that the argon starts to boil due to the large energy depositions. The effect of the high-luminosity environment on the liquid-argon Forward Calorimeter has been simulated in order to investigate the level of signal degradation. The results show a curvature of the triangular pulse shape that appears prolonged when increasing the energy deposit. This effect is caused by the drop in the electric potential that produces a decrease in the electric field across the liquid-argon gap in the Forward Calorim...

  1. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  2. A calorimeter for multilayer insulation (MLI) performance measurements at variable temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Hurd, J.; Klimas, R.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2013-05-01

    Here we describe a concentric cylindrical calorimeter with radiation guards developed to measure the thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) for low temperature applications. One unique feature of this calorimeter is its ability to independently control the boundary temperatures between room temperature and about 15 K using two single-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. Also, unlike the existing calorimeters that use the evaporation rate of a liquid cryogen to measure the heat load, in the present system the total heat transfer through the MLI is measured by recording the temperature difference across a calibrated heat load support rod that connects the cold inner cylinder to the lower temperature cryocooler. This design allows the continuous mapping of MLI performance over a much wider temperature range with independently controlled boundary conditions. The calorimeter is also suitable for performing a variety of radiation heat transfer experiments including the determination of the temperature dependence of the total emissivity.

  3. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Mans and P. De Barbaro

    2012-01-01

      During the year-end technical stop, HCAL has successfully undertaken a number of efforts in the detector and calibration areas. The full online software suite has been modernised to the next generation of Scientific Linux and 64-bit computing. In HF, a full set of 24 thin-window phototubes from the production set has been installed to allow further study of background rates as well as to evaluate the behaviour of the tubes under irradiation. The optical data fibres from two wedges of HB and an equivalent portion of HE and HF have been split, allowing the parallel operation of upgrade backend electronics without affecting the ongoing operations of the VME electronics. The HCAL DPG group has prepared the software and calibration for the restart at 8 TeV. The reconstruction and noise rejection have been tuned for higher pile-up conditions, while the final calibrations for HF will be used for a final re-reconstruction of the 2011 data as well as for the 2012 start-up. The DPG group is prepared for ...

  4. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  5. Silicon photomultipliers. Properties and applications in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2008-12-15

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel semiconductor-based photodetectors operated in Geiger mode. Their response is not linear, and both their gain and their photon detection efficiency depend on the applied bias voltage and on temperature. The CALICE collaboration investigates several technology options for highly granular calorimeters for the future ILC. The prototype of a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with analogue readout for hadrons constructed at DESY and successfully operated in testbeam experiments at DESY, CERN and FNAL by this collaboration is the first large scale application for 7608 SiPMs developed by MEPhI. This thesis deals with properties of the SiPMs used in the calorimeter prototype. The effective numer of pixels of the SiPMs, which influences their saturation behaviour, is extracted from in situ measurements and compared to results obtained for the bare SiPMs. In addition, the effects of temperature and voltage changes on the parameters necessary for the calibration of the SiPMs and the detector are determined. Methods which allow for correcting or compensating these effects are evaluated. An approach to improve the absolute calibration of the temperature sensors in the prototype is described and temperature profiles are studied. Finally, a procedure to adjust the light yield of the cells of the prototype is presented. The results of the application of this procedure during the commissioning of the detector at FNAL are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K., E-mail: asivan@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  7. LED Monitoring System of the Phenix Muon Piston Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschwiller, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC has a monitoring system consisting of LEDs and PIN diodes to calibrate out the time dependent changes to the detector. The LEDs track the temperature and radiation-damage changes to the response of the MPC, while the absolute calibration can be done using 0̂ decays. To execute this, LEDs flash light through the PbWO4 crystal to the Avalanche Photo Diodes The MPC is made up of 416 independent electromagnetic calorimeter towers. By using the LEDs we can correct for changes in the gains of each tower in the MPC, on a run by run basis. Because the LED value only gives a relative measurement of the gain over time, this method of calibration can only be used in conjunction with absolute calibrations provided by 0̂ decays or by minimum ionizing peaks . This work will be used to make a final measurement on Transverse energy at √sNN = 200 GV in Au+Au collisions.

  8. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Krishnan, R; Jogeswararao, G; Parthasarathy, R; Premalatha, S; Prabhakar Rao, J; Gunasekaran, G; Ananthasivan, K

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  9. Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is a high resolution, fine grained calorimeter devised to measure photons and electrons at the LHC. Built of lead tungstate crystals, it plays a crucial role in the search for new physics as well as in precision measurements of the Standard Model. A pre-shower detector composed of sandwiches of lead and silicon strips improves $\\pi^0/\\gamma$ separation in the forward region. The operation and performance of the ECAL with pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV will be reviewed. Pure samples of electrons and photons from decays of known resonances have been exploited to improve and verify the trigger efficiency, the reconstruction algorithms, the detector calibration and stability, and the particle identification efficiency. A review of these aspects will be given.

  10. CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter performance during the 2011 LHC run

    CERN Document Server

    Montanino, Damiana

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is a high resolution, fine-grained calorimeter devised to measure photons and electrons at the LHC. Built of lead tungstate crystals, it plays a crucial role in the search for new physics as well as in precision measurements of the Standard Model. A pre-shower detector composed of sandwiches of lead and silicon strips improves pi0/gamma separation in the forward region. The operation and performance of the ECAL during the 2011 run at the LHC, with pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV will be reviewed. Pure samples of electrons and photons from decays of known resonances have been exploited to improve and verify the trigger efficiency, the reconstruction algorithms, the detector calibration and stability, and the particle identification efficiency. A review of all these aspects will be given.

  11. Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Della Ricca, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is a high resolution, fine-grained calorimeter devised to measure photons and electrons at the LHC. Built of lead tungstate crystals, it plays a crucial role in the search for new physics as well as in precision measurements of the Standard Model. A pre-shower detector composed of sandwiches of lead and silicon strips improves $\\pi^0/\\gamma$ separation in the forward region. The operation and performance of the ECAL during the 2010 run at the LHC, with pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV will be reviewed, and to some extent for the 2011 running as well. Pure samples of electrons and photons from decays of known resonances have been exploited to improve and verify the trigger efficiency, the reconstruction algorithms, the detector calibration and stability, and the particle identification efficiency. A review of these aspects will be given.

  12. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter, that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Tabarelli

    2012-01-01

      ECAL has been stably running with an up-time efficiency of 99.4% during Run 2012D, with about half of the inefficiency due to a single downtime episode. More than 99% of the collected data are certified good by ECAL for offline analysis. The monitoring system and calibration chain have also been working smoothly, with an excellent stability of the new laser source, after final tuning during the technical stop in September. Some drifts in the response upon monitoring corrections and some degradation in the resolution throughout Run 2012C and 2012D have been observed and will be corrected in the next reprocessing. Calibration constants for the full 2012 dataset –– derived with well-established procedures –– are going to be delivered by the end of the pp run. In parallel to this, studies of the performance evolution have been carried out to predict the longevity of ECAL towards HL-LHC. Radiation damage effects are studied from P5 data, particularly in the end...

  14. ELECTRONICS FOR CALORIMETERS AT LHC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RADEKA,V.

    2001-09-11

    Some principal design features of front-end electronics for calorimeters in experiments at the LHC will be highlighted. Some concerns arising in the transition from the research and development and design phase to the construction will be discussed. Future challenges will be indicated.

  15. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  16. Heat loss through connecting thermistor wires in a three-body graphite calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, D.; Guerra, A. S.; Ionita, C.; Astefanoaei, I.

    2010-06-01

    The main aim of this paper is to calculate the small but significant amount of heat lost from a graphite calorimeter absorber through connecting thermistor wires during electrical calibration. Taking into account the electro-thermal interaction between the heating thermistor and its surrounding environment, a more realistic approach to the problem was developed and estimative numerical results were obtained. It was found that the wires contribute about 0.01% in extracting heat from the calorimeter core (which corresponds to a correction factor kwcore = 0.9999). The total correction factor for heat loss through the connecting thermistor wires during the electrical calibration of the calorimeter (the total combined effect of the heater and the sensor leads due to conduction, radiation and Joule effect) was determined: kw = 0.9989.

  17. The performance of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger with LHC collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-E$_T$ jets, electron/photon and $ au$ candidates and to measure total and missing E$_T$ in the ATLAS calorimeters. After more than two years of commissioning in situ with calibration data and cosmic rays, the system has now been used extensively to select the most interesting proton-proton collision events. Fine tuning of timing and energy calibration has been carried out in 2010 to improve the trigger response to physics objects. In these proceedings, an analysis of the performance of the level-1 calorimeter trigger is presented, along with the techniques used to achieve these results.

  18. A reduced scale EM Calorimeter prototype for the AMS-02 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, F; Coignet, G; Di Falco, S; Falchini, E; Lorntadze, T; Liu, Z; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Turini, N; Valle, G D; Vannini, C; Venanzoni, G; Yu, Z

    2002-01-01

    A reduced scale prototype of the Pb-SciFi sampling EM calorimeter for the AMS-02 experiment was tested at CERN SPS beam line X5 at energies from 5 to 250 GeV. The detector was equalized with minimum ionizing particles and calibrated with electron beams. The effective sampling thickness, linearity and energy resolution were measured. (7 refs).

  19. Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-3 Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications \\\\ \\\\Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. Among the techniques used so far, or under development, the liquid argon sampling calorimetry offers high radiation resistence, good energy resolution (electromagnetic and hadronic), excellent calibration stability and response uniformity. Its rate capabilities, however, do not yet match the requirements for LHC. \\\\ \\\\The aim of this proposal is to improve the technique in such a way that high granularity, good hermiticity and adequate rate capabilities are obtained, without compromising the above mentioned properties. To reach this goal, we propose to use a novel structure, the $^{\\prime\\prime}$accordion$^{\\prime\\prime}$, coupled to fast preamplifiers working at liquid argon temperature. Converter and readout electrodes are no longer planar and perpendicular to particles, as usual, but instead they are wiggled around a plane containing particles. ...

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Tabarelli and D. Barney

    2011-01-01

    ECAL operations have been rather smooth during the past months, with few hardware problems, stable trigger rates etc. The downtimes attributed to ECAL have, however, increased recently, due to some crashes of the DAQ on the ECAL side. The frequency of problems has increased with luminosity and seems to occur more in the EE than in the EB. There are some indications suggesting these problems may be due to Single Event Upsets – radiation-induced modifications to the front-end electronics. Although this is not yet confirmed, measures are already being taken to reduce the time taken to recover from such problems in order to minimise downtime. No such problems have (yet) been seen in the ES. There has been enormous progress in improving the quality of the corrections required to take into account transparency variations of the ECAL crystals with radiation, through a detailed calibration of the response of the laser diagnostic line. The special LHC runs taken recently – 25-ns operation and h...

  1. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Andris Skuja

    HCAL finished commissioning the central and forward detectors during the summer of 2008. HCAL was able to participate in all global runs. In particular, we were anxious to determine the performance of all of the HCAL HPDs at 3.8T. At this point in time this study still has not been completed because of various difficulties CMS has encountered to reach 3.8T. HF Commissioning The HF produces the raw data for the CMS Luminosity determination. It is also an important part of the min-bias trigger and forward jet triggers and physics. In June 2008 the HFs were out of their garages and being worked upon for Castor/Collar platform installation. The HFs were back in the garage position in July and were subject to a series of checks (mainly LED and laser) before starting the CRUZET3 global runs. As part of this sequence, calibration constants were checked via single photo-electrons, the HV choice was finalized and the relative timing was fixed. During CRUZET3 tests of LUMI were performed, and muon signals were measure...

  2. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. De Barbaro and J. Mans

    2012-01-01

      During last three months of LHC operation in 2012 (October–December) the HCAL performed well. Out of a total of 6.5 fb–1 recorded by CMS, 170 pb–1 had to be declared ‘bad’ during the certification process due to HCAL-related problems. Monitoring of HCAL readout using LED detected a continuous loss in the gain of photomultipliers in the HF. The gain loss is found to be related to the current drawn by the PMTs. The LED data are used to correct the calibration of the channels and L1 look-up tables are routinely updated when the maximum deviation in any of the channels reaches the level of 2%. Laser data are used to monitor radiation damage in the HF quartz fibers and HE scintillators. The 2012 data (20 fb–1 delivered) showed radiation-related loss of transparency in the quartz fibers, leading to 8% signal loss at high η (η =5) in HF. In the front sampling layers of HE towers, the scintillators also show radiation damage. ...

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Petyt

    2013-01-01

    In a break with tradition, the ECAL general meetings during the April CMS Week were devoted to a series of brainstorming sessions, focusing on a small number of hot-topic items. These included sessions on ECAL upgrades, analysis of 2012 detector performance and resolution, software development plans and a review of the ECAL calibration sequence. These sessions were well attended and extremely productive, and have helped to define and guide the direction of the ECAL effort planned for LS1. The area of ECAL upgrades has been particularly active over the past several months. A note summarising the test-beam performance of crystal matrices, irradiated with proton fluences representative of the end of Phase 1 LHC running, has been prepared and is being reviewed by ECAL. This important note provides data to tune and validate the simulation of ECAL ageing that has been implemented in CMSSW. This simulation is being used by the ECAL group and others to evaluate the physics performance of the ECAL at the end of Pha...

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Barney

    2013-01-01

    The CMS ECAL, comprising barrel (EB), endcaps (EE) and preshower (ES) detectors, operated reliably throughout the 2012 (proton-proton) and early 2013 (proton-lead) running periods. The data quality was excellent, with more than 98% of the delivered luminosity declared good for physics in 2012, and close to 100% in 2013. The number of active channels – ~99% in the EB/EE and ~97% in the ES – was stable during 2012-’13. The ECAL performance, as measured by the electron energy scale and resolution and Z→ee mass resolution in both barrel and endcaps, is excellent and very stable in time (see Figure 1 for an example, and CMS-DP-2013-007: https://cds.cern.ch/record/1528235) following a dedicated calibration using the full 2012 CMS dataset. Figure 1 (a) and (b): The mass resolution of the Z peak, reconstructed from its di-electron decay mode, as a function of time for the barrel (a) and endcaps (b). The sample is inclusive (no cut on the amount of bremsstrahlung undergone...

  5. Electromagnetic calorimeter trigger at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, B G; Lee, S H; Won, E; Park, I C; Hur, T W; Park, C S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Chu, T H; Usov, Y V; Aulchenko, V M; Kuzmin, A S; Bondar, A E; Shwartz, B A; Eidelman, S; Krokovnyi, P P; Hayashii, H; Sagawa, H; Fukushima, M

    2002-01-01

    The performance of CsI(Tl) electromagnetic calorimeter trigger system in the Belle experiment is described. Two kinds of trigger schemes have been taken into account, namely a total energy trigger and a cluster counting trigger which are complementary to each other. In addition, the system has provided the online/offline luminosity information using the Bhabha event trigger scheme. An upgrade of the trigger is discussed.

  6. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  7. Depleted argon from underground sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  8. Light nuclear charge measurement with Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basara, Laurent [Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, Povo 38123 (Italy); Choutko, Vitaly [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Li, Qiang, E-mail: q.li@cern.ch [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2016-06-11

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high energy particle detector installed and operating on board of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011. So far more than 70 billion cosmic ray events have been recorded by AMS. In the present paper the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) detector of AMS is used to measure cosmic ray nuclear charge magnitudes up to Z=10. The obtained charge magnitude resolution is about 0.1 and 0.3 charge unit for Helium and Carbon, respectively. These measurements are important for an accurate determination of the interaction probabilities of various nuclei with the AMS materials. The ECAL charge calibration and measurement procedures are presented.

  9. Commissioning of Upgrade Forward Hadron Calorimeters of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadron calorimeter (HF). During Long Shutdown 1, all of the original PMTs were replaced with multi-anode, thin window photomultipliers. At the same time, the back-end readout system was upgraded to micro-TCA readout. Here we report on the experience with commissioning and calibrating the HF front-end as well as the online operational challenges of the micro-TCA system.

  10. Applying fast calorimetry on a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management (Sweden); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, sophisticated prediction algorithms have been considered for the use of calorimetry for treaty verification. These algorithms aim to predict the equilibrium temperature based on early data and therefore be able to shorten the measurement time while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithms have been implemented in MATLAB and applied on existing equilibrium measurements from a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter located at the Swedish nuclear fuel interim storage facility. The results show significant improvements in measurement time in the order of 15 to 50 compared to equilibrium measurements, but cannot predict the heat accurately in less time than the currently used temperature increase method can. This Is both due to uncertainties in the calibration of the method as well as identified design features of the calorimeter that limits the usefulness of equilibrium type measurements. The conclusions of these findings are discussed, and suggestions of both improvements of the current calorimeter as well as what to keep in mind in a new design are given.

  11. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose detectors designed to study proton-proton collisions (14 TeV in the center of mass) produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and to explore the full physics potential of the LHC machine at CERN. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS (and its LAr Calorimeters) has been operating and collecting p-p collisions at LHC since 2009. The on-detector electronics (front-end) part of the current readout electronics of the calorimeters measures the ionization current signals by means of preamplifiers, shapers and digitizers and then transfers the data to the off-detector electronics (back-end) for further elaboration, via optical links. Only the data selected by the level-1 calorimeter trigger system are transferred, achieving a bandwidth reduction to 1.6 Gbps. The analog trigger sum sig...

  12. Energy Measurement with the ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter at the Per Mill Accuracy Level

    CERN Document Server

    Teischinger, Florian; Fabjan, Christian

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is made up of various sub-detectors to measure the properties of all the particles produced at the proton-proton collision. Over the last three years of running around 20 x 10^14 collisions of proton data have been recorded. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry and for hadronic calorimetry in the end-caps. The Inner Detector, on the other hand, measures the transverse momentum of charged particles down to a momentum of 0.5 GeV. This thesis deals with the absolute measurement of the energy in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the improvement of the systematic uncertainties. A method using the ratio of the energy E in the calorimeter and the momentum measurement p in the Inner Detector (E/p) was used to extract the energy scale of the electromagnetic LAr calorimeter for electrons and positrons. To investigate and further reduce the syst...

  13. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS and its LAr calorimeters have been operating and collecting proton-proton collisions at LHC since 2009. The current front-end electronics of the LAr calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded high luminosity LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. The complexity of the present electronics and the obsolescence of some of components of which it is made, will not allow a partial replacement of the system. A completely new readout architecture scheme is under study and many components are being developed in various R&D programs of the LAr Calorimeter Group. The new front-end readout electronics will send data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed...

  14. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  15. Family reunion for the UA2 calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    After many years in CERN’s Microcosm exhibition, the last surviving UA2 central calorimeter module has been moved to Hall 175, the technical development laboratory of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter (Tilecal). The UA2 and ATLAS calorimeters are cousins, as both were designed by Otto Gildemeister. Now side by side, the calorimeters illustrate the progress made in sampling organic scintillator calorimeters over the past 35 years.   The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter prototypes (left) and the UA2 central calorimeter (right) in Hall 175. (Image: Mario Campanelli/ATLAS.) From 1981 to 1990, the UA2 experiment was one of the two detectors on CERN’s flagship accelerator, the SPS. At the heart of the UA2 detector was the central calorimeter. It was made up of 24 slices – each weighing four tonnes – arranged like orange segments around the collision point. These calorimeter slices played a central role in the research carried out by UA2 for the discovery of W bosons...

  16. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  17. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Dvorak, E; Hahn, A; Jaskierny, W; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kendziora, C; Lockwitz, S; Pahlka, B; Plunkett, R; Pordes, S; Rebel, B; Schmitt, R; Stancari, M; Tope, T; Voirin, E; Yang, T

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  18. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  19. Proton Scattering on Liquid Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Ryan; LArIAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    LArIAT (Liquid Argon In A Test-beam) is a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) positioned in a charged particle beamline whose primary purpose is to study the response of LArTPC's to charged particle interactions. This previously unmeasured experimental data will allow for improvement of Monte Carlo simulations and development of identification techniques, important for future planned LArTPC neutrino experiments. LArIAT's beamline is instrumented to allow for the identification of specific particles as well as measurement of those particles' incoming momenta. Among the particles present in the beamline, the analysis presented here focuses on proton-Argon interactions. This study uses particle trajectories and calorimetric information to identify proton-Argon interaction candidates. We present preliminary data results on the measurement of the proton-Argon cross-section. Liquid Argon In A Test Beam. The work is my analysis made possible through the efforts of LArIAT detector, data, and software.

  20. Results for electrons from the 1995 ATLAS forward calorimeter prototype testbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, J.C. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Artamonov, A.; Epchtein, V.; Jemanov, V.; Khovansky, V.; Ryabinin, M.; Shatalov, P. [ITEP Moscow, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Austin, L.; Johns, K.; Loch, P.; Norton, R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Savin, A.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Steinberg, J.; Tompkins, D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mayer, J.K.; Orr, R.S.; Stairs, G. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    1998-02-01

    The performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon/brass forward calorimeter with its new readout geometry consisting of tube/rod electrodes with cylindrical shell gaps, has been evaluated with a full depth prototype in a testbeam experiment with electrons in 1995. The results for signal linearity of better than 1% and a constant term in the relative energy resolution of 3% meet and even exceed the original performance requirements very well. Space resolution in the order of 0.5 mm in the high energg limit, and an insignificant signal dependency on the electron impact angle have been found in addition. (orig.). 8 refs.

  1. The use of thermistors in the NPL electron-beam calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, M. R.; Burns, D. T.; Williams, A. J.

    1993-03-01

    The system developed for calibrating thermistors, which have been employed in the primary standard electron beam graphite calorimeter for several years, and the results of investigations into self-heating and dose response are described. The overall uncertainty in measuring temperature rises is estimated to be +/- 0.1 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. The self-heating of the thermistor type used in the calorimeter was determined to be constant over the temperature range 14 to 29 C. The same thermistor type showed no change in response within the uncertainties to an accumulated dose up to 3000 kGy. A second type of thermistor (to be used in a new calorimeter) showed no change in sensitivity although there was a change in absolute resistance of approximately 0.1 percent per MGy.

  2. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter at LHC in Run 1 and planned upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider, a key detector for the measurements of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. The data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking and the evolution of the detector status are explained in the presentation. The energy and the time reconstruction performance of the digitized signals is presented and the noise behaviour and its improvement during the detector consolidation in maintenance periods are shown. A set of calibration systems allow monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter channels responses via signal sources that act at every stage of the signal path, from scintillation light to digitized signal...

  4. An electromagnetic shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Alberto C; Camporesi, T; Checchia, P; Fenyuk, A; Hedberg, V; Lishin, V A; Margoni, M; Mazzucato, M; Obraztsov, V F; Paganoni, M; Polyakov, V A; Simonetto, F; Terranova, F; Vlasov, E

    1999-01-01

    A novel technique for longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters has been tested in the CERN West Area beam facility. A 25 tower e.m. calorimeter has been built with vacuum photodiodes inserted in the first 8 radiation lengths to sample the initial development of the shower. Results concerning energy resolution, impact point reconstruction and $e/\\pi$ separation are reported.

  5. LHCb: Physics with the LHCb calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Barsuk, S

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb calorimeter comprises the scintillator pad detector (SPD), preshower (PS), electromagnetic Shashlyk type (ECAL) and hadronichadronic Tile (HCAL) calorimeters, arranged in pseudo-projective geometry. All the four detectors follow the general principle of reading the light from scintillator tiles with wave length shifting fibers, and transporting the light towards photomultipliers (25 ns R/O).

  6. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  7. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  8. An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katta, S

    2002-01-01

    The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

  9. Calibration and monitoring for crystal calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ren Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Crystal calorimetry provides excellent energy resolution in high energy and nuclear physics. The light output of heavy crystal scintillators, however, suffers from not negligible damage in radiation environment. A precision calibration and monitoring thus is crucial for maintaining crystal precision in situ. The performance of calibration and monitoring approaches used by BaBar, CLEO and L3 experiments are presented. The design and construction of a laser- based light monitoring system for CMS PWO calorimeter is also discussed.

  10. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C. [SETARAM Instrumentation, Caluire (France); Bachelet, F. [CEA Valduc, Is sur Tille (France)

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  11. Electron and photon energy reconstruction in the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075753; Mandelli, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    The Atlas LAr electromagnetic calorimeter is designed to provide a precise measurement of electrons and photons energies, in order to meet the requirements coming from the LHC physics program. This request of precision makes important to understand the behavior of the detector in all its aspect. Of fundamental importance to achieve the best possible performances is the calibration of the EM calorimeter, and this is the topic of this thesis. With detailed Monte Carlo simulations of single electrons and photons in the Atlas detector, we find a method to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter, based only on the informations that come from it. All the informations needed to develop a calibration method come from the simulations made with the technique of the Calibration Hits, that allows to know the en- ergy deposited in all the materials inside the detector volume, and not only in the active layer of each subdetector as possible in the standard simulations. This technique required a big effort for the develop...

  12. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), General Pictures.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ZDC Calorimeter for spectator neutrons is made by 44 slabs of W-alloy; each slab has 44 grooves where quartz fibres are placed. The charged particles of the hadronic shower generated by the neutrons make Cerenkov light in the fibres and the light is collected by photomultipliers. Photos from 1 to 9 show the front-face of the calorimeter. Photo n. 10 shows the rear of the calorimeter where the fibres are divided in several groups to go to the different PMs.

  13. Hollow micro string based calorimeter device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a micron-scale calorimeter and a calorimetry method utilizing the micron-scale calorimeter. In accordance with the invention, there is provided a micron-scale calorimeter comprising a micro-channel string, being restrained at at least two longitudinally distanced...... positions so as to form a free released double clamped string in-between said two longitudinally distanced positions said micro-channel string comprising a microfluidic channel having a closed cross section and extending in the longitudinal direction of the hollow string, acoustical means adapted...

  14. ATLAS Calorimeter Response to Single Isolated Hadrons and Estimation of the Calorimeter Jet Scale Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS calorimeter response to single isolated hadrons is measured using an integrated luminosity of approximately 866~$mu b^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV collected during 2010 by the ATLAS experiment. The calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty is also addressed, propagating the response uncertainty of single charged and neutral particles to jets. The calorimeter uncertainty is 2--5\\% on central isolated hadrons and 1--3\\% on the final calorimeter jet energy scale.

  15. Calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Reyes, Raquel de los; Doro, Michele; Foerster, Andreas; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Parsons, Dan; van Eldik, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is expected to start soon. We will present the baseline methods and their extensions currently foreseen to calibrate the observatory. These are bound to achieve the strong requirements on allowed systematic uncertainties for the reconstructed gamma-ray energy and flux scales, as well as on the pointing resolution, and on the overall duty cycle of the observatory. Onsite calibration activities are designed to include a robust and efficient calibration of the telescope cameras, and various methods and instruments to achieve calibration of the overall optical throughput of each telescope, leading to both inter-telescope calibration and an absolute calibration of the entire observatory. One important aspect of the onsite calibration is a correct understanding of the atmosphere above the telescopes, which constitutes the calorimeter of this detection technique. It is planned to be constantly monitored with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and...

  16. Recent Advances of the Engineering Prototype of the CALICE Analog Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hartbrich, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is developing an engineering prototype of an analog hadron calorimeter for a future linear collider detector. The prototype has to prove the feasibility of building a realistic detector with fully integrated front-end electronics. The performance goals are driven by the requirement of high jet energy resolution and the measurement of the details of the shower development. The signals are sampled by small scintillating plastic tiles that are read out by silicon photomultipliers. The ASICs are integrated into the calorimeter layers and are optimized for minimal power consumption. For the photodetector calibration an LED system is integrated into each of the detector channels. In this report the status and performance of the realized module are presented. In particular, results from timing measurements are discussed, as well as tests of the calibration system. The new module has also been used in the DESY test beam environment and first results from the electron beam tests are reported.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter at LHC in Run I and planned upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider, a key detector for the measurements of hadrons, jets tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. After an initial setting of the absolute energy scale in test beams with particles of well-defined momentum, the calibrated scale was transferred to the rest of the detector via the response to radioactive sources. The calibrated scale was validated in situ with muons and single hadrons and the timing performance with muons and jets as detailed in this contribution. The data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking and the evolution of the detector status are exposed. The energy and the time reconstruction performance...

  18. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATL...

  19. Radiation damage of LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barsuk, S; Kirichenko, V; Korolko, I; Malyshev, S; Rusinov, V Yu; Tarkovski, E

    2000-01-01

    Addressed is an extensive irradiation test program carried on to establish proper design and materials to build electromagnetic calorimeter that matches radiation conditions of the LHCb experiment at CERN. The results obtained are compared with measurements by other groups.

  20. X-ray detection using magnetic calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenefeld, J. E-mail: e62@urz.uni-heidelberg.de; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Sollner, J.; Horst, K.; Adams, J.S.; Kim, Y.H.; Seidel, G.M.; Bandler, S.R

    2000-04-07

    Using a magnetic calorimeter, we have obtained an energy resolution of 13 eV in the detection of 6 keV X-rays. The calorimeter consisted of a 50 {mu}m diameter, 25 {mu}m thick Au sensor doped with 300 ppm Er. A 100x100 {mu}m square, 8 {mu}m thick Au absorber was attached to the sensor. At the operating temperature of 33 mK and with a field of 3 mT, the calorimeter had a heat capacity of 1.3x10{sup -12} J/K. With a magnetic calorimeter optimized for X-ray detection an order of magnitude improvement in resolution should be possible.

  1. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Z.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full Geant4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software and can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATLAS simulation infrastructure.

  2. Upgraded Trigger Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters for Future LHC Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first- level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 10^34cm^−2s^−1. In order to retain the capability to trigger on low energy electrons and photons when the LHC is upgraded to higher luminosity, an improved LAr calorimeter trigger readout is proposed and being constructed. The new trigger readout system makes available the fine segmentation of the calorimeter at the L1 trigger with high precision in order to reduce the QCD jet background in electron, photon and tau triggers, and to improve jet and missing ET trigger performance. The new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board is designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a...

  3. Low-energetic hadron interactions in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2011-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters for precision measurements at a future electron-positron linear collider. These calorimeters feature a fine granularity in both longitudinal and transverse direction, which is needed to fulfill the shower separation requirement of Particle Flow reconstruction algorithms. CALICE has constructed prototypes for several design options for electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test-beam programs at DESY, CERN, and Fermilab since 2005. The focus of this dissertation is on the prototype for a hadron calorimeter with analog readout (AHCAL), which is a 1m{sup 3} scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with 38 sensitive layers and a depth of 5.3 nuclear interaction lengths. Each scintillator layer is pieced together from separate tiles with embedded silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for measuring the scintillation light. With a total of 7608 readout channels, the AHCAL prototype represents the first large-scale application of SiPMs. This thesis covers the commissioning and operation of the AHCAL and other detectors for several months at the Fermilab Test-beam Facility in 2008 and 2009 and the analysis of electron and pion data collected during these measurements. The analysis covers energies from 1 GeV to 30 GeV and is the first analysis of AHCAL data at energies below 8 GeV. Because the purity of the recorded data is not sufficient for analysis, event selection procedures for electrons and pions at these energies and a method to estimate the purities of these data samples are developed. The calibration of detectors employing SiPMs requires parameters that change with operating voltage and temperature. The correction of these parameters for the effects of temperature variations during data collection and their portability to different operating conditions are evaluated using the AHCAL as an example. This is important for the use of this technology in a

  4. The CMS forward calorimeter with quartz fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Part of the forward hadron calorimeter for the CMS experiment at the LHC is seen here. The calorimeter will be placed at the ends of the experiment barrel to measure the energy of particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions. In consists of an iron absorber and specially designed radiation-hard quartz so that it survives the high radiation levels produced by collisions.

  5. The Panofsky Ratio, And The Response Of The Pibeta Calorimeter To Photons And Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, P L

    1999-01-01

    A precise measurement of the pion beta decay rate will allow accurate testing of the unitarity of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix, and of the Conserved Vector Current Hypothesis. The PIBETA collaboration intends to measure this decay rate with an accuracy of better than 0.5, using a calorimeter comprised of 240 pure CsI crystals. Extensive calibrations of the CsI crystals have been done using cosmic muons.

  6. Performance of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter with Cosmic Ray Muons and LHC Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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    2010-01-01

    The CMS Hadron Calorimeter in the barrel, endcap and forward regions is fully commissioned. Cosmic ray data were taken with and without magnetic field at the surface hall and after installation in the experimental hall, hundred meters underground. Various measurements were also performed during the few days of beam in the LHC in September 2008. Calibration parameters were extracted, and the energy response of the HCAL determined from test beam data has been checked.

  7. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Shaw, H; Nefzger, C; Zoglauer, A; Schönfelder, V; Kanbach, G

    2000-01-01

    New gamma-ray cal