WorldWideScience

Sample records for argentinean water cooled

  1. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  2. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  3. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  4. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  5. The chlorination of cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the means of fighting biological pollution of cooling water circuits in nuclear power stations, the authors describe the chlorination treatment methods used by EDF. This deals with the massive shock chlorination of the cooling towers and the continuous low-level chlorination of coastal nuclear power stations. In both areas, the Research and Development Board of EDF has carried out and encouraged research with the aim of improving circuit protection, while still protecting the aquatic eco-system against damage that might be caused by waste chlorinated water

  6. Serological evidence of Hobi-like virus circulation in Argentinean water buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the serological levels of BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like Virus in non-vaccinated water buffaloes from three northeast provinces of Argentina, in order to have an update of the circulation of pestiviruses in that region. Materials and methods: Mediter...

  7. Desalting a process cooling water using nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radier, R.G.J.; Oers, van C.W.; Steenbergen, A.; Wessling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The cooling water system of a chemical plant of Akzo Nobel is a partly open system. The site is located at the North Sea. The air in contact with the cooling water contains seawater droplets dissolving and increasing the chloride concentration. The cooling water contains chromate to protect the inst

  8. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  9. Biofouling Control in Cooling Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of environmental engineering is the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuel-fired power stations, for instance, represent a substantial contribution to this problem. Unless suitable steps are taken the accumulation of microbial deposits (biofouling on the cooling water side of the steam condensers can reduce their efficiency and in consequence, the overall efficiency of power production, with an attendant increase in fuel consumption and hence CO2 production. Biofouling control, therefore, is extremely important and can be exercised by chemical or physical techniques or a combination of both. The paper gives some examples of the effectiveness of different approaches to biofouling control.

  10. Demineralised water cooling in the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Peón-Hernández, G

    2002-01-01

    In spite of the LHC accelerator being a cryogenic machine, it remains nevertheless a not negligible heat load to be removed by conventional water-cooling. About 24MW will be taken away by demineralised water cooled directly by primary water from the LHC cooling towers placed at the even points. This paper describes the demineralised water network in the LHC tunnel including pipe diameters, lengths, water speed, estimated friction factor, head losses and available supply and return pressures for each point. It lists all water cooled equipment, highlights the water cooled cables as the most demanding equipment followed by the radio frequency racks and cavities, and by the power converters. Their main cooling requirements and their positions in the tunnel are also presented.

  11. Dry cooling tower with water augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.G.; Tramontini, V.N.

    1981-06-23

    An air cooling tower system is disclosed for condensing exhaust steam in power plants, that has water cooling augmentation to maintain the plant cooling capacity during high atmospheric temperature periods. The cooling tower includes a plurality of banks of brazed aluminum plate and fin type heat exchangers arranged in inverted ''v'' shaped sets. These heat exchangers cool ammonia used as the cooling fluid in the primary condenser for the power plant turbine exhaust steam. Each of these heat exchangers has a core consisting of a plurality of parallel aluminum plates spaced apart by fin assemblies that define a plurality of fluid passes. Approximately every other one of these passes has closed sides that open at the ends of the core to headers and define ammonia passes. The passes adjacent the ammonia passes are open at the sides and define air passes that permit the free flow of air transversely through the heat exchanger cores. An additional pass is provided adjacent every fourth one of the ammonia passes and these have closed sides and ends and define the passes for the cooling water. The water passes communicate at the bottom of the core with a water inlet manifold and at the top of the core with a water outlet manifold. The cooling tower system is designed so that at 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperatures or below, the cooling air alone will provide the necessary cooling for the ammonia to satisfy plant requirements. Above 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperature, cooling water from a separate water tank is pumped through the water passes to provide an additional cooling effect to maintain the design cooling capacity.

  12. Efficient Water Management in Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    number of the countries that have recently begun to consider the introduction of nuclear power are in water scarce regions, which would certainly limit the possibility for deployment of nuclear power plants, in turn hindering these countries' development and energy security. Thus, there is a large incentive to enhance efforts to introduce innovative water use, water management practices and related technologies. Water management for nuclear power plants is gaining interest in IAEA Member States as an issue of vital importance for the deployment of nuclear power. Recent experience has shown that some nuclear power plants are susceptible to prolonged drought conditions, forcing reactors to be shut down or power to be reduced to a minimal level. In some cases, environmental issues have resulted in regulations that limit the possibility for water withdrawal as well as water discharge. Regarding the most common design for cooling nuclear power plants, this has led to a complicated siting procedure for new plants and expensive retrofits for existing ones. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that address the issue. At the height of nuclear power expansion in the 1970s, the need for guidance in the area resulted in publications such as Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations - Their Management and Environmental Impact (Technical Reports Series No. 155) and Environmental Effects of Cooling Systems (Technical Reports Series No. 202). Today, amid the so-called nuclear renaissance, it is of vital importance to offer guidance to the Member States on the issues and possibilities that nuclear power water management brings. Management of water at nuclear power plants is an important subject during all phases of the construction, operation and maintenance of any nuclear power plant. Water management addresses the issue of securing water for condenser cooling during operation, for construction (during the flushing phase), and for inventory

  13. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  14. Cooling water treatment with ozone. [WEST GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellauer, R.; Oldani, M. (Asea Brown Boveri, Baden (Switzerland))

    Small scale tests on an open recirculating cooling system with a cooling water flow of 10 m{sup 3}/h conducted for a period of two years have shown that ozone could be a viable alternative to chlorine and other commonly used biocides. An average ozone dosage of 0.05 mg/L was applied continuously to the cooling water. Corrosion rates of copper alloy samples immersed in ozonized water were lower than the rates of samples in nonozonized water. No corrosion was detected for the Cr-Ni steel alloys DIN 1.4306 and DIN 1.4404 as well as for titanium either in the presence or absence of ozone in water. This is ascribed to the formation of a thin protective layer in both cases. A pilot plant has been set up at the EVS Heilbronn coal-fired power station in West Germany in order to confirm the results obtained on small scale. The open recirculating cooling system has a cooling water flow of 1,000 m{sup 3}/h and is fed by conditional Neckar river water. An air-fed ozone generator is used to ozonize a 10% side stream of the cooling water. A bubble diffuser contactor is used to introduce ozone into the water and an air heater is operated to decompose excess ozone leaving the contactor. The plant can be run to yield either a constant ozone residual concentration in the water or a constant ozone dosage to the water leaving the contactor. All relevant data are registered continuously and the plant presently is operated automatically with a constant ozone dosage in the side stream. Corrosion experiments are performed using laboratory heat exchangers, and all physical, chemical, and microbiological data of the cooling water are acquired.

  15. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  16. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2013-01-01

    The water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2013,its progress can be summarized as follows:1)The deionized water production equipment and the main circulating water cooling unit are installed and tested.2)The circulating water cooling unit for high power target and circulating water cooling unit for vacuum helium compressor are installed and tested.

  17. Materials for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors recommended to organize a Technical Committee Meeting for the purpose of providing an international forum for technical specialists to review and discuss aspects regarding development trends in material application for advanced water cooled reactors. The experience gained from the operation of current water cooled reactors, and results from related research and development programmes, should be the basis for future improvements of material properties and applications. This meeting enabled specialists to exchange knowledge about structural materials application in the nuclear island for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  19. Thermohydraulic relationships for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in the context of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermohydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors, which was started in 1995 with the overall goal of promoting information exchange and co-operation in establishing a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships which are appropriate for use in analyzing the performance and safety of advanced water cooled reactors. For advanced water cooled reactors, some key thermohydraulic phenomena are critical heat flux (CHF) and post CHF heat transfer, pressure drop under low flow and low pressure conditions, flow and heat transport by natural circulation, condensation of steam in the presence of non-condensables, thermal stratification and mixing in large pools, gravity driven reflooding, and potential flow instabilities. The objectives of the CRP are (1) to systematically list the requirements for thermohydraulic relationships in support of advanced water cooled reactors during normal and accident conditions, and provide details of their database where possible and (2) to recommend and document a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships for selected thermohydraulic phenomena such as CHF and post-CHF heat transfer, pressure drop, and passive cooling for advanced water cooled reactors. Chapter 1 provides a brief discussion of the background for this CRP, the CRP objectives and lists the participating institutes. Chapter 2 provides a summary of important and relevant thermohydraulic phenomena for advanced water cooled reactors on the basis of previous work by the international community. Chapter 3 provides details of the database for critical heat flux, and recommends a prediction method which has been established through international co-operation and assessed within this CRP. Chapter 4 provides details of the database for film boiling heat transfer, and presents three methods for predicting film boiling heat transfer coefficients developed by institutes

  20. Coolant technology of water cooled reactors. V. 1: Chemistry of primary coolant in water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the work performed within the framework of the Coordinated Research Programme on Investigations on Water Chemistry Control and Coolant Interaction with Fuel and Primary Circuit Materials in Water Cooled Power Reactors organized by the IAEA and carried out from 1987 to 1991. It is the continuation of a programme entitled Reactor Water Chemistry Relevant to Coolant-Cladding Interaction (IAEA-TECDOC-429), which ran from 1981 to 1986. Subsequent meetings resulted in the title of the programme being changed to Coolant Technology of Water Cooled Reactors. The results of this Coordinated Research Programme are published in four volumes with an overview in the Technical Reports Series. The titles of the volumes are: Volume 1: Chemistry of Primary Coolant in Water Cooled Reactors; Volume 2: Corrosion in the Primary Coolant Systems of Water Cooled Reactors; Volume 3: Activity Transport Mechanisms in Water Cooled Reactors; Volume 4: Decontamination of Water Cooled Reactors. These publications should be of interest to experts in water chemistry at nuclear power plants, experts in engineering, fuel designers, research and development institutes active in the field and to consultants to these organizations. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Mixed oxide fuel for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems connected with introduction of plutonium extracted from spent fuels of operating NPPs into water cooled reactor fuel cycle are considered. The trends in formation of the World market of mixed fuel are illustrated taking as examples Great Britain and Japan

  2. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  3. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  4. Argentinean integrated small reactor design and scale economy analysis of integrated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of CAREM, which is Argentinean integrated small reactor project and the scale economy analysis results of integrated reactor. CAREM project consists on the development, design and construction of a small nuclear power plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a highly level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. For a fully doupled economic evaluation of integrated reactors done by IREP (Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program) code transferred to IAEA, CAREM have been used as a reference point. The results shows that integrated reactors become competitive with power larger than 200MWe with Argentinean cheapest electricity option. Due to reactor pressure vessel construction limit, low pressure drop steam generator are used to reach power output of 200MWe for natural circulation. For forced circulation, 300MWe can be achieved. (author)

  5. CARA development: an Argentinean fuel cycle challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARA is an advanced fuel element for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). The present degree of its development is presented. The design allows extended burnup with good thermal hydraulic margins using a single fuel rod diameter. An additional assembly system enables the use into PHWR vertical channel reactors. The mechanical feasibility for Atucha I and Embalse, and the hydraulic compatibility were checked, verifying that the CARA can fit the Argentinean challenge: a single fuel element for two different PHWR. CARA prototypes are under fabrication with new spacer grid designs and enhanced welding between end plates and fuel rods. (author)

  6. A cooling water system copper corrosion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkrabek, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    The plant has four units that have been operating normally for 12--33 years. Two of the units are 70 MW sister units that have copper alloy once-through condensers. The other two units are 350 MW and 500 MW units with copper alloy condensers and cooling towers. No cooling water related tube leaks had been experienced. Until 1993, the only chemicals used were sulfuric acid for pH control of the cooling tower systems and chlorine for biological control. The units were chlorinated for one hour per day per condenser. In early July 1992, their copper grab sample at the plant discharge to the river exceeded the weekly environmental limit. In fact, it was so high that there was a slim chance of coming in under their monthly average copper limit unless something was done quickly. The result of this incident was an extensive study of their plant wastewater and cooling systems. The study revealed that the elevated copper problem had existed sporadically for several years. Initially, copper control was achieved by altering the wastewater treatment processes and cooling tower blowdown flow path. Two extended trials, one with tolyltriazole (TTA) and one with a chemically modified benzotriazole (BZT) were performed. Optimal control of copper corrosion was eventually achieved by the application of a TTA treatment program in which the feed rates are adjusted based on on-line corrosion monitoring measurements. This report documents experiences and results over the past six years.

  7. Water-cooled lithium-lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is an appendix to a study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept. The present study examines whether the water-cooled lithium-lead blanket designed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. A fundamental requirement of the exercise is that the DEMO design should have a tritium breeding ratio which is higher than that in NET. The water-cooled lithium-lead blanket is discussed with respect to: neutronics design, design parameter survey and thermohydraulics, and engineering design. Results are reported of three-dimensional calculations using the Monte Carlo code MORSE-H to investigate possible neutron leakage between the poloidally disposed breeder tubes, and to determine the global tritium breeding ratio for the final double null machine design. (U.K.)

  8. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  9. Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles in a cooling tower

    OpenAIRE

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2015-01-01

    Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles with spray plates used to distribute cooling water to the cooling fills in a cooling tower is one of the important parameters for the selection of nozzles. Water distribution characteristic describes the distribution of water from the axis of the nozzle along a fill. One of the parameters affecting the water distribution characteristic of the nozzle is airflow velocity of counter flow airstream. Water distribution characteristics are commonl...

  10. The effect of cooling water on magnet vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Coosemans, Williame; Schnell, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The quadrupole magnets in the CLIC Test Facility II (CTF2) incorporate a water cooling circuit. In the frame-work of the CLIC stability study, the mechanical vibrations of the magnets were measured for different flows of cool-ing water. We present the results and compare them with simple theoretical estimates. It is shown that the vibra-tion requirements of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) quadrupoles with cooling water can basically be met.

  11. Pyrographite water-cooled target analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study of two pyrographic water-cooled targets planned for use in the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. A steady-state thermal stress analysis was done that included a parameter study on the physical and numerical variables that affect the problem. The maximum target temperatures and stresses were calculated and compared for a variety of conditions. The comparisons show that the 0.6-cm half-width fin target proposed for the A-2 line is the most vulnerable of the targets analyzed

  12. Application of Cooling Water in Controlled Runout Table Cooling on Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-dong; I V Samarasekera

    2004-01-01

    The controlled runout table cooling is essential in determining the final mechanical properties and flatness of steel strip. The heat of a hot steel strip is mainly extracted by cooling water during runout. In order to study the heat transfer by water jet impingement boiling during runout, a pilot facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia. On this pilot facility, the water jet impingement tests were carried out under various cooling conditions to investigate the effect of processing parameters, such as cooling water temperature, water jet impingement velocity, initial strip temperature, water flow rate, water nozzle diameter and array of water nozzles, on the heat transfer of heated strip. The results obtained contribute to the optimization of cooling water during runout.

  13. The insitu lining of cooling water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal corrosion of cooling water piping as well as other industrial piping is becoming an increasing problem to system reliability. There are various alternatives being offered as solutions to the problem including water treatment, coatings, and piping replacement. The in-place lining of these pipes is becoming increasingly popular as a cost-effective method to control corrosion. A cured-in-place plastic composite system can be installed with minimal dismantling or excavation. This paper will examine case histories of the installations of this lining system in power plants at three (3) locations in the United States and one in France. It will also summarize testing that has been performed on the lining system and tests that are currently being performed

  14. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or ''radiation fields'' around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry

  15. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  16. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  17. Cooling performance of solid containing water for spray assisted dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multicomponent discrete phase model in FLUENT is modified. • The new model is partially validated against experimental data. • Micro analysis of data obtained from SEM was performed. • Various benefits of using saline water in spray cooling are outlined. - Abstract: This article investigates the performance of saline water, compared to pure water in spray cooling and demonstrates the existence of several advantages. To simulate the crystallisation behaviour of saline water droplets, a set of modifications are made to the multicomponent discrete phase model (DPM) of ANSYS FLUENT. After validation against single droplet data, a practical spraying application with a single nozzle in a vertical flow path is studied. The results are compared with a similar case using pure water as the coolant. It is shown that using saline water for spray cooling improves cooling efficiency by 8% close to the nozzle. Furthermore, full evaporation takes place substantially earlier compared to the pure water case. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is explained. The consequence of this is a reduction of up to 30% in the distance between nozzle and the creation of a dry gas stream. This paper provides new fundamental understanding in the area of saline spray cooling, and shows that the use of saline water can lead to a number of benefits, such as reduced water costs (compared to pure fresh water), reduced infrastructure costs (more compact cooling towers), and improved cooling performance

  18. Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles in a cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkovic, Pavol

    2015-05-01

    Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles with spray plates used to distribute cooling water to the cooling fills in a cooling tower is one of the important parameters for the selection of nozzles. Water distribution characteristic describes the distribution of water from the axis of the nozzle along a fill. One of the parameters affecting the water distribution characteristic of the nozzle is airflow velocity of counter flow airstream. Water distribution characteristics are commonly measured using by a set of containers. The problem with this method of the measurement of characteristics is block of the airflow with collections of containers. Therefore, this work is using the visualization method.

  19. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhen-guo; WU; Long-cheng; LIU; Geng-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the general construction schedule of the BRIF project, the water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 has achieved a significant progress in 2012, its progress can be summarized as follows. 1) Inside wiring of 7 water distribution cabinets were completed. 2) Manufacturer selection of circulating water cooling unit and deionized water production equipment was decided after market survey and bidding process. The contracts were formally signed in February. The deionized water production equipment was ready in May and the circulating water cooling

  20. Storage of HLW in engineered structures: air-cooled and water-cooled concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study on an air-cooled and a water-cooled intermediate storage of vitrified, highly radioactive waste (HLW) in overground installations has been performed by Nukem and Belgonucleaire respectively. In the air-cooled storage concept the decay heat from the storage area will be removed using natural convection. In the water-cooled storage concept the decay heat is carried off by a primary and secondary forced-cooling system with redundant and diverse devices. The safety study carried out by Nukem used a fault tree method. It shows that the reliability of the designed water-cooled system is very high and comparable to the inherent, safe, air-cooled system. The impact for both concepts on the environment is determined by the release route, but even during accident conditions the release is far below permissible limits. The economic analysis carried out by Belgonucleaire shows that the construction costs for both systems do not differ very much, but the operation and maintenance costs for the water-cooled facility are higher than for the air cooled facility. The result of the safety and economic analysis and the discussions with the members of the working group have shown some possible significant modifications for both systems, which are included in this report. The whole study has been carried out using certain national criteria which, in certain Member States at least, would lead to a higher standard of safety than can be justified on any social, political or economic grounds

  1. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  2. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  3. Water cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    A broad line of absorption chillers designed to operate with hot fluids at as low a temperature as practical while rejecting heat to a stream of water was developed. A packaging concept for solar application in which controls, pumps, valves and other system components could be factor assembled into a unitary solar module was investigated.

  4. Temporary cooling system for critical loads during Recirculation Cooling Water (RCW) system outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Point Lepreau Refurbishment Project, Recirculation Cooling Water (RCW) system will be shutdown for maintenance activity. During the RCW outage, alternate cooling flow for critical heat loads such as Spent Fuel Bay (SFB), D2O vapour dryers and Instrument Air Compressor Coolers will be provided through a temporary cooling system to remove approximately 3MW of heat. This paper describes a practical strategy to build in the temporary cooling system for this project. Major equipment involved, piping modifications required and system reliability analysis are also addressed. (author)

  5. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  6. Water cooled reactor technology: Safety research abstracts no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD publish these Nuclear Safety Research Abstracts within the framework of their efforts to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants and to promote the exchange of research information. The abstracts are of nuclear safety related research projects for: pressurized light water cooled and moderated reactors (PWRs); boiling light water cooled and moderated reactors (BWRs); light water cooled and graphite moderated reactors (LWGRs); pressurized heavy water cooled and moderated reactors (PHWRs); gas cooled graphite moderated reactors (GCRs). Abstracts of nuclear safety research projects for fast breeder reactors are published independently by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and are not included in this joint publication. The intention of the collaborating international organizations is to publish such a document biannually. Work has been undertaken to develop a common computerized system with on-line access to the stored information

  7. Re-reddening on Strip Surface After Water Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Ying; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    After water cooling, there is a big temperature difference between the center and the surface of strip,which leads to the heat transfer from the center to the surface, and the surface temperature can rise in a short time. The finite element method was used to simulate the phenomena of re-reddening on the surface of strip and to analyze the temperature field of hot rolled strip during laminar cooling, and the periodical variation curve of the cooling rate was obtained during water cooling and subsequent re-reddening. The results show that the critical line of the cooling rate is at 1/3 of the half-thickness from the strip surface. The regression model of the relation of rereddening temperature, time, and distance from the surface was obtained in the re-reddening region. Re-reddening regularity on the surface of strip under the condition of different thickness and cooling rate was also studied.

  8. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  9. Device for recirculation cooling of cooling water by natural or forced chaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, H.; Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1975-10-23

    The invention is concerned with a device for recirculation cooling of cooling water by natural or forced draft. Through a cascading system mounted on supporting columns at a vertical distance to ground level, cooling air is flowing in cross- or counterflow to the cooling water freely falling from the cascading system. The cooling water collecting zone below the cascading system has an absorption floor arranged nearly horizontal and/or inclined, with a cam-type profile on its upperside, which is bounded on its circumference by at least one cooling water release channel provided below its level and/or which is divided in the sense of a surface subdivision. By these means, a reduction of the amount of material required for the supporting columns and an increase of the stability of the columns is to be achieved. Furthermore, the deposition of mud is to be avoided as for as possible, and noise generation during operation is to be reduced considerably. For this purpose, the absorption floor may be made of material sound insulating and/or may be coated with such a material.

  10. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  11. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  12. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the

  13. Research on Cooling Efficiencies of Water, Emulsions and Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Horák, Aleš; Raudenský, Miroslav; Pohanka, Michal; Bellerová, Hana; Reichardt, Tilo

    2011-01-01

    There are many areas in the steel and metallurgy industry where pure water cannot be used as a coolant. Lubrication and corrosion are the two main factors why spray cooling has to use different cooling liquids. A typical example is cold rolling of steel where emulsions are used or rolling of some non-ferrous metals where pure oils are used. Other metallurgical processes use water polluted by oil or containing mineral salts. The spray cooling efficiency of these coolants is different from the ...

  14. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  15. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  16. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  17. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  18. Water-cooled units in ultrapower electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, M. G.; Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The thermophysical processes that occur in the skull-metallic pipe-water system under quasistationary and dynamic conditions, when shock heat flows appear, are analyzed. The limiting conditions of water cooling of panels, which are accompanied by the appearance of boiling crisis and pre-emergency and emergency thermophysical processes, are considered.

  19. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  20. [Immediate cooling with water: emergency treatment of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that prolonged immediate cooling with cold water is the best first-aid treatment for burn injuries. However in France, this treatment is rarely applied; instead old, inefficient and aggravating methods are still very popular. Pediatricians must help to change this practice by recommending immediate cold water treatment for burns in children.

  1. Design and construction of immersed tube offshore cooling water tunnels at Sizewell 'B' power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam used to drive the turbine generators at Sizewell ''B'' Nuclear Power Station is cooled by passing through condensers where heat is transferred to cool sea water pumped through the Cooling Water System. The paper describes the initial investigations, design, and construction of the offshore tunnels used to draw cool water from 800m offshore and discharge the warmed water 200m offshore. (author)

  2. Computation of infrared cooling rates in the water vapor bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

    1980-01-01

    A fast and accurate method is developed for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor - specifically, the atmospheric cooling rates. The accuracy is achieved by avoiding the constraints of band models and working directly with the absorption coefficient, which is a function of temperature and pressure as well as wavenumber. The method is based on calculation of an equivalent water vapor amount between atmospheric pressure levels and a table look-up procedure. Compared to line-by-line calculations, the present method has errors up to 4% of the maximum cooling rate. The use of a scaling factor, based on the far-wing approximation, limits the applicability of the method to the troposphere and lower stratosphere, where the line wings are responsible for most of the radiative cooling associated with water vapor.

  3. Electricity prices, river temperatures and cooling water scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Grant; Nilsen, Øivind Anti

    2012-01-01

    Thermal-based power stations rely on water for cooling purposes. These water sources may be subject to incidents of scarcity, environmental regulations and competing economic concerns. This paper analyses the effect of water scarcity and increased river temperatures on German electricity prices from 2002 to 2009. Having controlled for demand effects, the results indicate that the electricity price is significantly impacted by both a change in river temperatures and the relative abundance of r...

  4. Forward osmosis applied to evaporative cooling make-up water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll, Peter; Thompson, Neil; Gray, Victoria [Modern Water plc, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Modern Water is in the process of developing a number of forward osmosis based technologies, ranging from desalination to power generation. This paper outlines the progress made to date on the development and commercial deployment of a forward osmosis based process for the production of evaporative cooling tower make-up water from impaired water sources, including seawater. Evaporative cooling requires significant amounts of good quality water to replace the water lost by evaporation, drift and blowdown. This water can be provided by conventional desalination processes or by the use of tertiary treated sewage effluent. The conventional processes are well documented and understood in terms of operation and power consumption. A new process has been successfully developed and demonstrated that provides make-up water directly, using a core platform 'forward osmosis' technology. This new technology shows significant promise in allowing various raw water sources, such as seawater, to be used directly in the forward osmosis step, thus releasing the use of scarce and valuable high grade water for other more important uses. The paper presents theoretical and operational results for the process, where it is shown that the process can produce make-up water at a fraction of the operational expenditure when compared to conventional processes, in particular regarding power consumption, which in some cases may be as low as 15 % compared to competing processes. Chemical additives to the cooling water (osmotic agent) are retained within the process, thus reducing their overall consumption. Furthermore the chemistry of the cooling water does not support the growth of Legionella pneumophila. Corrosion results are also reported. (orig.)

  5. Rationalization of cooling water consumption in extraction system B-811 LSV

    OpenAIRE

    Budžaki, Sandra; Čačić, F.; Miljić, G.

    2014-01-01

    Water (drinkable) is vital natural resource, and during the last few decades it is imperative to reduce its needless consumption. Extraction devices are known for their significant cooling water consumption and laboratory scale devices mainly use drinkable water. Aim of this paper was rationalization of cooling water consumption during extractions in universal extraction system B-811 LSV by recirculating cooling water trough cooling tower. In order to obtain the data for cooling tower design,...

  6. Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.

  7. Feasibility and deployment strategy of water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author have studied water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant technology for several years. Through these studies it is concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array with heavy water coolant in the primary loop by replacing original light water is appropriate for achieving sufficient breeding performance as sustainable fission system and high enough burn-up as an economical power plant. The heavy water cooled thorium reactor is feasible to be introduced by using Pu recovered from spent fuel of LWR, keeping continuity with current LWR infrastructure. This thorium reactor can be operated as sustainable energy supplier and also MA transmuter to realize future society with less long-lived nuclear waste

  8. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...

  9. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water discharges from cooling towers constructed with asbestos fill were found to contain chrysotile--asbestos fibers at concentrations as high as 108 fibers/liter. The major source of these fibers, appears to be the components of the towers rather than the air drawn through the towers or the makeup water taken into the towers. Suggested mechanisms for the release of chrysotile fibers from cooling-tower fill include freeze-thaw cycles and dissolution of the cement due to acidic components of the circulating water. Ash- or other material-settling ponds were found to reduce asbestos-fiber concentrations in cooling-tower effluent. The literature reviewed did not support the case for a causal relationship between adverse human health effects and drinking water containing on the order of 106 chrysotile--asbestos fibers/liter; for this and other reasons, it is not presently suggested that the use of asbestos fill be discontinued. However, caution and surveillance are dictated by the uncertainties in the epidemiological studies, the absence of evidence for a safe threshold concentration in water, and the conclusive evidence for adverse effects from occupational exposure. It is recommended that monitoring programs be carried out at sites where asbestos fill is used; data from such programs can be used to determine whether any mitigative measures should be taken. On the basis of estimates made in this study, monitoring for asbestos in drift from cooling towers does not appear to be warranted

  10. The insitu lining of cooling water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insituform is a unique process for reconstructing damaged pipeline systems in municipal and industrial applications, including piping at power plants. A new Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP), or Insitupipe, is formed inside of the existing conduit by using fluid pressure, typically water, to install a flexible tube saturated with a liquid thermosetting resin; the water is then heated to harden the resin. This process results in a continuous, tight-fitting, pipe-within-a-pipe. The Insituform process is cost-effective, fast and can be used in a variety of gravity and pressure applications such as sanitary sewers, storm sewers, process piping, water systems, and ventilation systems. This process is versatile enough to be used for stand alone structural reconstruction or it can merely serve as a plastic corrosion barrier to shield existing metal pipe walls from the flow stream which may be contributing to the degradation of wall thickness. For this reason, as well as its attractive life cycle costs, more power plants are turning to this technology for life extension of existing piping

  11. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  12. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  13. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Progress of the Water Cooling System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The civil building construction of the BRIF project started at the end of April in 2011. The key systems of CYCIAE-100 were completed one after another. The water cooling system for CYCIAE-100 also made a significant progress in 2011, and its progress can be summarized as follows.

  15. Natural Circulation Phenomena and Modelling for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of natural circulation in advanced water cooled reactor design has been extended with the adoption of passive safety systems. Some designs utilize natural circulation to remove core heat during normal operation. Most passive safety systems used in evolutionary and innovative water cooled reactor designs are driven by natural circulation. The use of passive systems based on natural circulation can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. Several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes are actively conducting investigations of natural circulation to support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive safety systems. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, in 2004 the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. Three reports were published within the framework of this CRP. The first report (IAEA-TECDOC-1474) contains the material developed for the first IAEA training course on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants. The second report (IAEA-TECDOC-1624) describes passive safety systems in a wide range of advanced water cooled nuclear power plant designs, with the goal of gaining insights into system design, operation and reliability. This third, and last, report summarizes the research studies completed by participating institutes during the CRP period.

  16. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming; Wu, Jingyi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module for water-cooled VRF is developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus. After modeling and testing the new module, on the basis of a typical office building in Shanghai with water-cooled VRF system, the monthly and seasonal cooling energy consumption and the breakdown of the total power consumption are analyzed. The simulation results show that, during the whole cooling period, the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system consumes about 20% more power than the water-cooled VRF system does. The power comparison between the water-cooled VRF system and the air-cooled VRF system is performed too. All of these can provide designers some ideas to analyze the energy features of this new system and then to determine a better scheme of the air conditioning system. (author)

  17. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  18. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by 6Li(n,α)T reaction. Li2TiO3 pebbles and Be12Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li2TiO3 and Be12Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be12Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option, in spite of lower TBR, Pb is taken into

  19. Economic competitiveness requirements for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the necessary economic conditions for evolutionary water cooled reactors to be competitive. Utilising recent national cost data for fossil-fired base load plants expected to be commissioned by 2005 -2010, target costs for nuclear power plants are discussed. Factors that could contribute to the achievement of those targets by evolutionary water cooled reactors are addressed. The feed-back from experience acquired in implementing nuclear programmes is illustrated by some examples from France and the Republic of Korea. The paper discusses the impacts on nuclear power competitiveness of globalisation and deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the electricity sector. In addition, issues related to external cost internalisation are considered. (author)

  20. On hydraulics calculation of water distribution in cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model is described for the hydraulics calculation of water distribution in the natural draught cooling towers for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The model allows determining the form of the mechanical energy curve along the asbestos cement pipe and the main distribution trough, the form of the pressure curve in the pipe and the form of the level in an open trough, the cross section velocities in the individual distribution network sections, and the flow through nozzles, i.e., the actual distribution over the tower surface of specific load due to cooling water. The values are suggested of coefficients for calculations of losses due to friction, of local losses, and of outlet coefficients obtained from the results of original studies and completed with literature data. The computer program is written in the Fortran 77 language. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 5 tabs., 9 refs

  1. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  2. Design of water distribution systems for large cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large cooling towers have increased: higher flow rates and improved part-load performance are needed. For this purpose liberal provision in water distribution systems of control elements, such as winter pipework, joint face disconnections, overspill shafts and by-pass pipework is necessary. However, the high expenditure on these facilities permits the plant to be operated in difficult operational phases with a high degree of security.

  3. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting was attended by 20 participants from 12 countries who reviewed and discussed the status and progress of national programmes on advanced water-cooled reactors and recommended to the Scientific Secretary a comprehensive programme for 1991/1992 which would support technology development programmes in IWGATWR Member States. This summary report outlines the activities of IWGATWR since its Second Meeting in June 1988 and main results of the Third Meeting

  5. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  6. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-PHASED WATER-COOLING RADIATOR FOR COMPUTER CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ping; CHENG Guangming; LIU Jiulong; YANG Zhigang; SUN Xiaofeng; PENG Taijiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to cool computer chip efficiently with the least noise, a single phase water-cooling radiator for computer chip driven by piezoelectric pump with two parallel-connection chambers is developed. The structure and work principle of this radiator is described. Material, processing method and design principles of whole radiator are also explained. Finite element analysis (FEA) software,ANSYS, is used to simulate the heat distribution in the radiator. Testing equipments for water-cooling radiator are also listed. By experimental tests, influences of flowrate inside the cooling system and fan on chip cooling are explicated. This water-cooling radiator is proved more efficient than current air-cooling radiator with comparison experiments. During cooling the heater which simulates the working of computer chip with different power, the water-cooling radiator needs shorter time to reach lower steady temperatures than current air-cooling radiator.

  8. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  9. Some aspects of cooling water discharges and environmental enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the effects of cooling water discharge on the environment, the siting of nuclear power plants is approached with cautiousness. The pros and cons are discussed of siting near bodies of good quality water or in more densely populated or industrial areas. Properties and effects of thermal discharges are elaborated. The effects of heat on the activity of individual organisms, on the accumulation of organic material, on the mineralization rate of organic matter and on the transport of oxygen all have influences on recipient water bodies. Examples of siting Swedish thermal power stations are described and these indicate some negative effects. However, the results do not repudiate the possibility of good effects from the design of new cooling water intake and discharge systems that would speed up the mineralization of organic matters by addition of heat and oxygen. It is concluded that, when choosing between possible sites, areas should be selected where the available energy of the discharge can be used to improve water quality. (author)

  10. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  11. 78 FR 64027 - Preoperational Testing of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Pressurized-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Pressurized-Water Reactors AGENCY... Core Cooling Systems for Pressurized-Water Reactors.'' This RG is being revised to incorporate guidance... emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This RG also describes...

  12. 76 FR 22173 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...) that addressed cooling water intake structures. 41 FR 17387 (April 26, 1976), see also the proposed... action on regulations governing cooling water intake structures at new facilities. See 66 FR 65255... Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I...

  13. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  14. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs)....

  15. Experimental validation of the simulation module of the water-cooled variable refrigerant flow system under cooling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue Ming; Wu, Jing Yi [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1304 Kanaoka-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8511 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    On the basis of EnergyPlus's codes, the catalogue and performance parameters from some related companies, a special simulation module for variable refrigerant flow system with a water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) was developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus, the building energy simulation program. To evaluate the energy performance of the system and the accuracy of the simulation module, the measurement of the water-cooled VRF is built in Dalian, China. After simulation and comparison, some conclusions can be drawn. The mean of the absolute value of the daily error in the 9 days is 11.3% for cooling capacity while the one for compressor power is 15.7%. At the same time, the accuracy of the power simulation strongly depends on the accuracy of the cooling capacity simulation. (author)

  16. Thermophysical properties of materials for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to establish a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials was organized within the framework of the IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The work within the CRP started in 1990. The objective of the CRP was to collect and systemaize a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials under normal operating, transient and accident conditions. The important thermophysical properties include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, thermal expansion and others. These properties as well as the oxidation of zirconium-based alloys, the thermophysical characteristics of high temperature concrete-core melt interaction and the mechanical properties of construction materials are presented in this report. It is hoped that this report will serve as a useful source of thermophysical properties data for water cooled reactor analyses. The properties data are maintained on the THERSYST system at the University of Stuttgart, Germany and are internationally available. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. IMPROVEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL WATER JACKET METHOD IN MOULD COOLING USING HEAT PIPE

    OpenAIRE

    R.S.SHELKE; SULAS G.BORKAR

    2012-01-01

    Die casting moulds and injection moulding are cooled by conventional water jacket method. Cooling of mould is very essential for the purpose of quality of parts and cycle time. The conventional water jackets methods used are having many disadvantages, due to which the effect of mould cooling is not optimum. Hence a technique which can overcome all the disadvantages and become optimum emerged. The main aim of this proposed work is to improve conventional water jackets methods in mould cooling ...

  18. Process water - waste water - cooling water. Papers; Prozesswasser/Abwasser/Kuehlwasser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    The 39th Metallurgical Seminar focused on water. Modern technologies for water purification and treatment were presented, legal boundary conditions were discussed, and aspects of process water, waste water and cooling water were gone into. Although the boundaries between these three types of water cannot be clearly defined, materials recovery is the prevalent aspect in process water treatment while waste water treatment primarily aims at reducing pollutant concentrations so that both environmental aspects and technical quality standards will be met. This proceedings volume attempts to give its readers a more precise picture of the issues at hand by presenting fundamental research, ecological and legal specifications, and selected examples of industrial applications. [German] Das 39. Metallurgische Seminar beschaeftigt sich mit Wasser. Neben der Praesentation grundsaetzlicher, moderner Techniken zur Reinhaltung und Aufbereitung von Wasser sowie der Darstellung der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen umspannen die Fachvortraege Beitraege zu den Themen Prozesswasser, Abwasser, Kuehlwasser. Wenn auch die Grenzen innerhalb dieser Begriffe teilweise fliessend sind, so zeichnen sich die Prozesswaesser dadurch aus, dass man primaer - wie beispielsweise bei Waschsloesungen und Beizwaessern - an der Wiedergewinnung der Inhaltsstoffe interessiert ist, waehrend bei reinen Abwaessern und Kuehlturmwaessern bzw. deren Abschlaemmungen die massgebliche Aufgabe darin besteht, die Konzentration der Inhaltsstoffe so weit abzusenken, dass man einerseits den Umwelterfordernissen und andererseits den technischen Qualitaetsanforderungen gerecht wird. Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, an Hand von Grundlagen, der Darstellung der oekologischen und behoerdlichen Erfordernisse sowie ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele aus der Industrie den Leserkreis naeher an diese Thematik heranzufuehren. (orig.)

  19. Cooling water treatment for heavy water project (Paper No. 6.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With minor exceptions, water is the preferred industrial medium for the removal of unwanted heat from process systems. The application of various chemical treatments is required to protect the system from water related and process related problems of corrosion, scale and deposition and biofouling. The paper discusses the cooling water problems for heavy water industries along with the impact caused by associated fertilizer units. (author). 6 figs

  20. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants....

  1. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  2. Silica scale technology and water conservation. [Recirculating evaporative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, W.S.; Foyt, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    Conservation of water at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been accomplished by recirculating evaporative cooling waters. Because of high silica concentration (80 mg/l) in Los Alamos groundwater, the concentration of recirculating water must be carefully controlled to prevent scaling. The most troublesome scale at Los Alamos has been identified as colloidal silica bound in a crystalline matrix of calcium carbonate. Several approaches to controlling this scale are: (1) chemical treatment using a chelate, sequestrant, or threshold approach, (2) softening, or (3) pH control. Silica alone will form deposits when supersaturated. In LASL systems, where silica concentrations are 200 to 240 mg/l, no problems have been observed. However, there is evidence that deposits are forming at slightly higher concentrations. These amorphous silica deposits are not as hard and tenacious as the calcium carbonate--silica scale. Complete external treatment, which combines silica removal and water softening, may be an economically competitive process for scale control. The advantages of slightly reducing the quantity of makeup water and drastically reducing the amount of blowdown water have environmental and conservation implications that may encourage the selection of complete treatment.

  3. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S.; Urich, E.

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  4. Seismic design of ITER component cooling water system-1 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3. This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event. (author)

  5. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  6. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  7. Chemistry control strategies for a supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term viability of any Generation IV Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept depends on the ability of reactor designers and operators to predict and control water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport. Currently, SCWR material testing is being carried out using a limited range of water chemistries to establish the dependencies of the corrosion behavior on parameters such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. Once a final suite of candidate alloys is identified, more detailed, longer term testing will be needed under water chemistry regimes expected to be used in the SCWR. Prior to these tests, it will be necessary to identify proposed water chemistry regimes for the SCWR, and provide expected ranges for the key parameters. The direct-cycle design proposed for various SCWR concepts take advantage of the extensive operating experience world-wide of fossil-fired SCW power plants. Conceptually, the SCWR replaces the fossil-fired boiler with the reactor core (pressure vessel or pressure tube); the concept is broadly similar to that of a boiling water reactor. Current fossil-fired SCW power plants use either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated water treatment for the feedwater systems. While the optimal water chemistry for a SCWR is yet to be determined, the monitored parameters are likely to be the same as those in existing fossil-fired and nuclear power plants: pH; conductivity, and concentrations of O2, H2, additives, impurities, corrosion and activation products. Monitoring will be required at many of the same components: feedwater, main 'steam', drains, pump outlets, condenser hotwell, and purification inlets and outlets. This paper outlines the strategy being used to develop a water chemistry regime for a CANDU® SCWR. It describes the key areas identified for chemistry monitoring and control: a) the reactor core, where materials are subjected to irradiation and high temperature, b

  8. Management of a water leak on actively cooled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER will be the most important machine equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs). In case of abnormal events during a discharge, the PFC will be submitted to localized transient phenomena (high power densities, run away electrons, etc.), leading, in the worst case, to the degradation of the PFC wall and possibly to a water leak. In any case, a leak will have important consequences for the PFCs and equipment located in the vacuum vessel or connected to the ports such as seals, pumping systems or diagnostics. Considerable experience of these events has been gained at Tore Supra over a period of more than 10 years [J.J. Cordier, Ten years of maintenance on Tore Supra actively cooled components, in: Proceedings of the 21th Symp. of Fusion Technology (SOFT), Madrid, Spain, September, 2000.], which will be useful for the next step machines. This paper describes for each leak size type the procedures for maintaining save conditions in the vacuum vessel. It also presents the methods used at Tore Supra to drain-off the primary loop circuits and to identify the leaky PFC

  9. Optimization of operational water chemistry for supercritical-water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summaries the experimental results obtained within the project 'PRAMEK'. The project is focused on the study of the compatibility of the construction material of fossil-fueled supercritical water cooled power plants and water chemistry, that is currently used and optimization the dosing of the chemical species to the working circuit. The experience from the project enables to evaluate the water chemistry for Supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) and the transfer of the operational experience to the operation of the future nuclear power plant. The used materials are candidate for the SCWR and used in the industrial scale in the Ledvice power plant (fossil fuelled) with the supercritical parameters of the medium. It illustrates the future behaviour in the SCWR plant. The influence of the irradiation will be tested in future within the supercritical water loop in the reactor LVR-15. (author)

  10. Effect of Mixed Corrosion Inhibitors in Cooling Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Raheem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixed corrosion inhibitors in cooling system was evaluated by using carbon steel specimens and weight loss analysis. The carbon steel specimens immersed in mixture of sodium phosphate (Na2 HPO4 used as corrosion inhibitor and sodium glocunate (C6 H11 NaO7 as a scale dispersant at different concentrations (20,40, 60, 80 ppm and at different temperature (25,50,75 and 100ºC for (1-5 days. The corrosion inhibitors efficiency was calculated by using uninhibited and inhibited water to give 98.1%. The result of these investigations indicate that the corrosion rate decreases with the increase the corrosion inhibitors concentration at 80 ppm and at 100ºC for 5 days, (i.e, corrosion rate= 0.014gmd.

  11. BIOFILM FORMATION ON BRASS COUPONS EXPOSED TO COOLING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach M.T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Brass coupons were installed in a bypass in an industrial cooling water that uses seawater. The metal samples were removed at 15, 30, 45, and 60-day intervals for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the microorganisms constituting the biofilm adhering to the metal surface. After 15 days of exposure, a biofilm had already been generated which contained aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The aerobic bacteria were the most stable in relation to quantity, followed by the fungi. Anaerobic microorganisms, as well as sulfate-reducing bacteria, were present at higher concentrations. Variations in sulfide contents were observed in the biofilm. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed microalgae, bacteria, filaments, and corrosion products as constituents of the biofilm adhering to the surface of the metal. After the biofilms were scraped off the brass samples, evidence of corrosion was observed on the metal surface

  12. B Plant Cooling Water stream-specific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed wastestream designation for the B Plant Cooling Water (CBC) waste stream is that the stream is not a dangerous waste, pursuant to the Washington (State) Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations. This proposed designation, made by applying a combination of process knowledge and sample data for the CBC (October 1989 to March 1990), was used to determine if the effluent contains a listed dangerous waste (WAC 173-303-080). Sampling data alone is used to compare to the dangerous waste criteria (WAC 173-303-100) and dangerous waste characteristics (WAC 173-303-090). Sample data for the CBC operation was from the October 1989 to March 1990 timeframe that is based on the Liquid Effluent Study Characterization Data (WHC-EP-0355). 21 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Entrainment of ichthyoplankton and larval fishes during cooling water withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plantonic fish eggs and larvae are entrained into the Savannah River Plant (SRP) pumping system as Savannah River water is withdrawn for cooling purposes. The American shad contributed 96% of the planktonic fish eggs collected in the Savannah River. Eggs were rare in plankton samples from the intake canals and were assumed to have settled to the bottom as current velocity was reduced in the canal entrance. An estimated 72 million fish eggs were transported past the intake canals. Assuming ''worst case conditions,'' 6.8 million eggs (9.5%) could have been lost due to entrainment. Blueback herring comprised nearly one-half of the 216 million fish larvae susceptible to impact. Spotted sucker and black crappie were also common among the 22 species of fish larvae collected. An estimated 19.6 million (9.1%) fish larvae could have been entrained under ''worst case conditions''

  14. Water pollution of ammonia cooling installations; Verontreiniging met water van ammoniak-koelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaerbaek Nielsen, P. [Danfoss Industrial Refrigeration, Hasselager (Denmark)

    2001-09-01

    Danfoss Industrial Refrigeration claims to have the knowledge to help businesses and industry in saving energy and to decrease maintenance cost of cooling systems. Part of its knowledge and experiences in this field is laid down in a technical document 'Effects of Water Contamination in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems'. A summary of the document is presented in this article. 2 refs.

  15. Advanced applications of water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By August 2007, there were 438 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation worldwide, with a total capacity of 371.7 GW(e). Further, 31 units, totaling 24.1 GW(e), were under construction. During 2006 nuclear power produced 2659.7 billion kWh of electricity, which was 15.2% of the world's total. The vast majority of these plants use water-cooled reactors. Based on information provided by its Member States, the IAEA projects that nuclear power will grow significantly, producing between 2760 and 2810 billion kWh annually by 2010, between 3120 and 3840 billion kWh annually by 2020, and between 3325 and 5040 billion kWh annually by 2030. There are several reasons for these rising expectations for nuclear power: - Nuclear power's lengthening experience and good performance: The industry now has more than 12 000 reactor years of experience, and the global average nuclear plant availability during 2006 reached 83%; - Growing energy needs: All forecasts project increases in world energy demand, especially as population and economic productivity grow. The strategies are country dependent, but usually involve a mix of energy sources; - Interest in advanced applications of nuclear energy, such as seawater desalination, steam for heavy oil recovery and heat and electricity for hydrogen production; - Environmental concerns and constraints: The Kyoto Protocol has been in force since February 2005, and for many countries (most OECD countries, the Russian Federation, the Baltics and some countries of the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) greenhouse gas emission limits are imposed; - Security of energy supply is a national priority in essentially every country; and - Nuclear power is economically competitive and provides stability of electricity price. In the near term most new nuclear plants will be evolutionary water cooled reactors (Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs that

  16. Development of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aiello, G.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • Preliminary CAD design of the equatorial outboard module of the WCLL blanket has been developed for DEMO. • Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior in the straight part of the module. - Abstract: The water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) blanket, based on near-future technology requiring small extrapolation from present-day knowledge both on physical and technological aspect, is one of the breeding blanket concepts considered as possible candidates for the EU DEMOnstration power plant. In 2012, the EFDA agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the WCLL blanket design to those specifications. Relatively small modules with straight surfaces are attached to a common Back Supporting Structure housing feeding pipes. Each module features reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, liquid Lithium-Lead as breeder, neutron multiplier and carrier. Water at typical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions is chosen as coolant. A preliminary design of the equatorial outboard module has been achieved. Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior. Two First Wall (FW) concepts have been proposed, one favoring the thermal efficiency, the other favoring the manufacturability. The Breeding Zone has been designed with C-shaped Double-Walled Tubes in order to minimize the Water/Pb-15.7Li interaction likelihood. The priorities for further development of the WCLL blanket concept are identified in the paper.

  17. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  18. Evaluation of a Design Concept for the Combined Air-water Passive Cooling PAFS+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Won; Kwon, Taesoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The APR+ system provides the Passive Auxiliary Feed-water System (PAFS) for the passive cooling capability. However, the current design requirement for working time for the PAFS is about 8 hours only. Thus, current working time of PAFS can not meet the required 72 hours cooling capability for the long term SBO situation. To meet the 72 hours cooling, the pool capacity should be almost 3∼4 times larger than that of current water cooling tank. In order to continue the PAFS operation for 72 hours, a new passive air-water combined cooling system is proposed. This paper provides the feasibility study on the combined passive air-water cooling system. Figure 1 and 2 show the conceptual difference of the PAFS and combined passive air-water cooling system, respectively. Simple performance evaluation of the passive air cooling heat exchanger has been conducted by the MARS calculation. For the postulated FLB scenario, 4800 heat exchanger tubes and 5 m/s air velocity are not sufficient to sustain the PCCT pool level for 72 hour cooling. Further works on the system design and performance enhancing plan are required to fulfill the 72 hours long term passive cooling.

  19. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  20. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  1. Biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported for a Danish project on biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants. The purpose of the project was to provide an up-to-date knowledge of biological effects of cooling water discharge and of organization and evaluation of recipient investigations in planned and established areas. (BP)

  2. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  3. [Occurrence of bacteria from the Legionella genus in cooling water systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Renata; Krogulska, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Results of Legionella bacteria study in water samples from industrial cooling water systems and air-conditioner systems were presented. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 32,4%. of 518 examined water samples collected from 1998 to 2006. The most dangerous Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was detected in 11.3% of all positive samples. The high number (more than 10(4) jtk/l) of isolated Legionella bacteria was determinated in 60% of water samples taken from cooling waters systems and 33% of samples of waters related with air-conditioning that is alarming. High pollution requires immediate intervention (installations cleaning and disinfection). Data indicated real health risk connected with Legionella pollution of cooling water. Creation of low regulations which will put the obligation of cooling water systems monitoring of Legionella bacteria occurrence and taking preventive measures is necessary. PMID:19227256

  4. Hydrogen in water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Community (CEC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided in 1989 to update the state of the art concerning hydrogen in water cooled nuclear power reactors by commissioning a report which would review, all the available information to-date and make recommendations for the future. This joint report was prepared by committees formed by the IAEA and by the CEC. The aim of this report is to review the current understanding on the areas in which the research on hydrogen in LWR is conventionally presented, taking into account the results of the latest reported research developments. The main reactions through which hydrogen is produced are assessed together with their timings. An estimation of the amount of hydrogen produced by each reaction is given, in order to reckon their relative contribution to the hazard. An overview is then given of the state of knowledge of the most important phenomena taking place during its transport from the place of production and the phenomena which control the hydrogen combustion and the consequences of combustion under various conditions. Specific research work is recommended in each sector of the presented phenomena. The last topics reviewed in this report are the hydrogen detection and the prevent/mitigation of pressure and temperature loads on containment structures and structures and safety related equipment caused by hydrogen combustion

  5. Thermohydraulics of emergency core cooling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, by a group of experts of the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, reviews the current state-of-knowledge in the field of emergency core cooling (ECC) for design-basis, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and core uncover transients in pressurized- and boiling-water reactors. An overview of the LOCA scenarios and ECC phenomenology is provided for each type of reactor, together with a brief description of their ECC systems. Separate-effects and integral-test facilities, which contribute to understanding and assessing the phenomenology, are reviewed together with similarity and scaling compromises. All relevant LOCA phenomena are then brought together in the form of tables. Each phenomenon is weighted in terms of its importance to the course of a LOCA, and appraised for the adequacy of its data base and analytical modelling. This qualitative procedure focusses attention on the modelling requirements of dominant LOCA phenomena and the current capabilities of the two-fluid models in two-phase flows. This leads into the key issue with ECC: quantitative code assessment and the application of system codes to predict with a well defined uncertainty the behaviour of a nuclear power plant. This issue, the methodologies being developed for code assessment and the question of how good is good enough are discussed in detail. Some general conclusions and recommendations for future research activities are provided

  6. Stability analysis of a heated channel cooled by supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model to study thermal-hydraulic stability of a heated cannel under supercritical conditions is presented. Single cannel stability analysis for the SCWR (Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor) design was performed. The drastic change of fluid density in the reactor core of a SCWR may induce DWO (Density Wave Oscillations) similar to those observed in BWRs. Due to the similarities between subcritical and supercritical systems we may treat the supercritical fluid as a pseudo two-phase system. Thus, we may extend the modeling approach often used for boiling flow stability analysis to supercritical pressure operation conditions. The model developed in this work take into account three regions: a heavy fluid region, similar to an incompressible liquid; a zone where a heavy fluid and a light fluid coexist, similar to two-phase mixture; and a light fluid region which behaves like superheated steam. It was used the homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) for the pseudo boiling zone, and the ideal gas model for the pseudo superheated steam zone. System stability maps were obtained using linear stability analysis in the frequency domain. Two possible instability mechanisms are observed: DWO and excursive Ledinegg instabilities. Also, a sensitivity analysis showed that frictions in pseudo superheated steam zone, together with acceleration effect, are the most destabilizing effects. On the other hand, frictions in pseudo liquid zone are the most important stabilizing effect.

  7. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  8. The Modification of Sodium Polyacrylate Water Solution Cooling Properties by AL2O3

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Gęstwa; Małgorzata Przyłęcka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary examination of water cooling ability as a result of its modification by the addition of sodium polyacrylate and AL2O3 nanoparticles. (AL2O3) alumina oxide was present in gamma phase as a form of nanopowder whose particle size was less than 50 nm. Cooling curves in the temperature-time system were marked for the three cooling media: water, 10% water solution of sodium polyacrylate, and 10% water solution of sodium polyacrylate with 1% addition of AL2O3 nanopar...

  9. District cool water distribution; Reseau urbain et distribution d`eau glacee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabaillie, D. [Ste Climespace (France)

    1997-12-31

    The city of Paris has developed several district cool water distribution networks (Climespace) for air conditioning purposes, one in the Halles district (central Paris) linked with the Louvre museum, one in the Opera district (with large department stores) and one in the east of paris (Bercy). Each of these networks has a cool water production plant, the one at the Halles producing also hot water and safety electric power. The characteristics of the equipment (heat pumps, refrigerating machinery, storage...) are described. The pipes are laid in the city sewage network, and the cool carrier is water. The various networks are centrally supervised at the Halles center

  10. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  11. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes 'Best Technology Available' for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant's steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R and D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  12. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  13. Optimal Environmental Performance of Water-cooled Chiller System with All Variable Speed Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu Wing; Chan, Kwok Tai

    This study investigates how the environmental performance of water-cooled chiller systems can be optimized by applying load-based speed control to all the system components. New chiller and cooling tower models were developed using a transient systems simulation program called TRNSYS 15 in order to assess the electricity and water consumption of a chiller plant operating for a building cooling load profile. The chiller model was calibrated using manufacturer's performance data and used to analyze the coefficient of performance when the design and control of chiller components are changed. The NTU-effectiveness approach was used for the cooling tower model to consider the heat transfer effectiveness at various air-to-water flow ratios and to identify the makeup water rate. Applying load-based speed control to the cooling tower fans and pumps could save an annual plant operating cost by around 15% relative to an equivalent system with constant speed configurations.

  14. IMPROVEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL WATER JACKET METHOD IN MOULD COOLING USING HEAT PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.SHELKE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Die casting moulds and injection moulding are cooled by conventional water jacket method. Cooling of mould is very essential for the purpose of quality of parts and cycle time. The conventional water jackets methods used are having many disadvantages, due to which the effect of mould cooling is not optimum. Hence a technique which can overcome all the disadvantages and become optimum emerged. The main aim of this proposed work is to improve conventional water jackets methods in mould cooling by the application of heat pipe. Heat pipeplays an very important role in such situations, and shows effective results, there by improving the conventional water jacket method in mould cooling. It transfers heat many times faster than pure copper.

  15. Containment for Heavy-Water Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety principles applicable to heavy-water, gas-cooled reactors are outlined, with a view to establishing containment specifications adapted to the sites available in Switzerland for the construction of nuclear plants. These specifications are derived from dose rates considered acceptable, in the event of a serious reactor accident, for persons living near the plant, and are based on-meteorological and demographic conditions representative of the majority of the country's sites. The authors consider various designs for the containment shell, taking into account the conditions which would exist in the shell after the maximum credible accident. The following types of shell are studied: pre-stressed concrete; pre-stressed concrete with steel dome; pre-stressed concrete with inner, leakproof steel lining; steel with concrete side shield to protect against radiation; double shell. The degree of leak proofing of the shells studied is regarded as a feature of the particular design and not as a fixed constructional specification. The authors assess the leak proofing properties of each type of shell and establish building costs for each of them on the basis of precise plans, with the collaboration of various specialized firms. They estimate the effectiveness of the various shells from a safety standpoint, in relation to different emergency procedures, in particular release into the atmosphere through appropriate filters and decontamination of the air within the shell by recycling through batteries of filters. The paper contains a very detailed comparison of about 10 cases corresponding to various combinations of design and emergency procedure; the comparison was made using a computer programme specially established for the purpose. The results are compared with those for a reactor of the same type and power, but assembled together with the heat exchangers in a pre-stressed concrete shell. (author)

  16. Conceptual design of a passive moderator cooling system for a pressure tube type natural circulation boiling water cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Eshita, E-mail: eshi.pal@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nayak, Arun K.; Vijayan, Pallipattu K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Passive moderator cooling system is designed to cool moderator passively during SBO. • PMCS is a system of two natural circulation loops, coupled via a heat exchanger. • RELAP5 analyses show that PMCS maintains moderator within safe limits for 7 days. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has raised strong concern and apprehensions about the safety of reactors in case of a prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) continuing for several days. In view of this, a detailed study was performed simulating this condition in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. In this study, a novel concept of moderator cooling by passive means has been introduced in the reactor design. The Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS) consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger designed to remove 2 MW heat from the moderator inside Calandria. The heat exchanger is located at a suitable elevation from the Calandria of the reactor, such that the hot moderator rises due to buoyancy into the heat exchanger and upon cooling from shell side water returns to Calandria forming a natural circulation loop. The shell side of the heat exchanger is also a natural circulation loop connected to an overhead large water reservoir, namely the GDWP. The objective of the PMCS is to remove the heat from the moderator in case of an SBO and maintaining its temperature below the permissible safe limit (100 °C) for at least 7 days. The paper first describes the concept of the PMCS. The concept has been assessed considering a prolonged SBO for at least 7 days, through an integrated analysis performed using the code RELAP5/MOD3.2 considering all the major components of the reactor. The analysis shows that the PMCS is able to maintain the moderator temperature below boiling conditions for 7 days.

  17. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  18. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition

  19. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  20. Design measures in evolutionary water cooled reactors to optimize for economic viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid 1980s, there have been various efforts to develop evolutionary water cooled reactors based on the current operating plant experience. To sustain and improve the economic viability, particular attention has been paid to the following aspects in developing evolutionary water cooled reactors: design simplification and increased operating margins, standardization in design as well as construction and operation, integration of operating plant insights, and consideration of safety, operability and constructability during the design stage. This paper reviews each item and discusses several examples from some of the evolutionary water cooled reactors being developed. (author)

  1. Thermohydraulic relationships for advanced water cooled reactors, and the role of IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Thermohydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water-Cooled Reactors was carried out from 1995-1999. It was included into the IAEA's Programme following endorsement in 1995 by the IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The overall goal was to promote international information exchange and cooperation in establishing a consistent set of thermohydraulic relationships that are appropriate for use in analyzing the performance and safety of advanced water cooled reactors. (authors)

  2. Experience on the periodic wet bar diagnosis of water-cooled generator stator windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-S.; Bae, Y.-C. (Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Daejeon, (Korea))

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, of various integrity evaluation methods for water-cooled stator windings, it is verified that a wet bar diagnosis method is most sensitive. Generally, there are vibration characteristics test, leak test, and water absorption test, as mechanical integrity evaluation methods for water-cooled stator windings. When a generator-rotor is extracted, mechanical integrity evaluation for water-cooled stator windings are carried out by using all of them. In spite of our continuous efforts, critical accidents frequently occurred and tremendous economic cost is paid for stator winding repair. Fortunately, it is confirmed that integrity is evaluated more clearly by analyzing capacitance change and voltage applied into windings among various integrity evaluation methods for water-cooled stator windings. (orig.)

  3. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 2D HORIZONTAL COOLING WATER DISCHARGE IN GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2D horizontal model is one of the major mathematical methods for the research on cooling water discharge from the power plant. In this paper, the shallow water equations are transformed under the generalized curvilinear coordinate system and the elliptic differential equations are used to generate curvilinear grids, so a model in generalized curvilinear coordinate is presented to simulate 2D horizontal cooling water. Governing equations of the model are discretized by finite volume method, and non-staggered grids and SIMPLE algorithm are introduced to simplify the program during the discretization. This model is used to simulate the movement of cooling water in a simplified meandering channel and a natural channel, calculating results indicate this model can correctly reflect the movement rules of cooling water, which verifies the model can be applied in engineering practice.

  4. Effect of water treatment on the comparative costs of evaporative and dry cooled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of a study on the relative cost of energy from a nominal 1000 Mwe nuclear steam electric generating plant using either dry or evaporative cooling at four sites in the United States: Rochester, New York; Sheridan, Wyoming; Gallup, New Mexico and Dallas, Texas. Previous studies have shown that because of lower efficiencies the total annual evaluated costs for dry cooling systems exceeds the total annual evaluated costs of evaporative cooling systems, not including the cost of water. The cost of water comprises the cost of supplying the makeup water, the cost of treatment of the makeup and/or the circulating water in the tower, and the cost of treatment and disposal of the blowdown in an environmentally acceptable manner. The purpose of the study is to show the effect of water costs on the comparative costs of dry and evaporative cooled towers

  5. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  6. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  7. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  8. Water mist effect on cooling range and efficiency of casting die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is showing investigation results of cooling process of casting die in the temperature range 570÷100 °C with 0.40 MPa compressed air and water mist streamed under pressure 0.25÷0.45 MPa in air jet 0.25÷0.50 MPa using open cooling system.The character and the speed of changes of temperature, forming of the temperture’s gradient along parallel layer to cooled surface of die is shawing with thermal and derivative curves. The effect of kind of cooling factor on the temperature and time and distance from cooling nozzle is presented in the paper. A designed device for generating the water mist cooling the die and the view of sprying water stream is shown here. It’s proved that using of the water mist together with the change of heat transfer interface increases intensity of cooling in the zone and makes less the range cooling zone and reduces the porosity of cast microstructure.

  9. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  10. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  11. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY... Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This RG describes testing methods the NRC staff...)-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors.''...

  12. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248... and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...

  13. 77 FR 19740 - Water Sources for Long-Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Water Sources for Long-Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident AGENCY... that provide water sources for emergency core cooling, containment heat removal, or containment... Guide (RG) 1.82, ``Water Sources for Long- Term Recirculation Cooling Following a...

  14. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  15. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  16. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  17. Fluid Induced Vibration Analysis of a Cooling Water Pipeline for the HANARO CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNS is the initial of Cold Neutron Source and the CNS facility system consists of hydrogen, a vacuum, a gas blanketing, a helium refrigeration and a cooling water supply system. Out of these subsystems, the helium refrigeration system has the function of removal of heat from a thermal neutron under reactor operation. Therefore, HRS (helium refrigeration system) must be under normal operation for the production of cold neutron. HRS is mainly made up of a helium compressor and a coldbox. This equipment is in need of cooling water to get rid of heat generation under stable operation and a cooling water system is essential to maintain the normal operation of a helium compressor and a coldbox. The main problem for the cooling water system is the vibration issue in the middle of operation due to a water flow in a pipeline. In order to suppress the vibration problem for a pipeline, the characteristics of a pipeline and fluid flow must be analyzed in detail. In this paper, fluid induced vibration of a cooling water pipe is analyzed numerically and the stability of the cooling water pipeline is investigated by using pipe dynamic theory

  18. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...... system, which includes a desiccant wheel and a dew point cooler. The system is simulated during the summer period in the Mediterranean climate of Rome and it results completely independent of external water sources. The seasonal thermal COP drops 8% in comparison to the open regeneration circuit solution...

  19. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  20. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  1. Light water cooled, high temperature and high performance nuclear power plants concept of once-through coolant cycle, supercritical-pressure, light water cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical-pressure, light water cooled nuclear reactors corresponding to nuclear reactors of once-through boilers, are of theoretical development from LWR. Under supercritical pressure, a steam turbine can be driven directly with cooled water with high enthalpy, as not seen boiling and required for recycling. The reactor has no steam-water separation and recycling systems on comparison with the boiling water type LWR, and is the same once-through type as supercritical-pressure thermal power generation plants. Then, all of cooling water at reactor core are sent to turbine. The reactor has no steam generator, and pressurizer, on comparison with PWR. As it requires no steam-water separator, steam drier, and recycling system on comparison with BWR, it becomes of smaller size and has shape and size nearly equal to those of PWR. And, its control bars can be inserted from upper direction like PWR, and can use its driving system. Here was introduced some concepts on high-temperature and high-performance light water reactor, nuclear power generation using a technology on supercritical-pressure thermal power generation. (G.K.)

  2. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  3. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Interests in radiant cooling systems have increased in recent years. There is, however, no standardized method for radiant system design that is broadly accepted by the building industry. Through literature review, twelve surveys and eight interviews with leading practitioners, this paper summarizes the design methods documented in the guidelines, assesses the state of the industry, and identifies potential gaps and limitations in current design practice. The findings include: 1) design guide...

  4. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  5. Sea/lake water cooling for Naval facilities. Final report November 1975-November 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciani, J.

    1978-09-01

    Seawater cooling was found to be economically feasible for a trial Naval facility in San Diego, Calif. and an operational test was recommended for the Naval Security Group Activity (NSGA), Winter Harbor, Maine. A preliminary design and environmental impact assessment were performed for a seawater cooling system at NSGA. This work was supplemented with seawater temperature measurements in the adjoining bay, a study of biofouling and its prevention in this system, and land and offshore surveys at NSGA. A separate study found that the life cycle cost of this seawater cooling system was less than that of the existing conventional air conditioning system. It was concluded that a seawater cooling system for NSGA would cost about $150K, and annually save over 200 MWh of energy and $9,000. Also, a study of the Navywide potential of sea/lake water cooling found that if such cooling were installed at 25 Navy sites, 59 x 1,000 MWh and $3 million could be saved annually. This report recommends that: (1) a final design and installation of an operational test seawater cooling system for NSGA, Winter Harbor be made; (2) seawater temperatures be measured at Apra Harbor, Pearl Harbor, Chicago, and Point Mugu as potential sites; and (3) a parametric model be developed for estimating the capital and energy costs of sea/lake water cooling systems.

  6. Microbial speciation and biofouling potential of cooling water used by Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling water composition and microbial components of biofilms attached to stainless steel wafers submerged in three lake water types were evaluated to determine whether their biofouling potential differed in a predictable manner. The composition of the lake waters was different which affected biofilm composition, where the predominance of specific microbial groups varied between test systems and with time. Some prediction of biofouling potential was possible, and it was concluded that the cooling water in the vicinity of Bruce NGS had the lowest biofouling potential whereas greater biofouling could be expected in the Pickering and Nanticoke stations

  7. LiOH as corrosion inhibitor for component cooling water system in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling water system for the auxiliary machines and coolers in the primary cooling system of a PWR forms closed loops, and has the function to prevent the release of fluid containing radioactive substances even if leak occurs in the primary cooling system. This system is mainly composed of carbon steel, and copper and its alloys are used for the sea water cooling. The auxiliary machines and coolers in the primary cooling system are made of stainless steel. Therefore, the rust prevention method used for this system must be effective for these metals or must not give harmful effect. As the rust prevention method for the plants in operation, chromic acid process and hydrazine process have been used, but the environmental pollution by chrome and the ammonia attack on copper alloys may occur. As the rust prevention process to improve these problems, LiOH method was examined. This cooling water system comprises four pumps, four water coolers, one surge tank, pipes and valves, and the water quality control in the system is explained. The rust prevention effect of LiOH for carbon steel, copper and its alloys was examined. Particular consideration is not required in the case of copper and its alloys, but pH higher than 12 is unsuitalbe. For the perfect rust prevention of carbon steel, the dissolved oxygen concentration must be less than 0.1 ppn, and pH must be more than 10. (Kako,I.)

  8. Heat transfer enhancement using air-atomized spray cooling with water-Al2O3 nano-fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with the air-atomized spray cooling using nano-fluid as the cooling media for high heat flux applications. The nano-fluid has been prepared by commercial Al2O3 particles of diameter less than 13 nm and water. Heat transfer study has been carried out on a pre-heated steel specimen of dimensions 100 mm x 100 mm x 6 mm. The initial temperature of the plate which was subjected to air-atomized spray cooling was over 900 deg. C. Various coolants consisting of 0.1% volumetric concentration of water -Al2O3 mixture, with or without a dispersing agent (surfactant) were used for the study. The dispersing agents used are sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20). Inverse heat conduction software INTEMP has been used for estimating the surface heat flux and temperatures taking into account the measured internal temperature histories by the thermocouples during the cooling process. The results obtained using nano-fluid coolants are compared with that of the results where pure water (filtered potable water) is used as a coolant. The analyses reveal that the cooling rate, critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficients are significantly enhanced when nano-fluids are used as coolants in air-atomized spray process. Also, the nano-fluid coolants with dispersing agent shows a better enhancement of heat transfer over that of the nano-fluid without the dispersing media. The nano-fluid with dispersing agent Tween 20 is found more effective than that of its counterpart. Overall, the percentage enhancement in cooling rate of all these nano-fluids compared with pure water (filtered potable water) is 10.2% for water-Al2O3, 18.6% for water-Al2O3-SDS, and up to 32.3% for water-Al2O3 -Tween 20. (authors)

  9. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Hashim A.; Numan, Ali H.; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R.

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%).

  10. The situation of the cooling water in the Federal Republic of Germany 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 75% of the water demand in the Federal Republic of Germany are being used for cooling purposes. In spite of this important share, the topic of the discharge of waste heat was slumbering in nothingness until the end of the sixties. The principle according to which power plants were only designed for fresh water cooling had only been broken in a few areas (such as the Rhenish brown coal district or in the Ruhr pit coal area). After the Rhine had been included in the power plant design, the public interest changed lastingly. A problem which remains to be settled is that one of the limits to the extraction of water for cooling purposes. Often people fail to see that in addition to the other uses, the waters also fulfil the important function of supplying make-up water for cooling purposes. In some regions, this supply can only be secured by means of lare-area economics of water supply and distribution (artificial measures). All questions pertaining to the cooling water requirements and how they are to be met should soon be settled in fruitful discussions with the representatives of the Laender. (orig.)

  11. The situation of cooling water in the Federal Republic of Germany 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 75% of the water demand in the Federal Republic of Germany are being used for cooling purposes. In spite of this important share, the topic of the discharge of waste heat was slumbering in nothingness until the end of the 'sixties. The principle according to which power plants were only designed for fresh water cooling had only been broken in a few areas (such as the Rhenish brown coal district or in the Ruhr pit coal area). After the Rhine had been included in the power plant design, the public interest changed lastingly. A problem which remains to be settled is that one of the limits ot the extraction of water for cooling purposes. Often people fail to see that in addition to the other uses, the waters also fulfil the important function of supplying make-up water for cooling purposes. In some regions, this supply can only be secured by means of large-area economics of water supply and distribution (artificial measures). All questions pertaining to the cooling water requirements and how they are to be met should soon be settled in fruitful discussions with the representatives of the Laender. (orig.)

  12. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  13. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  14. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  15. Calculation of Radioactivity and Dose Rate of Activated Corrosion Products in Water-Cooled Fusion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.

  16. Water-cooled, fire boom blanket, test and evaluation for system prototype development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial development of actively cooled fire booms indicated that water-cooled barriers could withstand direct oil fire for several hours with little damage if cooling water were continuously supplied. Despite these early promising developments, it was realized that to build reliable full-scale system for Navy host salvage booms would require several development tests and lengthy evaluations. In this experiment several types of water-cooled fire blankets were tested at the Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Test Tank (OHMSETT). After the burn test the blankets were inspected for damage and additional tests were conducted to determine handling characteristics for deployment, recovery, cleaning and maintenance. Test results showed that water-cooled fire boom blankets can be used on conventional offshore oil containment booms to extend their use for controlling large floating-oil marine fires. Results also demonstrated the importance of using thermoset rubber coated fabrics in the host boom to maintain sufficient reserve seam strength at elevated temperatures. The suitability of passively cooled covers should be investigated to protect equipment and boom from indirect fire exposure. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Simultaneous effects of water spray and crosswind on performance of natural draft dry cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadikia Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water spray and crosswind on the effectiveness of the natural draft dry cooling tower (NDDCT, a three-dimensional model has been developed. Efficiency of NDDCT is improved by water spray system at the cooling tower entrance for high ambient temperature condition with and without crosswind. The natural and forced heat convection flow inside and around the NDDCT is simulated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in both air and water droplet phases. Comparison of the numerical results with one-dimensional analytical model and the experimental data illustrates a well-predicted heat transfer rate in the cooling tower. Applying water spray system on the cooling tower radiators enhances the cooling tower efficiency at both no wind and windy conditions. For all values of water spraying rate, NDDCTs operate most effectively at the crosswind velocity of 3m/s and as the wind speed continues to rise to more than 3 m/s up to 12 m/s, the tower efficiency will decrease by approximately 18%, based on no-wind condition. The heat transfer rate of radiator at wind velocity 10 m/s is 11.5% lower than that of the no wind condition. This value is 7.5% for water spray rate of 50kg/s.

  18. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.

  19. Two dimensional distribution of tritium breeding ratio and induced activity in Japanese water cooled and helium cooled test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid breeder blankets are regarded as a near-at-hand blanket concept for a fusion power demonstration plant in Japan. Test blanket module (TBM) to be tested in ITER is the most important milestone to establish the fusion demonstration blanket. For the candidate TBM's, two types of TBM, water cooled solid breeder TBM, and a helium gas cooled solid breeder TBM have been proposed and designed in JAERI. For detailed performance study under operation and after shut down, detailed neutronics analysis gives the most important design conditions, such as, distribution of tritium breeding ratio, nuclear heating rate during operation, and induced activation and decay heat after termination of irradiation. In the analysis, neutron and gamma transportation was calculated by two dimensional analysis code, DOT3.5, for two TBMs. Nuclear reaction rate and induced activation rate were evaluated by APPLE-3 and ACT-4, respectively. The analysis model included configurations of thermo-mechanical test modules and surrounding common frames for both of He cooled and water cooled TBMs. By the neutronics analysis, TBR and contact dose rate by induced activation till one year after termination of the module testing have been evaluated. For the evaluation of induced activation level change and decay heat change, the transient decreases in one year after termination of the module testing have been calculated. The time duration of the module testing before termination of testing is assumed to be 133 continuous days of full power operation. The result of TBR analysis showed that TBR distribution in the toroidal direction of TBM is not significant, however, the neutron flux decreases in the region of sidewall of common frame made of SS and water. This result shows that there is relatively large neutron loss from the TBM to the common frame. Thus, it is considered that the TBR value observed in the TBM testing may be smaller than the estimation by one dimensional neutronics analysis which does

  20. The Modification of Sodium Polyacrylate Water Solution Cooling Properties by AL2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gęstwa

    2010-01-01

    Based on cooling curves, it can be concluded that for the water solution of sodium polyacrylate with AL2O3 nanoparticles in comparison to water and 10% polymer water solution lower cooling speed is obtained. The cooling medium containing nanoparticles provides lower cooling speed in the smallest surface austenite occurance (500–600 C in the charts of the CTP for most nonalloy structural steels and low-alloy steels. However lower cooling temperature at the beginning of martensitic transformation causes the formation of smaller internal stresses, leading to smaller dimensional changes and hardening deformation. For the quenching media the wetting angle was appointed by the drop-shape method. These studies showed the best wettability of polymer water solution (sodium polyacrylate with the addition of AL2O3 nanoparticles, whose wetting angle was about 65 degrees. Obtaining the smallest wetting angle for the medium containing nanoparticles suggests that the heat transfer to the cooling medium is larger. This allows slower cooling at the same time ensuring its homogeneity. The obtained values of wetting angle confirm the conclusions drawn on the basis of cooling curves and allowus to conclude that in the case of the heat transfer rate it will have a lower value than for water and 10% polymer water solution. In the research on hardened carburized steel samples C10 and 16MnCr5 surface hardness, impact strength and changes in the size of cracks in Navy C-ring sample are examined. On this basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that polymer water solution with nanoparticles allows to obtain a better impact strength at comparable hardness on the surface. Research on the dimensional changes on the basis of the sample of Navy C-ring also shows small dimensional changes for samples carburized and hardened in 10% polymer water solution with the addition of nanoparticles AL2O3. Smaller dimensional changes were obtained for samples of steel 16MnCr5 thanfar C10. The

  1. Soft-Sensing Method of Water Temperature Measurement for Controlled Cooling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hui; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; FAN Lei

    2003-01-01

    Aiming at the water temperature measuring problem for controlled cooling system of rolling plant, a new water temperature measuring method based on soft-sensing method with a water temperature model of on-line self correction parameter was built. A water temperature compensation factor model was also built to improve coiling temperature control precision. It was proved that the model meets production requirements. The soft-sensing technique has extensive applications in the field of metal forming.

  2. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases

  3. Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was studied under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

  4. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  5. Study on Effects of Diesel Engine Cooling System Parameters on Water Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆清国; 冯建涛; 刘国夫; 桂勇

    2011-01-01

    A simulation model for a certain diesel engine cooling system is set up by using GT-COOL. The backwater tem- perature response in different operating conditions is simulated numerically. The effects of single or multiple system parameters on the water temperature are analyzed. The results show that, changing different single parameters, the time taken for the steady backwater temperature is different, but relatively short; and if multiple parameters are changed, the time will be longer. Referred to the thermal balance test, the simulation results are validated and provide a basis for the intelligent con- trol of the cooling system.

  6. Advanced water-cooled reactor technologies. Rationale, state of progress and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty per cent of the world's power reactors are water cooled and moderated. Many improvements in their design and operation have been implemented since the first such reactor started commercial operation in 1957. This report addresses the safety, environmental and economic rationales for further improvements, as well as their relevance to currently operating water reactors

  7. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understandin

  8. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122 and 125 RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection... proposed requirements under section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act for all existing power...

  9. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  10. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  11. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.; Spasojević Miroslav D.; Gvozdenović Milica M.; Jugović Branimir Z.; Rafailović Lidija D.

    2016-01-01

    The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine....

  12. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  13. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  14. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation. PMID:24625241

  15. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  16. Simulation of the solidification in a channel of a water-cooled glass flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Ovando Chacon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study of a laminar steady-state glass flow that exits from a channel cooled with water is reported. The simulations are carried out in a two-dimensional, Cartesian channel with a backward-facing step for three different angles of the step and different glass outflow velocities. We studied the interaction of the fluid dynamics, phase change and thermal behavior of the glass flow due to the heat that transfers to the cooling water through the wall of the channel. The temperature, streamline, phase change and pressure fields are obtained and analyzed for the glass flow. Moreover, the temperature increments of the cooling water are characterized. It is shown that, by reducing the glass outflow velocity, the solidification is enhanced; meanwhile, an increase of the step angle also improves the solidification of the glass flow.

  17. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua-Chang; OUYANG Hua-Fu

    2008-01-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport(MEBT)line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS(China Spallation Neutron Source).A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity,higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting.By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH,the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out,the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented,the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  18. Thermal analysis and water-cooling design of the CSNS MEBT 324 MHz buncher cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Chang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2008-04-01

    At least two bunchers are needed in the 3 MeV H- Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line located between RFQ and DTL for the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). A nose-cone geometry has been adopted as the type of buncher cavity for its simplicity, higher impedance and lower risk of multipacting. By making use of the results got from the simulations on the buncher with two-dimension code SUPERFISH, the thermal and structural analyses have been carried out, the process and results to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity are presented, the water-cooling channel position and the optimum cooling water temperature as well as the tuning method by adjusting the cooling water temperature when the cavity is out of resonance are also determined through the analyses.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YaoHan; Su, ChungHwei; Tseng, JoMing; Li, WunJie

    2015-01-01

    The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  1. Ice water submersion for rapid cooling in severe drug-induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Larissa K.; Landry, Adaira; Vassallo, Susi U.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimal method of cooling hyperthermic patients is controversial. Although controlled data support ice water submersion, many authorities recommend a mist and fan technique. We report two patients with drug-induced hyperthermia, to demonstrate the rapid cooing rates of ice water submersion. Case details Case 1. A 27-year-old man presented with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome and a core temperature of 41.4°C after ingesting 4-fluoroamphetamine. He was submerged in ice water and his core temperature fell to 38°C within 18 minutes (a mean cooling rate of 0.18°C/min). His vital signs stabilized, his mental status improved and he left on hospital day 2. Case 2. A 32-year-old man with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome after cocaine use was transported in a body bag and arrived with a core temperature of 44.4°C. He was intubated, sedated with IV benzodiazepines, and submerged in ice water. After 20 minutes his temperature fell to 38.8°C (a cooling rate of 0.28°C/min). He was extubated the following day, and discharged on day 10. Discussion In these two cases, cooling rates exceeded those reported for mist and fan technique. Since the priority in hyperthermia is rapid cooling, clinical data need to be collected to reaffirm the optimal approach. PMID:25695144

  2. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  3. Water-cooled blanket concepts for the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) was to select a limited number of blanket concepts for fusion power reactors, to serve as the focus for the U.S. Department of Energy blanket research and development program. The concepts considered most seriously by the BCSS can be grouped for discussion purposes by coolant: liquid metals and alloys, pressurized water, helium, and nitrate salts. Concepts using pressurized water as the coolant are discussed. Water-cooled concepts using liquid breeders-lithium and 17Li-83Pb (LiPb)-have severe fundamental safety problems. The use of lithium and water in the blanket was considered unacceptable. Initial results of tests at Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory using steam injected into molten LiPb indicate that use of LiPb and water together in a blanket is a very serious concern from the safety standpoint. Key issues for water-cooled blankets with solid tritium breeders (Li2O, or a ternary oxide such as LiAlO2) were identified and examined: reliability against leaks, control of tritium permeation into the coolant, retention of breeder physical integrity, breeder temperature predictability, determination of allowable temperature limits for breeders, and 6Li burnup effects (for LiAlO2). The BCSS's final rankings and associated rationale for all water-cooled concepts are examined. Key issues and factors for tokamak and tandem mirror reactor versions of water-cooled solid breeder concepts are discussed. The reference design for the top-ranked concept-LiAlO2 breeder, ferritic steel structure, and beryllium neutron multiplier-is presented. Finally, some general conclusions for water-cooled blanket concepts are drawn based on the study's results

  4. Operation and Licensing of Mixed Cores in Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel is a highly complex material that is subject to continuous development and is produced by a range of manufacturers. During operation of a nuclear power plant, the nuclear fuel is subject to extreme conditions of temperature, corroding environment and irradiation, and many different designs of fuel have been manufactured with differing fuel materials, cladding materials and assembly structure to ensure these conditions. The core of an operating power plant can contain hundreds of fuel assemblies, and where there is more than a single design of a fuel assembly in the core, whether through a change of fuel vendor, introduction of an improved design or for some other reason, the core is described as a mixed core. The task of ensuring that the different assembly types do not interact in a harmful manner, causing, for example, differing flow resistance resulting in under cooling, is an important part of ensuring nuclear safety. This report has compiled the latest information on the operational experience of mixed cores and the tools and techniques that are used to analyse the core operation and demonstrate that there are no safety related problems with its operation. This publication is a result of a technical meeting in 2011 and a series of consultants meetings

  5. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  6. Dropwise condensation: Experiments and simulations of nucleation and growth of water drops in a cooling system

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, R. N.; Stevens, F; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Dropwise condensation of water vapor from a naturally cooling, hot water reservoir onto a hydrophobic polymer film and a silanized glass slide was studied by direct observation and simulations. The observed drop growth kinetics suggest that smallest drops grow principally by the diffusion of water adsorbed on the substrate to the drop perimeter, while drops larger than 50 μm in diameter grow principally by direct deposition from the vapor onto the drop surface. Drop coalescence plays a critic...

  7. Measurement of the Cooling Efficiency of Pavement-Watering as an Urban Heat Island Mitigation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hendel

    2015-03-01

    Pavement watering was found to lower pavement surface temperatures by several degrees for several hours after watering, while also strongly reducing its cooling rate a few hours before and after sunset. Heat flux and storage at a depth of 5 cm in the pavement were also found to have been significantly reduced, especially during direct sunlight exposure, but also when the pavement was in the shade. Uninterrupted watering appears necessary during direct sunlight exposure of the pavement to maximize efficiency.

  8. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  9. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power reactors... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections...

  10. Progress in development and design aspects of advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide an international forum for technical specialists to review and discuss technology developments and design work for advanced water cooled reactors, safety approaches and features of current water cooled reactors and to identify, understand and describe advanced features for safety and operational improvements. The TCM was attended by 92 participants representing 18 countries and two international organizations and included 40 presentations by authors of 14 countries and one international organization. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these presentations. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Methods and technologies for cost reduction in the design of water cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specialists Meeting was organized in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for review and discussion on recent results in research and development on different methods and technologies of current and advanced water-cooled reactor power plants, which can lead to reduced investment and operation, maintenance and fuel-cycle costs of the plants. 27 specialists representing 10 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting. 10 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. The Simulation of the Influence of Water Remnants on a Hot Rolled Plate after Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zahradník

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In situations when a sheet metal plate of large dimensions is rolled, water remnants from cooling can be observed on the upper side of the plate. This paper focuses on deformations of a hot rolled sheet metal plate that are caused by water remnants after cooling. A transient finite element simulation was used to describe shape deformations of the cross profile of a metal sheet. The finite element model is fully parametric for easy simulation of multiple cases. The results from previous work were used for the boundary conditions.

  13. Development and construction of the novel solar thermal desiccant cooling system incorporating hot water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co. Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    This paper reports the development and construction of the novel solar cooling and heating system. The system consists of the thermal energy subsystem and the desiccant cooling subsystem. The system utilizes both the cheaper nighttime electric energy and the free daytime solar energy. The system is conceptualized to produce both cooling during summer daytime and hot water production during winter. Testing and evaluation of the system had been done to determine its operational procedure and performance. Based on the results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage. The desiccant cooling subsystem reduced both the temperature and the humidity content of the air using solar energy with a minimal amount of back-up electric energy. The system however, needs further investigation under real conditions. (author)

  14. Vibrational and rotational cooling of electrons by water vapor. [in cometary ionospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, T. E.; Korosmezey, A.

    1986-01-01

    The cooling of electrons by vibrational and rotational excitation of water molecules plays an important role in the thermal balance of electrons in cometary ionospheres. The energy-loss function for rotational excitation and deexcitation of H2O by electron impact is calculated theoretically. The rotational cooling rate is calculated using this loss function for a wide range of electron and neutral temperatures. The vibrational cooling rate is calculated using measured values of electron-impact vibrational excitation cross sections. Analytical formulas are provided for some of the cooling rates. The interaction of ions with H2O molecules is also discussed, and a formula is suggested for the momentum-transfer collision frequency.

  15. Perceived Social Support and Academic Achievement in Argentinean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe de la Iglesia; Juliana Beatriz Stover; Mercedes Fernández Liporace

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed at describing perceived social support and its relation to academic achievement in a sample of 760 Argentinean college students. Perception of social support was assessed in terms of four possible sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and boyfriend/girlfriend or best friend. Academic achievement was measured using three different indicators: the rate of passed, failed and dropped classes in the time since the academic career was initiated. The main hypothesis posed was t...

  16. Solid water phantom heat conduction: Heating and cooling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N

    2008-01-01

    Solid water is often the phantom material of choice for dosimetry procedures in radiotherapy high-energy X-ray and electron beam radiation calibration and quality assurance. This note investigates variation in heat conduction that can occur for a common commercially available solid water stack phantom when a temperature differential occurs between the phantom and ambient temperature. These variations in temperature can then affect radiation measurements and thus the accuracy of radiation dosimetry. In this manuscript, we aim to investigate the variations in temperature which can occur in radiation measurement incorporated (RMI) solid water phantoms, their thermal properties and the effects on radiation dosimetry which can occur because of temperature differentials. Results have shown that the rate of temperature change at a phantom center is a complex function but appears relatively proportional to the surface area of the phantom in normal clinical usage. It is also dependent on the thermal conductivity of any material in contact with the phantom; and the nature of the phantom construction, i.e., the number and thickness of slices within the phantom. A thermal time constant of approximately 20 min was measured for a 2-cm solid water phantom slice when located on a steel workbench in comparison to 60 min when located on a wooden workbench (linac couch insert). It is found that for larger solid water stack phantoms, a transient (within 1 degrees C) thermal equilibrium exists at the center for up to 2 h, before the temperature begins to change. This is assumed to be due to the insulating properties of multiple slices within the stack, whereby very small air spaces are introduced inhibiting the heat conduction through the phantom material. It is therefore recommended that the solid water/phantom material is kept within the treatment room for closest thermal accuracy conditions or at least placed within the room approximately 10 h before dosimetry measurements. If these

  17. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solution was developed to calculate the multiphase flow field. The temperature data predictions agreed well with the experimental results. When water was injected into the plume, the high temperature core region area was reduced, and the temperature on the head face was much lower than that without water. The relationship between the reduction of temperature on the bottom plate and the momentum ratio is developed, which can be used to predict the cooling effect of water injection in many cases.

  18. PARAMETERS OF WATER CIRCULATION NETWORK FOR A DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In a district heating and cooling system, i.e. Beijing combined heating cooling and power (CHCP) system studied here, high temperature water generated by two cogeneration plants circulates through a network between the plants and heat substations. At heat substations, supply water of high temperature from the network drives absorption chillers for air-conditioning in summer and meets space heating demands in winter or domestic hot water demands by heat exchangers in the whole year. The parameters, i.e. supply/return water temperature in the network, has a great impact on primary energy consumption (PEC) of the absorption chillers, circulation pumps and domestic hot water (DHW), which is studied in this paper.

  19. Studies on advanced water-cooled reactors beyond generation Ⅲ for power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation Ⅲ to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power. The paper discusses some main criteria for the selection of future water-cooled reactors by considering the specific Chinese situation. Based on the suggested selection criteria, two new types of water-cooled reactors are recommended for future Chinese nuclear power generation. The high conversion pressurized water reactor utilizes the present PWR technology to a large extent. With a conversion ratio of about 0.95, the fuel utilization is increased about 5 times. This significantly improves the sustainability of fuel resources. The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics,sustainability and technology availability. It is a logical extension of the generation Ⅲ PWR technology in China.The status of international R&D work is reviewed. A new supercritieal water-cooled reactor (SCWR) core structure (the mixed reactor core) and a new fuel assembly design (two-rows FA) are proposed. The preliminary analysis using a coupled neutron-physics/thermal-hydranlics method is carded out. It shows good feasibility for the new design proposal.

  20. Cooling water treatment - Processes and regulations; Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Verfahren und Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, J. [Aquatech GmbH, Nieder-Olm (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Determination of optimal water treatment methods is to be based on requirements set by technical specifications, economic efficiency aspects, and legal regulations. It is an important task and should be done by experts in cooperation with the responsible supervisory bodies. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, dass bei der Auswahl des optimalen Verfahrens einer Kuehlwasserbehandlung technische Anforderungen, wirtschaftliche Vorgaben und behoerdliche Auflagen gleichermassen beruecksichtigt werden muessen. Diese Aufgabe sollte von Fachleuten wahrgenommen und mit den zustaendigen Behoerden abgestimmt werden. (orig.)

  1. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  2. Structure of Water Mist Stream and its Impact on Cooling Efficiency of Casting Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys. The paper presents results of research and analysis process, spraying water and generated a stream of water mist, the effect of the type of nozzle, the nozzle size and shape of the emitting of the water mist on the wall surface of casting die on the microstructure and geometry of water mist stream and cooling efficiency. Tests were used to perform high-speed camera to record video in the visible and infrared camera. Results were used to develop a computerized image analysis and statistical analysis. The study showed that there are statistical relationships between water and air flow and geometry of the nozzle and nozzle emitting a stream of microstructure parameters of water mist and heat the incoming stream. These relationships are described mathematical models that allow you to control the generating of adequate stream of water mist and a further consequence, the cooling efficiency of casting die.

  3. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to

  4. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water

  5. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  6. Calculations on heavy-water moderated and cooled natural uranium fuelled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the codes that the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico) has for the nuclear reactors design calculations is the LEOPARD code. This work studies the reliability of this code in reactors design calculations which component materials are the same of the heavy water moderated and cooled, natural uranium fuelled power reactors. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 63.1086 - How must I monitor for leaks to cooling water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrode monitoring, pH, conductivity, or other representative indicators. (1) You shall prepare and... cooling water using any method listed in 40 CFR part 136. Use the same method for both entrance and exit samples. You may validate 40 CFR part 136 methods for the HAP listed in Table 1 to this subpart...

  8. SEAFP cooling system design. Task M8 - water coolant option (final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the ex-vessel portions of the outline designs for first wall, blanket and divertor cooling using water as the heat transport fluid. Equipment layout, key components and main system parameters are also described. (author). 7 tabs., 14 figs

  9. Adjunctive effect of a water-cooled Nd : YAG laser in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Dagmer Else; Kranendonk, Aart A; Van der Reijden, Wil A; Van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Rosema, Nanning A M; Schulein, Wendelien H; Van der Velden, Ubele; Van der Weijden, Fridus A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test whether use of a water-cooled Nd:YAG laser adjunctive to supra- and subgingival debridement (SRP) with hand and ultrasonic instruments results in greater clinical improvement than SRP alone. Another objective was to investigate the reduction in the number of microorganisms. METHO

  10. Management of water leaks on Tore Supra actively cooled fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, Tore Supra is the only fusion device fully equipped with actively cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In case of abnormal events during a plasma discharge, the PFCs could be submitted to a transient high power density (run away electrons) or to a continuous phenomena as local thermal flux induced by trapped suprathermal electrons or ions). It could lead to a degradation of the PFC integrity and in the worst case to a water leak occurrence. Such water leak has important consequence on the tokamak operation that concerns PFCs themselves, monitoring equipment located in the vacuum vessel or connected to the ports as RF antennas, diagnostics or pumping systems. Following successive water leak events (the most important water leak, that occurred in September 2002, is described in the paper), a large feedback experience has been gained on Tore supra since more than 15 years that could be useful to actively cooled next devices as W7X and ITER. (authors)

  11. Improving economics and safety of water cooled reactors. Proven means and new approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) with water cooled reactors [either light water reactors (LWRs) or heavy water reactors (HWRs)] constitute the large majority of the currently operating plants. Water cooled reactors can make a significant contribution to meeting future energy needs, to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to energy security if they can compete economically with fossil alternatives, while continuing to achieve a very high level of safety. It is generally agreed that the largest commercial barrier to the addition of new nuclear power capacity is the high capital cost of nuclear plants relative to other electricity generating alternatives. If nuclear plants are to form part of the future generating mix in competitive electricity markets, capital cost reduction through simplified designs must be an important focus. Reductions in operating, maintenance and fuel costs should also be pursued. The Department of Nuclear Energy of the IAEA is examining the competitiveness of nuclear power and the means for improving its economics. The objective of this TECDOC is to emphasize the need, and to identify approaches, for new nuclear plants with water cooled reactors to achieve competitiveness while maintaining high levels of safety. The cost reduction methods discussed herein can be implemented into plant designs that are currently under development as well as into designs that may be developed in the longer term. Many of the approaches discussed also generally apply to other reactor types (e.g. gas cooled and liquid metal cooled reactors). To achieve the largest possible cost reductions, proven means for reducing costs must be fully implemented, and new approaches described in this document should be developed and implemented. These new approaches include development of advanced technologies, increased use of risk-informed methods for evaluating the safety benefit of design features, and international consensus regarding commonly acceptable safety requirements that

  12. Spray cooling by solid jet nozzles using alumina/water nano-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of spray cooling with a solid jet nozzle was performed to assess the associated heat transfer coefficients (HTC) using water/alumina nano-fluids. Based on a thermal probe embedded in a heated testing plate, the cooling curves, which represent the transient temperature variations of the plate, have been measured at various spraying conditions. An inverse heat transfer technique was then applied to convert these measured cooling curves into the HTC. The results indicated that, after its first peak, the HTC became very stable with the associated standard deviation less than 3% of its mean and the single mean value could reliably represent the performance of spraying cooling for all cases considered. The results also showed that the HTC increased with the flow rate intensities, following a power-law type of correlation. By comparing the nano-fluid results with that of pure water, it was found that an approximately 45% decrease of HTC of spray cooling with the volume fraction of the nano-particle suspension increasing from 0 to 0.1645. The reduction of HTC caused by the change of the spraying impact duration due to the presence of nano-particles was specifically analyzed and an analytical formula to correlate this effect was developed to further explain the combined effects of nano-particles on HTC. (authors)

  13. A water-cooling solution for PC-racks of the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vannerem, P

    2004-01-01

    With ever increasing power consumption and heat dissipation of todays CPUs, cooling of rack-mounted PCs is an issue for the future online farms of the LHC experiments. In order to investigate the viability of a water-cooling solution, a prototype PC-farm rack has been equipped with a commercially available retrofitted heat exchanger. The project has been carried out as a collaboration of the four LHC experiments and the PH-ESS group . This note reports on the results of a series of cooling and power measurements of the prototype rack with configurations of 30 to 48 PCs. The cooling performance of the rack-cooler is found to be adequate; it extracts the heat dissipated by the CPUs efficiently into the cooling water. Hence, the closed PC rack transfers almost no heat into the room. The measurements and the failure tests show that the rack-cooler concept is a viable solution for the future PC farms of the LHC experiments.

  14. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Yi Jiang; Shaozhen Yu; Fan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solu...

  15. Self-optimizing Control of Cooling Tower for Efficient Operation of Chilled Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.; Li, Pengfei

    2012-01-01

    The chilled-water systems, mainly consisting of electric chillers and cooling towers, are crucial for the ventilating and air conditioning systems in commercial buildings. Energy efficient operation of such systems is thus important for the energy saving of commercial buildings. This paper presents an extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme for energy efficient operation of the chilled-water system, and presents a Modelica based dynamic simulation model for demonstrating the effectiveness of th...

  16. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  17. Water chemistry management in cooling system of research reactor in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The department of research reactor presently operates three research reactors (JRR-2, JRR-3M and JRR-4). For controlling and management of water and gas in each research reactor are performed by the staffs of the research reactor technology development division. Water chemistry management of each research reactor is one of the important subject. The main objects are to prevent the corrosion of water cooling system and fuel elements, to suppress the plant radiation build-up and to minimize the radioactive waste. In this report describe a outline of each research reactor facilities, radiochemical analytical methods and chemical analytical methods for water chemistry management. (author)

  18. Corrosion resistance of structural material AlMg-2 in water following heat treatment and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion tests of structural material AlMg-2 in water were carried out using autoclave in order to study the effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of the material. Prior to the tests, the samples were heat-treated at temperatures of 90, 200, 300 and 500 °C and cooled in air, sand and water. The corrosion tests were conducted in water at temperature of 150 °C for 250 hours. The results showed that AlMg-2 samples were corroded although the increase of mass gain was relatively small. Heat treatment from 90 to 500 °C in sand cooling media resulted in an increase of mass gain despite that at 300 °C the increase was less than those at 200 °C and 500 °C. For water cooling media in the temperature range of 90 to 200 °C, the mass gain increased from 0.1854 g/cm2 to 2.1204 g/cm2 although after 200 °C it decreased to 1.8207 g/cm2 and 1.6779 g/cm2 respectively. For air cooling media, the mass gain was relatively constant. Based on the experiment results, it can be concluded that heat treatment and cooling did not significantly influence the corrosion resistance of material AlMg-2. The passive film Al2O3 on the surface was able to protect the inner surface from further corrosion. Water media with pH range from 4 – 9 did not cause damage to passive layer formed. (author)

  19. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  20. Liquid-cooled nuclear reactor, especially a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor with a special arrangement of fuel rods in the core is designed. Each fuel element has its shaft which is made of sheets, has the same cross section as the fuel element and protrudes at least the length of the control rod above the reactor core. Made of a zirconium alloy in the core area and of stainless steel above it, the shaft is equipped with channels for sliding the rods in and out and serves to spatially secure the position of the rods. Coolant flow is provided by the chimney effect. The shaft can conveniently enclose the control rod drive. It can also serve to bear the water separator. Moreover, it can constitute a part of the casing which surrounds the fuel rods and keeps the fuel in an intimate contact with the coolant; the other part of this casing is constituted by inserted sheets which can conveniently have the shape of angles. The walls of neighboring shafts form a compartment accommodating a neutron absorber plate. (M.D.). 11 figs

  1. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  2. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few ..mu..g/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 ..mu..g/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  3. Cooling water calorimetry measuring results from the first years of ASDEX Upgrade operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade an extensive cooling water calorimetry system was installed. This system has measured the toroidal and poloidal distributions of the energy deposition by monitoring the temperature rise of the cooling water in 80 separate cooling units in the divertor plates and the central heat shield. The measurements show, that there exist no toroidal asymmetries in the energy deposition on the divertor plates for all kinds of ohmic discharges and for ICRH discharges with a toroidal magnetic field directed opposite to the plasma current. However, Neutral Beam Injection causes a toroidal asymmetric energy deposition profile. Furthermore the reduction of the poloidal in-out asymmetry of the energy load at the divertor plates due to magnetic field reversion was detected. Making up the general energy balance of ASDEX Upgrade, adding the energy detected by the cooling water calorimetry system and the radiation loss energy measured by the bolometry diagnostic, one gets 92%-97% of the energy input. (orig./HD)

  4. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few μg/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 μg/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables

  5. Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Air-Water SprayImpingement Cooling to Enhance Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research focused with the optimization of the heat flux from the surface of a hot steel test plate by air atomized water spray cooling. The air atomized water spray cooling experimental setup was designed and fabricated at School of Mechanical Engineering KIIT University, Odisha, India to investigate the role of various process parameters to enhance the heat flux from the surface of the heated steal specimen. The dimensions of test specimen used in the experiment were 120 mm X 120 mm, having different thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The effect of the process parameters such as thickness of the test plate, nozzle to plate distance, air and water pressure for removal of heat flux were optimized. The optimization of the controlling parameters was carried out by using the response surface method (RSM. A new correlation was developed for optimization of the surface heat flux.

  6. Iron and maganese cooling water deposit removal at SERI, Grand Gulf Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how a chemical approach to the removal of iron and manganese cooling water deposits has been successfully used at SERI, Grand Gulf Nuclear. The cleaning process was implemented on two systems: the A standby service water system and the recirculating cooling water condensers. Both cleanings were accomplished in December 1987 during RF02, even though the patented cleaning process is most often performed on-line. Flows on critical exchangers in the standby loop increased an average 21% after the cleaning, as nearly 10,000 lbs of iron oxide were removed. Condenser tubes were cleaned to a virtually like-new condition as over 36,000 lbs of total deposition were removed, including large amounts of manganese dioxide and iron oxide. Major improvements in condenser performance and unit heat rate were noted at start-up. Prior cleaning efforts with a mechanical process on the condensers yielded less than satisfactory results

  7. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear reactor containment wall cooled by gravitationally falling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Ari D.; Umar, Efrison; Suwono, Aryadi; Manalu, Reinhard E. E.

    2012-06-01

    Gravitationally falling water cooling is one of mechanism utilized by a modern nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) for its Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). Since the cooling is closely related to the safety, water film cooling characteristics of the PCCS should be studied. This paper deals with the experimental study of laminar water film cooling on the containment model wall. The influences of water mass flow rate and wall heat rate on the heat transfer characteristic were studied. This research was started with design and assembly of a containment model equipped with the water cooling system, and calibration of all measurement devices. The containment model is a scaled down model of AP 1000 reactor. Below the containment steam is generated using electrical heaters. The steam heated the containment wall, and then the temperatures of the wall in several positions were measure transiently using thermocouples and data acquisition. The containment was then cooled by falling water sprayed from the top of the containment. The experiments were done for various wall heat rate and cooling water flow rate. The objective of the research is to find the temperature profile along the wall before and after the water cooling applied, prediction of the water film characteristic such as means velocity, thickness and their influence to the heat transfer coefficient. The result of the experiments shows that the wall temperatures significantly drop after being sprayed with water. The thickness of water film increases with increasing water flow rate and remained constant with increasing wall heat rate. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as film mass flow rate increase due to the increases of the film thickness which causes the increasing of the thermal resistance. The heat transfer coefficient increases slightly as the wall heat rate increases. The experimental results were then compared with previous theoretical studied.

  8. Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

    1953-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

  9. Performance of water and diluted ethylene glycol as coolants for electronic cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gayatri,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of transistors increases with new generation of microprocessor chips, the power draw and heat load to dissipate during operation increases. As a result of increasing the heat loads and heat fluxes the Conventional cooling technologies such as fan, heat sinks are unable to absorb and heat transfer excess heat dissipated by these new microprocessor. So, new technologies are needed to improve the heat removal capacity. In the present work single phase liquid cooling system with mini channel is analyzed and experimentally investigated. Mini channels are chosen as to provide higher heat transfer co-efficient than conventional channel. Copper pipes of 0.36 mm diameter are taken to fabricate heat sink and heat exchanger. A pump is used to circulate the fluid through heat sink and heat exchanger. A solid heated aluminium block to simulate heat generated electronic component is used and electrical input is supplied to the heated aluminium block and cooling system is placed over the heated block. The performance of the cooling system is analyzed from the experimental data obtained. It is experimentally observed that the mini channel liquid cooling system with water as a coolant has better performance than diluted ethylene glycol as coolant at different flow rates. The surface temperature of the heated aluminium block with convective heat transfer co-efficient is observed

  10. Investigation in justification of innovation supercritical water-cooled reactor - WWER-SCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-of-the-art, gathered experience and development prospects of water-cooled reactors of next generation are considered. It is pointed out that development of SCWR is more attractive from the viewpoint of the basis principle of infrastructure - NPP adaptation without excessive investments. The results of experimental and calculational study of reactor installations on supercritical parameters (SCP) of water and freon are given. Consideration is given to the data on heat transfer at SCP of coolant, optimization of thermodynamic cycle, codes for thermohydraulic calculations, processes of heat and mass transfer at SCP, mass transfer and corrosion in SCP water, fuel elements and martials

  11. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, J. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  12. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  13. Ecology of Legionella within water cooling circuits of nuclear power plants along the French Loire River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling circuits of nuclear power plants, by their mode of operating, can select thermophilic microorganisms including the pathogenic organism Legionella pneumophila. To control the development of this genus, a disinfection treatment of water cooling systems with monochloramine can be used. To participate in the management of health and environmental risks associated with the physico-chemical and microbiological modification of water collected from the river, EDF is committed to a process of increasing knowledge about the ecology of Legionella in cooling circuits and its links with its environment (physical, chemical and microbiological) supporting or not their proliferation. Thus, diversity and dynamics of culturable Legionella pneumophila were determined in the four nuclear power plants along the Loire for a year and their links with physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were studied. This study revealed a high diversity of Legionella pneumophila subpopulations and their dynamic seems to be related to the evolution of a small number of subpopulations. Legionella subpopulations seem to maintain strain-specific relationships with biotic parameters and present different sensitivities to physico-chemical variations. The design of cooling circuits could impact the Legionella community. The use of monochloramine severely disrupts the ecosystem but does not select biocide tolerant subpopulations. (author)

  14. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed. PMID:27191579

  15. Spatial assessment of Argentinean genetic admixture with geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Walier, Maja; Penacino, Gustavo; Wienker, Thomas F; Baur, Max P

    2011-08-01

    In recent years there has been much attention to Argentinean population stratification. We were interested in assessing population stratification from a geographical perspective and summarizing it in form of maps. We mapped the genetic admixture of the extant male population in central and northern Argentina on the basis of forensic Y-chromosomal haplotypes. We addressed the question which group of genetically similar individuals is predominant in this area. Haplotypes containing seven Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs), also known as microsatellites - DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 - were constructed for 145 individuals, recruited in 10 provinces. 97 distinct haplotypes were clustered into four clusters according to molecular distances. A genetic geostatistical analysis was conducted with the open-source geographical information system GRASS GIS. For each haplotype cluster, the according frequency was spatially interpolated over the total study area. Juxtaposing the interpolation surfaces, we screened point-wisely the maximal frequency as well as the label of the respective cluster. The screening results were combined in one summary map. We repeated this procedure for the second maximal frequencies. The resulting maps subdivide the study area into continuous regions comprising one predominant group of similar haplotypes. The first summary map divides the study area into three regions and the second summary map divides the area into four regions. The results of our analysis indicate that two groups of similar European haplotypes alternatively dominate the largest extension of the Argentinean territory. A third group, including South-American haplotypes, dominates the indigenous northwestern Argentinean area. The last group, including worldwide dispersed haplotypes, preponderates in frequency in second place in central Argentina. Our findings confirm a widespread European paternal ancestry, a substantial Amerindian

  16. Investigation of changes in the microflora of brackish water passing through power plant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the bacterial- and phytoplankton population in the brackish water during the passage of fresh water cooling systems in the community power plant of Kiel (GKK) and in the nuclear power plant of Brunsbuettel were subject of the examinations. In addition, laboratory tests were carried out and a method was developed to determine thermal changes in the bacterial activity (measured as glucose uptake) in the condensator independent on the mechanical influences. Following points describe the starting position in the incoming cooling water of the GKK: 1) The annual cycle of the bacterial activity is temporally delayed in relation to the natural course of the temperature. 2) The annual course of the phytoplankton is primarily regulated by the light and nutrition offered while the temperature is only of indirect importance. 3) The particular organic material is, beside the dissolved organic compounds, important for the biological oxygen household in the Kieler Foerde. Changes in the bacterial population and the phytoplankton flora occur during the passage of the cooling system in the community power plant of Kiel. In the heated water samples behind the condensator, an increase in the bacterial activity by 11% on an average is seen. This increase is also found in the biochemical oxygen consumption after 30 hours. On an average, it is about 19%. Changes in the phytoplankton in the cooling water are only insignificantly due to the thermal influences; here, the hazards are rather due to the mechanical burden. At the KBB, an annual cycle could not be recorded because of the numerous operational disturbances. The bacterial glucose uptake in the river Elbe shows no temperature-dependent fluctuations. (orig./MG)

  17. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  18. Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ► The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ► A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ► The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ► The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at −196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

  19. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  20. Microbially influenced corrosion in cooling water systems. Development of a new protection concept for system components conveying brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Simone; Richter, Tobias [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant, Brokdorf (Germany); Nowak, Erika [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Corrosive findings ascribed to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), have been increasingly observed on cooling water systems in Northern German nuclear power plants. By means of a research programme (field tests), high-alloyed materials with different pitting resistance equivalent numbers (PREN), various surface finishing and various coatings were evaluated, based on microbiological preliminary research, with respect to their corrosion behaviour in natural brackish water. Subsequent material evaluations, in combination with other measures, provided a new standard of knowledge for the development of a protection concept for components conveying brackish water. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary Analysis on Heat Removal Capacity of Passive Air-Water Combined Cooling Heat Exchanger Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Sin; Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Current design requirement for working time of PAFS heat exchanger is about 8 hours. Thus, it is not satisfied with the required cooling capability for the long term SBO(Station Black-Out) situation that is required to over 72 hours cooling. Therefore PAFS is needed to change of design for 72 hours cooling. In order to acquirement of long terms cooling using PAFS, heat exchanger tube has to be submerged in water tank for long time. However, water in the tank is evaporated by transferred heat from heat exchanger tubes, so water level is gradually lowered as time goes on. The heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger is core parameter that is used for decision of applicability on passive air-water combined cooling system using PAFS in long term cooling. In this study, the development of MARS input model and plant accident analysis are performed for the prediction of the heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger. From analysis result, it is known that inflow air velocity is the decisive factor of the heat removal capacity and predicted air velocity is lower than required air velocity. But present heat transfer model and predicted air velocity have uncertainty. So, if changed design of PAFS that has over 4.6 kW heat removal capacity in each tube, this type heat exchanger can be applied to long term cooling of the nuclear power plant.

  2. Water cooling of shocks in protostellar outflows: Herschel-PACS map of L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Nisini, B; Codella, C; Giannini, T; Liseau, R; Neufeld, D; Tafalla, M; van Dishoeck, E F; Bachiller, R; Baaudry, A; Benz, O A; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Encrenaz, P; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Goicoechea, J R; de Graaw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J; Kaufman, M; Kirstensen, L; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Plime, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Viti, S; Wampfler, S; Wyrowski, F; van der Tak, F; Yildiz, U A; Delforge, B; Desbat, J; Hatch, W A; Peron, I; Schieder, R; Stern, J A; Teyssier, D; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program, maps in water lines of several outflows from young stars are being obtained, to study the water production in shocks and its role in the outflow cooling. This paper reports the first results of this program, presenting a PACS map of the o-H2O 179 um transition obtained toward the young outflow L1157. The 179 um map is compared with those of other important shock tracers, and with previous single-pointing ISO, SWAS, and Odin water observations of the same source that allow us to constrain the water abundance and total cooling. Strong H2O peaks are localized on both shocked emission knots and the central source position. The H2O 179 um emission is spatially correlated with emission from H2 rotational lines, excited in shocks leading to a significant enhancement of the water abundance. Water emission peaks along the outflow also correlate with peaks of other shock-produced molecular species, such as SiO and NH3. A strong H2O ...

  3. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  4. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  5. A Numerical Analysis on Freezing Behavior of Flowing Water inside a Pipe Cooled from Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Ryoichi; Izumi, Masaaki

    A freezing phenomenon in forced convectional flow inside a pipe is investigated numerically in this paper .The numerical analysis is carried out to assess the transient freezing behavior of flowing water inside a pipe cooled from surroundings in consideration of pressure drop caused by the freezing. The finite element technique is applied to solve the equations of motion and energy transport for laminar flow. The numerical model attempts to capture the solid-fluid interface on a fixed computational grid. The correlations among cooling conditions of pipe, velocity and temperature of water at the inlet, and location at which the freezing starts are examined to show the critical velocity to avoid freezing. In addition, under the condition that pressure remains constant at the inlet, the period in which the pipe is not blockaded by ice is calculated. The period is illustrated with some dimensionless parameters to predict the conditions under which blockage occurs within a given time.

  6. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  7. Study on an Eco-Friendly Corrosion and Scale Inhibitor in Simulated cooling water

    OpenAIRE

    Defang Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a composite eco-friendly phosphate-free corrosion and scale inhibitor used in simulated cooling water has been developed by sodium polyacrylate, zinc sulfate, sodium tungstate, sodium gluconate and triethanolamine . The corrosion and scale inhibition rate were respectively evaluated by weight loss experiment , the static scale inhibition test and electrochemical test. The results indicated that the corrosion and scale inhibitor was consisted of polyacrylate 14ppm,zinc sulfate 3...

  8. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  9. Thermal-hydraulic Optimization of Water-cooled Center Conductor Post for Spherical Tokamaks Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯严; 吴宜灿; 黄群英; 郑善良

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual structure of segmental water-cooled Center Con ductor Post (CCP) to be flexible in installment and replacement. Thermal-hydraulic optimization and sensitivity analysis of key parameters are performed based on a reference fusion transmutation system with 100 MW fusion power. Numerical simulation by using a commercial code PHOEN]CS has been carried out to be close to the thermal-hydraulic analytical results of the CCP mid-part.

  10. Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime

  11. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  12. Natural Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Water with Corrosion Products at Super—Critical Pressures under Cooling COnditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study is reported of laminar natural convective heat and mass transfer on a vertical cooled plate for water containing metal corrosion products at super-critical pressures.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on natural convertion has been analyzed.The difference between heat and mass transfer under cooling or heating conditions is also discussed and some correlations for heat and mass transfer under cooling conditions are recommended.

  13. RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment

  14. Neutronics and thermo-hydraulic design of supercritical-water cooled solid breeder TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Wu, Yingwei, E-mail: wyw810@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM) was designed. • The neutronics calculations show that the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of SWCB TBM is 1.17. • The outlet temperature of SWCB TBM can reach as high as 500 °C. • Both thermal stress and deformation of the SWCB TBM design are within safety limits. - Abstract: In this paper, the supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM), using the supercritical water as the coolant, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} lithium ceramic pebbles as a breeder, and beryllium pebbles as a neutron multiplier, was designed and analyzed for ITER. The results of neutronics, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analysis are presented for the SWCB TBM. Neutronics calculations show that the proposed TBM has high tritium breeding ratio and power density. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of the proposed design is 1.17, which is greater than that of 1.15 required for tritium self-sufficiency. The thermo-hydraulic calculation proved that the TBM components can be effectively cooled to the allowable temperature with the temperature of outlet reaching 500 °C. According to thermo-mechanics calculation results, the first wall with the width of 17 mm is safe and the deformation of first wall is far below the limited value. All the results showed that the current TBM design was reasonable under the ITER normal condition.

  15. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  16. Neutronics and thermo-hydraulic design of supercritical-water cooled solid breeder TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM) was designed. • The neutronics calculations show that the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of SWCB TBM is 1.17. • The outlet temperature of SWCB TBM can reach as high as 500 °C. • Both thermal stress and deformation of the SWCB TBM design are within safety limits. - Abstract: In this paper, the supercritical-water cooled solid breeder test blanket module (SWCB TBM), using the supercritical water as the coolant, Li4SiO4 lithium ceramic pebbles as a breeder, and beryllium pebbles as a neutron multiplier, was designed and analyzed for ITER. The results of neutronics, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analysis are presented for the SWCB TBM. Neutronics calculations show that the proposed TBM has high tritium breeding ratio and power density. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of the proposed design is 1.17, which is greater than that of 1.15 required for tritium self-sufficiency. The thermo-hydraulic calculation proved that the TBM components can be effectively cooled to the allowable temperature with the temperature of outlet reaching 500 °C. According to thermo-mechanics calculation results, the first wall with the width of 17 mm is safe and the deformation of first wall is far below the limited value. All the results showed that the current TBM design was reasonable under the ITER normal condition

  17. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  18. Electrochemical filtration for turbidity removal in industrial cooling/process water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water samples of large cooling water reservoirs may look visibly clear and transparent, but still may contain sub-micron size particles at sub-parts-per-million levels. Deposition of these particles on heat exchanger surfaces, reduces the heat transfer efficiency in power industry. In nuclear power plants, additionally it creates radiation exposure problems due to activation of fine metallic turbidity in the reactor core and its subsequent transfer to out-of-core surfaces. Sub-micron filtration creates back high-pressure problem. Zeta filters available commercially are prescribed for separating either positively or negatively charged particles. They are of once-use and throw-type. Precipitation surface modified ion exchangers impart chemical impurities to the system. Thus, sub-micron size and dilute turbidity removal from large volumes of waters such as heat exchanger cooling water in nuclear and power industry poses a problem. Electro deposition of the turbidity causing particles, on porous carbon/graphite felt electrodes, is one of the best suited methods for turbidity removal from large volumes of water due to the filter's high permeability, inertness to the system and regenerability resulting in low waste generation. Initially, active indium turbidity removal from RAPS-1 heavy water moderator system, and microbes removal from heat exchanger cooling lake water of RAPS 1 and 2 were demonstrated with in-house designed and fabricated prototype electrochemical filter (ECF). Subsequently, a larger size, high flow filter was fabricated and deployed for iron turbidity removal from active process waters system of Kaiga Generation Station unit 1 and silica and iron turbidity removal from cooling water pond used for heat exchanger of a high temperature high pressure (HTHP) loop at WSCD, Kalpakkam. The ECF proved its exclusive utility for sub-micron size turbidity removal and microbes removal. ECF maneuverability with potential and current for both positively and

  19. Simulation of cooling effect of newly-innovated urban pavements on water and heat budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayam, T.; Fujita, T.

    2007-12-01

    People often suffer from the intense summer heat in Japan. This trend is increasing in urban areas because of the heat island effect and global warming. The present research evaluated the effect of pavements made of traditional and new materials on water and heat budgets. We coupled the NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco- hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2007; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2007; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007) to an urban canopy model in order to simulate the water and heat budgets in various types of natural and artificial pavements (covered by lawn, concrete, steel plate, synthetic rubber sheet, infiltration and water-holding blocks), and to evaluate the role of a new surface material in promoting evaporation and cooling to counter the heat island phenomenon (NICE-URBAN), by comparing with the simplified empirical model. Furthermore, using the heat conductivities of natural soil, we arranged these values for artificial pavement in the model equations by including the effect of the amount of water on the heat characteristics in the material. The simulated belowground water agreed with the observed value because this model includes the processes of both interception store and soil moisture store. The NICE-URBAN simulated more correctly the cooling of water-holding pavement during the intense heat of summer in an urban area than the empirical model. Because the model estimates that the air temperature at the water-holding pavement is 2 (deg.) lower than that at the lawn and 5 (deg.) lower than that at the building rooftop, it is very powerful to use this material for positive cooling effect in combination with the lawn for passive cooling effect. The simulation of NICE-URBAN showed that the decrease of surface temperature in water-holding pavement is closely related to the promotion of evaporation from the surface, the water volume of the pavement and the surface reflectance. References; 1)Nakayama,T.,Watanabe,M.,WRR,40,doi:10.1029/2004WR003174

  20. Experimental adsorption equilibrium study and comparison of zeolite with water and ethanol for cooling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAIGA Abdoulaye Siddeye; CHEN Guang-ming; WANG Qin

    2007-01-01

    Two adsorption refrigeration working pairs of zeolite with water and ethanol were studied and the parameters of Dubinin-Astakhov model were regressed using the experimental data of equilibrium. The coefficient of heterogeneity varied from 1.305 to 1.52 for the zeolite-water pair and from 1.73 to 2.128 for zeolite-ethanol pair. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 0.315 to 0.34 for zeolite-water and 0.23 to 0.28 for zeolite-ethanol, respectively. The results showed that the zeolite-water pair is suitable for solar energy cooling not only because of the high latent heat of vaporization of water but also because of the better equilibrium performance. On the other hand, zeolite-ethanol gives a high adsorption capacity at high regeneration temperature, which means it can be used in heat engine systems like buses and cars.

  1. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  2. Development of a thermal–hydraulic analysis code for the Pebble Bed Water-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Main design features of the PBWR were put forward. ► Thermal–hydraullics analysis code for the PBWR was developed and verified. ► Key thermal–hydraullics parameters were calculated in normal operation. ► The PBWR has a great pressure loss but an excellent heat transfer characteristic. ► Maximum fuel temperature and MDNBR are in conformity with safety criterion. - Abstract: The Pebble Bed Water-cooled Reactor (PBWR) is a water-moderated water-cooled pebble bed reactor in which millions of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated micro-fuel elements (MFE) pile in each assembly. Light water is used as coolant that flows from bottom to top in the assembly while the moderator water flows in the reverse direction out of the assembly. Steady-state thermal–hydraullic analysis code for the PBWR will provide a set of thermal hydraulic parameters of the primary loop so that heat transported out of the core can match with the heat generated by the core for a safe operation of the reactor. The key parameters of the core including the void fraction, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, the temperature distribution and the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) is calculated for the core in normal operation. The code can calculate for liquid region, water-steam two phase region and superheated steam region. The results show that the maximum fuel temperature is much lower than the design limitation and the flow distribution can meet the cooling requirement in the reactor core. As a new type of nuclear reactor, the main design features with a sufficient safety margin were also put forward in this paper.

  3. KIR genes polymorphism in Argentinean Caucasoid and Amerindian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A C; Marcos, C Y; Paladino, N; Capucchio, M; Theiler, G; Arruvito, L; Pardo, R; Habegger, A; Williams, F; Middleton, D; Fainboim, L

    2007-06-01

    In natural killer cells, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) loci code for either inhibitory or activating receptors, and according to the number of genes present in each individual, it is possible to identify a high rate of polymorphism in the populations. We performed KIR typing by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing in 402 Argentinean Caucasoid and in two Amerindian populations (101 Wichis and 54 Chiriguanos) from the North of Argentina. KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 were always present, whereas the frequencies of KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, KIR2DS4, KIR3DL1 and KIR2DP1 ranged between 84% and 96%. The frequencies of KIR2DS2, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL5, KIR2DS5, KIR2DS1 and KIR3DS1 ranged between 41% and 62%. The KIR2DS3 with a frequency of 29% in Argentinean Caucasoid population was present at a very low frequency in Amerindian populations. Haplotype segregation studies performed in 10 Wichi families showed the presence of only three haplotypes: A, B5 and B1. The Amerindian populations showed several similarities to Asian but not to Caucasoid populations with regard to the frequency of KIR2DS3, full-length KIR2DS4 gene and KIR2DL4 alleles. PMID:17498266

  4. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  5. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Panels with Earth Water Heat Exchanger Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakhar Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating temperature is an important factor affecting the performance and life span of the Photovoltaic (PV panels. The rising temperature can be maintained within certain limit using proper cooling techniques. In the present research a novel system for cooling of PV panels named as Earth Water Heat Exchanger (EWHE is proposed and modelled in transient analysis simulation tool (TRNSYS v17.0 for the conditions of Pilani, Rajasthan (India.The various parameters which include cell temperature, PV power output and cell efficiency are observed with respect to variation in mass flow rate of fluid. Simulation results of the system without cooling show that the maximum PV panel temperature reached up to 79.31 °C with electrical efficiency dropped to 9% during peak sunshine hour. On the other hand, when PV panels are coupled with EWHE system, the panel temperature drops to 46.29 °C with an efficiency improving to 11% for a mass flow rate of 0.022 kg/s. In the end the cooling potential of EWHE is found to be in direct correlation with mass flow rate. The proposed system is very useful for the arid regions of western India which are blessed with high solar insolation throughout the year.

  7. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples. PMID:27386109

  8. RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point

  9. RELAP5-3D code for supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point. (author)

  10. Evaluation of an acoustic leak analyser for use on PWR valves in sub-cooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report describes the work carried out to evaluate the performance of a commercial acoustic leak analyser for use on valves isolating pipework sections containing sub-cooled water. The investigation was carried out in 3 parts: (1) linking the analyser to a micro-computer to facilitate data storage, high resolution plotting and mathematical manipulation. (2) production of calibration curves of leakage noise versus known leak rate in cold water for different valve designs. (3) a review of the fundamental mechanisms causing noise in fluids and a comparison with the experimental data. (author)

  11. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  12. Thermal-hydraulics and safety concepts of supercritical water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the status of safety system development for supercritical water cooled reactors and of thermal-hydraulic codes needed to analyze them. While active safety systems are well understood today and expected to perform as required, the development of passive safety systems will still need further optimization. Depressurization transients have successfully been simulated with some codes by a pseudo-two-phase flow simulation of supercritical water. Open issues of thermal-hydraulic codes include modeling of deteriorated heat transfer in one-dimensional system codes and predictions of heat transfer during depressurization transients from supercritical to sub-critical conditions. (author)

  13. Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

  14. Chemical composition and water quality of Tashlyk Water-cooling reservoir of South-Ukraine NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about water quality in Tashlyk water reservoir (cooler of South-Ukrainian NPP) during 9 years (1980-1992) is presented. Comparative data about Water Quality of South Bug (its source of water nutrition) and this reservoir point on the periodical pollution by surface waters and industrial wastes with a great contain of sulphates and chlorides. The class of water has been changed from hydrocarbonat calcium to sulfur-chlorine-magnesium or chlorine-natrium. The contain of biogenic and organic components in reservoir's water has been corresponded to the main class of waters satisfactory cleanliness

  15. Resistance of Alkali Activated Water-Cooled Slag Geopolymer to Sulphate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hasanein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a finely ground, rapidly chilled aluminosilicate melt material that is separated from molten iron in the blast furnace as a by-product. Rapid cooling results in an amorphous or a glassy phase known as GGBFS or water cooled slag (WCS. Alkaline activation of latent hydraulic WCS by sodium hydroxide and/or sodium silicate in different ratios was studied. Curing was performed under 100 % relative humidity and at a temperature of 38°C. The results showed that mixing of both sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in ratio of 3:3 wt.,% is the optimum one giving better mechanical as well as microstructural characteristics as compared with cement mortar that has various cement content (cement : sand were 1:3 and 1:2. Durability of the water cooled slag in 5 % MgSO4 as revealed by better microstructure and high resistivity-clarifying that activation by 3:3 sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, respectively is better than using 2 and 6 % of sodium hydroxide.

  16. Investigation of flow characteristics effects on heat transfer in water-cooled cylinder heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Abd El-Hameed, H. M.; Mahmoud, Osama E.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been performed to investigate the effect of flow characteristics on heat-transfer in water impingement-cooled cylinder heads. Numerous investigations have been made using a three-dimensional model, which is designed and solved by FLUENT software using both realizable k-ɛ turbulent and heat transfer models. The simulation investigates a fully developed turbulent-water flow in asymmetric heated circular passage cooled by parallel flow or impingement of circular submerged confined liquid jet. The following parameters were investigated for both parallel flow and jet impingement flow: flow velocities (1, 2 and 3 m/s), bulk fluid temperatures (50, 70 and 90 °C), main duct diameters (6, 8, 10 and 12 mm). While the following parameters were investigated for jet impingement flow, jet diameter ratio (0.6, 0.8 and 1) and jet inclination angles as measured from horizontal (45°, 60° and 90°). Experimental results were used to verify the theoretical model. Results indicate that, the normal jet (90°) gives the maximum cooling effect in comparison to other angles while the maximum heat transfer coefficient is found at jet interface position.

  17. Application of zeolitic materials prepared from fly ash to water vapor adsorption for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Water vapor isotherms of lignite ash are of type III with low adsorption capacity. ► Mild fly ash hydrothermal treatment produces a hydrophilic zeolitic material. ► The zeolitic material exhibits a type IV water vapor adsorption isotherm. ► Under irradiation, its surface temperature is reduced due to water desorption. ► Potential application of the fly ash zeolitic material for solar cooling. -- Abstract: The water vapor adsorption properties of raw and hydrothermally treated fly ashes with NaOH and their application prospect as evaporative coolers of roof surfaces were studied. Initially, samples were characterized through techniques like elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, reflectance measurements and water vapor adsorption isotherms. Moreover, the water adsorption properties and the associated temperature variations were determined in a specific wind tunnel with controllable environmental conditions. The adsorption isotherms for fly ash were of type III indicating hydrophobic material with low water vapor adsorption. The hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline solution transformed the fly ash in hydrophilic material of type IV. Moreover, the treated samples were capable of lowering their surface temperatures due to water evaporation and the release of the latent heat. The maximum difference of temperature increase under simulated solar irradiation was observed between the treated fly ash and the concrete with values of 5.0, 5.4 and 7.5 °C for the surface, middle and bottom position, respectively. The results indicate that the zeolitic materials prepared from the fly ash samples have a significant potential for solar cooling applications.

  18. Neutron spectrum calculation and safety analysis for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical water reactor is one of the six reactors recommended by Generation Ⅳ International Forum. Compared with existing light water reactors, the supercritical water reactor has advantages of high thermal efficiency, simplified system structure and low cost. The physical model of the supercritical water reactor is established with MCNP program in this paper, which solves the problem of intricate geometry of fuel assembly. The change of coolant density along the axis is considered and the neutron spectrum distribution of different regions of the core is calculated. The safety in loss of coolant accident for the supercritical water reactor and the effect of missing coolant in different regions on the reactivity and effective multiplication factor analyzed. The results show the supercritical water reactor core has high security. The countermeasures of loss of coolant accident is studied and the effectiveness of boron water cooling is validated. The research not only provide important reference for the construction and security analysis of the supercritical water reactor, but also has great significance for the application and development of the supercritical water reactor. (authors)

  19. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  20. Water-cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaras, N.S. [Danieli Automation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Simaan, M.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, an end-point boundary temperature control approach for runout table cooling used in hot strip mills is presented. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. At first, a conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end-point boundary, the only measurable controlled parameter, is presented. Subsequently, a modified control scheme which uses dynamic programming to minimize the temperature error at the end-point boundary is discussed in detail. System performance analysis via simulation is presented for both control schemes. Simulation results show that temperature error minimization by dynamic programming improves system performance.

  1. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic evaluation study of the effectiveness of emergency core cooling system for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the core cooling capability of the emergeny core cooling system, which is a safety guard system of light water reactors for a loss-of-coolant accident, a variety of large scale test were performed. Through the results, many phenomena were investigated and the predictabity of analytical codes were examined. The tests conducted were a single-vessel blowdown test, emergency core cooling test in a PWR simulation facility, spray cooling test for a BWR, large scale reflood test and a separate effect test on countercurrent flow. These test results were examined to clarify thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the effect of various test parameters and were utilized to improve predictability of the analytical codes. Some models for flow behavior in the upper core were also developed. By evaluating the effectiveness of various emergency core cooling system configurations, more effective cooling system than the current one was proposed and demonstrated. (author)

  3. Experimental study of gas engine driven air to water heat pump in cooling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays a sustainable development for more efficient use of energy and protection of the environment is of increasing importance. Gas engine heat pumps represent one of the most practicable solutions which offer high energy efficiency and environmentally friendly for heating and cooling applications. In this paper, the performance characteristics of gas engine driven heat pump used in water cooling were investigated experimentally without engine heat recovery. The effects of several important factors (evaporator water inlet temperature, evaporator water volume flow rate, ambient air temperature, and engine speed) on the performance of gas engine driven heat pump were studied in a wide range of operating conditions. The results showed that primary energy ratio of the system increased by 22.5% as evaporator water inlet temperature increased from 13 oC to 24 oC. On the other hand, varying of engine speed from 1300 rpm to 1750 rpm led to decrease in system primary energy ratio by 13%. Maximum primary energy ratio has been estimated with a value of two over a wide range of operating conditions.

  4. Modern precise high-power water-cooling systems for press quenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patejuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Demand for extrusions in transport applications is increasing rapidly. The extrusions must be strong, light, crashworthy and may have to undergo hydroforming. This implies low wall thicknesses (1-2½ mm in strong alloys that need very fast quenching to obtain the required T4 temper. Crashworth iness – the ability to absorb a lot of energy in crushing deformation – demands very uniform properties throughout the section, and so does hydroforming. Various systems of water or air/water jets, with and without scanning, with and withoutarrangements for precisely aiming the jets, have proved effective for less difficult alloys in wall thicknesses down to 3 mm. These areunsuitable for the new types of transport extrusions, either inducing physical distortion or non-uniform mechanical properties. A novelcooling system that satisfies the new requirements uses laminar water jets of 50-250 μm diameter in a densely packed array of up to10/cm2. These are arranged in modules whose position and direction of aim can be adjusted relative to the part of the extrusion they cool,assuring linear cooling of all parts of the section at up to 500 K/s. The array of modules is very compact and not expensive. A sophisticated system of water microfiltration ensures that the fine nozzles do not become blocked.

  5. Secondary Cooling Water Quality Management for Multi Purpose Reactor 30 MW GA Siwabessy Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina, E-mail: genirina@batan.go.i [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety (PTRKN-BATAN), Bldg. 80, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Indonesia Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MPR) G.A. Siwabessy 30 MW will be 25 years old in 2011. Series of Non Destructive Test (NDT) were done to understand the current condition such as Eddy Current test for Heat Exchangers, water immersed camera for understanding the tank liner condition, ultrasonic for secondary piping etc. Some deteorization was observed because of ageing and some changing was done. One of them is changing some part of secondary pipe lines because of leaking, with the local ones. For having another 25 years operation life, a proper water quality for secondary cooling water is needed towards corrosion prevention. The main objectives of this experiment is to understand the current water quality of secondary cooling water of RSG-GAS from the aspect of corrosion induced by chemicals and bacteria, and establish procedure for managing the secondary cooling water quality. Methodologies applied are surveillance corrosion by immersing coupon into water observed and followed by visual analyses, corrosion rate determination by electrochemical method with various chemical conditions and total bacteria determination by using test kit. The results show visually that the crevice, galvanic and homogeny corrosion with the current water quality easily be observed for carbon steel represented secondary pipelines at the condition of none oxy bio agent addition. This corrosion is being suppressed by adding the oxy bio agent. The orientation of coupon, vertically and horizontally, gives slightly different effect. The closely corrosion rate was obtained by separately experiment, electrochemical, at the concentration of inhibitor 100ppm is 0.13 {+-} 0.02, which is lower than in the raw water of 0.20 {+-} 0.01 mpy. The total bacteria detected is around 10{sup 7} cfu/ml at none reactor operation and without any anti bacteria added. The oxi bio agent chemical addition suppresses the numbers becomes 10{sup 3} cfu/ml. The SRB bacteria is detected as >10{sup 6} cfu/ml at

  6. Hydro-Potential Utilization of Cooling Water on the Hydro-Electric Power Plant Dalešice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudec, Martin; Haluza, Miloslav; Kubálek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Engineering solution of a surplus pressure head in a system of reversible machine unit's cooling water. Current technologies supplemented with Francis turbine or more precisely a centrifugal volute-type pump in turbine mode. It contains the layout for the basic extent of several various high-speeds with regard to maximum coverage of working conditions. Minimization of construction works on the structure of the cooling water inlet. Furthermore it includes an assignment of the annual power prod...

  7. Proceedings (slides) of the OECD/NEA Workshop on Innovations in Water-cooled Reactor Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New technologies and solutions have been developed over more than thirty years to improve the safety, performance and economics of nuclear power plants. Particular efforts were made in designing systems to prevent or mitigate nuclear accidents and, greatly limit or even avoid any offsite release of radioactivity. Reactor designs developed in the 1980's and later are often referred to as Generation III (Gen III) reactors. They offer enhanced safety compared to earlier Generation II (Gen II) designs, as well as improved performance and economics. Examples of Gen III safety design features include solutions for corium localisation, advanced containment structures, improved emergency core-cooling systems, filtered venting systems, hydrogen risk management solutions, etc. Some of these solutions have also been back-fitted or partially adapted to existing reactors, based on recommendations from regulators or modernisation efforts by the utilities operating these reactors, to bring their level of safety to levels approaching those of the more modern designs. Other innovations found in the latest water-cooled reactor designs include the use of passive safety systems, and often associated with those, a simplification in the design of the reactor. Gen III reactors also feature better economics, for example increased design lifetime up to 60 years, ability to use 100% MOX fuel and operate with higher flexibility, higher thermal efficiencies and reduced staff requirements. Modularity is often quoted as a feature of some Gen III designs as a way of reducing the construction times and simplifying the decommissioning of the plant. The scope of the Workshop includes, inter alia: - Evolution of regulatory and design requirements for commercial water-cooled reactors; - Innovations in water-cooled reactor technologies that allowed significant improvement in the level of safety, with a discussion on advantages and challenges of active vs. passive safety systems; - Innovations under

  8. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Water's behavior near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. By monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (αp) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. In addition, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated αp peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface. PMID:26342380

  9. Numerical Study of the Effect of a Power Plant Cooling Water Discharge in the Montevideo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fossati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation of the water temperature in the Río de la Plata River and Montevideo's Bay was done using the numerical model of finite elements RMA-10 in its 2D vertical integrated mode. Parameters involved in the formulations of thermal exchange with the atmosphere were adjusted using measurements of water temperature in several locations of the water body. After calibrating the model, it was used to represent the operation of a power plant located in Montevideo's Bay. This central takes water from the bay in order to cool its generators and also discharges high-temperature water into the bay. The correct representation of temperatures at the water intake and discharge of the plant reflects that the model is able to represent the operation of the central. Several analysis were made to study the thermal plume, the effects of the water discharge on the water intake of the power plant, and the effect on environmental variables of the study area like currents.

  10. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Dynamics and Evaporative Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging onto Heated Surfaces: An Effective Approach To Identify Spray Cooling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Rui-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-09-13

    Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion. The numerical model was validated by experimental data. The physical effects including the contact angle hysteresis and the thermocapillary effect are analyzed to offer guidance for future numerical models of droplet impingement cooling. The effects of various parameters including surface wettability, surface temperature, droplet velocity, droplet size, and droplet temperature were numerically studied from the standpoint of spray cooling. The numerical simulations offer profound analysis and deep insight into the spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms. PMID:27531256

  11. Mechanical response of local rapid cooling by spray water on constrained steel frame structure at high temperature in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yunchun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Locally rapid cooling of spray water had strong impact on high temperature steel structure. When temperature of beam reached 600°C and cooling rate was more than 20°C/s, the maximum axial tension could reach more than 5 times of the originally compressive force. The compressive bending moment at joint of beam-to-column changed to tensile bending moment, and the maximum bending moment could reach above 4 times as that when heated. After rapid cooling by spray water, deflection at mid-span increased slightly.

  12. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  13. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  14. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  15. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  16. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  17. The research of materials and water chemistry for supercritical water-cooled reactors in Research Centre Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research Centre Rez (CVR) is R and D company based in the Czech Republic. It was established as the subsidiary of the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. One of the main activities of CVR is the research of materials and chemistry for the generation IV reactor systems - especially the supercritical water-cooled one. For these experiments is CVR equipped by a supercritical water loop (SCWL) and a supercritical water autoclave (SCWA) serving for research of material and Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) environment compatibility experiments. SCWL is a research facility designed to material, water chemistry, radiolysis and other testing in SCWR environment, SCWA serves for complementary and supporting experiments. SCWL consists of auxiliary circuits (ensuring the required parameters as temperature, pressure and chemical conditions in the irradiation channel, purification and measurements) and irradiation channel (where specimens are exposed to the SCWR environment). The design of the loop is based on many years of experience with loop design for various types of corrosion/water chemistry experiments. Designed conditions in the test area of SCWL are 600 deg. C and 25 MPa. SCWL was designed in 2008 within the High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2 project and built during 2008 and 2009. The trial operations were performed in 2010 and 2011 and were divided into three phases - the first phase to verify the functionality of auxiliary circuits of the loop, the second phase to verify the complete facility (auxiliary circuits and functional irradiation channel internals) and the third phase to verify the feasibility of corrosion tests with the complete equipment and specimens. All three trial operations were very successful - designed conditions and parameters were reached. (authors)

  18. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.

  19. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Water-Cooled Gun Barrel During Burst Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; HU Zhi-gang; ZHAO Jian-bo

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical stress and deformation of water-cooled gun barrel during burst firing are studied by finite element analysis (FEA). The problem is modeled in two steps: 1) A transient heat transfer analysis is first carried out in order to determine temperature evolution and to predict the residual temperatures during the burst firing event; 2) The thermo-mecha-nical stresses and deformation caused by both the residual temperature field and the gas pressure are then calculated. The results show that the residual temperature field tends to a steady state with the increasing of rounds. The residual temperature field has much effect on the gun barrel stress and deformation, especially on the assembly area between barrel and water jacket. The gage between the barrel and water jacket is the critical factor to the thermo-mechanical stress and deformation. The results of this analysis will be very useful to develop the new strength design theory of the liquid-cooled gun barrel.

  20. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  1. Cool-water carbonates in an Eocene palaeoestuary, Norseman Formation, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D. A.; Bone, Yvonne; James, Noel P.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous palaeovalleys formed extensive drowned estuaries during Eocene transgressions along the southwestern part of the southern margin of Australia. The Tertiary sediments of the Cowan palaeovalley have been extensively drilled, revealing deposition of the Norseman Formation during the Middle Eocene Tortachilla transgression. Initial deposition occurred during transgression of the valley to form a drowned estuary. Sediments consisted of coarse-grained muddy, lithic, iron and glauconite-rich sands and gravels of mixed carbonate and quartz. Pure carbonates accumulated during the highstand, produced by a typical shallow temperate water assemblage of bryozoans, coralline algae, echinoids and molluscs and were swept into shoals by strong tidal currents. Minor "tropical" components in the form of large benthic foraminifers and dasycladacean algae are present. Coarse bryozoan and trough cross-bedded carbonate sands accumulated in the margins of the estuary and fine bryozoan sands in the deeper parts. Rhodoliths accumulated to form shoals in sheltered localities. The Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent of South Australia provide close modern analogues to the Cowan palaeovalley and the Norseman Formation. Modern carbonate sediments off Esperance on the south coast of Western Australia contain "tropical" faunal elements within an otherwise temperate skeletal assemblage and also provide a modern analogue. The Norseman Formation thus provides an excellent example of cool-water carbonate deposition in near-shore, tide-dominated environments. This study complements and contrasts existing cool-water shelf facies models based on Tertiary carbonates deposited on deep shelves elsewhere in southern Australia.

  2. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former. PMID:21214028

  3. HLS cooling water monitor system based on NI cRIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Hefei Light Source (HLS) is a VUV and soft X-ray synchrotron radiation source. An upgrade project was started at the end of 2009 to improve the performance of the light source. The cooling water monitor system is a part of this upgrade project. Purpose: This system is developed under EPICS environment to monitor 596 distributed signals of the cooling water system, including the water temperature, pressure and flow, magnet temperature, and environment temperature in the tunnel. Methods: The cRIO-9073 controller from National Instruments (NI) is used as the hardware platform. The software development is implemented using LabVIEW with the EPICS interface 'EPICS Server IO Server' from NI. A file with the hardware information, such as chassis serial number: model serial number, etc., is used by the software to configure the installed hardware. A self-check program is developed to check whether the software matches with the hardware via the configuration file. System mirror-image method is used for the software installation to effectively speed up the installation process. Results: The test results in the commissioning indicate that this system is reliable, flexible, and easy to operate. Conclusion: NI cRIO with LabVIEW can be used to effectively monitor a large number of distributed signals, and can be easily integrated into EPICS based control systems. (authors)

  4. Effects of FLONLIZER, ultraviolet sterilizer, on Legionella species inhabiting cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Urakami, I; Nakano, K; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1987-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila in sterile distilled water was not detected after ultraviolet irradiation by FLONLIZER, a new-type sterilizer, at a flow rate of 82.5 to 364.8 liters/hr. When irradiated by FLONLIZER at a flow rate of under 324.0 liters/hr, no viable cells of legionellae, other heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoa were detected in the cooling tower water, which was found to contain L. pneumophila. No viable cells of L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii suspended in sterile distilled water were detected after the irradiation with UV-doses of over 6.16 X 10(3) micro W.sec/cm2. At the irradiation of low UV-doses under 1.06 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, the viable count of legionellae recuperated by photoreactivation from UV-damage increased with the exposure time under a white fluorescent lamp. However, in the samples irradiated with UV-doses of over 3.52 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, equal to the FLONLIZER, legionellae did not recuperate even after 18 hr illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. FLONLIZER is thus expected to act as a sterilizer which can control the legionellae inhabiting cooling tower systems placed in outdoor space.

  5. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  6. The tangible and intangible Processes of Internationalization: the Argentinean SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Keen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the concepts of tangible and intangible internationalization using a data from Argentinean SMEs. The findings suggest that managers may have to make a strategic commitment to upgrade and expand firms’ resources and capabilities to achieve long term internationalization. The results offer evidence that becoming an international company is not only about having a physical presence in a foreign market. It is important to re-focus the firms’ outlook from competing in a protected domestic market to competing in markets with a strong presence of international companies. In addition, managers may have to shift their focus from short-term rent and profit seeking to long-term internationalization. This research also contributes to the study of internationalization of SMEs as it further expands the concept of internationalization by including a long-term perspective where the company can be international without having a physical presence in a foreign market

  7. Simulation and control of water-gas shift packed bed reactor with inter-stage cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. Z.; Nandong, J.

    2016-03-01

    Water-Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) has become one of the well-known pathways for H2 production in industries. The issue with WGSR is that it is kinetically favored at high temperatures but thermodynamically favored at low temperatures, thus requiring careful consideration in the control design in order to ensure that the temperature used does not deactivate the catalyst. This paper studies the effect of a reactor arrangement with an inter-stage cooling implemented in the packed bed reactor to look at its effect on outlet temperature. A mathematical model is developed based on one-dimensional heat and mass transfers which incorporate the intra-particle effects. It is shown that the placement of the inter-stage cooling and the outlet temperature exiting the inter-stage cooling have strong influence on the reaction conversion. Several control strategies are explored for the process. It is shown that a feedback- feedforward control strategy using Multi-scale Control (MSC) is effective to regulate the reactor temperature profile which is critical to maintaining the catalysts activity.

  8. Heat Transfer Analysis to Optimize The Water Cooling Scheme For Combustion Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Usha Rani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Propulsion system is one kind of propulsion system which is used to drive torpedo. The present study focuses mainly on design of combustion device known to be thrust chamber or thrust cylinder. The chamber and nozzle wall and the injector face plate must be made of metals selected for high strength at elevated temperature coupled with good thermal conductivity, resistance to high temperature oxidation. chemical inertness on the coolant on the coolant side, and suitability for the fabrication method to be employed. In the case of certain monopropellants, the metal must not catalyze the decomposition. Although aluminum and copper alloys have been used successfully for combustion chambers and nozzles, stainless steels and carbon steels are in widest use today.A cooling jacket permits the circulation of a coolant, which, in the case of flight engines is usually one of the propellants. Water is the only coolant recommended. The cooling jacket consists of an inner and outer wall. The combustion chamber forms the inner wall and another concentric but larger cylinder provides the outer wall. The space between the walls serves as the coolant passage. The nozzle throat region usually has the highest heat transfer intensity and is, therefore, the most difficult to cool.

  9. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang, E-mail: codeliu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Joint Institute for Neutron Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Zhang, Yang [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Jeng, U-Ser [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Mou, Chung-Yuan [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-07

    Water’s behavior near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. By monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub p}) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. In addition, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated α{sub p} peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.

  10. Craft-joule project: air-cooled water LiBr absorption cooling machine of low capacity for air conditioning (ACABMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Castro, J; Perez Segarra, C.D [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Lucena, M.A [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespecial (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The ACABMA (Air-Cooled water-LiBr Absorption cooling Machine of low capacity for Air- conditioning) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The basic objective of this project is the development of a new air-cooled absorption cooling machine for air-conditioning, in the low power sector market. Making use of water-LiBr technology together with the air-cooling feature, it is possible to reach a better relationship between quality (in terms of performance, ecology, etc.) and price of such absorption machines, than the ones existing on the market. Air-cooling instead of water cooling saves installation costs specially in small systems and removes the demand for cooling water (an important aspect in Southern-European countries), thus increasing the possible application range. The main interest for the SME proposers is to take advantage of the increasing cooling demand in Europe, specially in southern countries. Another point of interest for the SME proposers is the development of a cheaper cooling and heating system in terms of energy and installation costs. In this moment the solar cooling systems are approx. 30% more expensive than the conventional ones. A cheaper absorption machine due to the air-cooling feature together with the possibility of energy savings due to low generator temperatures, that allow the absorption machine for solar applications or waste heat, will lead to solar cooling and heating systems more competitive to the conventional ones. In order to achieve the above mentioned goal, the following step are necessary and will be carried out in this project: i)solution of the air-cooling of the water-LiBr machine, the main problem that up to now has not allowed commercialization, ii)reduction of the size of the air-cooled elements of the machine in order to reduce the machine costs, iii)development of an efficient control

  11. General features of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors is developed. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. The power output can be maximized in the fast converter reactor. The gross thermal efficiency of the high temperature reactor adopting Inconel as fuel cladding is expected to be 44.8%. The plant system is similar to the supercritical-fossil-fired power plant which adopts once-through type coolant circulation system. The volume and height of the containment are approximately half of the BWR. The basic safety principles follows those of LWRs. The reactor will solve the economic problems of LWR and LMFBR

  12. Mechanical and Experimental Study of Sprinkling Water Cooling System on Roof of Shanghai Expo Theme Pavilion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-zhong; HUANG Chen; LI Wei-xiang; SHI Jin-yue; TAO Si-yuan; WANG Qian; WANG Yu-qing; ZHANG Min

    2009-01-01

    Based on the similarity theory,a scale effect model of the spraying water cooling system of Shanghai expo Theme Pavilion's roof was set up.According to the typical weather conditions in Shanghai city,different models were analyzed on solar radiation,and different heat transfer amount was obtained.And the fol-lowing conclusions could be made:At the sunny day of summer in Shanghai,the temperature of inner roof with sprinkling system descended about 3℃,and the air conditioning load of the whole Theme Pavilion descend more than 320 kW.

  13. The effects of aging on Boiling Water Reactor core isolation cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The failure data, from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes

  14. Cooling water shortage causes nuclear power plant standstill; Hitzefrei fuer Atomstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenker, O.

    2003-09-01

    The cooling water shortage during the high 'Michaela' induced operators of nuclear and coal power plants to run their plants at lower power. In future heat waves, decentralisation and shutdown of inefficient large-scale power plants may be the only solution. (orig.) [German] Niedrige Pegelstaende, erwaermte Fluesse: Weil das Kuehlwasser knapp wurde, zwang Hoch 'Michaela' die Betreiber von Atom- und Kohle-Kraftwerken zum Drosseln ihrer Anlagen. Gegen kuenftige Hitzewellen hilft nur die Dezentralisierung der Energiewirtschaft und die Abkehr von ineffizienten Grosskraftwerken. (orig.)

  15. Natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants: Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. Further, the IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future which was convened in 1991 noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to assure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are an ongoing activity in several IAEA Member States. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. In response to the motivating factors discussed above, and to foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation was started in early 2004. Building on the shared expertise within the CRP, this publication presents extensive information on natural circulation phenomena, models, predictive tools and experiments that currently support design and analyses of natural circulation systems and highlights areas where additional research is needed. Therefore, this publication serves both to provide a description of the present state of knowledge on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants and to guide the planning and conduct of the CRP in

  16. Cooling performance of roof ponds with gunny bags floating on water surface as compared with a movable insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runsheng Tang [Yunnan Normal Univ., Solar Energy Research Inst., Kunming (China); Etzion, Y. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Desert Architecture and Urban Planning Unit., Seder Boker Campus (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    A roof pond with gunny bags floating on water surface (RPWGB) has been proven to be an efficient evaporative based cooling technique in the previous studies of the authors due to the creation of thermal stratification inside the pond. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the investigation of its cooling performance as compared to a roof pond with a movable insulation (RPWMI) under hot dry climatic conditions. This one-dimensional model is based on the new empirical correlations of water evaporation rate from a wetted surface and a free water surface to the ambient air proposed by the authors, and takes into account the response of buildings as a whole to evaporative cooling. Results by simulations indicated that RPWGB performed slightly better than RPWMI, which is widely considered as the most efficient evaporative based roof cooling techniques, except when they are applied to a building with poorly insulated light walls and roof. (Author)

  17. Engineering and thermal-hydraulic design of water cooled PFC for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Steady state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. It is a large aspect ratio tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. SST-1 is designed for plasma discharge duration of ∼1000 seconds to obtain fully steady state plasma with total input power up to 1.0 MW. First Wall or Plasma Facing Components (PFC) is one or the major sub-systems of SST-1 tokamak consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles, and poloidal limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. All the PFC has the same basic configuration: graphite tiles are mechanically attached to a back plate made of high strength copper alloy, and SS tubes are embedded in the groove made in the back plate. Same tube will be used for cooling during plasma operation and baking during wall conditioning. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m2. In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for high temperature baking at 350 deg. C. Water was chosen as the coolant because of its appropriate thermal properties, and while baking, hot nitrogen gas would flow through these tubes to bake the PFC at high temperature. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, has been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout, compatible for cooling and baking. During steady state operation, divertor and passive stabilizer heat loads are expected to be 0.6 and 0.25 MW/m2. The PFC also has been design to withstand the peak heat fluxes without significant erosion such that frequent replacement is not necessary. Since the tile must be mechanically attached to the back plate (heat sink), the fitting technique must provide the highest mechanical stress so that thermal transfer efficiency is maximized. Proper brazing of cooling tube on the copper back plate

  18. Molecular Characterization of Viable Legionella spp. in Cooling Tower Water Samples by Combined Use of Ethidium Monoazide and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments. PMID:25736979

  19. Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Takaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource.

  20. Design Improvement for Cavitation Induced Erosion at Flow Control Valve in the Nuclear Service Cooling Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Yeonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The function of nuclear service cooling water (NSCW) System is for supplying cooling water (seawater) to the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchangers, Essential Chillers and Emergency Diesel Generator Chillers. In the NSCW system, the flow control valve (FCV) is installed to prevent an overflow of the system. As metal loss damage (erosion) inside the FCV due to the cavitation and sea water corrosion occurred frequently, the material of valve disc was changed from AL-Bronze to Monel in 1996. After changing the material, the erosion by sea water corrosion was clearly improved. But the erosion induced by cavitation is still observed. Therefore, this study investigates the metal loss damage mechanisms in the FCV of NSCW system and proposes the design modification to mitigate the metal loss damage in the valve

  1. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  2. Experimental assessment of on-chip liquid cooling through microchannels with de-ionized water and diluted ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yonghyun; Kim, Sungdong; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in Si IC devices, which results in an increase in power density and decrease in device size, poses various thermal challenges owing to high heat dissipation. Therefore, conventional cooling techniques become ineffective and produce a thermal bottleneck. In this study, an on-chip liquid cooling module with microchannels and through Si via (TSV) was fabricated, and cooling characteristics were evaluated by IR measurements. Both the microchannels and TSVs were fabricated in a Si wafer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the wafer was bonded with a glass wafer by a anodic bonding. The fabricated liquid cooling sample was evaluated using two different coolants (de-ionized water and 70 wt % diluted ethylene glycol), and the effect of coolants on cooling characteristics was investigated.

  3. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  4. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed

  5. A water cooled, lithium lead breeding blanket for a DEMO fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rieger, M.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Tominetti, S.; Wu, J.; Zucchetti, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Labbe, P.; Baraer, L.; Gervaise, G.; Giancarli, L.; Roze, M.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-04-01

    The main features of a tritium breeding blanket for a Demonstration Power Reactor involving the eutectic Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and water as coolant are presented. The configuration of the blanket segments and breeder modules as well as their arrangement inside the reactor vacuum vessel are outlined. The main design aspects and the corresponding design limits are reviewed, namely those related to thermomechanics, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, tritium permeation and recovery. First results of safety analysis, in particular those connected with the rupture of a coolant tube in the breeder module are presented and discussed. As a conclusion, the feasibility of the concept look attractive. A problem which requires further investigation is that of the tritium self-sufficiency. It is shown that a net tritium production near to one can be obtained if berylium tiles are placed in front of the plasma, provided that they are cooled by heavy water. (orig.).

  6. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  7. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  8. Emergency reactor core cooling water injection device for light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Junro.

    1994-05-13

    A reactor pressure vessel is immersed in pool water of a reactor container. A control valve is interposed to a water supplying pipelines connecting pool water and a pressure vessel. A valve actuation means for opening/closing the control valve comprises a lifting tank. The inner side of the lifting tank and the inner side of the pressure vessel are connected by a communication pipeline (a syphon pipe) at upper and lower two portions. The lifting tank and the control valve are connected by a link mechanism. When a water level in the pressure vessel is lowered, the water level in the lifting tank is lowered to the same level as that in the pressure vessel. This reduces the weight of the lifting tank, the lifting tank is raised, to open the control valve by way of a link mechanism. As a result, liquid phase in the pressure vessel is in communication with the pool water, and the pool water flows down into the pressure vessel to maintain the reactor core in a flooded state. (I.N.).

  9. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale wa

  10. Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kyoung Jin; Lam, Yun Fat; Hao, Song; Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2015-12-01

    The potential use of rainwater harvesting in conjunction with miscellaneous water supplies and a rooftop garden with rainwater harvesting facility for temperature reduction have been evaluated in this study for Hong Kong. Various water applications such as toilet flushing and areal climate controls have been systematically considered depending on the availability of seawater toilet flushing using the Geographic Information System (GIS). For water supplies, the district Area Precipitation per Demand Ratio (APDR) has been calculated to quantify the rainwater utilization potential of each administrative district in Hong Kong. Districts with freshwater toilet flushing prove to have higher potential for rainwater harvest and utilization compared to the areas with seawater toilet flushing. Furthermore, the effectiveness of using rainwater harvesting for miscellaneous water supplies in Hong Kong and Tokyo has been analyzed and compared; this revives serious consideration of diurnal and seasonal patterns of rainfall in applying such technology. In terms of the cooling effect, the implementation of a rooftop rainwater harvesting garden has been evaluated using the ENVI-met model. Our results show that a temperature drop of 1.3 °C has been observed due to the rainwater layer in the rain garden. This study provides valuable insight into the applicability of the rainwater harvesting for sustainable water management practice in a highly urbanized city.

  11. Assessment of stress-corrosion cracking in a water-cooled ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    Water-cooled, near-term reactors will operate under conditions at which SCC is possible; however, control of material purity and processing and coolant chemistry can either eliminate or greatly reduce the probability of this type of structural failure. This evaluation has focused on an assessment of water impurity effects on SCC of austenitic stainless steel at temperatures below 100{degree}C and on the conditions controlling sensitization in the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and the fusion materials heat of modified Type 316 SS designated as PCA. This assessment identifies the dominant effect of small concentrations of impurities in high-purity water on SCC such that crack growth rates at 25--75{degree}C in water with as little as 5--15 ppM Cl{sup {minus}} are equal to the crack growth rates at 200--300{degree}C in high-purity water. These effects are primarily for sensitized Type 304 SS, so analysis of sensitization behavior of fusion austenitic alloys was also undertaken. An SSDOS model developed at PNL was used to make these assessments, and correlation to experimental results for Type 316 SS was very good. Both the fusion heat of Type 316 SS and PCA can be severely sensitized but with proper thermal treatment it should be possible to avoid sensitization. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  12. The effect of ambient air condition on heat transfer of hot steel plate cooled by an impinging water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Pil Jong; Choi, Hae Won [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Hong [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    It has been observed that the cooling capacity of an impinging water jet is affected by the seasonal conditions in large-scale steel manufacturing processes. To confirm this phenomenon, cooling experiments utilizing a hot steel plate cooled by a laminar jet were conducted for two initial ambient air temperatures (10 .deg. C and 40 .deg. C) in a closed chamber, performing an inverse heat conduction method for quantitative comparison. This study reveals that the cooling capacity at an air temperature of 10 .deg. C is lower than the hear extracted at 40 .deg. C. The amount of total extracted heat at 10 .deg. C is 15% less than at 40 .deg. C. These results indicate the quantity of water vapor, absorbed until saturation, affects the mechanism of boiling heat transfer.

  13. Coiling Temperature Control Using Temperature Measurement Method for the Hot Rolled Strip in the Water Cooling Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi; Honda, Tatsuro; Uematsu, Chihiro

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the coiling temperature to regulate the mechanical properties of the strip. To realize high accuracy of coiling temperature, a new coiling temperature control using temperature measurement method for the hot rolled strip in the water cooling banks has been developed. The features of the new coiling temperature control are as follows: (i) New feedforward control adjusts ON/OFF swiching of cooling headers according to the strip temperature measured in the water cooling banks. (ii) New feedforward control is achieved by dynamic control function. This coiling temperature control has been in operation successfully since 2008 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature of high strength steel considerably.

  14. Energy Performance of Water-based and Air-based Cooling Systems in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads E.; Schøtt, Jacob; Kazanci, Ongun Berk;

    2016-01-01

    -space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on the system energy performance were investigated while achieving the same thermal indoor conditions. The results show that the water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system in terms of energy......Energy use in buildings accounts for a large part of the energy use globally and as a result of this, international building energy performance directives are becoming stricter. This trend has led to the development of zero-energy and plus-energy buildings. Some of these developments have led...... to certain issues regarding thermal indoor environments, such as overheating. Thermal comfort of occupants should not be sacrificed for energy efficiency but rather, these should be achieved simultaneously. Although the priority should be to minimize the cooling demand during the design, this is not always...

  15. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  16. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  17. An optimized process for tritium-containing waste water collection of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An optimized process for tritium-containing waste water collection of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor was developed. • The optimized process and verification experiment using the HTR-10 were presented in detail. • A large quantity of high-dose tritium-containing waste water was successfully collected in commissioning experiment of the improved HTR-10. • The optimized process was proved to be reliable to avoid the large emission of radioactive waste water to the environment. - Abstract: An optimized process for tritium-containing waste water collection of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) was developed and experimentally verified using the 10 MW High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor-test module (HTR-10). Compared with the previous process, an auxiliary molecular sieve bed was added in helium purification regeneration system and new operation process was proposed to collect tritium-containing waste water. In this paper, the optimized process and verification experiment were presented in detail. In commissioning experiment of the improved HTR-10, a large quantity of high-dose tritium-containing waste water was successfully collected in the water separator of helium purification regeneration system, with the specific activity being 6.1 × 109 Bq/L. The verification experiment confirms that the optimized process is effective and reliable for the demonstration plant design of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor-Pebble bed module (HTR-PM) to avoid the large emission of detrimentally radioactive waste water to the environment

  18. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  19. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  20. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  1. Thermal Characteristics of Air-Water Spray Impingement Cooling of Hot Metallic Surface under Controlled Parametric Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak; Purna Chandra Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper.The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures,plate thickness,water flow rate,nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface.The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate,heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined.Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length,120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm,6 mm,and 8 mm respectively were tested.The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface.Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e,4 mm thick plates.Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling.At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar,maximum cooling rates 670℃/s and average cooling rate of 305.23℃/s were achieved for a temperature of 850℃ of the steel plate.

  2. Thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface under controlled parametric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Purna Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper. The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures, plate thickness, water flow rate, nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface. The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined. Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length, 120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm respectively were tested. The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface. Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e, 4 mm thick plates. Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling. At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar, maximum cooling rates 670°C/s and average cooling rate of 305.23°C/s were achieved for a temperature of 850°C of the steel plate.

  3. Stability monitoring of a natural-circulation-cooled boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for monitoring the stability of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are discussed. Surveillance of BWR stability is of importance as problems were encountered in several large reactors. Moreover, surveying stability allows plant owners to operate at high power with acceptable stability margins. The results of experiments performed on the Dodewaard BWR (the Netherlands) are reported. This type reactor is cooled by natural circulation, a cooling principle that is also being considered for new reactor designs. The stability of this reactor was studied both with deterministic methods and by noise analysis. Three types of stability are distinguished and were investigated separately: reactor-kinetic stability, thermal-hydraulic stability and total-plant stability. It is shown that the Dodewaard reactor has very large stability margins. A simple yet reliable stability criterion is introduced. It can be derived on-line from thhe noise signal of ex-vessel neutron detectors during normal operation. The sensitivity of neutron detectors to in-core flux perturbations - reflected in the field-of-view of the detector - was calculated in order to insure proper stability surveillance. A novel technique is presented which enables the determination of variations of the in-core coolant velocity by noise correlation. The velocity measured was interpreted on the basis of experiments performed on the air/water flow in a model of a BWR coolant channel. It appeared from this analysis that the velocity measured was much higher than the volume-averaged water and air velocities and the volumetric flux. The applicability of the above-mentioned technique to monitoring of local channel-flow stability was tested. It was observed that stability effects on the coolant velocity are masked by other effects originating from the local flow pattern. Experimental and theoretical studies show a shorter effective fuel time constant in a BWR than was assumed. (author). 118 refs.; 73 figs.; 21 tabs

  4. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1998-09-23

    Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

  5. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  6. Survey of asbestos fibers in cooling tower waters at Goodyear Atomic Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of the recirculating water (RCW) system at Goodyear Atomic Corporation has been performed since late 1975, when detectable amounts of asbestos were found in the RCW. From August 1976 through may 1979, fiber counts varied from below detectable limits (0.7 x 106 fibers/liter) to 16.2 x 106 fibers/liter in the cooling tower water. These results were nearly identical to the initial asbestos fiber data obtained for RCW from December 1975 through July 1976. From January 1977 through May 1979, water samples from the X-616 Chromate Recovery Facility effluent and the X-611 Water Treatment Plant (RCW makeup) were also analyzed for asbestos, and fiber counts varied from below detectable limits to 0.7 x 106 fibers; liter and 1.4 x 106 fibers/liter, respectively. The number of fibers in the RCW system and at the X-611 and X-616 facilities does not present an environmental problem at this time. Beginning in June 1978, all samples collected were prepared for analysis by two methods after a United States Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored study demonstrated that a method different from the one used at Goodyear Atomic Corporation had essentially zero fiber losses. To date, no significant differences have been observed between the two methods. In the future, monitoring of asbestos fibers should continue on a periodic basis to determine if an asbestos fiber problem develops.Both methods of sample preparation should be utilized to firmly establish which method is best

  7. The Discussion about Closed Circulating Cooling Water System in Coal Chemical Industry%煤化工项目中闭式循环水系统探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安显威

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of closed circulating cooling water system and the water-saving reason of closed cooling water were discussed. The process of closed cooling water system and some problem for closed cooling water system were introduced.%探讨了煤化工项目中循环水系统的特点和闭式冷却塔的节水原因,介绍了闭式循环水系统的流程及闭式循环水系统中可能面临的一些问题。

  8. Application of the integrated safety assessment methodology to sequences with loss of component cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, has been applied to a thermo-hydraulic analysis of Zion NPP for sequences with loss of the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) in the context of the NEA application exercise SM2A (Safety Margin Application and Assessment). The ISA methodology allows among others to obtain the damage domain (the region where the PCT limit is exceeded) for each sequence of the dynamic event tree as a function of the uncertain times of operator actuations (secondary side cooling and recovery of CCWS). Sequences with available and unavailable accumulators (ACC) have been analyzed in order to distinguish all the possibilities (ACC demanded and successful, ACC demanded and failed and ACC not demanded). In this work, this damage domain and some parameters of every sequence have been obtained from the results of the simulations performed with TRACE code, these data as well as the time-density probability distributions of the considered uncertain parameters (manual actions) are used to obtain the exceedance frequency of the particular safety limit or damage limit. . The results show the feasibility of ISA methodology in order to obtain accurate enough regions of uncertain parameters (time delays or physical parameters) where the particular safety limit of interest is exceeded, as well as the frequency of exceeding this limit. (author)

  9. Improvement of Corrosion Inhibitors of Primary and Secondary Closed Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power plants, the Closed Cooling Water (CCW) system provide cooling to both safety-related and non-safety-related heat exchange equipment. Various chemicals are used to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the CCW systems. In nuclear plants, these inhibitors have included chromates, nitrites, molybdates, hydrazine, and silicate. In the case of the CCW of some domestic nuclear power plants, there is during the overhaul period, a saturation of ion exchange resin caused by an inhibitor which has high conductivity for an increase in radiation exposure and radioactive waste. The objective of this study is to evaluate the corrosion behavior of structural materials with various corrosion inhibitors. In the present study, more than 50 ppm hydrazine concentration is needed to reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steel to satisfy the CCW operational guidelines. However, if hydrazine is continuously injected into the CCW system, the critical concentration of hydrazine will be lower. Hydrazine might be an alternative corrosion inhibitor for nitrite in the CCW system of nuclear power plant

  10. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.mazzitelli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pericoli-Ridolfini, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m{sup 2} with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m{sup 2} for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  11. Statics and dynamics of a natural circulation cooled boiling water reactor. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stekelenburg, A.J.C.

    1994-02-21

    Due to the strong interconnection of the various processes in the reactor vessel of a natural circulation cooled boiling water reactor (BWR), explaining the physics of both the statics and the dynamics of the Dodewaard reactor is not an easy task. In this thesis, the physics is studied through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation. The experiments are analyzed further with the use of the model, and the results of the model calculations provide ideas for new experiments. For an experimental study of the reactor behavior, measurement tools are required. Many relevant process variables are supplied by the power plant's data-logger, but a direct method for measuring the circulation flow rate is not available. Reactor behavior can be studied theoreticallly with the use of a complex computer code, based on a multi-node model. In this way, reliable results are obtained. In many cases, however, such a code is not easy to use, and the calculations require much computer time. Calculations based on a simple model have a lower reliability, but, as the model is clearer, provide more insight into the physics of the system. For this reason, a simple theoretical dynamical model for the main physical processes of the Dodewaard natural circulation cooled BWR is presented in the thesis.

  12. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  13. Foundry technology and its applications of ductile iron castings produced by water-cooled copper alloy mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The high efficiency mechanized foundry technology of castings produced by using water-cooled copper alloy permanent mold has been systematically studied. Through the researching a Cu-Cr-Mg alloy with high conductivity and good combined mechanical properties used for making permanent mold was developed, and the basic design principles of the water-cooled permanent mold along with the control-range of relevant foundry processing parameters were also established.A cast production line equipped with water-cooled copper alloy mold was designed and fabricated for production of ductile iron automobile gear castings. This production line can consistently make automobile gear castings in QT500-15 and QT600-5 (Chinese Standard) grades of ductile iron with up to 95 % casting success rate.

  14. Reliability problems in the recirculated cooling water system at Cernavoda NPP and corrective maintenance operations adopted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between February 18 and March 5, 2002 the Unit 1 of Cernavoda NPP was shutdown in an un-planned outage necessary to repair a crack on the piping of the Recirculated Cooling Water System. The large pipe diameter and the requirement of maintaining the system in operation during the outage, imposed a special technology for fixing the leak (isolation of the line with ice plugs). The paper presents information about the performed repair work. After repair operations the failed duct was checked by non-destructive methods and the results were submitted and approved by regulation authorities. The repair was considered successfully completed and the Unit restarted on March 5, 2002 at 0.57 am when the electric generator was switched on in parallel to the national electric power system. (authors)

  15. Surveillance tests for light-water cooled nuclear power reactor vessels in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong-Sun; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Park, Dae-Gyu; Jung, Yang-Hong; Yoo, Byung-Ok; Oh, Wan-Ho; Baik, Seung-Je; Koo, Dae-Seo; Lee, Key-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Irradiated Materials Examination Facility, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    The surveillance tests for light-water cooled nuclear power reactor vessels were established to monitor the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in the beltline according to US NRC 10 CFR 50 App. G, US NRC RG1.99-rev.2, ASTM E185-82 and E185-94 in Irradiated Materials Examination Facility(IMEF). The surveillance capsule was transported from NPPs pool sites to KAERI IMEF by using a shipping cask. The capsule was cut and dismantled by capsule cutting machine and milling machine in M2 hot cell. Charpy tests and tension tests were performed in M5a and M5b hot cells respectively. Especially the EPMA located at hot lab was used to analyze the Ni and Cu wt% composition of base metal and weld for predicting the adjusted reference temperature(ART). The established process and test results were summarized in this paper. (author)

  16. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  17. Study on an Eco-Friendly Corrosion and Scale Inhibitor in Simulated cooling water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zeng1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a composite eco-friendly phosphate-free corrosion and scale inhibitor used in simulated cooling water has been developed by sodium polyacrylate, zinc sulfate, sodium tungstate, sodium gluconate and triethanolamine . The corrosion and scale inhibition rate were respectively evaluated by weight loss experiment , the static scale inhibition test and electrochemical test. The results indicated that the corrosion and scale inhibitor was consisted of polyacrylate 14ppm,zinc sulfate 3ppm,sodium tungstate 7ppm,sodium gluconate 2ppm and triethanolamine12ppm.The corrosion inhibition rate could reached 92.79%, and anti-scaling inhibition rate could reached 96.01%. The formula was efficient , phosphate-free and environmental, it would be widely used

  18. A fiber-coupled 9xx module with tap water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, D.; Anthon, D.; Chryssis, A.; Ryu, G.; Liu, G.; Winhold, H.; Fan, L.; Xu, Z.; Tanbun-Ek, T.; Lehkonen, S.; Acklin, B.

    2016-03-01

    A novel, 9XX nm fiber-coupled module using arrays of highly reliable laser diode bars has been developed. The module is capable of multi-kW output power in a beam parameter product of 80 mm-mrad. The module incorporates a hard-soldered, isolated stack package compatible with tap-water cooling. Using extensive, accelerated multi-cell life-testing, with more than ten million device hours of test, we have demonstrated a MTTF for emitters of >500,000 hrs. In addition we have qualified the module in hard-pulse on-off cycling and stringent environmental tests. Finally we have demonstrated promising results for a next generation 9xx nm chip design currently in applications and qualification testing

  19. Use of a supercritical water-cooled reactor for process heat to support thermochemical hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SuperCritical Water-cooled nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is one of six Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts currently under development worldwide. It is designed to operate at pressures of 25 MPa and temperatures up to 625°C. These operating conditions make an SCW Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) suitable to support thermochemical-based hydrogen production. The Copper-Chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a prospective thermochemical cycle with a maximum temperature requirement of ~530°C. Thermalhydraulic calculations are presented for a double-pipe counter-flow heat exchanger with smooth pipe conditions and enhanced local heat transfer coefficients of 25%, 50% and 75% above smooth pipe cases. (author)

  20. Collaborative approach in developing a small supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint Research and Development (R and D) project between University of Saskatchewan and Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) is being established to develop a concept of the small Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) for power generation and process heat in remote areas. This project will be led by professors at the university and supported by technology experts from AECL. It integrates student training with a significant contribution to the reactor concept development. Students from various disciplines will combine results from physics, fuel, thermalhydraulic, control, material, and chemistry analyses to develop the core and fuel channel configurations and fuel design. This project would enhance the R and D expertise and capability of University of Saskatchewan and facilitate training of highly qualified persons (HQPs) for nuclear and non-nuclear industries at Saskatchewan and in Canada. (author)

  1. Photoelectrochemical Study of Corrosion Resisting Property of Cupronickel B10 in Simulated Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qunjie; WAN Zongyue; ZHOU Guoding; YIN Renhe; CAO Weimin; LIN Changjian

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behavior for cupronickel B10 electrode in simulated cooling water has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry, a photocurrent response method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The cupronickel electrode shows a p-type photoresponse to positive and negative potential scan, which comes from Cu2O layer on its surface, but its Iph.max is less than that in borax buffer solution. The corrosion resisting property of the cupronickel B10 electrode appeared worse with the increase in the concentrations of Cl-, SO2-4 and S2 ions, as well as with increasing pH. The rise in the temperature may result in a photoresponse changes from p-type to n-type, and the corrosion resisting property fell simultaneously. The results of the EIS measurement agree well with those obtained by a photoelectrochemical method.

  2. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  3. Manufacturing surface hardened components of 42CrMo4 by water-air spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretzki, T.; Krause, C.; Frolov, I.; Hassel, T.; Nicolaus, M.; Bach, F.W. [Inst. of Materials Science, Leibniz Univ. Hannover, Garbsen (Germany); Kaestner, M.; Abo-Namous, O.; Reithmeier, E. [Inst. of Measurement and Control Engineering, Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany); National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    By employing integrated heat-treatment using forging heat, a significant shortening of the process chain is attained for manufacturing precision forged components with considerable savings in time and energy. With the aid of water-air spray cooling, surface hardening and tempering can be carried out without, at the same time, reheating the component following quenching. In this work, geometric models of splines and single cylinder crankshafts (both made of 1.7225) were surface hardened and tempered using a purpose-built rotating spray unit The obtained hardness, microstructures and their distortions were investigated. To optically and spatially detect the components, fringe and shadow projection systems were employed. In a second research topic, the influence of the spray parameters on the component's distortion was investigated. For both components; the splined shaft and the crankshaft geometries, it was possible to carry out successful surface heat-treatments using these processes. (orig.)

  4. Application of a semi-spectral cloud water parameterization to cooling tower plumes simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzereau, Emmanuel; Musson Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2008-10-01

    In order to simulate the plume produced by large natural draft cooling towers, a semi-spectral warm cloud parameterization has been implemented in an anelastic and non-hydrostatic 3D micro-scale meteorological code. The model results are compared to observations from a detailed field experiment carried out in 1980 at Bugey (location of an electrical nuclear power plant in the Rhône valley in East Central France) including airborne dynamical and microphysical measurements. Although we observe a slight overestimation of the liquid-water content, the results are satisfactory for all the 15 different cases simulated, which include different meteorological conditions ranging from low wind speed and convective conditions in clear sky to high wind and very cloudy. Such parameterization, which includes semi-spectral determination for droplet spectra, seems to be promising to describe plume interaction with atmosphere especially for aerosols and cloud droplets.

  5. Evaluation of instrumentation for detection of inadequate core cooling in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of the Approach to Inadequate Core Cooling issue in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The report consists of seven sections. The principal conclusion is that the condition of the reference leg, and operator awareness of that condition are of primary importance in level indication reliability for safety. An indication of reference leg level and temperature displayed to the operators would be a useful enhancement of reliability and a guide to further operator action in all circumstances. We conclude that the BWR practice of multiple, redundant coolant level measurements, with overlapping ranges, can be a reliable basis for indication of approach to an ICC condition, and, in correlation with the other control and safety systems of modern BWRs, will prevent unsafe conditions

  6. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems. PMID:26413079

  7. Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water cooled reactor concept which uses water pressurized above its thermodynamic critical pressure as the reactor coolant. This concept offers high thermal efficiencies and a simplified reactor system, and is hence expected to help to improve economic competitiveness. Various kinds of SCWR concepts have been developed, with varying combinations of reactor type (pressure vessel or pressure tube) and core spectrum (thermal, fast or mixed). There is great interest in both developing and developed countries in the research and development (R&D) and conceptual design of SCWRs. Considering the high interest shown in a number of Member States, the IAEA established in 2008 the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermo-hydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs. The aim was to foster international collaboration in the R&D of SCWRs in support of Member States’ efforts and under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department’s Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR). The two key objectives of the CRP were to establish accurate databases on the thermohydraulics of supercritical pressure fluids and to test analysis methods for SCWR thermohydraulic behaviour to identify code development needs. In total, 16 institutes from nine Member States and two international organizations were involved in the CRP. The thermohydraulics phenomena investigated in the CRP included heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of supercritical pressure fluids, development of new heat transfer prediction methods, critical flow during depressurization from supercritical conditions, flow stability and natural circulation in supercritical pressure systems. Two code testing benchmark exercises were performed for steady state heat transfer and flow stability in a heated channel. The CRP was completed with the planned outputs in

  8. Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

  9. Dropwise condensation: experiments and simulations of nucleation and growth of water drops in a cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R N; Stevens, F; Langford, S C; Dickinson, J T

    2006-10-10

    Dropwise condensation of water vapor from a naturally cooling, hot water reservoir onto a hydrophobic polymer film and a silanized glass slide was studied by direct observation and simulations. The observed drop growth kinetics suggests that smallest drops grow principally by the diffusion of water adsorbed on the substrate to the drop perimeter, while drops larger than about 50 microm in diameter grow principally by direct deposition from the vapor onto the drop surface. Drop coalescence plays a critical role in determining the drop-size distribution and stimulates the nucleation of new, small drops on the substrates. Simulations of drop growth incorporating these growth mechanisms provide a good description of the observed drop-size distribution. Because of the large role played by coalescence, details of individual drop growth make little difference to the final drop-size distribution. The rate of condensation per unit substrate area is especially high for the smallest drops and may help account for the high heat transfer rates associated with dropwise condensation relative to filmwise condensation in heat exchange applications.

  10. Modeling the water uptake by chicken carcasses during cooling by immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Dias Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water uptake by poultry carcasses during cooling by water immersion was modeled using artificial neural networks. Data from twenty-five independent variables and the final mass of the carcass were collected in an industrial plant to train and validate the model. Different network structures with one hidden layer were tested, and the Downhill Simplex method was used to optimize the synaptic weights. In order to accelerate the optimization calculus, Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to preprocess the input data. The obtained results were: i PCA reduced the number of input variables from twenty-five to ten; ii the neural network structure 4-6-1 was the one with the best result; iii PCA gave the following order of importance: parameters of mass transfer, heat transfer, and initial characteristics of the carcass. The main contributions of this work were to provide an accurate model for predicting the final content of water in the carcasses and a better understanding of the variables involved.

  11. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

  12. Second meeting of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors, Helsinki, 6-9 June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) was held in Helsinki, Finland, from 6-9 June 1988. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes since the first meeting of IWGATWR in May 1987 in the field of Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors and other presentations at the Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 12 papers presented at the meeting. Figs and tabs

  13. Perceived Social Support and Academic Achievement in Argentinean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Iglesia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at describing perceived social support and its relation to academic achievement in a sample of 760 Argentinean college students. Perception of social support was assessed in terms of four possible sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and boyfriend/girlfriend or best friend. Academic achievement was measured using three different indicators: the rate of passed, failed and dropped classes in the time since the academic career was initiated. The main hypothesis posed was that a higher perception of social support would be related to a better academic achievement (a bigger rate of passed classes, and a smaller rate of failed and dropped classes. Findings showed that women perceived significantly more support than men from all sources, except from teachers. Both males and females perceived more support from best friends or boyfriends/girlfriends, and identified teachers as the less supportive source. A higher perception of social support was associated with better academic achievement but only for females. Limitations of the study and implications for the set in motion of different interventions in the academic field, which could be specific to certain type of students, are discussed.

  14. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recalde, Marina, E-mail: mrecalde@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) - Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICET), 12 de Octubre 1198 piso 7, B8000CTX Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: > This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. > There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. > It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. > A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. > Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  15. Circadian Typology and Personality Styles in Argentinean University Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Sánchez López

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the differential personality profiles of subjects according to their circadian typology (Mornigness- Eveningness. The CS Scale (Smith, Reilly y Midkinff, 1989 and the Millon Inventory of Styles of Personality (Millon, 1994 have been applied to 120 Argentinean University Women (AUW. The results point out that all AUW with high scores in morningness (M are more organised to gather and elaborate the information of the environment. On the other hand, women characterised by Eveningness (E are more creative and risky, more disappointed with routines and predictable facts and look for original and unexpected results. Furthermore, Intermediate group of woman (not clearly M or V is studied; some new findings arise: Intermediate, as compared with W tend to behave in a more adequate and formal way in social contexts and they express their emotions or act spontaneously more unlikely. Through that method we have a better picture of the differential patterns of personality, according to the Mornigness-Eveningness features of the subjects. Generally speaking, the findings open the way for future research in which specific variables of personalities will be included. 

  16. Flow and Thermal Performance of a Water-Cooled Periodic Transversal Elliptical Microchannel Heat Sink for Chip Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Yang, Mo; Wang, Zhiyun; Xu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-04-01

    Flow and thermal performance of transversal elliptical microchannels were investigated as a passive scheme to enhance the heat transfer performance of laminar fluid flow. The periodic transversal elliptical micro-channel is designed and its pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics in laminar flow are numerically investigated. Based on the comparison with a conventional straight micro- channel having rectangular cross section, it is found that periodic transversal elliptical microchannel not only has great potential to reduce pressure drop but also dramatically enhances heat transfer performance. In addition, when the Reynolds number equals to 192, the pressure drop of the transversal elliptical channel is 36.5% lower than that of the straight channel, while the average Nusselt number is 72.8% higher; this indicates that the overall thermal performance of the periodic transversal elliptical microchannel is superior to the conventional straight microchannel. It is suggested that such transversal elliptical microchannel are attractive candidates for cooling future electronic chips effectively with much lower pressure drop. PMID:26353536

  17. Educational laboratory based on a multifunctional analyzer of a reactor of a nuclear power plant with a water-moderated water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors presents an educational laboratory Safety and Control of a Nuclear Power Facility established by the Department of Automation for students and specialists of the nuclear power industry in the field of control, protection, and safe exploitation of reactor facilities at operating, constructing, and designing nuclear power plants with water-moderated water-cooled reactors

  18. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  19. Economic analysis of the integrated heating and cooling potential of a residential passive-solar water wall design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, F.; Mangeng, C.; Kirschner, C.; Ben-David, S.

    Preliminary performance estimates for the heating and cooling potential of water walls were made. These estimates include the Btu displacement that is attributable to a 300-square foot water wall design in a 1200-square foot residence. The design is for a forced ventalation water wall system that includes the fans and ducting necessary to achieve a 3000-cfm flow of air. The cooling and heating energy displacement estimates are combined with appropriate region-specific fuel prices, system costs, and general economic parameters in a lifecycle cost analysis of this fixed-size water wall design. The economic indicators used to discusse the results include net present value and a total cost goal. Input data and results are presented in mapped form and used to assess the energy savings potential of the water wall in 220 regions of the continental United States.

  20. Influence of Chlorination and Choice of Materials on Fouling in Cooling Water System under Brackish Seawater Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooling systems remove heat from components and industrial equipment. Water cooling, employing natural waters, is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities, such as power plants, factories or refineries. Due to moderate temperatures, cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling, inorganic fouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer and enhance corrosion. Hypochlorite treatment or antifouling coatings are used to prevent biological fouling in these systems. In this research, we examine biofouling and materials’ degradation in a brackish seawater environment using a range of test materials, both uncoated and coated. The fouling and corrosion resistance of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, super austenitic stainless steel (254SMO and epoxy-coated carbon steel (Intershield Inerta160 were studied in the absence and presence of hypochlorite. Our results demonstrate that biological fouling is intensive in cooling systems using brackish seawater in sub-arctic areas. The microfouling comprised a vast diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae and protozoa. Chlorination was effective against biological fouling: up to a 10–1000-fold decrease in bacterial and archaeal numbers was detected. Chlorination also changed the diversity of the biofilm-forming community. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that chlorination enhances cracking of the epoxy coating.

  1. Inline Array Jet Impingement Cooling Using Al2O3 / Water Nanofluid In A Plate Finned Electronic Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reji Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available - Jet impingement cooling is a technique used for cooling the electronic systems. In this work, heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of deionized water and Al2O3/water nanofluid in an electronic heat sink having aluminium plate fins and provision for jet impingement cooling have been studied. A novel heat sink contains two rows of plate fins of size 29mm x 24mm x 0.56mm. A thin plate having 110 holes of diameter 2.5 mm is used to produce number of jets. The plate is kept inside the heat sink in such a way that H/dn is 5.2 mm and adjacent jet spacing is 2mm. The overall dimension of the heat sink is 60x60x 65 mm. For this work we prepared a Al2O3/water nanofluid by dispersing specified quantity of nanoparticles in to deionized water by using a ultrasonic bath. Experiments were conducted under constant heat flux condition and the volume flow rate of the fluid was in the range of 1.315 to 2.778. It is found from the results that the nanofluid removes heat better than water in the jet impingement cooling with very low rise in pressure drop.

  2. Modelling of Transport of Radioactive Substances in the Primary Circuit of Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the development of water cooled nuclear power reactors, it has been known that the materials in contact with the water release some of their corrosion products into the water. As a consequence, some of the corrosion products are neutron-activated while in the reactor core and then create a gamma radiation field when deposited outside the core. These radiation fields are hazardous to the inspection, maintenance and operating staff in the power plant and therefore must be minimized. Many methods have been developed to control these radiation fields, such as the proper selection of materials and surface finishing technologies at the design stage, operating and shutdown water chemistry optimization, and the application of different decontamination methods. The need to understand the causes of this radioactivity transport has resulted in many mathematical models to describe the transport, irradiation and deposition of the radioactive corrosion products out of the core. Early models were empirical descriptions of the transport, irradiation and deposition steps, and these models allowed analytical solution of the resulting differential equations. As the mechanisms responsible for radioactivity transport gradually became better understood, more precise models of the mechanisms were made. Computer codes to solve the equations describing these models are necessary. Accurate codes are invaluable design tools for carrying out cost-benefit analysis during materials selection, for estimating shielding thicknesses and for evaluating water chemistry specifications, for example. Such codes are also useful in operating plants to predict radiation fields at specific locations where shielding may be required during a maintenance shutdown, for example, when control of radiation dose to staff is essential. To complement the previous work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to improve the mechanistic understanding of radioactivity transport, a

  3. Corrosion behaviour of hyper duplex stainless steel in various metallurgical conditions for sea water cooled condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea water cooled condensers have to resist severe corrosion as marine environment is the most corrosive natural environment. Copper alloys are being phased out due to difficulties in water chemistry control and Titanium base alloys are extremely expensive. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) remain prone to localized corrosion in marine environments hence not suitable. These heat exchangers operate at temperatures not exceeding 50 deg C and at very low pressures. The tubes of these heat exchangers are joined to the carbon steel tube sheets by roll expansion or by roll expansion followed by seam welding. These conditions are expected to affect the localized corrosion resistance of the tube in roll joined region due to cold working and in the tube-tube sheet welded joint due to thermal effects of welding. In this study, the localized corrosion behaviour of a Hyper Duplex Stainless Steel (HDSS) has been evaluated, and compared with other materials e.g. types 304L SS, 316L SS, Duplex SS 2205, Titanium grade - 2, and Al Brass. The evaluation is done in three metallurgical conditions (a) as received, (b) cold rolled and (c) welded condition in synthetic sea water at room temperature and at 50 deg C to assess the resistance to crevice, pitting and stress corrosion cracking using standard ASTM exposure and electrochemical techniques. The results provide comparative assessment of these alloys and show their susceptibility in the three metallurgical conditions as encountered in condensers. Hyper-duplex SS has been shown to be highly resistant in sea water for the condenser tubing application. (author)

  4. Thermal-hydraulics analyses and external circuits layout for the EU DEMO water-cooled Pb-17Li blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the detailed thermal-hydraulics analyses performed on the EU reference design for DEMO water-cooled Pb-17Li blanket. It includes the calculation of pressure drops and flow-rates in the main fluid circuits (first-wall and Pb-17Li-pool water-cooling circuits and Pb-17Li circuit, for both inboard and outboard segments), and an Out-of-Vessel Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis showing that a LOCA in one of the two independent cooling-circuits does not lead to unacceptable temperatures in all parts of the blanket. A preliminary description of the external circuits layout (out-of-vessel) is also given in the paper. (orig.)

  5. Augmentation of Cooling Output by Silica Gel-Water Adsorption Cycle Utilizing the Waste Heat of GHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Hiroki; Araki, Nobuyuki

    The GHP (Gas engine Heat Pump) system is expected to have high energy-efficiency in utilizing the waste heat exhausted from a gas engine. In summer season, a silica gel-water adsorption cooling unit driven by the exhaust heat is considered as a cooling system for saving energy. In this work, an attempt was made to improve the COP of a silica gel-water adsorption cooling system by enhancing heat and mass transfer in the silica gel adsorption layer. A unit cell was introduced as a simplified model of adsorber for analyzing the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. This cell was composed of a single tube with a silica gel layer bonded on its external surface. Optimization of heat and mass transfer characteristics for the unit cell was carried out by experimental and analytical approach.

  6. Characterization of Super-Cooled Liquid Water Clouds Using the Research Scanning Polarimeter Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, M. D.; Cairns, B.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Wasilewski, A. P.; Ackerman, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Super-cooled liquid water (SCW) clouds, where liquid droplets exist at temperatures below 0oC, impact both the radiative budget and the development of precipitation. They also present an aviation hazard due to their role in aircraft icing. The two recent NASA's field campaigns POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX, based in Palmdale, California, January - February 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, based in Houston, Texas in August - September 2013) provided a unique opportunity to observe SCW clouds from the high-altitude airborne platform of NASA's ER-2 aircraft. We present an analysis of the measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during these experiments. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectance in 9 spectral channels with central wavelengths of 410, 470, 555, 670, 865, 960, 1590, 1880 and 2250 nm. The RSP is a scanning sensor taking samples at 0.8o intervals within 60o from nadir in both forward and backward directions. This unique high angular resolution allows for characterization of liquid water droplet size using the rainbow structure observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135o and 165o for every pixel independently. Simple parametric fitting algorithms applied to the polarized reflectance provide retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT), which allows us to retrieve the droplet size distribution itself. The latter is important in the case of SCW clouds, which often have complex spatial and microphysical structure. For example the measurements made on 22 September 2013 during SEAC4RS indicate a cloud that alternates between being in glaciated and liquid phases, with super-cooled liquid drops at altitudes as high as 10 km, which

  7. Improving activity transport models for water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill, K.A

    2001-08-01

    Eight current models for describing radioactivity transport and radiation field growth around water-cooled nuclear power reactors have been reviewed and assessed. A frequent failing of the models is the arbitrary nature of the determination of the important processes. Nearly all modelers agree that the kinetics of deposition and release of both dissolved and particulate material must be described. Plant data must be used to guide the selection and development of suitable improved models, with a minimum of empirically-based rate constraints being used. Limiting case modelling based on experimental data is suggested as a way to simplify current models and remove their subjectivity. Improved models must consider the recent change to 'coordinated water chemistry' that appears to produce normal solubility behaviour for dissolved iron throughout the fuel cycle in PWRs, but retrograde solubility remains for dissolved nickel. Profiles are suggested for dissolved iron and nickel concentrations around the heat transport system in CANDU reactors, which operate nominally at constant chemistry, i.e., pH{sub T} constant with time, and which use carbon steel isothermal piping. These diagrams are modified for a CANDU reactor with stainless steel piping, in order to show the changes expected. The significance of these profiles for transport in PWRs is discussed for further model improvement. (author)

  8. Surface discharge of cooling water. Effects of distortion in model investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation deals with the scaling effects that arise when the spread of cooling water is studied in a physical model with different horizontal and vertical length scale ratios. The investigation is limited to surface discharges under stationary conditions. Froude and Reynolds modelling practice is presumed. Different physical processes of importance are studied and the effects of distortion are evaluated. The analyses show that two-dimensional jet diffusion, buoyancy spread, and convective heat transport can, under certain conditions, be accurately reproduced in a distorted model. A three-dimensional nonbuoyant jet will, however, have a center-line excess temperature that is too great. For correct modelling of ambient diffusion special calibration is necessary. Analytical solutions to the spread of a buoyant surface jet indicate that the center-line excess temperature will be too great. Calculations using the Prych numerical model give similar results for discharges with high outlet densimetric Froude numbers but show also that a good agreement between model and prototype is achieved for discharges with a low densimetric Froude number. Analyses of laboratory experiments confirm these theoretical results. For a distortion of eight, the areas within isotherms can be as much as 4-6 times too great. If the receiving body of water is shallow, then a better agreement between the model and the prototype can be achieved. Model-prototype comparisons show that a good agreement between the model and the prototype often demands the model to be calibrated for ambient diffusion

  9. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  10. Evaluation of cooling water treatment programme at RAPS-3 and 4 with reference to chlorination and microbial control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water from Rana Pratap Sagar Lake is used in Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) units 3 and 4 for cooling the condenser system. As the lake water is rich in nutrients and microflora, investigations were carried out on the nutrient quality, microflora distribution and chlorine decay to evaluate the cooling water treatment programme. Algal growth in emergency storage makeup water pools, weed growth on the cooling tower decks and biofilm growth on various materials (carbon steel, stainless steel, admiralty brass and cupronickel) were studied with an objective to understand the reasons for corrosion and failure of fire water pipeline. Visual examination showed that the emergency makeup water pools were infested with green algae and cyano-bacterial mats. Some algal growth was observed on induced draft cooling tower-3 structures. The bacterial counts in various water samples were low, except in emergency makeup water pool. Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were present in makeup and demineralised waters. Chlorophyll pigment analysis showed that the makeup and emergency storage water pool had abundant algal growth. To prevent biofouling, chlorine is dosed at the rate of 7 kg/hr for 10 minutes; free residual oxidant (FRO) and chlorine decay were monitored at regular intervals. After 24 hrs, biofilm thickness on different materials ranged from 27-45 μm. However, the thickness was reduced by 50 % after exposure to 2 ppm of chlorine for 15 minutes. In further investigations, it was found that the anion resin beads of demineraliser plant were infested with filamentous microbes. Hence, It is recommended to treat the feed water of DM plant. Tubercles were observed inside the failed fire water carbon steel pipeline and on removing the tubercles concentric ring patterns, typical signatures of SRB corrosion were observed. For controlling the biofouling problem in the cooling water system, it is recommended to maintain a chlorine dose of 2.3 ppm (which gives 0.8 ppm FRO) for two

  11. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  12. Adjunctive effect of a water-cooled Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Slot; A.A. Kranendonk; W.A. van der Reijden; A.J. van Winkelhoff; N.A.M. Rosema; W.H. Schulein; U. van der Velden; F.A. van der Weijden

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To test whether use of a water-cooled Nd:YAG laser adjunctive to supra- and subgingival debridement (SRP) with hand and ultrasonic instruments results in greater clinical improvement than SRP alone. Another objective was to investigate the reduction in the number of microorganisms. Metho

  13. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  14. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  15. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  16. Performance and Learning in Virtual Work Teams: Comparing Brazilians and Argentineans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Guedes-Gondim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze virtual teams from Brazil and Argentina. 181 Brazilians and 84 Argentineans responded to an electronic survey. Differences were found regarding the use of learning strategies, the need for training, and the perceived quality of interactions and effectiveness of virtual teams. The belief that the differences are more easily overcome in virtual teams than in traditional (co-located teams explains to a greater extent the variance in the responses of Brazilians than Argentineans.

  17. Lake morphometry and resource polymorphism determine niche segregation between cool- and cold-water-adapted fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilaineni, Kimmo K

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is increasing ambient temperatures in Arctic and subarctic regions, facilitating latitudinal range expansions of freshwater fishes adapted to warmer water temperatures. The relative roles of resource availability and interspecific interactions between resident and invading species in determining the outcomes of such expansions has not been adequately evaluated. Ecological interactions between a cool-water adapted fish, the perch (Perca fluviatilis), and the cold-water adapted European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), were studied in both shallow and deep lakes with fish communities dominated by (1) monomorphic whitefish, (2) monomorphic whitefish and perch, and (3) polymorphic whitefish and perch. A combination of stomach content, stable-isotope, and invertebrate prey availability data were used to identify resource use and niche overlap among perch, the trophic generalist large sparsely rakered (LSR) whitefish morph, and the pelagic specialist densely rakered (DR) whitefish morph in 10 subarctic lakes at the contemporary distribution limit of perch in northern Scandinavia. Perch utilized its putative preferred littoral niche in all lakes. LSR whitefish utilized both littoral and pelagic resources in monomorphic whitefish-dominated lakes. When found in sympatry with perch, LSR whitefish exclusively utilized pelagic prey in deep lakes, but displayed niche overlap with perch in shallow littoral lakes. DR whitefish was a specialist zooplanktivore, relegating LSR whitefish from pelagic habitats, leading to an increase in niche overlap between LSR whitefish and perch in deep lakes. Our results highlight how resource availability (lake depth and fish community) governs ecological interactions between native and invading species, leading to different outcomes even at the same latitudes. These findings suggest that lake morphometry and fish community structure data should be included in bioclimate envelope-based models of species distribution shifts

  18. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  19. Control of cross-infection risks in the dental operatory: prevention of water retraction by bur cooling spray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J J; Broderius, C

    1988-05-01

    A new dental unit control system was found to overcome the possibility of mechanically retracting bacteria from the mouth into the water line used to provide a spray of water to cool high-speed burs during treatments. This was demonstrated by results obtained after clinical use and after use in simulated, worst case test conditions using a red tempera indicator solution and indicator bacteria.

  20. Firing transformations of an argentinean calcareous commercial clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Serra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical transformations caused by firing are usually studied by XRD methods only semi-quantitatively. In this work the original mineral disappearance and the neo-mineralization were evaluated quantitatively. Furthermore an indirect non crystalline phase quantification was performed under 1100 ºC was also carried out using the quartz content as internal standard. This study specifically discusses the behavior of an Argentinean white calcareous earthenware commercial when subjected to traditional ceramic firing, besides the technological importance of this particular material, it acts as a model for other clay based ceramic materials. Materials were subjected to thermal treatments between 700 ºC and 1100 ºC. A preliminary sintering characterization was carried out by contraction and porosity evolution. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA was carried out to elucidate the actual temperature at which the chemical changes occur. Finally, a quantitative analysis based on the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was performed to characterize the crystalline phases present in both the clay and in the materials obtained after different thermal treatments. The actual chemical reactions are proposed. The phases identified after firing at traditional working temperature (1040 ºC are quartz, plagioclase, and the Spinel type alumino-silicate, accompanied by the non-diffracting un-reacted metakaolin and some amount of amorphous glassy phase. At intermediate temperatures (900 ºC the presence of gehlenite was also detected. The carbonates (calcite and dolomite presence and decomposition were also evaluated and demonstrated to determine the sintering characteristics of this material.

  1. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  2. Passive safety systems and natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power produces 15% of the world's electricity. Many countries are planning to either introduce nuclear energy or expand their nuclear generating capacity. Design organizations are incorporating both proven means and new approaches for reducing the capital costs of their advanced designs. In the future most new nuclear plants will be of evolutionary design, often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs could help to promote a new era of nuclear power. Since the mid-1980s it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially improve economics of new nuclear power plant designs. The IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future, which was convened in 1991, noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. The use of passive systems can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance, and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are conducted in several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, the IAEA

  3. Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with

  4. Construction and commissioning experience of evolutionary water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity market liberalization is an established fact in several countries and there is a trend to adopt it in other countries. The essential aim of market liberalization is to improve the overall economic efficiency. In order that nuclear power remains a viable option for electricity generation, its costs should be competitive with alternative sources while, at the same time, it should have a safe and reliable operation record. The capital cost of nuclear power plants (NPPs) generally accounts for 43-70% of the total nuclear electricity generation costs, compared to 26-48% for coal plants and 13-32% for gas plants. Most of these expenditures are incurred during the construction phase of a NPP. The achievement of shorter construction periods using improved technology and construction methods has a significant benefit on the costs incurred prior to any production of electricity. This document is intended to make the recent worldwide experience on construction and commissioning of evolutionary water cooled NPPs available to Member States and especially to those with nuclear power plants under construction/planning, and to those seriously considering nuclear power projects in the future. The final aim is to assist utilities and other organizations in Member States to improve the construction of nuclear power plants and achieve shortened schedules and reduced costs without compromising quality and safety. This document aims to provide an overview of the most advanced technologies, methods and processes used in construction and commissioning of recent nuclear projects. To better achieve this objective the presentation is selectively focused more on the new developments rather than providing a full review of all issues related to construction and commissioning. The experience described in this TECDOC applies to managers, engineers, supervisors, technicians and workers in various organizations dealing with the site construction and commissioning of nuclear power plants

  5. Computer code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor 'EUREKA-2D'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codes, such as EUREKA and EUREKA-2 have been developed to analyze the reactivity initiated accident for light water reactor. These codes could not be applied directly for the analyses of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor which are different from light water reactor not only on operation condition but also on reactor kinetic constants. EUREKA-2D which is modified EUREKA-2 is a code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water research reactors. Following items are modified: 1) reactor kinetic constants. 2) thermodynamic properties of coolant. 3) heat transfer equations. The feature of EUREKA-2D and an example of analysis are described in this report. (author)

  6. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. Clab/encapsulation facility (Clink) - removal of groundwater, collection of cooling water from the sea and the construction of day water pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to an Environmental Impact Assessment that accompanies a permit application according to the Swedish Environmental Code. The report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) associated with construction of an encapsulation plant in direct connection to SKB's existing Clab facility on the Simpevarp peninsula in the Municipality of Oskarshamn (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). Moreover, the report deals with water operations associated with the operation of the integrated facility, which is named Clink. Specifically, the water operations that are treated in the report include diversion of groundwater, withdrawal of cooling water from the sea, and construction of a storm-water treatment pond. There are valid permits regarding diversion of groundwater and withdrawal of cooling water for the current facility and activities at Clab. It is presupposed that the cooling-water withdrawal from the sea to Clink can be handled within the limits of the valid Clab permit. The diversion of groundwater from Clink may be somewhat larger compared to the present diversion from Clab. The increase is due to a relatively small, additional rock shaft for the encapsulation plant, adjacent to the current surface facility and above one of the two existing rock caverns (Clab 1). Based on the location of the planned rock shaft (above one of the existing rock caverns) and its small volume, it is judged that the inflow of groundwater during operation of Clink will be only 5-10 percent larger compared to the inflow to the current Clab facility. It is possible that the inflow will be larger during the construction phase, prior to grouting of the shaft. Based on the limited increase of the groundwater inflow and results from the ongoing Clab monitoring programme, it is judged that the construction of the encapsulation plant and the operation of Clink will only lead to very small

  7. Design of water-cooling system for 750 keV radio frequency quadrupole injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling design of a 201.25 MHz, 750 keV radio frequency quadrupole injector is described in this paper. The essential parameters for the design of the cooling pipes are obtained from the RF structure design. The hydrodynamics and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed. Computer simulation is performed using the steady state thermal analysis module of the radio-frequency software. Numerical computation shows that the increase of temperature is controlled within 1 K, the accelerator can work steadily with this cooling system. The cooling design satisfies the physical requirement very well. (authors)

  8. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater, an abundant and widely distributed impaired water source, is a promising alternative water source for thermoelectric power plant cooling. However, excessive biological growth is a major challenge associated with wastewater reuse in cooling systems as it can interfere with normal system operation as well as enhance corrosion and scaling problems. Furthermore, possible emission of biological aerosols (e.g., Legionella pneumophila) with the cooling tower drift can lead to public health concerns within the zone of aerosol deposition. In this study, the effectiveness of pre-formed and in-situ-formed monochloramine was evaluated for its ability to control biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater as the only makeup water source. Bench-scale studies were compared with pilot-scale studies for their ability to predict system behavior under realistic process conditions. Effectiveness of the continuous addition of pre-formed monochloramine and monochloramine formed in-situ through the reaction of free chlorine with ammonia in the incoming water was evaluated in terms of biocide residual and its ability to control both planktonic and sessile microbial populations. Results revealed that monochloramine can effectively control biofouling in cooling systems employing secondary-treated municipal wastewater and has advantages relative to use of free chlorine, but that bench-scale studies seriously underestimate biocide dose and residual requirements for proper control of biological growth in full-scale systems. Pre-formed monochloramine offered longer residence time and more reliable performance than in-situ-formed monochloramine due to highly variable ammonia concentration in the recirculating water caused by ammonia stripping in the cooling tower. Pilot-scale tests revealed that much lower dosing rate was required to maintain similar total chlorine residual when pre-formed monochloramine

  9. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Water at Super—Critical Pressures under Heating or Cooling Conditions in Vertical Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等

    1995-01-01

    Forced and mixed convection heat and mass transfer are studied numerically for water containing metallic corrosion products in a heated or cooled vertical tube with variable thermophysical properties at super-citical pressures.the fouling mechanisms and fouling models are presented.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on forced or mixed convection has been analyzed.The differences between heat and mass transfer under heating and cooling conditions are discussed.It is found that variable properties,especially buoyancy,greatly influence the fluid flow and heat mass fransfer.

  10. Development of the Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yoshikawa, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and evaluation toward DEMO blanket, the module fabrication technology development by a candidate structural material, reduced activation martensitic/ferritic steel, F82H, is one of the most critical items from the viewpoint of realization of TBM testing in ITER. In Japan, fabrication of a real scale first wall, side walls, a breeder pebble bed box and assembling of the first wall and side walls have succeeded. Recently, the real scale partial mockup of the back wall was fabricated. The fabrication procedure of the back wall, whose thickness is up to 90 mm, was confirmed toward the fabrication of the real scale back wall by F82H. Important key technologies are almost clarified for the fabrication of the real scale TBM module mockup. From the view point of testing and evaluation, development of the technology of the blanket tritium recovery, development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles and the development of the blanket neutronics measurement technology are also performed. Also, tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been started as the verification test of tritium production performance. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB TBM in Japan.

  11. R and D status on Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Nakajima, Motoki; Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2014-10-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket. Regarding the blanket module fabrication technology development using F82H, the fabrication of a real scale mockup of the back wall of TBM was completed. In the design activity of the TBM, electromagnetic analysis under plasma disruption events and thermo-mechanical analysis under steady state and transient state of tokamak operation have been performed and showed bright prospect toward design justification. Regarding the development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for DEMO blanket, fabrication technology development of Li rich Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble and BeTi pebble was performed. Regarding the research activity on the evaluation of tritium generation performance, the evaluation of tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been performed. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB Blanket in JAEA.

  12. Design of a water cooled monoblock divertor for DEMO using Eurofer as structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.richou@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Li-Puma, Antonella [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    The performed investigation focus on a monoblock type design for a water cooled DEMO divertor using Eurofer as structural material. In 2013, a study case of such a concept was presented. It was shown that basic concepts using Eurofer as structural material are limited to an incident heat flux of 8 MW m{sup −2}. Since, the EFDA agency issued new specifications. In this study, the conceptual design is reassessed with regard to specifications. Then, steady state thermal analyses and thermo-mechanical elastic analyses have been performed to define an upgrade of the geometry taking into account new specifications, design criteria and the maximum heat flux requirement of 10 MW m{sup −2}. An analysis of the influence of each adjustable geometrical parameter on thermo-mechanical design criteria was performed. As a consequence, geometrical parameters were set in order to fit to materials requirements. For defined hydraulic conditions taken in the most favourable configuration, the limit of this design is estimated to an incident heat flux of 10 MW m{sup −2}. Margin to critical heat flux and rules against progressive deformation/ratcheting in structural material limit the design.

  13. Hydrogen behaviour and mitigation in water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), within the framework of their safety research activities, initiated and arranged a series of specialist meetings and research contracts on hydrogen behaviour and control. The result of this work is summarized in a report jointly prepared by the two international organizations entitled 'Hydrogen in water-cooled nuclear power reactors'. Independently, the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute organized a workshop on the hydrogen issue in Sukhumi, USSR, with CEC and IAEA cooperation. Commonly expressed views have emerged and recommendations were formulated to organize the subsequent seminar/workshop concentrating mainly on the most recent research and analytical projects and findings related to the hydrogen behaviour, and-most importantly-on the practical approaches and engineering solutions to the hydrogen control and mitigation. The seminar/workshop, therefore, addressed the 'theory and practice' aspects of the hydrogen issue. The workshop was structured in the following sessions: combustible gas production; hydrogen distribution; combustion phenomena; combustion effects and threats; and detection and migration

  14. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  15. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for cooling water treatment

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Support contract for cooling water treatment for LEP, PS and SPS. Following a market survey carried out among 46 firms in twelve Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2557/ST) was sent on 26 July 1999 to seven firms and two consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from firms and consortia in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium AQUAZUR (FR) and SCHILLING CHEMIE (DE), the lowest bidder after realignment, for an initial period of three years, starting on 1 January 2000, for a total amount not exceeding 976 482 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract will include options for two further one-year extensions beyond the initial three year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the work covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 52% and DE - 48%.

  16. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography.

  17. Onsite nondestructive examination techniques for irradiated water-cooled power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, in response to the recommendations from several Member States, has prepared this Guidebook on Onsite Non-Destructive Techniques for Irradiated Water-Cooled Power Reactor Fuel with the assistance of a number of experts and organizations in this field. During the preparation of this report it became evident that a comparison between different techniques is a most difficult task and depends on a number of factors related to fuel design, plant characteristics and operating conditions. Consequently the emphasis of the report is on the survey of different techniques presently available. It is also to be noted that because the degree of development for any given technique varies significantly among organizations, it is understood that the report should not be used as consensus standard of the minimum capabilities for each class of techniques, nor does it give recommendations in the regulatory sense. Furthermore, the inclusion of some commercial pieces of equipment, services and other products are for illustrative purposes only and neither implies any preference by the Agency nor can the Agency be liable for any material presented in the report

  18. Performance characteristics of two-phase-flow turbo-expanders used in water-cooled chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasz, J.J. [United Technologies Carrier, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Use of two-phase-flow throttle loss recovery devices in water-cooled chillers requires satisfactory part-load operation. This paper describes the results of two-phase-flow impulse turbine testing and the data reduction of the test results into a two-phase-flow turbine off-design performance model. It was found that the main parameter controlling the efficiency of two-phase-flow turbine is the ratio of the nozzle spouting velocity to the rotor speed. The turbine mass flow rate is mainly controlled by inlet subcooling of the entering liquid. The strong sensitivity of turbine mass flow rate on inlet subcooling allows the use of a conventional float valve upstream of the turbine as an effective means of controlling the turbine during part-load operation. For a well-designed two-phase-flow turbine, nozzle spouting velocity and therefore turbine efficiency is hardly affected by the amount of inlet subcooling. Also, capacity can be substantially reduced by a reduction in the amount of inlet subcooling entering the turbine nozzles. Hence, turbine part-load efficiency equals its full-load efficiency over a wide range of flow rates using this control concept. (Author)

  19. Neutronics Comparison Analysis of the Water Cooled Ceramics Breeding Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fangfang; Pu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like fusion engineering test reactor that is intended to fill the scientific and technical gaps between ITER and DEMO. One of the main missions of CFETR is to achieve a tritium breeding ratio that is no less than 1.2 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. A concept design for a water cooled ceramics breeding blanket (WCCB) is presented based on a scheme with the breeder and the multiplier located in separate panels for CFETR. Based on this concept, a one-dimensional (1D) radial built breeding blanket was first designed, and then several three-dimensional models were developed with various neutron source definitions and breeding blanket module arrangements based on the 1D radial build. A set of nuclear analyses have been carried out to compare the differences in neutronics characteristics given by different calculation models, addressing neutron wall loading (NWL), tritium breeding ratio (TBR), fast neutron flux on inboard side and nuclear heating deposition on main in-vessel components. The impact of differences in modeling on the nuclear performance has been analyzed and summarized regarding the WCCB concept design. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  20. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography. PMID:25943148

  1. Effect of Internal Heat Recovery in Ammonia-Water Absorption Cooling Cycles: Exergy and Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Nogués

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available First and second law analysis have been conducted for three low temperature driven ammonia-water absorption cooling cycles with increasing internal heat recovery. Based on the results of exergy analysis the structural analysis has been achieved. The obtained Coefficients of Structural Bonds (CSB consider how the irreversibility of the whole cycle is affected by a change in the irreversibility related to an efficiency improvement of a single component. Trends for the different configurations are similar, while quantitative differences among the main heat exchangers are considerable. The highest values of the CSB are found for the refrigerant heat exchanger. Also the evaporator, the condenser, the generator and the absorber show values higher than unity. The lowest CSB’s are obtained in the solution heat exchanger. In general, CSB’s decrease with increasing efficiency. That means that for very efficient heat exchangers, a further improvement looks less attractive. The dephlegmator is an exception as it shows a singularity of the CSB value due to its complex interactions with the other components. Once the CSB’s are obtained for the main components, they can be used in the structural method of the thermoeconomic optimisation. This method enables us to find the optimum design of a component in a straightforward calculation.

  2. Preliminary Study on the High Efficiency Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Kyun; Cho, Bong Hyun and others

    2006-01-15

    This research has been performed to introduce a concept of supercritical pressure water cooled reactor(SCWR) in Korea The area of research includes core conceptual design, evaluation of candidate fuel, fluid systems conceptual design with mechanical consideration, preparation of safety analysis code, and construction of supercritical pressure heat transfer test facility, SPHINX, and preliminary test. As a result of the research, a set of tools for the reactor core design has been developed and the conceptual core design with solid moderator was proposed. The direct thermodynamic cycle has been studied to find a optimum design. The safety analysis code has also been adapted to supercritical pressure condition. A supercritical pressure CO2 heat transfer test facility has been constructed and preliminary test proved the facility works as expected. The result of this project will be good basis for the participation in the international collaboration under GIF GEN-IV program and next 5-year mid and long term nuclear research program of MOST. The heat transfer test loop, SPHINX, completed as a result of this project may be used for the power cycle study as well as further heat transfer study for the various geometries.

  3. Control of Canadian once-through direct cycle supercritical water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dynamic characteristics of Canadian SCWR are analyzed. • Hybrid feedforward and feedback control is adopted to deal with cross-coupling. • Gain scheduling control with smooth weight is applied to deal with nonlinearity. • It demonstrates through simulation that the control requirements are satisfied. - Abstract: Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) can be modelled as a Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) system. It has a high power-to-flow ratio, strong cross-coupling and high degree of nonlinearity in its dynamic characteristics. Among the outputs, the steam temperature is strongly affected by the reactor power and the most challenging to control. It is difficult to adopt a traditional control system design methodology to obtain a control system with satisfactory performance. In this paper, feedforward control is applied to reduce the effect on steam temperature from the reactor power. Single-input Single-output (SISO) feedback controllers are synthesized in the frequency domain. Using the feedforward controller, the steam temperature variation due to disturbances at the reactor power has been significantly suppressed. The control system can effectively maintain the overall system stability and regulate the plant around a specified operating condition. To deal with the nonlinearities, gain scheduling control strategy is adopted. Different sets of controllers combined by smooth weight functions are used for the plant at different load conditions. The proposed control strategies have been evaluated under various operating scenarios. Simulation results show that satisfactory performance can successfully achieved by the designed control system

  4. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  5. Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  6. Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lisa Christine

    A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design phase many fuel-channel components are being investigated in various combinations. Analysis inputs are: steam cycle, Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), fuel-bundle geometry, and thermophysical properties of reactor coolant, fuel sheath and fuel. Uniform and non-uniform AHFPs for average channel power were applied to a variety of alternative fuels (mixed oxide, thorium dioxide, uranium dicarbide, uranium nitride and uranium carbide) enclosed in an Inconel-600 43-element bundle. The results depict bulk-fluid, outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperature profiles together with the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles along the heated length of fuel channel. The objective is to identify the best options in terms of fuel, sheath material and AHFPS in which the outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperatures will be below the accepted temperature limits of 850°C and 1850°C respectively. The 43-element Inconel-600 fuel bundle is suitable for SCWR use as the sheath-temperature design limit of 850°C was maintained for all analyzed cases at average channel power. Thoria, UC2, UN and UC fuels for all AHFPs are acceptable since the maximum fuel-centreline temperature does not exceed the industry accepted limit of 1850°C. Conversely, the fuel-centreline temperature limit was exceeded for MOX at all AHFPs, and UO2 for both cosine and downstream-skewed cosine AHFPs. Therefore, fuel-bundle modifications are required for UO2 and MOX to be feasible nuclear fuels for SCWRs.

  7. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n = 178), air (n = 231), and swabs (n = 138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41%) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18%) and 3 (18%). Serogroups 4 (4%) and 10 (7%) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1 = 13; sg3 = 13; sg4 = 3; sg7 = 38; sg10 = 5; sgX = 2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations.

  8. PROGRESS IN DESIGN OF THE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF THE TOKAMAK COOLING WATER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; DeVan, Bill [ORNL; Ashburn, David [AREVA Federal Services LLC; Crotts, Brad [AREVA Federal Services LLC; Smith, Michael [AREVA Federal Services LLC

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in the design of the control, interlock and safety systems of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER fusion reactor. The TCWS instrumentation and control (I&C) is one of approximately 200 separate plant I&C systems (e.g., vacuum system I&C, magnets system I&C) that interface to a common central I&C system through standardized networks. Several aspects of the I&C are similar to the I&C of fission-based power plants. However, some of the unique features of the ITER fusion reactor and the TCWS (e.g., high quasi-static magnetic field, need for baking and drying as well as cooling operations), also demand some unique safety and qualification considerations. The paper compares the design strategy/guidelines of the TCWS I&C and the I&C of conventional nuclear power plants. Issues such as safety classifications, independence between control and safety systems, sensor sharing, redundancy, voting schemes, and qualification methodologies are discussed. It is concluded that independence and separation requirements are similar in both designs. However, the voting schemes for safety systems in nuclear power plants typically use 2oo4 (i.e., 4 divisions of safety I&C, any 2 of which is sufficient to trigger a safety action), while 2oo3 voting logic - within each of 2 independent trains - is used in the TCWS I&C. It is also noted that 2oo3 voting is also acceptable in nuclear power plants if adequate risk assessment and reliability is demonstrated. Finally, while qualification requirements provide similar guidance [e.g., both IEC 60780 (invoked in ITER-space), and IEEE 323 (invoked in fission power plant space) provide similar guidance], an important qualification consideration is the susceptibility of I&C to the magnetic fields of ITER. Also, the radiation environments are different. In the case of magnetic fields the paper discusses some options that are being considered.

  9. Did Cooling of Subthermocline Waters Help Establish Modern Upwelling Regions? Evidence rom ODP Site 716 in the Indian Ocean: Subthermocline δ18O Record Does Not Exceed General Cooling Trend of the Global Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, S.; Polissar, P. J.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The modern Indian Ocean exhibits a strong sea surface temperature gradient between the upwelling zone in the northwest Arabian Sea and the central warm pool. However, during the Pliocene, this temperature difference was essentially nonexistent. The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperature patterns parallels those in ocean basins worldwide—modern upwelling zones were dramatically warmer in the Pliocene and cooled around 2 million years ago, which had significant implications for regional precipitation patterns. Whether this cooling was due to stronger upwelling, colder subthermocline waters or other factors is not yet known. We analyzed the δ18O of benthic foraminifera from ODP site 716 in the Indian Ocean to test whether cooling of subthermocline waters contributed to cooling of the Arabian Sea upwelling region. Currently, bottom water at this 533 meter-deep site ventilates the thermocline and eventually upwells in the northwest Arabian Sea. We used the stable oxygen isotopic composition of the benthic foraminifera Uvigerina proboscidea and Cibicidoides spp. to infer changes in the temperature of bottom water at site 716. Our benthic record exhibits a ~1.5‰ secular shift over the past 4.5 million years, indicating cooling of bottom waters. The benthic δ18O trend at site 716 parallels the record from the deep ocean suggesting cooling of shallow waters was comparable to that observed in abyssal waters. The onset of cooling precedes the shift observed in upwelling regions by ~0.5 million years suggesting that colder subsurface waters were not the proximal cause of cooler upwelling regions. Cooler subsurface waters were likely a precondition that primed the system to amplify any changes in upwelling, but increased wind-driven upwelling at 2 million years initiated the establishment of the modern cold upwelling regions.

  10. 3-Dimensional numerical study of cooling performance of a heat sink with air-water flow through mini-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sambit; Majumder, Abhik; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-07-01

    The present microelectronics market demands devices with high power dissipation capabilities having enhanced cooling per unit area. The drive for miniaturizing the devices to even micro level dimensions is shooting up the applied heat flux on such devices, resulting in complexity in heat transfer and cooling management. In this paper, a method of CPU processor cooling is introduced where active and passive cooling techniques are incorporated simultaneously. A heat sink consisting of fins is designed, where water flows internally through the mini-channel fins and air flows externally. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for large set of Reynolds number in laminar region using finite volume method for both developing flows. The dimensions of mini-channel fins are varied for several aspect ratios such as 1, 1.33, 2 and 4. Constant temperature (T) boundary condition is applied at heat sink base. Channel fluid temperature, pressure drop are analyzed to obtain best cooling option in the present study. It has been observed that as the aspect ratio of the channel decreases Nusselt number decreases while pressure drop increases. However, Nusselt number increases with increase in Reynolds number.

  11. Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3ArgSF) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of 9 overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' en...

  12. Female Anxiety and Male Depression: Links between Economic Strain and Psychological Aggression in Argentinean Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K.

    2010-01-01

    A dyadic model of economic strain was applied to the study of anxiety and depression as mediating mechanisms in the economic strain-psychological aggression relation. Data came from self-report questionnaires completed by 143 Argentinean clinical couples. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that anxiety and depression increased for…

  13. Application of MF,Ozone and RO in Treatment of Municipal Sewage Reused as Circulating Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Reuse of treated municipal sewage as circulating cooling water of fossil-fired power plants is a very theme worthy to be studied and spread because of the water shortage in most areas of China. This paper presents a process using coagulation + MF + ozone + partial RO to deal with the recycled sewage after treated preliminarily in sewage treatment plant. The process solves effectively the problem of higher TDS and higher total hardness in product water in winter, thus is especially fit for cities where sewage quality changes obviously with seasons.

  14. Report of the consultancy on review of thermophysical properties of materials for advanced water-cooled reactors. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the IAEA's Nuclear Power Technology Development Section has carried out a coordinated research programme on thermophysical properties of materials for advanced water cooled reactors. The objective of this activity has been to collect and systematize a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials under normal operating and transient conditions. This activity has been organized within the frame of IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-cooled Reactors. The important thermophysical properties include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, thermal expansion and others. Several organizations involved in this CRP have suggested establishment of a new programme to extend the database to include properties in the liquid region applicable to severe accidents, to critically assess and peer review the property data and correlations, and to recommend the most appropriate data. The purpose of the consultancy was to examine the interest in further cooperation, and, if appropriate, to prepare the scope and approach for a potential new international collaborative programme to collect and review thermophysical properties data for advanced water cooled reactors and to recommend the most appropriate data. Figs

  15. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR HEAT POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of economic efficiency that can be universal and is suitable for feasibility study of modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of cooling towers has been developed. The method takes into account the effect of lower pressure exhaust steam in the condenser by lowering the temperature of the cooling water outlet of a cooling tower that aims at improvement of technical and economic indicators of heat power plants. The practical results of the modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of a cooling tower are presented. As a result, the application of new irrigation and water distribution systems of cooling towers will make it possible to increase the cooling efficiency by more than 4 оС and, therefore, to obtain the fuel savings by improving the vacuum in the turbine condensers. In addition, the available capacity of CHP in the summer period is increased. The results of the work, the experience of modernization of irrigation and water distribution systems of the Gomel CHP-2 cooling towers system, as well as the and methods of calculating of its efficiency can be disseminated for upgrading similar facilities at the power plants of the Belarusian energy system. Some measures are prosed to improve recycling systems, cooling towers and their structures; such measures might significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of technical water supply systems of heat power plants.

  17. The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

    2013-05-01

    Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

  18. SPLOSH II: A dynamics programme for nuclear - thermal - hydrodynamic behaviour of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamics code is described that solves the two-group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously with the thermal and the hydraulic equations for an average channel of a water-cooled reactor. Other reactor channels can be represented as 'slaves', which have no feedback to the average channel. The fission power at any axial station in a slave channel is related to that in the average by prescribed time-dependent factors, and the hydraulic flow is determined from pressure-drop requirements dictated by the performance of the average channel. A finite difference model of the fuel element and can represents the behaviour of the fuel temperatures and surface heat flux. The representation of the hydraulic circuit has been made sufficiently general that the code is applicable to B.W.R., P.W.R. and pressure tube reactor designs. The code can be used to study transients resulting from imposed time variations in coolant flow, inlet enthalpy, system pressure, electrical torque supplied to the circulating pumps, (or alternatively, the angular velocity of the pump rotors,) moderator height, frictional resistances simulating blockages and control rod and fuel element insertions. The harmonic response can be obtained by injecting sinusoidal time variations until the starting transient has been damped out. Output includes axial distributions of the neutron fluxes, heat flux, coolant density and temperature, burn-but margin, and the fuel and can temperatures in both the average and the slave channels. The code was originally written in FORTRAN II for use on the IBM 7090. Computing times vary greatly with the problem and the desired accuracy but experience has shown that a computing time which is slower than real time by a factor thirty is adequate for a wide range of cases. The code has recently been converted to S2 and EGTRAN for use on the IBM 7030 and the English Electric Leo Marconi KDF 9 computers. (author)

  19. Cooling Vest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  20. Proposal for the Award of a Blanket Purchase Contract for the Supply of Water-Cooled Cables for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of water-cooled cables for the LHC. Following a market survey carried out among 26 firms in six Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3008/ST/LHC) was sent on 18 February 2002 to four firms in three Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received two tenders from two firms in two Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with BRAR (IT), the only compliant bidder, for the supply of water-cooled cables for the LHC for a total amount not exceeding 1 720 000 euros (2 529 805 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2004. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT - 100%.

  1. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  2. Feasibility analysis of modified AL-6XN steel for structure component application in supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinggang LI; Qingzhi YAN; Rong MA; Haoqiang WANG; Changchun GE

    2009-01-01

    Modified AL-6XN austenite steel was patterned after AL-6XN superaustenitic stainless steel by introducing microalloy elements such as zirconium and titanium in order to adapt to recrystallizing thermo-mechanical treatment and further improve crevice corrosion resistance. Modified AL-6XN exhibited comparable tensile strength, and superior plasticity and impact toughness to commercial AL-6XN steel. The effects of aging behavior on corrosion resistance and impact toughness were measured to evaluate the qualification of modified AL-6XN steel as an in-core component and cladding material in a supercritical water-cooled reactor. Attention should be paid to degradation in corrosion resistance and impact toughness after aging for 50 hours when modified AL-6XN steel is considered as one of the candidate materials for in-core components and cladding tubes in supercritical water-cooled reactors.

  3. Performance of water and diluted ethylene glycol as coolants for electronic cooling

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gayatri,; Dr.D.Sreeramulu

    2015-01-01

    As the number of transistors increases with new generation of microprocessor chips, the power draw and heat load to dissipate during operation increases. As a result of increasing the heat loads and heat fluxes the Conventional cooling technologies such as fan, heat sinks are unable to absorb and heat transfer excess heat dissipated by these new microprocessor. So, new technologies are needed to improve the heat removal capacity. In the present work single phase liquid cooling sys...

  4. Conceptual design of laser-diode-pumped water-cooled Nd:glass slab laser driver for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed and designed a laser-diode-pumped laser driver for inertial fusion energy (IFE) which consists of water-cooled zig-zag path Nd:glass (HAP-4) slab amplifiers. A driver module was designed under the several operational constraints and has 10 kJ total output energy at 351 nm and operates at 12 Hz with 9 - 12% overall efficiency. The laser driver producing 4 MJ blue output for IFE will consist of 400 modules. (author)

  5. Optimization of power-cycle arrangements for Supercritical Water cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon-A-Lugrin, Laure

    The world energy demand is continuously rising due to the increase of both the world population and the standard of life quality. Further, to assure both a healthy world economy as well as adequate social standards, in a relatively short term, new energy-conversion technologies are mandatory. Within this framework, a Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established by the participation of 10 countries to collaborate for developing nuclear power reactors that will replace the present technology by 2030. The main goals of these nuclear-power reactors are: economic competitiveness, sustainability, safety, reliability and resistance to proliferation. As a member of the GIF, Canada has decided to orient its efforts towards the design of a CANDU-type Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). Such a system must run at a coolant outlet temperature of about 625°C and at a pressure of 25 MPa. It is obvious that at such conditions the overall efficiency of this kind of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will compete with actual supercritical water-power boilers. In addition, from a heat-transfer viewpoint, the use of a supercritical fluid allows the limitation imposed by Critical Heat Flux (CHF) conditions, which characterize actual technologies, to be removed. Furthermore, it will be also possible to use direct thermodynamic cycles where the supercritical fluid expands right away in a turbine without the necessity of using intermediate steam generators and/or separators. This work presents several thermodynamic cycles that could be appropriate to run SCWR power plants. Improving both thermal efficiency and mechanical power constitutes a multi-objective optimization problem and requires specific tools. To this aim, an efficient and robust evolutionary algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, is used and coupled to an appropriate power plant thermodynamic simulation model. The results provide numerous combinations to achieve a thermal efficiency higher than 50% with a

  6. Improving Safety, Economic, Substantiality, and Security of Nuclear Energy with Canadian Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor is one of the six design concepts being developed under the Generation IV International Forum. It is the only concept evolving from the water-cooled reactors and taking advantages of the balance-of-plant design and operation experience of the fossil-power plants. Canada is developing the SCR concept from the well-established pressure-tube reactor technology. The Canadian SCWR maintains modular design approach using relative small fuel channels with the separation of coolant and moderator. It is equipped with an advanced fuel channel design that is capable to transfer decay heat from the fuel to the moderator under the long-term cooling stage. Coupled with the advanced passive-moderator cooling system, cooling of fuel and fuel channel is continuous even without external power or operator intervention. The Canadian SCWR is operating at a pressure of 25 MPa with a core outlet temperature of 625 deg. C. This has led to a drastic increase in thermal efficiency to 48% from 34% of the current fleet of reactors (a 40% rise in relative efficiency). With the high core outlet temperature, a direct thermal cycle has been adopted and has led to simplification in plant design attributing to the cost reduction compared to the current reactor designs. The Canadian SCWR adopts the advanced Thorium fuel cycle to enhance the substantiality, economic, and security. than uranium in the world (estimated to be three times more). This provides the long-term fuel supply. Thorium's price is stable compared to uranium and is consistently lower than uranium. This would maintain the predictability and economic of fuel supply. Thorium itself is a non-fissile material and once irradiated requires special handling. This improves proliferative resistance. The objective of this paper is to highlight these improvements in generating nuclear energy with the Canadian SCWR

  7. An open reversed Brayton cycle with regeneration using moist air for deep freeze cooled by circulating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shaobo [Guangdong Ocean University, College of Engineering, East Jiefang Rd. No. 40, Xiashan, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524006 (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Aeroengine and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhang, Hefei [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Aeroengine and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an open reversed Brayton cycle with regeneration using moist air for deep freeze cooled by circulating water, and proves its feasibility through performance simulation. Pinch technology is used to analyze the cooling of the wet air after compressor and the water used for cooling wet air after compressor. Its refrigeration depends mainly on the sensible heat of air and the latent heat of water vapor, its performance is more efficient than a conventional air-cycle, and the utilization of turbo-machinery makes it possible. The adoption of this cycle will make deep freeze easily and reduce initial cost because very low temperature, about -55 C, air is obtained. The sensitivity analysis of coefficient of performance to the efficiency of compressor and the efficiency of compressor, and the results of the cycle are also given. The simulation results show that the COP of this system depends on the temperature before turbine, the efficiency of compressor and the efficiency of compressor, and varies with the wet bulb temperature of the outdoor air. Humid air is a perfect working fluid for deep freeze with no cost to the user. (author)

  8. The major species of heavy metal aerosol resulting from water cooling systems and spray dryer systems during incineration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey; Yang; Wei

    1998-11-01

    Trace toxic metals in municipal solid waste may escape from the incineration process in flue gas, in dry collected ash, in wet scrubbed ash, or as a suspended aerosol. Therefore, understanding the behavior of heavy metals in the flue gas and the best controls in the air pollution control equipment are important and necessary. The control conditions of water cooling and spray dryer systems during incineration processes significantly influence the formation of heavy metal compounds. The formation of chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) species under various control conditions (water cooling tower and spray dryer reactor) was investigated in this study. The object of the experiment is to understand the effects of water cooling and spray dryer systems individually on the formation of heavy metal species. The operating parameters that are evaluated include different control systems, control temperatures, and chlorine content. A thermodynamic equilibrium model was also used to evaluate experimental data. In order to match real incineration conditions, a two-stage simulation was performed in this experiment. The results showed that the relationship of speciation between the simulation prediction and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is consistent for Cr compounds; both indicated that Cr2O3 is the major species. The relationship is almost the same for Cd compounds, but not for Pb compounds. PMID:9846130

  9. The first discovery of Permian conodont fauna from peri-Gondwana cool water facies in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG YouYe; XU RongKe; WANG ChengYuan; MA GuoTao

    2007-01-01

    The Angjie Formation and Xiala Formation, present in the Shiquanhe area of Gar County in the western part of Gangdise, Tibet, belong to the Gangdise stratigraphic subregion. Conodonts have been found in the Angjie Formation, and they permit an age determination of Early to Middle Permian for that formation. The age of the Xiala Formation could be late Middle Permian. Whether the Late Permian marine deposits are present in this area still needs to be determined, but it ie possible that the lower part of the Xiala Formation overlaps partly the upper part of the Angjie Formation. More importantly, the study has brought about a finding of typical peri-Gondwana cool water facies conodonts, namely,Vjalovognathus sp. nov. x. This is the first report and brief description of a conodont fauna from peri-Gondowana cool water facies in China. It indicates that the Gangdise stratigraphic subregion can be subdivided; the western part belongs to peri-Gondwana cool water facies, and the eastern part belongs to Tethys.

  10. The Role of Soya Oil Ester in Water-Based PCM for Low Temperature Cool Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Rasta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the preparation of the water-based phase change material (PCM with very small soya oil solution for low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES. Soya oil ester is soluble very well in water and acts as nucleating agent for a novel solid-liquid PCM candidate that is suitable for low temperature cool storage in the range between −9°C and −6°C. Thermal energy storage properties of the water with very small soya oil ester solution were measured by T-history method. The experimental results show that very small amount of soya oil ester in water can lower the freezing point and trigger ice nucleation for elimination of the supercooling degree. The phase transition temperatures of the water-based PCMs with soya oil as nucleate agent were lower than those of individual water. The thermal properties make it potential PCM for LHTES systems used in low temperature cool energy storage applications.

  11. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the internal elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Before and after statistics of costs and profits obtained through optimization of colder water by engineered thermal upgrading are discussed

  12. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms in power-plant cooling waters. Report for October 1, 1979-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Cooling waters from eleven geographically disparate power plants were tested for the presence of Naegleria fowleri and Legionella pneumophila (LDB). Control source waters for each plant were also tested for these pathogens. Water from two of the eleven plants contained pathogenic Naegleria, and infectious Legionella were found in seven of the test sites. Pathogenic Naegleria were not found in control waters, but infectious Legionella were found in five of the eleven control source water sites. Concentrations of nitrite, sulfate, and total organic carbon correlated with the concentrations of LDB. A new species of Legionella was isolated from one of the test sites. In laboratory tests, both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria were capable of supporting the growth of Legionella pneumophila.

  13. Optimization of Energy Saving for Petrochemistry Enterprise Recirculating Cooling Water System%石化企业循环冷却水系统节能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴罗刚; 周勇

    2012-01-01

    对目前石化企业循环冷却水系统存在的问题,提出强化传热和循环冷却水的串级利用的方法,加强生产和水质管理,以降低循环冷却水系统能耗。%Based on the problem of the petrochemistry enterprise recirculating cooling water system, propose the method of heat transfer enhancement and recirculated cooling water cascade utilization, strengthen management, so as to reduce the recirculating cooling water system energy consumption.

  14. Development of dual cooled annular fuel and its possibility to enhance both economy and safety of light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yanghyun; Kim, Keonsik; Park, Jeongyong; Yang, Yongsik; Kim, Hyungkyu; In, Wangkee; Song, Kunwoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Over the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to improve the reliability and safety of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. In recent years, power updating of about 10% is being achieved by modifying safety analysis methodology and subsequent increase in safety margin. But departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) are still two of the most important limiting factors which would restrict power updating more than 10%. Duel cooled annular fuel, cooled in both internal and external cooling channel, has advantages of considerably lower heat flux and lower fuel temperature than conventional solid fuel. While lower heat flus gives higher DNB margin for the same power retie, lower temperature reduces the stored energy of fuel. However, there are many technical issues that should be addressed before any new type of fuel can be considered for application to LWR. This paper describes the key technologies that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed for dual cooled annular fuel and discusses the feasibility of its application to LWR.

  15. Development of dual cooled annular fuel and its possibility to enhance both economy and safety of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to improve the reliability and safety of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. In recent years, power updating of about 10% is being achieved by modifying safety analysis methodology and subsequent increase in safety margin. But departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) are still two of the most important limiting factors which would restrict power updating more than 10%. Duel cooled annular fuel, cooled in both internal and external cooling channel, has advantages of considerably lower heat flux and lower fuel temperature than conventional solid fuel. While lower heat flus gives higher DNB margin for the same power retie, lower temperature reduces the stored energy of fuel. However, there are many technical issues that should be addressed before any new type of fuel can be considered for application to LWR. This paper describes the key technologies that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed for dual cooled annular fuel and discusses the feasibility of its application to LWR

  16. Method of estimation of sea-shelf water exchange using information on differential coastal cooling above underwater slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Physics of formation of differential coastal cooling in areas with sloping bottom, as well as the associated water dynamics, is already quite well investigated. This allows for using this knowledge for quantitative estimation of deep sea - coastal area (cross-shore) water-exchange. It is especially effective during periods of seasonal autumnal cooling, when vertical gravitational convection reaches bottom in shallower coastal areas. Then, the water temperature in sloping area (the picture of differential coastal cooling) is formed by combined effect of the heat exchange with the cooler atmosphere and horizontal heat transport due to water-exchange with the warmer sea. If the heat loss to the atmosphere in the open area and in coastal region can be taken approximately the same, then time rate of decrease of water temperature in deep-sea surface layer provides its measure, which can be applied also in sloping area. Thus, the heat transport by horizontal (cross-shore) exchange can be estimated. Theoretical considerations were checked using the results of original laboratory experiments, 3D numerical modeling in basins with sloping bottom, comparison with field measurement and satellite data for the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. Analytical expressions for cross-shore temperature variations during periods of the developed vertical convection were obtained for several flow regimes (e.g., no exchange with the sea, quasi-steady-state exchange due to the cross-shore density gradients). Series of laboratory experiments have demonstrated the particular features of the coast-sea temperature profiles in different flow regimes (see poster EGU2013-502). Three-dimensional non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model MIKE3-FlowModel (DHI Water & Environment) was applied to reproduce both the laboratory experiments and the results of field measurements in the Gdansk bay of the Baltic Sea (74 cruise of r/v 'Prof. Stockman', October, 2005). Data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua for October

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR STEAM POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the temperature of cooling water and increase the efficiency of use of power resources the main directions of modernization of systems of technical water supply with cooling towers at steam power plants are presented. The problems of operation of irrigation systems and water distribution systems of cooling towers are reviewed. The design of heat and mass transfer devices, their shortcomings and the impact on the cooling ability of the cooling tower are also under analysis. The use of droplet heat and mass transfer device based on the lattice polypropylene virtually eliminates the shortcomings of the film and droplet-film heat and mass transfer devices of the cooling tower, increasing lifetime, and improving the reliability and efficiency of the operation of the main equipment of thermal power plants. The design of the water distribution devices of cooling towers is also considered. It is noted that the most effective are water-spattering low-pressure nozzles made of polypropylene that provides uniform dispersion of water and are of a high reliability and durability.

  18. The demise of the early Eocene greenhouse - Decoupled deep and surface water cooling in the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, André; D'haenens, Simon; Norris, Richard D.; Speijer, Robert P.

    2016-10-01

    Early Paleogene greenhouse climate culminated during the early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 50 to 53 Ma). This episode of global warmth is subsequently followed by an almost 20 million year-long cooling trend leading to the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation of Antarctica. Here we present the first detailed planktic and benthic foraminiferal isotope single site record (δ13C, δ18O) of late Paleocene to middle Eocene age from the North Atlantic (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 401, Bay of Biscay). Good core recovery in combination with well preserved foraminifera makes this site suitable for correlations and comparison with previously published long-term records from the Pacific Ocean (e.g. Allison Guyot, Shatsky Rise), the Southern Ocean (Maud Rise) and the equatorial Atlantic (Demerara Rise). Whereas our North Atlantic benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C data agree with the global trend showing the long-term shift toward heavier δ18O values, we only observe minor surface water δ18O changes during the middle Eocene (if at all) in planktic foraminiferal data. Apparently, the surface North Atlantic did not cool substantially during the middle Eocene. Thus, the North Atlantic appears to have had a different surface ocean cooling history during the middle Eocene than the southern hemisphere, whereas cooler deep-water masses were comparatively well mixed. Our results are in agreement with previously published findings from Tanzania, which also support the idea of a muted post-EECO surface-water cooling outside the southern high-latitudes.

  19. Concept design and formation of a lithium bromide–water cooling system powered by supercritical CO2 solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Supercritical CO2 solar collector is proposed for double effect lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system. • Coupled system concept designs are made to provide sustainable cooling capacity. • Experimental system established and tested for supercritical fluid high pressure cycle side. • Seasonal solar power lithium bromide–water cooling system COP is identified up to 1.08. - Abstract: In this study, concept design and tests for the combination of a supercritical CO2 solar collector powered LiBr–H2O refrigeration system has been investigated. The system is basically consisted of one supercritical CO2 solar collector system and one double effect lithium bromide–water absorption refrigeration cycle. The assessment of the overall performance is based on the theoretical analysis of the refrigeration cycle and experiments on a supercritical solar collector system in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province of China. Energy balance and seasonal efficiency analysis are developed in this study. The maximum daily averaged COP (Coefficient of Performance) of the proposed system is estimated up to 1.08, while the averaged COP ranges from 0.53 to 0.91 for different months. The obtained results indicate considerable improvement to conventional solar-assisted cooling systems. In addition, it is also found that this system performs better than traditional systems even when the solar radiation is not at high level, which is due to the stability and high efficiency of supercritical circulation collector cycle proposed. The system feasibility and possible future directions of the proposed system are also discussed in detail in this study. It is hoped that the current results can be of help to related system designs

  20. Silicagel-water adsorption cooling prototype system for mobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, R.; Smeding, S.F.; Mola, S. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    A prototype adsorption cooling system was developed for the purpose of on-board test of mobile air conditioning driven by waste heat from the engine. The system was designed, constructed and first tested in the laboratory of ECN. The performance under various static operating conditions was determined in the laboratory. The system can produce 2 kW of chilling power with a COP of 0.4. The prototype was afterward installed in the Fiat Grande Punto demonstration car by CRF. The system was connected to the heating and cooling systems of the car and tested. The performance in the car was comparable to the performance in the lab, indicating that system integration was successful. A waste heat driven adsorption cooling system can be applied for comfort cooling purposes in a car. The amount of waste heat that is freely available in the engine coolant circuit as well as its temperature level is sufficient to drive the adsorption cooling system and to produce enough cold to keep comfortable interior temperatures.

  1. Controlling stomatal aperture in semi-arid regions-The dilemma of saving water or being cool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M M; Costa, J M; Zarrouk, O; Pinheiro, C; Lopes, C M; Pereira, J S

    2016-10-01

    Stomatal regulation of leaf gas exchange with the atmosphere is a key process in plant adaptation to the environment, particularly in semi-arid regions with high atmospheric evaporative demand. Development of stomata, integrating internal signaling and environmental cues sets the limit for maximum diffusive capacity of stomata, through size and density and is under a complex genetic control, thus providing multiple levels of regulation. Operational stomatal conductance to water vapor and CO2 results from feed-back and/or feed-forward mechanisms and is the end-result of a plethora of signals originated in leaves and/or in roots at each moment. CO2 assimilation versus water vapor loss, proposed to be the subject of optimal regulation, is species dependent and defines the water use efficiency (WUE). WUE has been a topic of intense research involving areas from genetics to physiology. In crop plants, especially in semi-arid regions, the question that arises is how the compromise of reducing transpiration to save water will impact on plant performance through leaf temperature. Indeed, plant transpiration by providing evaporative cooling, is a major component of the leaf energy balance. In this paper we discuss the dilemma of 'saving water or being cool' bringing about recent findings from molecular genetics, to development and physiology of stomata. The question of 'how relevant is screening for high/low WUE in crops for semi-arid regions, where drought and heat co-occur' is discussed. PMID:27593463

  2. The effects of commercial cool water washing of shell eggs on Haugh unit, vitelline membrane strength, aerobic microorganisms, and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, A B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Kerth, L K; Oyarazabal, O; Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2010-01-01

    Current egg washing practices use wash water temperatures averaging 49 degrees C and have been found to increase internal egg temperature by 6.7 to 7.8 degrees C. These high temperatures create a more optimal environment for bacterial growth, including Salmonella Enteritidis if it is present. Salmonella Enteritidis is the most common human pathogen associated with shell eggs and egg products. Its growth is inhibited at temperatures of 7.2 degrees C and below. The objective of this study was to determine if commercially washing eggs in cool water would aid in quickly reducing internal egg temperature, preserving interior egg quality, and slowing microbial growth. During 3 consecutive days, eggs were washed using 4 dual-tank wash water temperature schemes (HH = 49 degrees C, 49 degrees C; HC = 49 degrees C, 24 degrees C; CC = 24 degrees C, 24 degrees C; CH = 24 degrees C, 49 degrees C) at 2 commercial processing facilities. A 10-wk storage study followed, in which vitelline membrane strength, Haugh unit, and aerobic microorganisms and fungi (yeasts and molds) were monitored weekly. As storage time progressed, average Haugh unit values declined 14.8%, the average force required to rupture the vitelline membrane decreased 20.6%, average numbers of bacteria present on shell surfaces decreased 11.3%, and bacteria present in egg contents increased 39.5% during storage. Wash water temperature did not significantly affect Haugh unit values, vitelline membrane strength, or the numbers of aerobic microorganisms and fungi within the shell matrices of processed eggs. Results of this study indicate that incorporating cool water into commercial shell egg processing, while maintaining a pH of 10 to 12, lowers postprocessing egg temperatures and allows for more rapid cooling, without causing a decline in egg quality or increasing the presence of aerobic microorganisms and fungi for approximately 5 wk postprocessing. PMID:20008814

  3. Performance studies of a new core cooling monitor in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the performance studies of a new core cooling monitor (electrical cylindrical heater) for BWRs. Such a detector has been successfully tested at various elevations, including the lower plenum, in the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant under normal operating conditions, and also in various environments in a 160 bar loop (with sudden uncoveries) and in the laboratory (up to 1265 C). It can be operated in two modes: the core cooling mode and the temperature mode, where it actually acts as a thermometer. It currently appears ready for implementation in BWR installations. (orig.)

  4. Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

  5. Technical Schemes and Characteristics of Water-cooling Milk Tanks%水冷式奶罐的技术方案及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雅颂; 陈东; 谢继红; 李国盛

    2015-01-01

    Direct cooling milk tanks need high power and energy consumption, so four technical schemes of water-cooling milk tanks are put forward: water-cooling milk tank using groundwater, water-cooling milk tank using outdoor air, water-cooling milk tank with ice storage and water-cooling milk tank producing hot water. Working principle and characteristics of four technical schemes are introduced and compared based on 10 tons of milk tanks. It shows that compared with direct cooling milk tanks, equipment cost and electricity consumption of water-cooling milk tanks using groundwater is about half of that, water-cooling milk tanks using outdoor air can decrease electricity consumption cost more than 30%, electricity consumption cost of water-cooling milk tanks with ice storage can decrease more than 50%, water-cooling milk tanks preparing hot water can get 1~3 tons hot water of 40~80℃ to meet needs of cleaning milking equipment and milk tanks.%针对直冷式奶罐功率配置较高、能耗较大等不足,给出了4种水冷式奶罐技术方案:采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐和同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐。对4种技术方案的工作流程和特点进行了介绍,并以10吨奶罐为例,对4种水冷式奶罐和直冷式奶罐进行了计算比较。结果表明:与直冷式奶罐相比,采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐设备费用和电耗费用均降低约50%;采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐电耗费用可降低30%以上;采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐耗电费用降低约50%;同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐可免费获得1~3吨40~80℃的热水,可满足挤奶装置和奶罐的清洗需要。

  6. Progress in design, research and development and testing of safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting covered the following topics: Developments in design of safety-related heat removal components and systems for advanced water cooled reactors; status of test programmes on heat removal components and systems of new designs; range of validity and extrapolation of test results for the qualification of design/licensing computer models and codes for advanced water cooled reactors; future needs and trends in testing of safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors. Tests of heat removal safety systems have been conducted by various groups supporting the design, testing and certification of advanced water cooled reactors. The Technical Committee concluded that the reported test results generally confirm the predicted performance features of the advanced designs. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. First meeting of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors, Vienna, 18-21 May 1987. (Pt. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors was held in Vienna, Austria from 18-21 May 1987. Part I of the Summary Report contains the minutes of the meeting

  8. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  9. Ultrafast cooling by covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid immersed in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2016-01-01

    The increasing power density and the decreasing dimensions of transistors present severe thermal challenges to the design of modern microprocessors. Furthermore, new technologies such as three-dimensional chip-stack architectures require novel cooling solutions for their thermal management. Here...

  10. Burnup calculations of light water-cooled pressure tube blanket for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Tiejun, E-mail: tiejun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Cao, Liangzhi

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed burnup calculations are performed on pressurized water cooled blankets with pressure tube assemblies. • The blanket is fueled with simple fuel, namely spent nuclear fuel discharged from light water reactors or natural uranium oxide. • The refueling strategies are proposed, and the uranium resource utilization rate can reach 5–6%. - Abstract: A fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) with pressure tube blanket has recently been proposed based on an ITER-type tokamak fusion neutron source and the well-developed pressurized water cooling technologies. In this paper, detailed burnup calculations are carried out on an updated blanket. Two different blankets respectively fueled with the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from light water reactors (LWRs) or natural uranium oxide is investigated. In the first case, a three-batch out-to-in refueling strategy is designed. In the second case, some SNF assemblies are loaded into the blanket to help achieve tritium self-sufficiency. And a three-batch in-to-out refueling strategies is adopted to realize direct use of natural uranium oxide fuel in the blanket. The results show that only about 80 tonnes of SNF or natural uranium are needed every 1500 EFPD (Equivalent Full Power Day) with a 3000 MWth output and tritium self-sufficiency (TBR > 1.15), while the required maximum fusion powers are lower than 500 MW for both the two cases. Based on the proposed refueling strategies, the uranium utilization rate can reach about 4.0%.

  11. Water treatments in semi-closed cooling circuits and their impact on the quality of effluents discharged by CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Leite Cima Gomes, J; Kleiner, S

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to assess the impact of the discharges of the semi-closed water cooling circuits of CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) on the overall quality of CERN's effluents, taking as guidelines the international legislation supported on the knowledge of the water systems of CERN. In order to reach this goal, a thorough analysis of the functioning of the semi-closed water cooling systems of CERN's particle accelerators was done, as well as, an analysis of the treatment that is done to prevent the proliferation of bacteria such as Legionella. The products used in these water treatments, as well as their impact, were also researched. In addition, a study of the applicable regulation to CERN's effluent was done. This study considered not only the regulation of France and Switzerland (CERN's host states) but also the international regulation from the European community, Portugal Germany, Spain, U.S. and Canada, having in view a better understanding of the limit values of the parameter...

  12. Theoretical research of a silica gel-water adsorption chiller in a micro combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Wu, J.Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A novel micro CCHP system, which is based on a two bed silica gel-water adsorption chiller, is constructed in this work. To reveal the chiller characteristic in this system, a transient model of the adsorption chiller is developed. According to the comparison of the simulated results and experimental data, the presented model shows a good performance in predicting the chiller performance, with both stable and variable heat source temperature. With the analysis of simulated results, it is found that the cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the chiller are influenced significantly by the average value and variation rate of electric load, as well as the average value of cooling load. The water tank also shows a great effect on the chiller performance. To get better performance of the chiller, the water tank should be adopted when the electric load is low or its variation rate is positive, and should not be utilized when the electric load is high or its variation rate is negative. A 500 L water tank is recommended in order to get better performance and acceptable start-up time. Furthermore, to get better performance as well as higher security, a cold accumulator should be adopted. (author)

  13. First meeting of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors, Vienna, 18-21 May 1987. (Pt. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors was held in Vienna, Austria from 18-21 May 1987. The Summary Report (Pt. 2) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors and other presentations at the Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 papers presented at this meeting. Refs, figs

  14. Analysis on blow-down transient in water ingress accident of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water ingress into the primary circuit is generally recognized as one of the severe accidents with potential hazard to the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor, which will cause a positive reactivity introduction with the increase of steam density in reactor core to enhance neutron slowing-down, also the chemical corrosion of graphite fuel elements and the damage of reflector structure material. The increase of the primary pressure may result in the opening of the safety valves, consequently leading the release of radioactive isotopes and flammable water gas. The research on water ingress transient is significant for the verification of inherent safety characteristics of high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The 200 MWe high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-PM), designed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, is exampled to be analyzed in this paper. The design basis accident (DBA) scenarios of double-ended guillotine break of single heat-exchange tube (steam generator heat-exchange tube rupture) are simulated by the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, and some key concerns which are relative to the amount of water into the reactor core during the blow-down transient are analyzed in detail. The results show that both of water mass and steam ratio of the fluid spouting from the broken heat-exchange tube are affected by break location, which will increase obviously with the broken location closing to the outlet of the heat-exchange tube. The double-ended guillotine rupture at the outlet of the heat-exchange will result more steam penetrates into the reactor core in the design basis accident of water ingress. The mass of water ingress will also be affected by the draining system. It is concluded that, with reasonable optimization on design to balance safety and economy, the total mass of water ingress into the primary circuit of reactor could be limited effectively to meet the safety requirements, and the pollution of

  15. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    energy and exergy inputs to the system, energy and exergy inputs to the auxiliary components were also studied. Both heating and cooling cases were considered and three climatic zones were studied; Copenhagen (Denmark), Yokohama (Japan), and Ankara (Turkey). The analysis showed that the water......-based radiant heating and cooling system performed better than the air-based system both in terms of energy and exergy input to the heating/cooling plant. The relative benefits of the water-based system over the air-based system vary depending on the climatic zone. The air-based system also requires higher...

  16. Foreign-owned firms and technological capabilities in the Argentinean manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ionara; Marin, Anabel

    2007-01-01

    This deals with the technological development implications of the substantial and long-dated presence of foreign-owned affiliates in the Argentinean manufacturing industry. It put forward the argument that the learning process of foreign-owned firms should be central in the analysis of the technological impacts of inward FDI. In other words, FDI impacts to host economies are dependent not exclusively on the technology and knowledge that multinational corporations are willing to transfer to th...

  17. Growth estimats of the Argentinean surf clam Donax hanleyanus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) derived from fluorescent marking

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Marko; Laudien, Jürgen; Arntz, Wolf; Penchaszadeh, P. E.

    2007-01-01

    RESUMENMicro-growth increments of the Argentinean surf clam Donax hanleyanus were measured at the exposed sandy beach Mar Azul. After marking the shells with the fluorescence marker Calcein, animals were allowed to grow in situ for 36 days. The majority of the marked specimens showed a distinct fluorescent band reflecting the calcein staining time and allowing for growth estimates.Palabras llaves: growth rate, fluorescent marking, Calcein, surf clam, Donax hanleyanusINTRODUCCIÓNGrowth rate is...

  18. Analysis on thermophoretic deposit of fine particle on water wall of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tao; YANG Rui-Chang; JIA Dou-Nan

    2005-01-01

    The water wall is an important part of the passive natural circulation residual heat removal system in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The maximum temperatures of the pressure shell and the water wall are calculated using annular vertical closed cavity model. Fine particles can deposit on the water wall due to the thermophore sis effect. This deposit can affect heat transfer. The thermophoretic deposit efficiency is calculated by using Batch and Shen's formula fitted for both laminar flow and turbulent flow. The calculated results indicate that natural convection is turbulent in the closed cavity. The transient thermophoretic deposit efficiency rises with the increase of the pressure shell's temperature. Its maximum value is 14%.

  19. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V

    2015-12-31

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle.

  20. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V

    2015-12-31

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle. PMID:26520931