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Sample records for arenaviruses provide broad

  1. New insights into the evolutionary relationships between arenaviruses provided by comparative analysis of small and large segment sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne negative-stranded bisegmented RNA viruses. Five arenaviruses are etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever in humans and are potential agents of bioterrorism. They are classified as Biosafety level 4 agents and listed in the category A of the Pathogen Agents edited by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, evolution and phylogeny of arenaviruses have been based on the analysis of sequences derived from structural genes (small RNA segment) exclusively, due to the lack of sequences available for the large RNA segment. In this study, partial sequences of the polymerase gene were determined for 18 species of arenaviruses and used to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Comparative analysis of topologies obtained from polymerase and structural gene analyses permitted us to determine the evolutionary origin of the major parent of the North American recombinant arenaviruses, and to investigate the role of genetic exchange (reassortment and recombination) in the evolutionary mechanisms driving the evolution of the genus Arenavirus

  2. Reverse Genetics Approaches to Control Arenavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Several arenavirus cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetics approaches provides investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the investigation of the arenavirus molecular and cell biology. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription and the identification of novel anti-arenaviral drug targets without requiring the use of live forms of arenaviruses. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis, as well as to facilitate screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs and development of novel live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. Recently, reverse genetics have also allowed the generation of tri-segmented arenaviruses expressing foreign genes, facilitating virus detection and opening the possibility of implementing live-attenuated arenavirus-based vaccine vector approaches. Likewise, the development of single-cycle infectious, reporter-expressing, arenaviruses has provided a new experimental method to study some aspects of the biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses without the requirement of high-security biocontainment required to study HF-causing arenaviruses. In this chapter we summarize the current knowledge on arenavirus reverse genetics and the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques for the development of arenavirus vaccines and vaccine vectors. PMID:27076139

  3. Reverse genetics approaches to combat pathogenic arenaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, and evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Moreover, arenaviruses pose a biodefense threat. No licensed anti-arenavirus vaccines are available, and current anti-arenavirus therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin, which is only partially effective and is associated with anemia and other side effects. T...

  4. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  5. Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Borremans, Benny; Katakweba, Abdul; Makundi, Rhodes; Baird, Stuart J E; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    To determine the specificity of Morogoro virus for its reservoir host, we studied its host range and genetic diversity in Tanzania. We found that 2 rodent species other than Mastomys natalensis mice carry arenaviruses. Analysis of 340 nt of the viral RNA polymerase gene showed sympatric occurrenc...... of 3 distinct arenaviruses....

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzo Urata; Jiro Yasuda

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety ...

  7. Widespread recombination, reassortment, and transmission of unbalanced compound viral genotypes in natural arenavirus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Stenglein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are one of the largest families of human hemorrhagic fever viruses and are known to infect both mammals and snakes. Arenaviruses package a large (L and small (S genome segment in their virions. For segmented RNA viruses like these, novel genotypes can be generated through mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Although it is believed that an ancient recombination event led to the emergence of a new lineage of mammalian arenaviruses, neither recombination nor reassortment has been definitively documented in natural arenavirus infections. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to survey the viral diversity present in captive arenavirus-infected snakes. From 48 infected animals, we determined the complete or near complete sequence of 210 genome segments that grouped into 23 L and 11 S genotypes. The majority of snakes were multiply infected, with up to 4 distinct S and 11 distinct L segment genotypes in individual animals. This S/L imbalance was typical: in all cases intrahost L segment genotypes outnumbered S genotypes, and a particular S segment genotype dominated in individual animals and at a population level. We corroborated sequencing results by qRT-PCR and virus isolation, and isolates replicated as ensembles in culture. Numerous instances of recombination and reassortment were detected, including recombinant segments with unusual organizations featuring 2 intergenic regions and superfluous content, which were capable of stable replication and transmission despite their atypical structures. Overall, this represents intrahost diversity of an extent and form that goes well beyond what has been observed for arenaviruses or for viruses in general. This diversity can be plausibly attributed to the captive intermingling of sub-clinically infected wild-caught snakes. Thus, beyond providing a unique opportunity to study arenavirus evolution and adaptation, these findings allow the investigation of unintended anthropogenic impacts on

  8. The Curious Case of Arenavirus Entry, and Its Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne York

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that are endemic to specific rodent hosts worldwide. Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, including Junín and Machupo viruses in South America and Lassa fever virus in western Africa. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein complex, GPC. The virion is endocytosed on binding to a cell-surface receptor, and membrane fusion is initiated in response to physiological acidification of the endosome. As with other class I virus fusion proteins, GPC-mediated membrane fusion is promoted through a regulated sequence of conformational changes leading to formation of the classical postfusion trimer-of-hairpins structure. GPC is, however, unique among the class I fusion proteins in that the mature complex retains a stable signal peptide (SSP as a third subunit, in addition to the canonical receptor-binding and fusion proteins. We will review the curious properties of the tripartite GPC complex and describe evidence that SSP interacts with the fusion subunit to modulate pH-induced activation of membrane fusion. This unusual solution to maintaining the metastable prefusion state of GPC on the virion and activating the class I fusion cascade at acidic pH provides novel targets for antiviral intervention.

  9. Investigation of type-I interferon dysregulation by arenaviruses : a multidisciplinary approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozina, Carol L.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Branda, Catherine; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Ricken, James Bryce; James, Conrad D.; Negrete, Oscar A.; Misra, Milind; Carson, Bryan D.

    2011-09-01

    This report provides a detailed overview of the work performed for project number 130781, 'A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Pathogenesis.' We report progress in five key areas: single cell isolation devices and control systems, fluorescent cytokine and transcription factor reporters, on-chip viral infection assays, molecular virology analysis of Arenavirus nucleoprotein structure-function, and development of computational tools to predict virus-host protein interactions. Although a great deal of work remains from that begun here, we have developed several novel single cell analysis tools and knowledge of Arenavirus biology that will facilitate and inform future publications and funding proposals.

  10. Animal Models, Prophylaxis, and Therapeutics for Arenavirus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Vela

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, he...

  11. A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiun-Yann; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Zhuo, Zong-Yan; Huang, Chen-Han; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2009-11-01

    Diversified research interests in scanning laser microscopy nowadays require broadband capability of the optical system. Although an all-mirror-based optical design with a suitable metallic coating is appropriate for broad-spectrum applications from ultraviolet to terahertz, most researchers prefer lens-based scanning systems despite the drawbacks of a limited spectral range, ghost reflection, and chromatic aberration. One of the main concerns is that the geometrical aberration induced by off-axis incidence on spherical mirrors significantly deteriorates image resolution. Here, we demonstrate a novel geometrical design of a spherical-mirror-based scanning system in which off-axis aberrations, both astigmatism and coma, are compensated to reach diffraction-limited performance. We have numerically simulated and experimentally verified that this scanning system meets the Marechà l condition and provides high Strehl ratio within a 3°×3° scanning area. Moreover, we demonstrate second-harmonic-generation imaging from starch with our new design. A greatly improved resolution compared to the conventional mirror-based system is confirmed. This scanning system will be ideal for high-resolution linear/nonlinear laser scanning microscopy, ophthalmoscopic applications, and precision fabrications.

  12. Highly Sensitive Assay for Measurement of Arenavirus-cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Joseph P; Botten, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Arenaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses that cause severe human disease. The first step in the arenavirus life cycle is attachment of viral particles to host cells. While virus-cell attachment can be measured through the use of virions labeled with biotin, radioactive isotopes, or fluorescent dyes, these approaches typically require high multiplicities of infection (MOI) to enable detection of bound virus. We describe a quantitative (q)RT-PCR-based assay that measures Junin virus strain Candid 1 attachment via quantitation of virion-packaged viral genomic RNA. This assay has several advantages including its extreme sensitivity and ability to measure attachment over a large dynamic range of MOIs without the need to purify or label input virus. Importantly, this approach can be easily tailored for use with other viruses through the use of virus-specific qRT-PCR reagents. Further, this assay can be modified to permit measurement of particle endocytosis and genome uncoating. In conclusion, we describe a simple, yet robust assay for highly sensitive measurement of arenavirus-cell attachment. PMID:26966937

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not

  14. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A. (Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow)

    1984-05-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  15. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi; Röser, Christina; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Lloyd, Graham; Sabuni, Christopher; Verhagen, Ron; van der Groen, Guido; Kennis, Jan; Katakweba, Abdul; Machang'u, Robert; Makundi, Rhodes; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry...

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  17. Isolation, identification, and characterization of novel arenaviruses, the etiological agents of boid inclusion body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Liljeroos, Lassi; Patjas, Aino; Henttonen, Heikki; Vaheri, Antti; Artelt, Annette; Kipar, Anja; Butcher, Sarah J; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2013-10-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a progressive, usually fatal disease of constrictor snakes, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) in a wide range of cell types. To identify the causative agent of the disease, we established cell cultures from BIBD-positive and -negative boa constrictors. The IB phenotype was maintained in cultured cells of affected animals, and supernatants from these cultures caused the phenotype in cultures originating from BIBD-negative snakes. Viruses were purified from the supernatants by ultracentrifugation and subsequently identified as arenaviruses. Purified virus also induced the IB phenotype in naive cells, which fulfilled Koch's postulates in vitro. One isolate, tentatively designated University of Helsinki virus (UHV), was studied in depth. Sequencing confirmed that UHV is a novel arenavirus species that is distinct from other known arenaviruses including those recently identified in snakes with BIBD. The morphology of UHV was established by cryoelectron tomography and subtomographic averaging, revealing the trimeric arenavirus spike structure at 3.2-nm resolution. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum against UHV and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of genetically diverse arenaviruses in a large cohort of snakes with BIBD, confirming the causative role of arenaviruses. Some snakes were also found to carry arenavirus antibodies. Furthermore, mammalian cells (Vero E6) were productively infected with UHV, demonstrating the potential of arenaviruses to cross species barriers. In conclusion, we propose the newly identified lineage of arenaviruses associated with BIBD as a novel taxonomic entity, boid inclusion body disease-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV), in the family Arenaviridae. PMID:23926354

  18. Construction of the recombinant broad-host-range plasmids providing their bacterial hosts arsenic resistance and arsenite oxidation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Ciezkowska, Martyna; Radlinska, Monika; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2015-02-20

    The plasmid pSinA of Sinorhizobium sp. M14 was used as a source of functional phenotypic modules, encoding proteins involved in arsenite oxidation and arsenic resistance, to obtain recombinant broad-host-range plasmids providing their bacterial hosts arsenic resistance and arsenite oxidative ability. An arsenite oxidation module was cloned into pBBR1MCS-2 vector yielding plasmid vector pAIO1, while an arsenic resistance module was cloned into pCM62 vector yielding plasmid pARS1. Both plasmid constructs were introduced (separately and together) into the cells of phylogenetically distant (representing Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria) and physiologically diversified (unable to oxidize arsenite and susceptible/resistant to arsenite and arsenate) bacteria. Functional analysis of the modified strains showed that: (i) the plasmid pARS1 can be used for the construction of strains with an increased resistance to arsenite [up to 20mM of As(III), (ii) the presence of the plasmid pAIO1 in bacteria previously unable to oxidize As(III) to As(V), contributes to the acquisition of arsenite oxidation abilities by these cells, (iii) the highest arsenite utilization rate are observed in the culture of strains harbouring both the plasmids pAIO1 and pARS1, (iv) the strains harbouring the plasmid pAIO1 were able to grow on arsenic-contaminated mine waters (∼ 3.0 mg As L(-1)) without any supplementation. PMID:25617684

  19. Biogeography and evolutionary history of hantaviruses and arenaviruses in Africa. Call for participation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Leirs, H.; Bryja, Josef; Makundi, R.; Madebo, M.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Šumbera, R.; Čížková, Dagmar; Mazoch, V.; Zima Jr., J.; Gryseels, S.; Akaibe, D.; Amundala, N.; Kennis, J.; Verheyen, E.; Laudisoit, A.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J.; Günther, S.

    Kwaluseni: University of Swaziland, 2011. s. 79-80. [African Small Mammal Symposium /11./. 03.08.2011-08.08.2011, Kwaluseni] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : arenaviruses * hantaviruses * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  20. Design of indirect solid-phase immunosorbent methods for detecting arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    Specifications have been elaborated for formulating indirect solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) methods that employ anti-human and anti-mice G class immunoglobulin (IgG), conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I for detecting the arenaviruses Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amalpari, Tamiami, Lassa, and LCM (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). These methods make it possible to identify with a high degree of sensitivity arenavirus antigens and antibodies in various kinds of material.

  1. Arenavirus Coinfections Are Common in Snakes with Boid Inclusion Body Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepojoki, J; Salmenperä, P; Sironen, T; Hetzel, U; Korzyukov, Y; Kipar, A; Vapalahti, O

    2015-08-01

    Recently, novel arenaviruses were found in snakes with boid inclusion body disease (BIBD); these form the new genus Reptarenavirus within the family Arenaviridae. We used next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly to investigate reptarenavirus isolates from our previous study. Four of the six isolates and all of the samples from snakes with BIBD contained at least two reptarenavirus species. The viruses sequenced comprise four novel reptarenavirus species and a representative of a new arenavirus genus. PMID:26041290

  2. Old World Arenavirus Infection Interferes with the Expression of Functional α-Dystroglycan in the Host Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, Jillian M.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Oldstone, Michael B A; Kunz, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    α-Dystroglycan (α-DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus (LFV). Specific O-glycosylation of α-DG is critical for its function as receptor for ECM proteins and arenaviruses. Here, we investigated the impact of arenavirus infection on α-DG expression. Infection with an immunosuppressive LCMV isolate caused a marked reduction in express...

  3. Replication of Boid Inclusion Body Disease-Associated Arenaviruses Is Temperature Sensitive in both Boid and Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Kipar, Anja; Korzyukov, Yegor; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Vapalahti, Olli; Hetzel, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIDB) is a fatal disease of boid snakes, the etiology of which has only recently been revealed following the identification of several novel arenaviruses in diseased snakes. BIBD-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV) are genetically divergent from the classical Old and New World arenaviruses and also differ substantially from each other. Even though there is convincing evidence that BIBDAV are indeed the etiological agent of BIBD, the BIBDAV reservoir hosts—if any exis...

  4. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  5. Serological assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2012-10-01

    The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, leading to serious public health concerns. These viruses are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for these virus infections in institutes without BSL-4 facilities. To overcome these difficulties, antibody detection systems in the form of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect immunofluorescence assay were developed using recombinant nucleoproteins (rNPs) derived from these viruses. Furthermore, several antigen-detection assays were developed. For example, novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the rNPs of Lassa and Junin viruses were generated. Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture) ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. These rNP-based assays were proposed to be useful not only for an etiological diagnosis of VHFs, but also for seroepidemiological studies on VHFs. We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses. PMID:23202455

  6. Serological Assays Based on Recombinant Viral Proteins for the Diagnosis of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Saijo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW and New World (NW complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF in humans, leading to serious public health concerns. These viruses are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for these virus infections in institutes without BSL-4 facilities. To overcome these difficulties, antibody detection systems in the form of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence assay were developed using recombinant nucleoproteins (rNPs derived from these viruses. Furthermore, several antigen-detection assays were developed. For example, novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to the rNPs of Lassa and Junin viruses were generated. Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. These rNP-based assays were proposed to be useful not only for an etiological diagnosis of VHFs, but also for seroepidemiological studies on VHFs. We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses.

  7. Novel arenavirus sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys setulosus from Cote d'Ivoire: implications for evolution of arenaviruses in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coulibaly-N'Golo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus-host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events.

  8. Inhibition of Innate Immune Responses Is Key to Pathogenesis by Arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bjoern; Ly, Hinh

    2016-04-15

    Mammalian arenaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause asymptomatic, persistent infections in their rodent hosts but can lead to severe and lethal hemorrhagic fever with bleeding and multiorgan failure in human patients. Lassa virus (LASV), for example, is endemic in several West African countries, where it is responsible for an estimated 500,000 infections and 5,000 deaths annually. There are currently no FDA-licensed therapeutics or vaccines available to combat arenavirus infection. A hallmark of arenavirus infection (e.g., LASV) is general immunosuppression that contributes to high viremia. Here, we discuss the early host immune responses to arenavirus infection and the recently discovered molecular mechanisms that enable pathogenic viruses to suppress host immune recognition and to contribute to the high degree of virulence. We also directly compare the innate immune evasion mechanisms between arenaviruses and other hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses, such as Ebola, Marburg, Dengue, and hantaviruses. A better understanding of the immunosuppression and immune evasion strategies of these deadly viruses may guide the development of novel preventative and therapeutic options. PMID:26865707

  9. Bilaterian phylogeny: a broad sampling of 13 nuclear genes provides a new Lophotrochozoa phylogeny and supports a paraphyletic basal acoelomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paps, Jordi; Baguñà, Jaume; Riutort, Marta

    2009-10-01

    During the past decade, great progress has been made in clarifying the relationships among bilaterian animals. Studies based on a limited number of markers established new hypotheses such as the existence of three superclades (Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa) but left major questions unresolved. The data sets used to the present either bear few characters for many taxa (i.e., the ribosomal genes) or present many characters but lack many phyla (such as recent phylogenomic approaches) failing to provide definitive answers for all the regions of the bilaterian tree. We performed phylogenetic analyses using a molecular matrix with a high number of characters and bilaterian phyla. This data set is built from 13 genes (8,880 bp) belonging to 90 taxa from 27 bilaterian phyla. Probabilistic analyses robustly support the three superclades, the monophyly of Chordata, a spiralian clade including Brachiozoa, the basal position of a paraphyletic Acoelomorpha, and point to an ecdysozoan affiliation for Chaetognatha. This new phylogeny not only agrees with most classical molecular results but also provides new insights into the relationships between lophotrochozoans and challenges the results obtained using high-throughput strategies, highlighting the problems associated with the current trend to increase gene number rather than taxa. PMID:19602542

  10. Pathogenic Mechanisms Involved in the Hematological Alterations of Arenavirus-induced Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. Pozner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. The causes of the bleeding are still poorly understood. However, it is generally accepted that these causes are associated to some degree with impaired hemostasis, endothelial cell dysfunction and low platelet counts or function. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.

  11. Old world arenaviruses enter the host cell via the multivesicular body and depend on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqual, Giulia; Rojek, Jillian M; Masin, Mark; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    The highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) and the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) use α-dystroglycan as a cellular receptor and enter the host cell by an unusual endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin, and actin. Upon internalization, the viruses are delivered to acidified endosomes in a Rab5-independent manner bypassing classical routes of incoming vesicular trafficking. Here we sought to identify cellular factors involved in the unusual and largely unknown entry pathway of LASV and LCMV. Cell entry of LASV and LCMV required microtubular transport to late endosomes, consistent with the low fusion pH of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Productive infection with recombinant LCMV expressing LASV envelope glycoprotein (rLCMV-LASVGP) and LCMV depended on phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), an unusual phospholipid that is involved in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of the multivesicular body (MVB) of the late endosome. We provide evidence for a role of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) in LASV and LCMV cell entry, in particular the ESCRT components Hrs, Tsg101, Vps22, and Vps24, as well as the ESCRT-associated ATPase Vps4 involved in fission of ILV. Productive infection with rLCMV-LASVGP and LCMV also critically depended on the ESCRT-associated protein Alix, which is implicated in membrane dynamics of the MVB/late endosomes. Our study identifies crucial cellular factors implicated in Old World arenavirus cell entry and indicates that LASV and LCMV invade the host cell passing via the MVB/late endosome. Our data further suggest that the virus-receptor complexes undergo sorting into ILV of the MVB mediated by the ESCRT, possibly using a pathway that may be linked to the cellular trafficking and degradation of the cellular receptor. PMID:21931550

  12. Serological Assays Based on Recombinant Viral Proteins for the Diagnosis of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fevers

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Saijo; Shigeru Morikawa; Tomoki Yoshikawa; Hideki Tani; Shuetsu Fukushi

    2012-01-01

    The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, leading to serious public health concerns. These viruses are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and s...

  13. Arenavirus Coinfections Are Common in Snakes with Boid Inclusion Body Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hepojoki, J.; Salmenperä, P.; Sironen, T.; Hetzel, U.; Korzyukov, Y.; Kipar, A.; Vapalahti, O.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, novel arenaviruses were found in snakes with boid inclusion body disease (BIBD); these form the new genus Reptarenavirus within the family Arenaviridae. We used next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly to investigate reptarenavirus isolates from our previous study. Four of the six isolates and all of the samples from snakes with BIBD contained at least two reptarenavirus species. The viruses sequenced comprise four novel reptarenavirus species and a representative of...

  14. An Interferon Regulated MicroRNA Provides Broad Cell-Intrinsic Antiviral Immunity through Multihit Host-Directed Targeting of the Sterol Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin A; Hsieh, Wei Yuan; Forster, Thorsten; Blanc, Mathieu; Lu, Hongjin; Crick, Peter J; Yutuc, Eylan; Watterson, Steven; Martin, Kimberly; Griffiths, Samantha J; Enright, Anton J; Yamamoto, Mami; Pradeepa, Madapura M; Lennox, Kimberly A; Behlke, Mark A; Talbot, Simon; Haas, Jürgen; Dölken, Lars; Griffiths, William J; Wang, Yuqin; Angulo, Ana; Ghazal, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In invertebrates, small interfering RNAs are at the vanguard of cell-autonomous antiviral immunity. In contrast, antiviral mechanisms initiated by interferon (IFN) signaling predominate in mammals. Whilst mammalian IFN-induced miRNA are known to inhibit specific viruses, it is not known whether host-directed microRNAs, downstream of IFN-signaling, have a role in mediating broad antiviral resistance. By performing an integrative, systematic, global analysis of RNA turnover utilizing 4-thiouridine labeling of newly transcribed RNA and pri/pre-miRNA in IFN-activated macrophages, we identify a new post-transcriptional viral defense mechanism mediated by miR-342-5p. On the basis of ChIP and site-directed promoter mutagenesis experiments, we find the synthesis of miR-342-5p is coupled to the antiviral IFN response via the IFN-induced transcription factor, IRF1. Strikingly, we find miR-342-5p targets mevalonate-sterol biosynthesis using a multihit mechanism suppressing the pathway at different functional levels: transcriptionally via SREBF2, post-transcriptionally via miR-33, and enzymatically via IDI1 and SC4MOL. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and enzymatic assays demonstrate the targeting mechanisms reduce intermediate sterol pathway metabolites and total cholesterol in macrophages. These results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which IFN regulates the sterol pathway. The sterol pathway is known to be an integral part of the macrophage IFN antiviral response, and we show that miR-342-5p exerts broad antiviral effects against multiple, unrelated pathogenic viruses such Cytomegalovirus and Influenza A (H1N1). Metabolic rescue experiments confirm the specificity of these effects and demonstrate that unrelated viruses have differential mevalonate and sterol pathway requirements for their replication. This study, therefore, advances the general concept of broad antiviral defense through multihit targeting of a single host pathway. PMID:26938778

  15. An Interferon Regulated MicroRNA Provides Broad Cell-Intrinsic Antiviral Immunity through Multihit Host-Directed Targeting of the Sterol Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Robertson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In invertebrates, small interfering RNAs are at the vanguard of cell-autonomous antiviral immunity. In contrast, antiviral mechanisms initiated by interferon (IFN signaling predominate in mammals. Whilst mammalian IFN-induced miRNA are known to inhibit specific viruses, it is not known whether host-directed microRNAs, downstream of IFN-signaling, have a role in mediating broad antiviral resistance. By performing an integrative, systematic, global analysis of RNA turnover utilizing 4-thiouridine labeling of newly transcribed RNA and pri/pre-miRNA in IFN-activated macrophages, we identify a new post-transcriptional viral defense mechanism mediated by miR-342-5p. On the basis of ChIP and site-directed promoter mutagenesis experiments, we find the synthesis of miR-342-5p is coupled to the antiviral IFN response via the IFN-induced transcription factor, IRF1. Strikingly, we find miR-342-5p targets mevalonate-sterol biosynthesis using a multihit mechanism suppressing the pathway at different functional levels: transcriptionally via SREBF2, post-transcriptionally via miR-33, and enzymatically via IDI1 and SC4MOL. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and enzymatic assays demonstrate the targeting mechanisms reduce intermediate sterol pathway metabolites and total cholesterol in macrophages. These results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which IFN regulates the sterol pathway. The sterol pathway is known to be an integral part of the macrophage IFN antiviral response, and we show that miR-342-5p exerts broad antiviral effects against multiple, unrelated pathogenic viruses such Cytomegalovirus and Influenza A (H1N1. Metabolic rescue experiments confirm the specificity of these effects and demonstrate that unrelated viruses have differential mevalonate and sterol pathway requirements for their replication. This study, therefore, advances the general concept of broad antiviral defense through multihit targeting of a single host pathway.

  16. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Levis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

  17. An antiviral disulfide compound blocks interaction between arenavirus Z protein and cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) forms nuclear bodies (NB) that can be redistributed by virus infection. In particular, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) influences disruption of PML NB through the interaction of PML with the arenaviral Z protein. In a previous report, we have shown that the disulfide compound NSC20625 has antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses, inducing unfolding and oligomerization of Z without affecting cellular RING-containing proteins such as the PML. Here, we further studied the effect of the zinc-finger-reactive disulfide NSC20625 on PML-Z interaction. In HepG2 cells infected with LCMV or transiently transfected with Z protein constructs, treatment with NSC20625 restored PML distribution from a diffuse-cytoplasmic pattern to punctate, discrete NB which appeared identical to NB found in control, uninfected cells. Similar results were obtained in cells transfected with a construct expressing a Z mutant in zinc-binding site 2 of the RING domain, confirming that this Z-PML interaction requires the integrity of only one zinc-binding site. Altogether, these results show that the compound NSC20625 suppressed Z-mediated PML NB disruption and may be used as a tool for designing novel antiviral strategies against arenavirus infection.

  18. Old World and Clade C New World Arenaviruses Mimic the Molecular Mechanism of Receptor Recognition Used by α-Dystroglycan's Host-Derived Ligands▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, Jillian M.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Kunz, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    α-Dystroglycan (DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and also serves as the receptor for Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and clade C New World arenaviruses. In the host cell, α-DG is subject to a remarkably complex pattern of O glycosylation that is crucial for its interactions with ECM proteins. Two of these unusual sugar modifications, protein O mannosylation and glycan modifications involv...

  19. Old World Arenaviruses Enter the Host Cell via the Multivesicular Body and Depend on the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual, Giulia; Rojek, Jillian M.; Masin, Mark; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) and the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) use α-dystroglycan as a cellular receptor and enter the host cell by an unusual endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin, and actin. Upon internalization, the viruses are delivered to acidified endosomes in a Rab5-independent manner bypassing classical routes of incoming vesicular trafficking. Here we sought to identify cellular factors in...

  20. Old world arenaviruses enter the host cell via the multivesicular body and depend on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual G.; Rojek J.M.; Masin M.; Chatton J.Y.; Kunz S.

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) and the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) use α-dystroglycan as a cellular receptor and enter the host cell by an unusual endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin, and actin. Upon internalization, the viruses are delivered to acidified endosomes in a Rab5-independent manner bypassing classical routes of incoming vesicular trafficking. Here we sought to identify cellular facto...

  1. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  2. Gairo virus, a novel arenavirus of the widespread Mastomys natalensis: Genetically divergent, but ecologically similar to Lassa and Morogoro viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Rieger, T.; Oestereich, L.; Cuypers, B.; Borremans, B.; Makundi, R.; Leirs, H.; Günther, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 476, February (2015), s. 249-256. ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Mastomys natalensis * Tanzania * Virology * Phylogeny * Ecology * Zoonotic infections * Hemorrhagic fevers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.321, year: 2014

  3. Posttranslational Modification of α-Dystroglycan, the Cellular Receptor for Arenaviruses, by the Glycosyltransferase LARGE Is Critical for Virus Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Stefan; Rojek, Jillian M.; Kanagawa, Motoi; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Barresi, Rita; Campbell, Kevin P.; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2005-01-01

    The receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus (LFV), and clade C New World arenaviruses is α-dystroglycan (α-DG), a cell surface receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Specific posttranslational modification of α-DG by the glycosyltransferase LARGE is critical for its function as an ECM receptor. In the present study, we show that LARGE-dependent modification is also crucial for α-DG's function as a cellular receptor for a...

  4. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  5. Uncovering Viral Protein-Protein Interactions and their Role in Arenavirus Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arenaviridae family includes widely distributed pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Replication and packaging of their single-stranded RNA genome involve RNA recognition by viral proteins and a number of key protein-protein interactions. Viral RNA synthesis is directed by the virus-encoded RNA dependent-RNA polymerase (L protein and requires viral RNA encapsidation by the Nucleoprotein. In addition to the role that the interaction between L and the Nucleoprotein may have in the replication process, polymerase activity appears to be modulated by the association between L and the small multifunctional Z protein. Z is also a structural component of the virions that plays an essential role in viral morphogenesis. Indeed, interaction of the Z protein with the Nucleoprotein is critical for genome packaging. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that binding between Z and the viral envelope glycoprotein complex is required for virion infectivity, and that Z homo-oligomerization is an essential step for particle assembly and budding. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of arenavirus life cycle have revealed important details on these viral protein-protein interactions that will be reviewed in this article.

  6. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Levis

    2010-01-01

    Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae) y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae) son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH) y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2). El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha a...

  7. The role of proteolytic processing and the stable signal peptide in expression of the Old World arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ectodomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasquato, Antonella; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Igonet, Sebastien; Oldstone, Michael B.A.; Kunz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) involves proteolytic processing by cellular signal peptidase and the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P), yielding a tripartite complex comprised of a stable signal peptide (SSP), the receptor-binding GP1, and the fusion-active transmembrane GP2. Here we investigated the roles of SKI-1/S1P processing and SSP in the biosynthesis of the recombinant GP ectodomains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV). When expressed in mammalian cells, the LCMV and LASV GP ectodomains underwent processing by SKI-1/S1P, followed by dissociation of GP1 from GP2. The GP2 ectodomain spontaneously formed trimers as revealed by chemical cross-linking. The endogenous SSP, known to be crucial for maturation and transport of full-length arenavirus GPC was dispensable for processing and secretion of the soluble GP ectodomain, suggesting a specific role of SSP in the stable prefusion conformation and transport of full-length GPC. PMID:23218200

  8. The role of proteolytic processing and the stable signal peptide in expression of the Old World arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ectodomain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasquato, Antonella; Ramos da Palma, Joel [Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1011 (Switzerland); Igonet, Sebastien; Oldstone, Michael B.A. [Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Kunz, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Kunz@chuv.ch [Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1011 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-05

    Maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) involves proteolytic processing by cellular signal peptidase and the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P), yielding a tripartite complex comprised of a stable signal peptide (SSP), the receptor-binding GP1, and the fusion-active transmembrane GP2. Here we investigated the roles of SKI-1/S1P processing and SSP in the biosynthesis of the recombinant GP ectodomains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV). When expressed in mammalian cells, the LCMV and LASV GP ectodomains underwent processing by SKI-1/S1P, followed by dissociation of GP1 from GP2. The GP2 ectodomain spontaneously formed trimers as revealed by chemical cross-linking. The endogenous SSP, known to be crucial for maturation and transport of full-length arenavirus GPC was dispensable for processing and secretion of the soluble GP ectodomain, suggesting a specific role of SSP in the stable prefusion conformation and transport of full-length GPC.

  9. The role of proteolytic processing and the stable signal peptide in expression of the Old World arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ectodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) involves proteolytic processing by cellular signal peptidase and the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P), yielding a tripartite complex comprised of a stable signal peptide (SSP), the receptor-binding GP1, and the fusion-active transmembrane GP2. Here we investigated the roles of SKI-1/S1P processing and SSP in the biosynthesis of the recombinant GP ectodomains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV). When expressed in mammalian cells, the LCMV and LASV GP ectodomains underwent processing by SKI-1/S1P, followed by dissociation of GP1 from GP2. The GP2 ectodomain spontaneously formed trimers as revealed by chemical cross-linking. The endogenous SSP, known to be crucial for maturation and transport of full-length arenavirus GPC was dispensable for processing and secretion of the soluble GP ectodomain, suggesting a specific role of SSP in the stable prefusion conformation and transport of full-length GPC.

  10. Modelos animales de fiebres hemorrágicas humanas producidas por arenavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Rodas

    2004-03-01

    ón cruzada entre las dos cepas de LCMV se observó también cuando 2 primates inoculados iv o ig con la cepa Armtrong (ARM sobrevivieron el desafío letal con la cepa WE. Tres de los 7 monos que experimentaron protección al desafío letal fueron también los mismos que exhibieron la más fuerte inmunidad medida por células.

     

    REFERENCIAS

    1. SALVATO, M. S., AND S. K. RAI. 1997. Arenaviruses, p. 629-650. In B. Mahy (ed., Topley and Wilson’s microbiology and microbiology and microbial infections, 9th ed. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.

    2. LUKASHEVICH, I. S., M. DJAVANI, J. D. RODAS, J. C. ZAPATA, A. USBORNE, C. EMERSON, J. MITCHEN, P. B. JAHRLING, AND M. S. SALVATO. Hemorrhagic fever occurs after intravenous, but not after intragastric, inoculation of rhesus macaques with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Med Virol 2002; 67: 171-86.

    3. LUKASHEVICH, I. S., I. TIKHONOV, J. D. RODAS, J. C. ZAPATA, Y. YANG, M. DJAVANI, AND M. S. SALVATO. Arenavirus-mediated liver pathology: acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of rhesus macaques is characterized by high-level interleukin-6 expression and hepatocyte proliferation. J Virol 2003; 77: 1727-37.

    4. RODAS JD, LUKASHEVICH I, ZAPATA JC, CAIRO C, TIKHONOV I, DJAVANI M, PAUZA D AND SALVATO M. Mucosal arenavirus infection of primates can protect from lethal hemorrhagic fever. J Med Virol 2004. 72: 424-435.

  11. An attenuated Lassa vaccine in SIV-infected rhesus macaques does not persist or cause arenavirus disease but does elicit Lassa virus-specific immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Juan C.; Poonia, Bhawna; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Ateh, Eugene; George, Lanea; Crasta, Oswald R.; Yan ZHANG; Slezak, Tom; Jaing, Crystal; Pauza, C D; Goicochea, Marco; Moshkoff, Dmitry; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Salvato, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a rodent-borne viral disease that can be fatal for human beings. In this study, an attenuated Lassa vaccine candidate, ML29, was tested in SIV-infected rhesus macaques for its ability to elicit immune responses without instigating signs pathognomonic for arenavirus disease. ML29 is a reassortant between Lassa and Mopeia viruses that causes a transient infection in non-human primates and confers sterilizing protection from lethal Lassa viral...

  12. Novel approaches in anti-arenaviral drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses are among the most devastating emerging human diseases. Considering the number of individuals affected, the current lack of a licensed vaccine, and the limited therapeutic options, arenaviruses are arguably among the most neglected tropical pathogens and the development of efficacious anti-arenaviral drugs is of high priority. Over the past years significant efforts have been undertaken to identify novel potent inhibitors of arenavirus infection. High throughput screening of small molecule libraries employing pseudotype platforms led to the discovery of several potent and broadly active inhibitors of arenavirus cell entry that are effective against the major hemorrhagic arenaviruses. Mechanistic studies revealed that these novel entry inhibitors block arenavirus membrane fusion and provided novel insights into the unusual mechanism of this process. The success of these approaches highlights the power of small molecule screens in antiviral drug discovery and establishes arenavirus membrane fusion as a robust drug target. These broad screenings have been complemented by strategies targeting cellular factors involved in productive arenavirus infection. Approaches targeting the cellular protease implicated in maturation of the fusion-active viral envelope glycoprotein identified the proteolytic processing of the arenavirus glycoprotein precursor as a novel and promising target for anti-arenaviral strategies.

  13. The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchmeier Michael J

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1, and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. Results Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2 of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV and Lassa fever virus, are presented, based on consistent structural propensities despite variation in the amino acid sequence. The principal features of the model, a hydrophobic amino terminus, and two antiparallel helices separated by a glycosylated, antigenic apex, are common to a number of otherwise disparate families of enveloped RNA viruses. Within the first amphipathic helix, demonstrable by circular dichroism of a peptide fragment, there is a highly conserved heptad repeat pattern proposed to mediate multimerization by coiled-coil interactions. The amino terminal 18 amino acids are 28% identical and 50% highly similar to the corresponding region of Ebola, a member of the Filovirus family. Within the second, charged helix just prior to membrane insertion there is also high similarity over the central 18 amino acids in corresponding regions of Lassa and Ebola, which may be further related to the similar region of HIV-1 defining a potent antiviral peptide analogue. Conclusions These findings indicate a common pattern of structure and function among viral transmembrane fusion proteins from a number of virus families. Such a pattern may define a viral transmembrane superfamily that evolved from a common precursor eons ago.

  14. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  15. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  16. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  17. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  18. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  19. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  20. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  1. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  2. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  4. Development of broad-view camera unit for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Tomohiro; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku; Okajima, Masazumi

    2009-01-01

    A disadvantage of laparoscopic surgery is the narrow operative field provided by the endoscope camera. This paper describes a newly developed broad-view camera unit for use with the Broad-View Camera System, which is capable of providing a wider view of the internal organs during laparoscopic surgery. The developed camera unit is composed of a miniature color CMOS camera, an indwelling needle, and an extra-thin connector. The specific design of the camera unit and the method for positioning it are shown. The performance of the camera unit has been confirmed through basic and animal experiments. PMID:19963983

  5. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  6. Study on the response characteristics of photomultiplier tubes measuring tens of milliseconds scale broad pulsed signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has provided the origin of tens of milliseconds scale broad pulsed signal and discussed the reasons of photomultiplier tubes distortions. This thesis also gives the application background of this test. In order to get the response characteristics of the photomultiplier tubes measuring tens of milliseconds scale broad pulsed signals, it has built the broad signal test equipments. After that it has researched a method to restrain the response distortions of the photomultiplier tubes. What it has researched gives the basis for broad pulsed neutrons detector and provides the important references for broad pulsed neutrons detection. (authors)

  7. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  8. BROAD PHONEME CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNAL BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deekshitha G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is the most efficient and popular means of human communication Speech is produced as a sequence of phonemes. Phoneme recognition is the first step performed by automatic speech recognition system. The state-of-the-art recognizers use mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC features derived through short time analysis, for which the recognition accuracy is limited. Instead of this, here broad phoneme classification is achieved using features derived directly from the speech at the signal level itself. Broad phoneme classes include vowels, nasals, fricatives, stops, approximants and silence. The features identified useful for broad phoneme classification are voiced/unvoiced decision, zero crossing rate (ZCR, short time energy, most dominant frequency, energy in most dominant frequency, spectral flatness measure and first three formants. Features derived from short time frames of training speech are used to train a multilayer feedforward neural network based classifier with manually marked class label as output and classification accuracy is then tested. Later this broad phoneme classifier is used for broad syllable structure prediction which is useful for applications such as automatic speech recognition and automatic language identification.

  9. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  10. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  11. Plasma Redshift in the Broad Line Region

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Astronomical properties of the broad line emission region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasi-stellar objects (QSO) are used to formulate a model of dynamic and electromagnetic scattering characteristics. The results of this modeling show that the observed redshift of these objects may be more complex than that from recession alone due to ionization or plasma effects.

  12. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  13. Flow over an Erodible Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. C.Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overtopping flow of water over an earthen embankment causes erosion of soil from its surfaces and the eroded surface of the embankment acts as a Broad crest weir. But the longitudinal profile of the weir goes on changing with time of erosion. Hence crest height of the weir goes changing in accelerated flow condition. In this paper, the discharge equation for this type of flow situation is established for different types of soils used in the embankment. Then, the experiments have been carried out as the analogous rigid beds of the captured eroded profiles at any time of erosion of the broad crested weir to compare the discharge equation and to study the energy loss in dislodging the soil from the surface of the weir and transporting them down stream.

  14. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  15. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  16. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  17. A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends a broad concept of macroeconomic stability, whereby “sound macroeconomic frameworks” include not only price stability and sound fiscal policies, but also a well-functioning real economy, sustainable debt ratios and healthy public and private sector balance sheets. These multiple dimensions imply using multiple policy instruments. The paper elaborates a framework for developing countries that involves active use of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, m...

  18. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  19. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  20. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  1. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  2. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  3. Buildup factors for broad gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with buildup factors for the photon number and the exposure in broad conical beams penetrating through iron slabs. Using the Monte Carlo method, the dependence on the thickness of the slabs is calculated for various geometrical configurations of the 137Cs radiation source, the slab and the detector. The same dependence has also been measured for 137Cs and 60Co. The results show the dependence of the buildup factor B on the collimation angle α (B increases with increasing α), on the distance a between the source and the slab (B increases with increasing a), and on the distance b between the detector and the slab (B decreases with increasing b). Comparison of the obtained results with those from model configurations shows that in the latter case errors may range up to nearly 100%. (author)

  4. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  5. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation...... of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  6. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  7. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  8. Microlensing of Quasar Broad Emission Lines: Constraints on Broad Line Region Size

    CERN Document Server

    Guerras, E; Jimenez-Vicente, J; Kochanek, C S; Muñoz, J A; Falco, E; Motta, V

    2012-01-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that high ionization lines such as CIV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region radius of 24 (-15/+22) and 55 (-35/+150) light-days (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the sample is divided attending to quasar luminosity, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  9. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  10. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. PMID:26652842

  11. Method for detection and imaging over a broad spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Gordiyenko, Eduard; Pishko, legal representative, Olga; Novosad, Valentyn; Pishko, deceased; Vitalii

    2007-09-25

    A method of controlling the coordinate sensitivity in a superconducting microbolometer employs localized light, heating or magnetic field effects to form normal or mixed state regions on a superconducting film and to control the spatial location. Electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching were applied as pattern transfer processes in epitaxial Y--Ba--Cu--O films. Two different sensor designs were tested: (i) a 3 millimeter long and 40 micrometer wide stripe and (ii) a 1.25 millimeters long, and 50 micron wide meandering-like structure. Scanning the laser beam along the stripe leads to physical displacement of the sensitive area, and, therefore, may be used as a basis for imaging over a broad spectral range. Forming the superconducting film as a meandering structure provides the equivalent of a two-dimensional detector array. Advantages of this approach are simplicity of detector fabrication, and simplicity of the read-out process requiring only two electrical terminals.

  12. Oxysterols: An emerging class of broad spectrum antiviral effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Poli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Oxysterols are a family of cholesterol oxidation derivatives that contain an additional hydroxyl, epoxide or ketone group in the sterol nucleus and/or a hydroxyl group in the side chain. The majority of oxysterols in the blood are of endogenous origin, derived from cholesterol via either enzymatic or non-enzymatic mechanisms. A large number of reports demonstrate multiple physiological roles of specific oxysterols. One such role is the inhibition of viral replication. This biochemical/biological property was first characterised against a number of viruses endowed with an external lipid membrane (enveloped viruses), although antiviral activity has since been observed in relation to several non-enveloped viruses. In the present paper, we review the recent findings about the broad antiviral activity of oxysterols against enveloped and non-enveloped human viral pathogens, and provide an overview of their putative antiviral mechnism(s). PMID:27086126

  13. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  14. The characteristic of power flow in broad band dynamic vibration absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minqing; SHENG Meiping; SUN Jincai; LIU Yi

    2002-01-01

    DVA (dynamic vibration absorber) is good for restrain of the resonance vibration in low frequency, especially under the condition that there are only one mode or two modes in a frequency band. It seems rather difficult to control the resonance vibration of elastic structures in high frequency, since usually there are so many modes in high frequency band. The broad band DVA is brought forward to reduce the resonance vibration of elastic structures. The broad band DVA is designed on the basis of the characteristic of power flow in structure in this paper.The broad band DVA is effective on absorbing the resonance vibration power flow of the mostimportant modes. The ability of absorbing vibration for the broad band DVA is analyzed indetail. The results obtained in this paper provide a basis for the optimization design of thebroad band DVA and the optimization positions on structures.

  15. Provide, provide: the economics of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    Most older persons face two potentially serious economic problems: (a) declining earning power and (b) declining health that can be partly offset by increased utilization of health care. The decline in earning power is largely attributable to physiological changes and to obsolescence of skills and knowledge. These adverse effects are exacerbated by public and private policies that reduce the incentives of older persons to continue work and increase the cost to employers of employing older workers. The problems of earnings replacement and health care payment are usually discussed separately, but there are several reasons why they should be considered together. First, there are often tradeoffs between the two. Money is money, and for most people there is never enough to go around. This is self-evident where private funds are concerned. Low-income elderly, for instance, frequently must choose between expensive prescription drugs and an adequate diet. For middle-income elderly, the choice may be between saving on medigap insurance or forgoing an airplane trip to a grandchild's graduation. Difficult choices are also inherent in the allocation of public funds. The same tax receipts that could be used to maintain or increase retirement benefits could be used to fund additional care, and vice versa. In discussing these tradeoffs, some analysts assert that people will gladly give up other goods and services for medical care that cures illness, relieves pain, or restores function. Others believe that some people would forgo some health insurance in order to maintain access to other goods and services. A second reason for looking at the two problems together is that they pose similar questions for public policy. How much should each generation provide for its own needs in old age, and how much should be provided by the generations that follow? How much provision should be voluntary, how much compulsory? How much intra-generational redistribution is appropriate after age 65

  16. Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Mobley, Kenyon B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Sagebakken, Gry; Jones, Adam G; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-05-22

    The differential allocation hypothesis assumes that animals should weigh costs and benefits of investing into reproduction with a current mate against the expected quality of future mates, and predicts that they should invest more into reproduction when pairing with a high-quality mate. In the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), males care for the embryos in a brood pouch and females compete for access to male mating partners. Both sexes prefer mating with large partners. In the present study, we show that the same female provides both large and small mating partners with eggs of similar size, weight and lipid content when mated to two males in succession. Importantly, however, eggs provided to small males (less preferred) had higher egg protein content (11% more) than those provided to large males (preferred). Thus, contrary to the differential allocation hypothesis, eggs did not contain more resources when females mated with a larger male. Instead, the pattern observed in our results is consistent with a compensatory reproductive strategy. PMID:20106851

  17. Energy degeneracies from Broad Histogram Method and Wang-Landau Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Alexandre Pereira; Girardi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a comparative study of the accuracy provided by the Wang-Landau sampling and the Broad Histogram method to estimate de density of states of the two dimensional Ising ferromagnet. The microcanonical averages used to describe the thermodynamic behaviour and to use the Broad Histogram method were obtained using the single spin-flip Wang-Landau sampling, attempting to convergence issues and accuracy improvements. We compare the results provided by both techniques with the exact ones for thermodynamic properties and critical exponents. Our results, within the Wang-Landau sampling, reveal that the Broad Histogram approach provides a better description of the density of states for all cases analysed.

  18. Gambling Disorder Treatment Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The information provided within this table gives a snapshot of authorized CalGETS providers with specialized training in the treatment of problem gambling behavior....

  19. Reviving nuclear requires broad technology fix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What will it take to revive nuclear power in this country? For a beginning, nuclear plants must be the lowest-cost alternative to providing additional energy supplies; they must be smaller in size and easier to build and license than in the past, and public confidence in nuclear power must be restored. But even this is not enough to attract investors, he says. Regulatory policies, corporate structures, and financial arrangements must change as well. Hyman offers some ideas for changes that would be attractive to investors: place construction work in progress in the rate base, create a pay-as-you-go approach to construction; federal rather than state regulation of power rates; and ownership and construction by a consortium of electrical equipment manufacturers, engineering and construction firms, utilities, and fuel supplies. But even then, Hyman is not optimistic. Fixing nuclear power is possible only if there is a need for the product, the price is right, the profit is adequate, the people want it, the waste is disposed of, and somebody will take the risk of financing its revival

  20. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    This thesis presents a range of different experiments all seeking to extended the capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and enable new applications. The new technique of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) provides a unique combination of broad bandwidth, high resolution, and high sensitivity that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Previous demonstrations of CE-DFCS were confined to the visible or near-infrared and operated over a limited bandwidth: for many applications it is desirable to increase the spectral coverage and to extend to the mid-infrared where strong, fundamental vibrational modes of molecules occur. There are several key requirements for CE-DFCS: a frequency comb source that provides broad bandwidth and high resolution, an optical cavity for high sensitivity, and a detection system capable of multiplex detection of the comb spectrum transmitted through the cavity. We first discuss comb sources with emphasis on the coherence properties of spectral broadening in nonlinear fiber and the development of a high-power frequency comb source in the mid-infrared based on an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO). To take advantage of this new mid-infrared comb source for spectroscopy, we also discuss the development of a rapid-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We then discuss the first demonstration of CE-DFCS with spectrally broadened light from a highly nonlinear fiber with the application to measurements of impurities in semiconductor manufacturing gases. We also cover our efforts towards extending CE-DFCS to the mid-infrared using the mid-infrared OPO and FTS to measure ppb levels of various gases important for breath analysis and atmospheric chemistry and highlight some future applications of this system. In addition to the study of neutral molecules, broad-bandwidth and high-resolution spectra of molecular ions are useful for astrochemistry where many of the observed molecules are ionic, for studying

  1. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  2. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10–90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content. PMID:27271574

  3. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Mariette; Damron, F Heath

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:26937640

  4. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Barbier

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications.

  5. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  6. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...... on metered electricity consumption for different types of households. We find effects for single men and couples without children, while we find no effect for single women and households with children. We suggest that this could be because of differences in saving potential (e.g. some households do...

  7. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  8. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  9. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  10. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  11. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  12. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  13. Spatially nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a broad area semiconductor laser: Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Blaaberg; Tromborg, Bjarne; Petersen, P. M.

    We present a numerical model of spatially nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a bulk broad area semiconductor laser with an external reflector and a spatial filter. The external reflector provides a feedback with an off-aixs direction of propagation. Such a configuration has experimentally been seen...... to improve the coherence of the output of a broad area laser. While the far-field of a broad area laser is often double-lobed. the reflector feeds only one of the lobes back into the cavity in the same angle as the emission angle. As our model assumes only four waves inside the cavity it consists of...... four coupled equations for the field components in the cavity and a rate equation is used to describe the carrier density of the semiconductor material. The interference pattern of the four field components inside the cavity induces a periodic spatial modulation of the carrier density and thus of the...

  14. Recent Results from Broad-Band Intensity Mapping Measurements of Cosmic Large Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, Michael B.; CIBER, Herschel-SPIRE

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping integrates the total emission in a given spectral band over the universe's history. Tomographic measurements of cosmic structure can be performed using specific line tracers observed in narrow bands, but a wealth of information is also available from broad-band observations performed by instruments capable of capturing high-fidelity, wide-angle images of extragalactic emission. Sensitive to the continuum emission from faint and diffuse sources, these broad-band measurements provide a view on cosmic structure traced by components not readily detected in point source surveys. After accounting for measurement effects and astrophysical foregrounds, the angular power spectra of such data can be compared to predictions from models to yield powerful insights into the history of cosmic structure formation. This talk will highlight some recent measurements of large scale structure performed using broad-band intensity mapping methods that have given new insights on faint, distant, and diffuse components in the extragalactic background light.

  15. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process of the...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  16. Achieving Provider Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  17. Providence Their Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Naudé

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In his preface to this book the author quotes from Milton's Paradise lost, from which the title of this book is derived: 'Som natural tears they drop'd, but wip'd them soon; The World was all before them, where to choose Thir place of rest, and Providence thir guide; They hand in hand, with wand ring steps and slow, Through Eden took thir solitarie way.

  18. Why healthcare providers merge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities. PMID:26055501

  19. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  20. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  1. The Provident Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, David H.

    1988-09-01

    The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

  2. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  3. What HERA May Provide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of ∼ 500 pb-1 has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of ∼ 100 pb-1, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  4. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  5. The sub-millimeter properties of broad absorption line quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Grimes, Jennifer A.

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out the first systematic survey of the sub-millimeter properties of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. 30 BAL quasars drawn from a homogeneously selected sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at redshifts 2 3 sigma significance. The far-infrared luminosities of these quasars are > 10^{13} L_solar. There is no correlation of sub-millimeter flux with either the strength of the broad absorption feature or with absolute magnitude in our sample. We compare the sub-millimeter f...

  6. Analysis of fuel system technology for broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broad property fuels. Significant results, with emphasis on design practicality from the engine manufacturer' standpoint, are highlighted. Several advanced fuel systems were modeled to determine as accurately as possible the relative merits of each system from the standpoint of compatibility with broad property fuel. Freezing point, thermal stability, and lubricity were key property issues. A computer model was formulated to determine the investment incentive for each system. Results are given.

  7. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  8. Broad Hβ Emission-line Variability in a Sample of 102 Local Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Lazarova, Mariana S.; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong

    2016-04-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses MBH > 107M⊙ was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between MBH and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate MBH, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hβ line virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  9. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  10. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these infor

  11. Broad-Area Laser Diode With Fiber-Optic Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Geoffrey; Mead, Patricia; Davis, Christopher; Cornwell, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Fiber-optic injection-locked broad-area laser diode features single-mode output via fiber-optic injection and serves as compact, rugged, high-power near-infrared source. Useful in free-space and fiber-optic communication links, as communication-receiver preamplifier, and pump source for solid-state lasers.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  13. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They fil

  14. Dusty origin of the Broad Line Region in active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, Bozena; Kaluzny, Janusz; Maity, Ishita

    2012-01-01

    The most characteristic property of active galaxies, including quasars, are prominent broad emission lines. I will discuss an interesting possibility that dust is responsible for this phenomenon. The dust is known to be present in quasars in the form of a dusty/molecular torus which results in complexity of the appearance of active galaxies. However, this dust is located further from the black hole than the Broad Line Region. We propose that the dust is present also closer in and it is actually responsible for formation of the broad emission lines. The argument is based on determination of the temperature of the disk atmosphere underlying the Broad Line Region: it is close to 1000 K, independently from the black hole mass and accretion rate of the object. The mechanism is simple and universal but leads to a considerable complexity of the active nucleus surrounding. The understanding the formation of BLR opens a way to use it reliably - in combination with reverberation measurement of its size - as standard ca...

  15. Introducing autonomous vehicles in logistics: a review from a broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meldert, Bram; De Boeck, Liesje

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle automation technologies are rapidly developing and will be available soon. Businesses in the logistics industry can develop a competitive advantage when effectively adopting this new technology. However, only limited research exists about the impact of autonomous vehicles on the logistics industry. The aim of this paper is to provide a broad introduction to autonomous vehicles, after which the usage and potential consequences of autonomous vehicles in logistics is discusse...

  16. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  17. Experimental evaluation of combustor concepts for burning broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. M.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Dodds, W. J.; Shayeson, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    A baseline CF6-50 combustor and three advanced combustor designs were evaluated to determine the effects of combustor design on operational characteristics using broad property fuels. Three fuels were used in each test: Jet A, a broad property 13% hydrogen fuel, and a 12% hydrogen fuel blend. Testing was performed in a sector rig at true cruise and simulated takeoff conditions for the CF6-50 engine cycle. The advanced combustors (all double annular, lean dome designs) generally exhibited lower metal temperatures, exhaust emissions, and carbon buildup than the baseline CF6-50 combustor. The sensitivities of emissions and metal temperatures to fuel hydrogen content were also generally lower for the advanced designs. The most promising advanced design used premixing tubes in the main stage. This design was chosen for additional testing in which fuel/air ratio, reference velocity, and fuel flow split were varied.

  18. Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system

  19. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Yip, C W; Schneider, D P; Connolly, A J; Burton, R E; Jester, S; Hall, P B; Szalay, A S; Brinkmann, J; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Shen, Jiajian; Yip, Ching-Wa; Schneider, Donald P.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Burton, Ross E.; Jester, Sebastian; Hall, Patrick B.; Szalay, Alex S.; Brinkmann, John

    2005-01-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasing...

  20. Diverse Broad Line Region Kinematic Signatures From Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the data from a high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign, undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world, reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the broad line regions (BLRs) of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. While the primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity AGNs (presented in a separate work), we were also able to unambiguously reconstruct velocity-resolved reverberation signals from a subset of our targets. Through high cadence spectroscopic monitoring of the optical continuum and broad Hbeta emission line variations observed in the nuclear regions of NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, we clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions, respectively.

  1. Quasar Cartography: from Black Hole to Broad Line Region Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chelouche, Doron

    2013-01-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrow-band photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectrosc...

  2. Series of broad resonances in atomic three-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, D; Hu, C -Y

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine the series of resonances found earlier in atomic three-body systems by solving the Faddeev-Merkuriev integral equations. These resonances are rather broad and line-up at each threshold with gradually increasing gaps, the same way for all thresholds and irrespective of the spatial symmetry. We relate these resonances to the Gailitis mechanism, which is a consequence of the polarization potential.

  3. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  4. Polarization properties of broad absorption line QSOs : new statistical clues

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lamy; Hutsemekers, Damien

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of several statistical tests performed on a large sample of 139 broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs with good quality optical spectra and/or optical polarization data. Correlations between ten optical indices and the polarization degree p[SUB]0[/SUB] are systematically searched for. We find six significant non-trivial correlations. In order to identify the most important correlations, we perform a principal component analysis with a sample of 30 BAL QSOs and eight quantitie...

  5. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the...

  6. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  7. Using the occupational personality questionnaire (OPQ) for measuring broad traits

    OpenAIRE

    Deléne Visser; J. M. Du Toit

    2004-01-01

    The widespread acceptance of the Big Five model implies that personality consists of relatively independent dimensions that form a taxonomy whereby individual differences may be explained. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the subscales of an established personality inventory that measures narrow traits of personality, the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), could be reduced meaningfully to fit a broad factor model within a South African context. The OPQ 5.2 conce...

  8. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  9. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology. CONCLUSIONS: Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties

  10. Monetary Policy and the Credit Channel, Broad and Narrow

    OpenAIRE

    Torben W. Hendricks; Bernd Kempa

    2011-01-01

    Two variants of the credit channel of monetary policy transmission can be distinguished: a narrow bank lending channel, measured in terms of the supply of bank loans, and a broad credit channel focusing on the external finance premium in credit markets. In this paper, both variants of the credit channel are identified by applying Markov-switching models on US bank lending and interest rate data. We find the credit channel to be particularly potent during periods of financial distress, such as...

  11. Overview of the Illumina Sequencing Platform at the Broad Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, K.

    2011-01-01

    The constant increase in quality and quantity of Next-Generation sequencing data necessitates a parallel growth in sample preparation and a scalable tracking system. The Broad Institute's Illumina Sequencing Platform handles a variety of applications and comprises Illumina's latest hardware, software and kit releases, and a high-throughput sample preparation process. With our automated sample preparation and QC processes, we have been able to meet our increased capacity goals of up to 3,840 l...

  12. Hybrid grating reflector with high reflectivity and broad bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new type of grating reflector denoted hybrid grating (HG) which shows large reflectivity in a broad wavelength range and has a structure suitable for realizing a vertical cavity laser with ultra-small modal volume. The properties of the grating reflector are investigated numerically......). By using an active III-V layer, a laser can be realized where the gain region is integrated into the mirror itself...

  13. Does the light and broad $\\sigma$(500) exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1999-01-01

    The lightest scalar and pseudoscalar nonets are discussed within the framework of the broken U3$\\times$U3 linear sigma model, and it is shown that already at the tree level this model works remarkably well predicting scalar masses and couplings not far from present experimental values, when all parameters are fixed from the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants. It is argued that this strongly suggests that the light and very broad $\\sigma$ resonance exists near 500 MeV.

  14. The Interplay of Biology and the Environment Broadly Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele

    2009-01-01

    This special section of Developmental Psychology contains articles on the interplay of biology and the environment, broadly defined, that have the potential to change or challenge how developmental psychologists think. Topics include how experience affects gene expression; how genes affect how the environment is experienced and what effect the environment has; interactions between the environment and the presence or absence of early brain damage; motor neurons and the understanding of others’...

  15. High-throughput discovery of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinakumar, Ramesh; Wimley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-permeabilizing peptide antibiotics are an underutilized weapon in the battle against drug-resistant microorganisms. This is true, in part, because of the bottleneck caused by the lack of explicit design principles and the paucity of simple high-throughput methods for selection. In this work, we characterize the requirements for broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity by membrane permeabilization and find that different microbial membranes have very different susceptibilities to permeab...

  16. Mapping plant functional types over broad mountainous regions

    OpenAIRE

    Danlu Cai; Yanning Guan; Shan Guo; Chunyan Zhang; Klaus Fraedrich

    2014-01-01

    Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT) products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical s...

  17. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect

    OpenAIRE

    Civitello, David J.; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T.; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A.; Ortega, C. Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The dilution effect hypothesis suggests that diverse ecological communities limit disease spread via several mechanisms. Therefore, biodiversity losses could worsen epidemics that harm humans and wildlife. However, there is contentious debate over whether the hypothesis applies broadly, especially for parasites that infect humans. We address this fundamental question with a formal meta-analysis of >200 assessments relating biodiversity to disease in >60 host–parasite systems. We find overwhel...

  18. Oxygen consumption of rats with broad intestinal resection

    OpenAIRE

    Luz J.; Griggio M.A.; Fagundes D.J.; Araújo R.M.; Marcondes W.

    2000-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate possible alterations in oxygen consumption in an animal model with broad intestinal resection. Oxygen consumption and the thermal effect of a short meal were measured in rats subjected to short bowel syndrome. Four groups of rats were used. Group I was the control group, group II was sham operated, group III was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection, and group IV was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection with colon interposition. Ninety days after ...

  19. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... defined by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....

  20. On the geometry of broad emission region in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, R; Treves, A; Falomo, R

    2008-01-01

    We study the geometry of the Hbeta broad emission region by comparing the M_BH values derived from Hbeta through the virial relation with those obtained from the host galaxy luminosity in a sample of 36 low redshift (z around 0.3) quasars. This comparison lets us infer the geometrical factor f needed to de-project the line-of-sight velocity component of the emitting gas. The wide range of f values we found, together with the strong dependence of f on the observed line width, suggests that a disc-like model for the broad line region is preferable to an isotropic model, both for radio loud and radio quiet quasars. We examined similar observations of the CIV line and found no correlation in the width of the two lines. Our results indicate that an inflated disc broad line region, in which the Carbon line is emitted in a flat disc while Hbeta is produced in a geometrically thick region, can account for the observed differences in the width and shape of the two emission lines.

  1. Identification of the Broad Solar Emission Features Near 117 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Avrett, E H; Loeser, R; Avrett, Eugene H.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Loeser, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    Wilhelm et al. have recently called attention to the unidentified broad emission features near 117 nm in the solar spectrum. They discuss the observed properties of these features in detail but do not identify the source of this emission. We show that the broad autoionizing transitions of neutral sulfur are responsible for these emission features. Autoionizing lines of \\ion{S}{i} occur throughout the spectrum between Lyman alpha and the Lyman limit. Sulfur is a normal contributor to stellar spectra. We use non-LTE chromospheric model calculations with line data from the Kurucz 2004 \\ion{S}{i} line list to simulate the solar spectrum in the range 116 to 118 nm. We compare the results with SUMER disk-center observations from Curdt et al. and limb observations from Wilhelm et al. Our calculations generally agree with the SUMER observations of the broad autoionizing \\ion{S}{i} emission features, the narrow \\ion{S}{i} emission lines, and the continuum in this wavelength region, and agree with basic characteristics...

  2. Broad-line Balmer Decrements in Blue Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiaobo; Wang, Jianguo; Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hongyan; Dai, Haifeng; Zhang, Kai

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the broad-line Balmer decrements (Halpha/Hbeta) for a large, homogeneous sample of Seyfert 1 galaxies and QSOs using spectroscopic data obtained in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The sample, drawn from the Fourth Data Release, comprises 446 low redshift (z < 0.35) active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have blue optical continua as indicated by the spectral slopes in order to minimize the effect of dust extinction. We find that (i) the distribution of the intrinsic broad-line Halpha/Hbeta ratio can be well described by log-Gaussian, with a peak at Halpha/Hbeta=3.06 and a standard deviation of about 0.03 dex only; (ii) the Balmer decrement does not correlate with AGN properties such as luminosity, accretion rate, and continuum slope, etc.; (iii) on average, the Balmer decrements are found to be only slightly larger in radio-loud sources (3.37) and sources having double-peaked emission-line profiles (3.27) compared to the rest of the sample. We therefore suggest that the broad-line Halpha/Hbet...

  3. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  4. Delayering of Microelectronic Devices Using an Adjustable Broad-Beam Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the integrated circuits of a microelectronic device depends on delayering. Focused ion beam (FIB) or broad ion beam (BIB) milling are effective complementary methods of delayering. FIB provides higher removal rates, but is limited in the effective area that can be revealed per unit time, while BIB provides lower removal rates, but has the advantage with respect to the size of the field of view produced. Microstructural features and the appearance of defects were identified and tracked for two model systems: Cu vias and Cu TSVs (through-silicon vias)

  5. The Discussion about Truth Viewpoint and its Significance on the View of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facheng Shang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a discussion about truth viewpoint and its significance on the view of Broad-spectrum Philosophy, which inherit and develop the truth of Marxist philosophy Broad-spectrum. Philosophy provides a unique perspective; it introduces the concept of observocontrol mode, which regards the truth as an image in the equivalence class. By changing the observocontrol mode, it reveals “Multilobe” of the truth of the same objective. To answer the question on "how to test the truth", it constructs the procedures and criteria to knowledge the truth. These researches have an important revelation on the enrichment and development of the study of Marxism truth theory.

  6. Intrinsic performance-limiting instabilities in two-level class-B broad-area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, A. V.; Molevich, N. E.; Krents, A. A.; Anchikov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with the analytical and numerical investigation of the transverse spatio-temporal instabilities in two-level broad-area lasers for the specific class-B case. We show that the two-level class-B broad-area laser tends to naturally operate in the filamentary state. This is revealed to be provided with two causes. First of them is related with the homogeneous output profile being intrinsically unstable due to the traveling-wave instability, independently from the boundary conditions. Secondly, high sensitivity to the boundaries of the pumping region was found for the commonly used top-hat-like profile leading to boundaries-induced filamentary dynamics. Spatio-temporal properties of both instability mechanisms are studied and their effects on the resulting laser dynamical behavior are analyzed.

  7. Characterization of a radiographic system with broad energy band X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy X-ray beams with broad band energy spectra allow performing radiographic analysis on different materials and objects of relevant interest that cannot be investigated with conventional X-ray sources. The quality of a radiographic image strongly depends on the characteristics of radiation source as the size of the X-ray emitting area, or focal spot, and the energy spectrum of the radiation. In this work the characterization of a broad-band energy Bremsstrahlung source obtained from a linac providing a 5.5 MeV electron beam colliding with a tungsten target is presented. In order to measure the focal-spot size an ad hoc slit camera has been designed and built and a specific technique was used. Furthermore an analysis of the energy spectrum of the beam was performed using a method based on X-ray diffraction by a mosaic crystal.

  8. Internet Provider Facilities, Published in Not Provided, US Army.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Internet Provider Facilities dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not Applicable...

  9. Broad Iron Lines in AGN and X-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Several AGN and black hole X-ray binaries show a clear very broad iron line which is strong evidence that the black holes are rapidly spinning. Detailed analysis of these objects shows that the emission line is not significantly affected by absorption and that the source variability is principally due to variation in amplitude of a power-law. Underlying this is a much less variable, relativistically-smeared, reflection-dominated, component which carries the imprint of strong gravity at a few ...

  10. Spectropolarimetry of Radio-Selected Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; Becker, R. H.; Tran, H. D.; Gregg, M. D.; White, R L; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report spectropolarimetry of 30 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with the Keck Observatory, 25 from the sample of Becker et al. (2000). Both high and low-ionization BAL quasars are represented, with redshifts ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. The spectropolarimetric properties of radio-selected BAL quasars are very similar to those of radio-quiet BAL quasars: a sizeable fraction (20%) show large continuum polarization (2-10%) usually rising toward short wavelengths, emission lines...

  11. Polar Outflows in Six Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junxian; Yuan, Weimin; Lu, Yu

    2005-01-01

    Using the radio observations by FIRST and NVSS, we build a sample of 151 radio variable quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3 (SDSS DR3). Six (probably another two) among them are classified as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, with radio flux variations of a few 10 percent within 1.5-5 years. Such large amplitudes of the variations imply brightness temperatures much higher than the inverse Compton limits (10$^{12}$ K) in all the BAL quasars, suggesting the pres...

  12. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  13. Broadly tunable quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to tune the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) frequency is a highly desirable though lacking feature of many nonlinear devices. To this end, we consider QPM in a special class of active nonlinear metamaterials (MMs), whose properties can be controlled postfabrication. By application of a tunable, periodic perturbation in the linear susceptibility (magnetic or electric) of a MM, a single nonlinear device can be constructed to operate over an exceedingly broad bandwidth. We propose a nonlinear MM for QPM second-order harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies, predicted to have a tunable bandwidth of over 100%.

  14. Broad spectrum assessment of the epitope fluctuation--Immunogenicity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Jason S; Yang, Jing; Shen, Alice; Sereda, Yuriy V; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Prediction of immunogenicity is a substantial barrier in vaccine design. Here, a molecular dynamics approach to assessing the immunogenicity of nanoparticles based on structure is presented. Molecular properties of epitopes on nonenveloped viral particles are quantified via a set of metrics. One such metric, epitope fluctuation (and implied flexibility), is shown to be inversely correlated with immunogenicity for each of a broad spectrum of nonenveloped viruses. The molecular metrics and experimentally determined immunogenicities for these viruses are archived in the open-source vaccine computer-aided design database. Results indicate the promise of computer-aided vaccine design to bring greater efficiency to traditional lab-based vaccine discovery approaches. PMID:26187254

  15. Earthquake response considerations of broad liquid storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, F. J.

    1982-11-01

    The influences of tank geometry and foundation stiffness variation on the simulated seismic structural response of a model broad tank are discussed. An empirical method for describing tank bottom plate uplift geometry is proposed which recognizes radial catenary force and foundation stiffness. Axial symmetric lift, static tilt and dynamic shaking table tests were performed in the University of California, Berkeley, earthquake simulator laboratory. A structural geometric survey of a 63 ft - 10 inches tall by 289 ft - 6 inches diameter crude oil storage tank was conducted to establish a comparative base by which to evaluate the model tank eccentricities.

  16. Antiviral drug discovery: broad-spectrum drugs from nature.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J P; Sasse, F; Brönstrup, M; Diez, J; Meyerhans, A

    2015-01-01

    Covering: up to April 2014. The development of drugs with broad-spectrum antiviral activities is a long pursued goal in drug discovery. It has been shown that blocking co-opted host-factors abrogates the replication of many viruses, yet the development of such host-targeting drugs has been met with scepticism mainly due to toxicity issues and poor translation to in vivo models. With the advent of new and more powerful screening assays and prediction tools, the idea of a drug that can efficien...

  17. Report on broad reconsiderations. Part 1. Energy and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In twenty policy areas various working groups have studied variants that can lead to a 20% budget cut in the government budgets of the Netherlands, which must be realized in 2015. The aim of the reconsiderations is to use less government means to realize the same results, or even better results if possible. The broad reconsideration in the field of energy and climate focuses on the expenditure for renewable energy and energy efficiency, mitigating (inter)national climate policy and fiscal benefits. This report addresses six policy variants.

  18. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  19. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  20. Broad surveys of DNA viral diversity obtained through viral metagenomics of mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Fei Fan Ng

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes.

  1. Evidence of the Link between Broad Emission Line Regions and Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xu; Xin-Wu Cao

    2007-01-01

    There is observational evidence that broad-line regions (BLRs) exist in most active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but their origin is still unclear. One scenario is that the BLRs originate from winds accelerated from the hot coronae of the disks, and the winds are suppressed when the black hole is accreting at low rates. This model predicts a relation between (m) ((m) = (M)/(M)Edd) and the FWHM of broad emission lines. We estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of bright AGNs by using their broad Hβ line-widths and optical luminosities. The dimensionless accretion rates (m) = (M)/(M)Edd are derived from the optical continuum luminosities by using two different models: using an empirical relation between the bolometric luminosity Lbol and the optical luminosity ((m) = Lbol/LEdd, a fixed radiative efficiency is adopted); and calculating the optical spectra of accretion disks as a function of (m). We find a significant correlation between the derived (m) and the observed line width of Hβ,FWHM∝ (m)-0.37, which almost overlaps the disk-corona model calculations, if the viscosity α≈ 0.1 - 0.2 is adopted. Our results provide strong evidence for the physical link between the BLRs and accretion disks in AGNs.

  2. Interpreting broad emission-line variations - II. Tensions between luminosity, characteristic size, and responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, M. R.; Korista, K. T.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the variability behaviour of the broad H β emission-line to driving continuum variations in the best-studied AGN NGC 5548. For a particular choice of broad emission-line region (BLR) geometry, H β surface emissivity based on photoionization models, and using a scaled version of the 13-yr optical continuum light-curve as a proxy for the driving ionizing continuum, we explore several key factors that determine the broad emission-line luminosity L, characteristic size RRW, and variability amplitude (i.e. responsivity) η, as well as the interplay between them. For fixed boundary models which extend as far as the hot dust the predicted delays for H β are on average too long. However, the predicted variability amplitude of H β provides a remarkably good match to observations except during low-continuum states. We suggest that the continuum flux variations which drive the redistribution in H β surface emissivity F(r) do not on their own lead to large enough changes in RRW or ηeff. We thus investigate dust-bounded BLRs for which the location of the effective outer boundary is modulated by the continuum level and the dust-sublimation and dust-condensation time-scales. We find that in order to match the observed variability amplitude of broad H β in NGC 5548 a rather static outer boundary is preferred. Intriguingly, we show that the most effective way of reducing the H β delay, while preserving its responsivity and equivalent width, is to invoke a smaller value in the incident ionizing photon flux ΦH for a given ionizing source-cloud radial distance r, than is normally inferred from the observed UV continuum flux and typical models of the continuum spectral energy distribution.

  3. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit

  4. Peculiar Broad Absorption Line Quasars found in DPOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, R J; Djorgovski, S G; Gal, R R; Mahabal, A A; Lopes, P A A; De Carvalho, R R; Odewahn, S C; Castro, S; Thompson, D; Chaffee, F; Darling, J; Desai, V; Brunner, Robert J.; Hall, Patrick B.

    2003-01-01

    With the recent release of large (i.e., > hundred million objects), well-calibrated photometric surveys, such as DPOSS, 2MASS, and SDSS, spectroscopic identification of important targets is no longer a simple issue. In order to enhance the returns from a spectroscopic survey, candidate sources are often preferentially selected to be of interest, such as brown dwarfs or high redshift quasars. This approach, while useful for targeted projects, risks missing new or unusual species. We have, as a result, taken the alternative path of spectroscopically identifying interesting sources with the sole criterion being that they are in low density areas of the g - r and r - i color-space defined by the DPOSS survey. In this paper, we present three peculiar broad absorption line quasars that were discovered during this spectroscopic survey, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. PSS J0052+2405 is an Iron LoBAL quasar at a redshift z = 2.4512 with very broad absorption from many species. PSS J0141+3334 is a reddened...

  5. Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-09-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  6. Broad-band solar bursts of the spike type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of high-resolution dynamic spectra of solar broad-band spike bursts (BSB), consisting of the instantaneous brightening of the continuum in the entire spectrograph range of 175-235 MHz, are reported. In noise storms events of the BSB type are rarely encountered and have the form of individual bursts with an average duration of 0.1-0.2 sec or groups of such bursts connected with type III bursts at lower frequencies. Series of aperiodic BSB structures unconnected with type III bursts and observed together with one-second pulsations and fiber bursts, predominate in type IV bursts. In noise storms BSB bursts can be emitted by electrons accelerated instantaneously as a result of the reconnection of magnetic fields, both in a small source (about 10 to the 8th cm) with a broad velocity dispersion and in an extended source (about 5 x 10 to the 9th cm). Structures of the BSB type in type IV bursts may be the result of the scattering of Langmuir waves on whistlers in a large height range. 30 references

  7. Broad-band solar bursts of the spike type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakunin, L.M.; Chernov, G.P.

    1985-10-01

    Observations of high-resolution dynamic spectra of solar broad-band spike bursts (BSB), consisting of the instantaneous brightening of the continuum in the entire spectrograph range of 175-235 MHz, are reported. In noise storms events of the BSB type are rarely encountered and have the form of individual bursts with an average duration of 0.1-0.2 sec or groups of such bursts connected with type III bursts at lower frequencies. Series of aperiodic BSB structures unconnected with type III bursts and observed together with one-second pulsations and fiber bursts, predominate in type IV bursts. In noise storms BSB bursts can be emitted by electrons accelerated instantaneously as a result of the reconnection of magnetic fields, both in a small source (about 10 to the 8th cm) with a broad velocity dispersion and in an extended source (about 5 x 10 to the 9th cm). Structures of the BSB type in type IV bursts may be the result of the scattering of Langmuir waves on whistlers in a large height range. 30 references.

  8. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammad, Manal H.; Saeed, Amjed H.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  11. Properties of Radio-Selected Broad Absorption-Line Quasars from the FIRST Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, R. H.; White, R L; Gregg, M. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Laurent-Meuleisen, S. A.; Arav, N.

    2000-01-01

    In a spectroscopic follow-up to the VLA FIRST survey, the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey (FBQS) has found 29 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. This sample provides the first opportunity to study the properties of radio-selected BAL quasars. Contrary to most previous studies, we establish that a significant population of radio-loud BAL quasars exists. Radio-selected BAL quasars display compact radio morphologies and possess both steep and flat radio spectra. Quasars with low-ioni...

  12. V-shaped resonators for addition of broad-area laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yun; Braiman, Yehuda Y.

    2012-12-25

    A system and method for addition of broad-area semiconductor laser diode arrays are described. The system can include an array of laser diodes, a V-shaped external cavity, and grating systems to provide feedback for phase-locking of the laser diode array. A V-shaped mirror used to couple the laser diode emissions along two optical paths can be a V-shaped prism mirror, a V-shaped stepped mirror or include multiple V-shaped micro-mirrors. The V-shaped external cavity can be a ring cavity. The system can include an external injection laser to further improve coherence and phase-locking.

  13. Broad-spectrum sun-protective action of Porphyra-334 derived from Porphyra vietnamensis

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bhatia; Sharma, K.; Namdeo, Ajay G.; B B Chaugule; Kavale, M.; Nanda, S

    2010-01-01

    There are enormous UV-protective compounds present in the current world market, out of which 98% give protection against UV-B range and the remaining 2% are potent against far UV-A range only. Furthermore, these synthetic compounds have various problems related to photo-stability and cross-stability. There is a vital need of sunscreen agents that will remain stable for prolonged periods and provide broad-spectrum protection against harmful UV range. The Indian Ocean contains large amounts of ...

  14. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs

  15. Multitasking, Competition and Provider Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Eggleston

    2001-01-01

    Many important dimensions of quality health care are difficult to observe, monitor, and motivate. This paper examines how competition among providers interacts with payment system incentives when the allocation of provider effort among multiple such dimensions or ‘tasks’ is noncontractible. The framework highlights that an optimal provider payment system, including optimal risk adjustment, should take account of provider multitasking.

  16. Querying Data Providing Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sabesan, Manivasakan

    2010-01-01

    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  17. BROAD-BAND AND WIDE DYNAMIC-RANGE SEISMIC OBSERVATIONS WITH AN STS-SEISMOGRAPH AT SYOWA STATION, EAST ANTARCTICA

    OpenAIRE

    カナオ, マサキ; カミヌマ, カツタダ; Masaki, KANAO; Katsutada, Kaminuma

    1994-01-01

    Broad-band and wide dynamic-range seismic observations with a three-component Streckeisen seismometer (STS-1V, -1H) have been carried out at Syowa Station, East Antarctica since April 1989. A digital acquisition system for broad-band (BRB) velocity signals was started from May 1990,for the purpose of providing valuable data for the study of global seismology. In this paper, the seismic observations with STS are presented during the winter period of the 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedit...

  18. METALLOCENE POLYETHYLENES WITH BROAD OR BIMODAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Seven new binuclear titanocenes with different linking bridges, unsubstituted or substituted on the Cp rings, were synthesized and tested for their effect on ethylene polymerization in the presence of MAO. The polyethylenes thus obtained had broad MWD or even bimodal GPC curves, as compared with that from two reference mononuclear titanocenes. This is explained by the difference in degree of steric hindrance around the active center sites imposed by the bulky substituted ligands assuming different configurations in the rotation of the catalyst molecules. Lower polymerization temperatures alleviate the effect of these configuration differences, as reflected in change in MW and -Mw/-Mn. This effect is not caused by decomposition or disproportionation of the binuclear titanocenes as evidenced by the stability of the catalyst.

  19. Study of Coda Qc According to Broad Band Seismic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coda wave attenuation quality factor Qc at the Javakheti plateau and at the area located at the north of Tbilisi from 11 local earthquakes recorded by broad band seismograph have been estimated. The Qc was estimated using the single-scattering attenuation model in the frequency range from 0.62 to 40 Hz. The analyzed events were recorded at epicentral distances up to 80 km and their magnitudes vary from 2.5 to 4.3. In the north of Tbilisi we found that Qc=(100±15)f0.6 in the indicated frequency range and Qc=(100±15)f0.4 for the Javakheti Plateau in the frequency range from 40 to 10 Hz. (author)

  20. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  1. Optimization of the geometry of broad energy germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors are employed in many different scientific experiments and widely used in industrial applications. A circular contact is implanted on a base of the cylindrical shaped detector. This circular contact is used as a read out electrode and is surrounded by a passivated groove that separates it from the high voltage electrode, which spans over the remaining surface. The size of the read out electrode and the groove geometry are assumed to have a major impact onto the energy resolution, pulse shape discrimination and energy threshold. To quantify the impact of the detectors geometry on its performance, the read out contacts size of two BEGe detectors was modified several times. The geometry of the detector was optimized prior to each reprocessing step through the use of simulations. For each configuration, the detectors performance was analysed through distinct measurements. Some general consideration about analysis tools, simulation libraries and first results of this study are presented in this talk.

  2. Engineering broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Casey K; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    A combination of advances spanning from isolation to delivery of potent HIV-specific antibodies has begun to revolutionize understandings of antibody-mediated antiviral activity. As a result, the set of broadly neutralizing and highly protective antibodies has grown in number, diversity, potency, and breadth of viral recognition and neutralization. These antibodies are now being further enhanced by rational engineering of their anti-HIV activities and coupled to cutting edge gene delivery and strategies to optimize their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. As a result, the prospects for clinical use of HIV-specific antibodies to treat, clear, and prevent HIV infection are gaining momentum. Here we discuss the diverse methods whereby antibodies are being optimized for neutralization potency and breadth, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and effector function with the aim of revolutionizing HIV treatment and prevention options. PMID:26827912

  3. Broad carbon monoxide line wings near T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report observations of carbon monoxide (CO) toward 26 T Tauri stars and related objects. In 19 of these objects, broad CO line wings of intensity > or approx. =0.1 K were detected, implying mass outflow is a common phenomenon in T Tauri stars. The velocity width (full width) of the wings ranges from 10 to 80 km s-1 and clusters around 25 km s-1. In general, the line wings are asymmetric with respect to the line core and the sense of asymmetry varies among sources. In the case of T Tauri, which has the broadest wing detected in these sources, the sense of wing asymmetry varies with position and may be due to source geometry

  4. Viroid Intercellular Trafficking: RNA Motifs, Cellular Factors and Broad Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Takeda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are noncoding RNAs that infect plants. In order to establish systemic infection, these RNAs must traffic from an initially infected host cell into neighboring cells and ultimately throughout a whole plant. Recent studies have identified structural motifs in a viroid that are required for trafficking, enabling further studies on the mechanisms of their function. Some cellular proteins interact with viroids in vivo and may play a role in viroid trafficking, which can now be directly tested by using a virus-induced gene silencing system that functions efficiently in plant species from which these factors were identified. This review discusses these recent advances, unanswered questions and the use of viroid infection as an highly productive model to elucidate mechanisms of RNA trafficking that is of broad biological significance.

  5. Broad beam and narrow beam attenuation in Lipowitz's metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Khatib, E E; Podgorsak, E B; Pla, C

    1987-01-01

    Attenuation properties of Lipowitz's metal have been studied for narrow and broad beams of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-10 MV x-rays. The measured transmitted fraction for geometries used in radiotherapy depends on the field size and depth of measurement. Therefore a calculation of dose for partially attenuated beams based on narrow beam attenuation coefficients can cause large errors in dosimetry. Our simple calculation of transmitted fractions based on primary attenuation and scattered radiation agrees quite well with the measured data for therapeutic geometries. Also given is a table for linear, mass attenuation, and mass energy absorption coefficients of Lipowitz's metal in the photon energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. PMID:3104738

  6. Optimization of the geometry of broad energy germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors are employed in many different scientific experiments and widely used in industrial applications. A circular contact is implanted on a base of the cylindrical shaped detector. This circular contact is used as a read out electrode and is surrounded by a passivated groove that separates it from the high voltage electrode, which spans over the remaining surface. The size of the read out electrode and the groove geometry are assumed to have a major impact onto the energy resolution, pulse shape discrimination and energy threshold. To quantify the impact of the detectors geometry on its performance, the read out contacts size of two BEGe detectors was modified several times. The geometry of the detector was optimized prior to each reprocessing step through the use of simulations. For each configuration, the detectors performance was analysed through distinct measurements. Some general consideration about analysis tools, simulation libraries and first results of this study are presented in this talk.

  7. Genetically Engineered Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1998-08-01

    Resistance in tomato to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato requires Pto and Prf. Mutations that eliminate Prf show a loss of both Pto resistance and sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion, suggesting that Prf controls both phenotypes. Herein, we report that the overexpression of Prf leads to enhanced resistance to a number of normally virulent bacterial and viral pathogens and leads to increased sensitivity to fenthion. These plants express levels of salicylic acid comparable to plants induced for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and constitutively express pathogenesis related genes. These results suggest that the overexpression of Prf activates the Pto and Fen pathways in a pathogen-independent manner and leads to the activation of SAR. Transgene-induced SAR has implications for the generation of broad spectrum disease resistance in agricultural crop plants.

  8. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (βNIR) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here βNIR is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with βNIR in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with βNIR than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as βNIR increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  9. Correlation between degradation and broadness of the transition in CICC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2013-10-01

    Cable in conduit conductor (CICC) performance is characterized in terms of relationships involving the electric field (E), voltage (V), temperature (T), current (I), magnetic field (B) and strain. Development of the electrical field in the V-T or V-I transitions in CICCs is exponential. These transitions plotted in the coordinates log E versus T or log E versus I look like straight lines. ITER Nb3Sn CICCs show degradation of properties versus load cycles that could be attributed to plastic deformation of the Nb3Sn strands or fracture of the superconducting filaments. The degradation is expressed in terms of the reduction of the current sharing temperature Tcs or critical current Ic, respectively. It was noticed long ago that degradation is accompanied by a significant broadening of the V-T or V-I transition, that looks like a change in the slope in the semi-log coordinate plot. This paper presents some systematic observations of correlations between the critical parameters and broadness of the transition in many CICCs. In most cases, the broadness of the transition seems to be a more sensitive indicator of the conductor damage even in cases where Tcs degradation is not clearly seen. Tcs degradation typically becomes obvious later in the cycling, especially after warm-up and following cool-down and more cycling. In some cases, a CICC manifests temporary or even a permanent growth of Tcs with load cycles, especially in the latest measurements of the CS conductors with short twist pitches. A possible mechanism of degradation that allows qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is discussed and is supported by the voltage measurements on the cable in the TFUS1 sample with the voltage taps penetrating the jacket to the cable.

  10. An atypical kinase under balancing selection confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Huard-Chauveau

    Full Text Available The failure of gene-for-gene resistance traits to provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance in an agricultural context has led to the search for genes underlying quantitative resistance in plants. Such genes have been identified in only a few cases, all for fungal or nematode resistance, and encode diverse molecular functions. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of quantitative resistance variation to other enemies and the associated evolutionary forces shaping this variation remain largely unknown. We report the identification, map-based cloning and functional validation of QRX3 (RKS1, Resistance related KinaSe 1, conferring broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas campestris (Xc, a devastating worldwide bacterial vascular pathogen of crucifers. RKS1 encodes an atypical kinase that mediates a quantitative resistance mechanism in plants by restricting bacterial spread from the infection site. Nested Genome-Wide Association mapping revealed a major locus corresponding to an allelic series at RKS1 at the species level. An association between variation in resistance and RKS1 transcription was found using various transgenic lines as well as in natural accessions, suggesting that regulation of RKS1 expression is a major component of quantitative resistance to Xc. The co-existence of long lived RKS1 haplotypes in A. thaliana is shared with a variety of genes involved in pathogen recognition, suggesting common selective pressures. The identification of RKS1 constitutes a starting point for deciphering the mechanisms underlying broad spectrum quantitative disease resistance that is effective against a devastating and vascular crop pathogen. Because putative RKS1 orthologous have been found in other Brassica species, RKS1 provides an exciting opportunity for plant breeders to improve resistance to black rot in crops.

  11. Choosing Your Prenatal Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider is. These kinds of providers can take care of you during pregnancy and deliver your baby: ... doctor who has special education and training to take care of pregnant women and deliver babies. About 8 ...

  12. Virilization of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei - connection between shifts and widths of broad emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Jonic, Sanja; Ilic, Dragana; Popovic, Luka C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the virilization of the emission lines Hbeta and Mg II in the sample of 287 Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore the connections between the intrinsic line shifts and full widths at different levels of maximal intensity. We found that: (i) Hbeta seems to be a good virial estimator of black hole masses, and an intrinsic redshift of Hbeta is dominantly caused by the gravitational effect, (ii) there is an anti-correlation between the redshift and width of the wings of the Mg II line, (iii) the broad Mg II line can be used as virial estimator only at 50% of the maximal intensity, while the widths and intrinsic shifts of the line wings can not be used for this purpose.

  13. Estimating Black Hole Masses in Quasars Using Broad Optical and UV Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We review past work using broad emission lines as virial estimators of black hole masses in quasars. Basically one requires estimates of the emitting region radius and virial velocity dispersion to obtain black hole masses. The three major ways to estimate the broad-line emitting region (BLR) radius involve: (1) direct reverberation mapping, (2) derivation of BLR radius for larger samples using the radius-luminosity correlation derived from reverberation measures, and (3) estimates of BLR radius using the definition of the ionization parameter solved for BLR radius (photoionization method). At low redshift (z < 0.7) FWHM H-beta serves as the most widely used estimator of virial velocity dispersion. FWHM H-beta can provide estimates for tens of thousands of quasars out to z ~ 3.8 (IR spectroscopy beyond z ~ 1). A new photoionization method also shows promise for providing many reasonable estimates of BLR radius via high S/N IR spectroscopy of the UV region 1300 -- 2000 A. FWHM MgII 2800 can serve as a surro...

  14. Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-27

    Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments. Selection for greater migration efficiency is likely to be stronger for terrestrial species whose migration strategies require non-stop transoceanic crossings. If multiple species use the same transoceanic flyway, then we expect the migration strategies of these species to converge geographically towards the most optimal solution. We test this by examining population-level migration trajectories within the Western Hemisphere for 118 migratory species using occurrence information from eBird. Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn. These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change. PMID:26791618

  15. Quasar Outflow Constraints using Broad Absorption Line Variability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Sean; Shields, Joseph C.; Hamann, Fred; Capellupo, Daniel M.; Gallagher, Sarah; Brandt, W. Niel; Herbst, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Quasar outflows are plausible candidates for AGN feedback processes influencing the host galaxy and may explain the established correlations between the supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the surrounding bulge. In order to better understand feedback and the physical conditions of the outflowing gas, observational constraints on absorber kinematics and energetics are needed. We are utilizing multiple epoch, rest frame UV quasar spectra to establish limits on outflow locations and total column densities for the purpose of estimating wind kinetic energies and momenta. We are also investigating the variability patterns of broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BALs across a range of ionization states to probe underlying connections between the various classes of absorbers. This work employs observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hobby Eberly Telescope, and MDM observatory. We detect BAL variability in 3 out of 12 FeLoBAL quasars over multiple year timescales and conclude that the variable absorbers lie within tens of parsecs of the SMBH based on interpretations of the Fe II and Mg II BALS. We also measure significant BAL changes across daily to yearly timescales in a sample of 71 quasars with plausible detections of the P V 1117,1128 BAL. Detecting phosphorus in absorption is notable because it traces high column density outflows and is therefore relevant for studying AGN feedback. Constraints on outflow energetics and other selected results will be presented.

  16. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  17. Broad-band study with Suzaku of the magnetar class

    CERN Document Server

    Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Rea, Nanda; Hurley, Kevein; Shibata, Shinpei

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band (0.8-70 keV) spectra of the persistent X-ray emission from 9 magnetars were obtained with Suzaku, including 3 objects in apparent outburst. The soft X-ray component was detected from all of them, with a typical blackbody temperature of kT ~ 0.5 keV, while the hard-tail component, dominating above ~10 keV, was detected at ~1 mCrab intensity from 7 of them. Therefore, the spectrum composed of a soft emission and a hard-tail component may be considered to be a common property of magnetars, both in their active and quiescent states. Wide-band spectral analyses revealed that the hard-tail component has a 1-60 keV flux, Fh, comparable to or even higher than that carried by the 1-60 keV soft component, Fs. The hardness ratio of these objects, defined as xi=Fh/Fs, was found to be tightly anti-correlated with their characteristic age tau as xi=(3.3+/-0.3)x(tau/1 kyr)^(-0.67+/-0.04) with a correlation coefficient of -0.989, over the range from xi~10 to xi~0.1. Magnetars in outburst states were found to lie o...

  18. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented

  19. Radiation pressure confinement - IV. Application to broad absorption line outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Alexei; Stern, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of quasars present broad absorption lines, produced by outflowing gas with typical velocities of 3000 - 10,000 km/s. If the outflowing gas fills a significant fraction of the volume where it resides, then it will be highly ionized by the quasar due to its low density, and will not produce the observed UV absorption. The suggestion that the outflow is shielded from the ionizing radiation was excluded by recent observations. The remaining solution is a dense outflow with a filling factor $f<10^{-3}$. What produces such a small $f$? Here we point out that radiation pressure confinement (RPC) inevitably leads to gas compression and the formation of dense thin gas sheets/filaments, with a large gradient in density and ionization along the line of sight. The total column of ionized dustless gas is a few times $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, consistent with the observed X-ray absorption and detectable P V absorption. The predicted maximal columns of various ions show a small dependence on the system parameters, a...

  20. A Variable PV Broad Absorption Line and Quasar Outflow Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellupo, Daniel M; Barlow, Tom A

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift $z_e = 2.56$), aided by the first detection of PV $\\lambda\\lambda$1118,1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, PV absorption at velocities where the CIV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the CIV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size 22.3 (cm^-2). Variability in the PV and saturated CIV BALs strongly disfavors changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high-column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of ...

  1. Spike-type broad-band solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution dynamical spectra of solar broad-band spike bursts (BSB) have been observed. They represent an instantaneous brightening of the continuum emission in the range 175-235 MHz. In the noise stoms the BSB-type events occur seldom and have the form of either individual bursts with the average lifetime of 0.1-0.2 s or the groups of such bursts, related with type 3 bursts at lower frequencies. In type 4 bursts, the series of nonperiodic structures of BSB predominate. They are not related with type 3 bursts, but are observed together with the second pulsations and fiber bursts. In the noise storms, the BSB can be excited by electrons instantaneously accelerated owing to the magnetic field reconnection. The group delay leads to a negative frequency drift approximately -600 MHz/s in small sources and positive drift approximately 300 MHz/s in the extended ones. Such a high drift velocity cannot compensate the moderate frequency drift associated with the exciter motion in the corona. The BSB-structure in type 4 bursts can be the result of scattering of the Langmuir waves on the whistlers in a large height interval

  2. Broad band spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.A.; Horner, G.S.; Coutts, T.J.; Wanlass, M.W. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The availability of commercial spectroscopic ellipsometers (SE) has been restricted to the UV-visible range from 250-900 nm. Although this is useful for many applications, it must be extended to the near IR region (up to 1700 nm) for the study of the optical behavior of most photovoltaic materials. This paper discusses the development of a broad band (300-1700 nm) SE which has been used to measure the optical characteristics of various materials. Among these are the polycrystalline thin film materials, CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe (for which single crystal samples have also been investigated), and materials for high efficiency cascade solar cells including InP, InGaAs and InGaAsP. Most of these data are not presently available over such a wide spectral range. Experimentally, a rotating polarizer-fixed analyzer ellipsometer with an a.c. detection system has been developed for accurate measurement of psi and {Delta}, the relevant ellipsometric parameters, in the near IR. This approach has certain advantages over the rotating analyzer-fixed polarizer systems including reduced sensitivity to room light. The analytical methods include the use of a specially developed computer modeling program which gives psi and {Delta} for a given set of values related to the film thickness (which may be finite or zero) and to the optical properties of the substrate. (orig.).

  3. Broad Iron Emission from Gravitationally Lensed Quasars Observed by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Miller, J M; Reis, R C; Stern, D; Harrison, F A

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gravitationally lensed quasars to extend measurements of black hole spin out to high-redshift with the current generation of X-ray observatories. Here we present an analysis of a large sample of 27 lensed quasars in the redshift range 1.0broad component from the inner accretion disk, with a clear red wing to the emission profile. Based on simulations, we find the detection of this broader component to be significant at greater than the 3-sigma level. This implies that iron emission...

  4. Approaches to a broad range of high performance PDT sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'A. Rocha Gonsalves, António M.; Serra, Arménio C.; Pineiro, Marta; Botelho, M. Filomena

    2009-02-01

    Starting from expertise in the area of chemical synthesis, particularly in tetrapyrrolic macrocycles and an interest in modelling structures for particular objectives, we came to the point of aiming at modelling photochemical sensitizers designed for photodynamic therapy (PDT) purposes. Our endeavours were gratifying when it was proved that our synthetic methodologies allowed for the easy availability of properly halogenated porphyrins with high quantum yield singlet oxygen efficiency. Joining the presence of this heavy atom and other functionalities as substituents in selected positions of macrocyclic structures we were able to generate novel porphyrin structures whose photophysical and photochemical properties, singlet oxygen formation quantum yields, photobleaching and logP were measured. Cellular uptake measurements and cytotoxicity assays on WiDr adenocarcinoma and A375 tumor cell lines were carried out and some of our porphyrins demonstrated very high performance as PDT sensitizers comparatively to known compounds approved for clinical use and in the market. Further developments of our studies allowed for the generation of different and more efficient structures, easily made available by our own synthetic methodologies. Our studies in this area allowed us to reach a stage which we believe to correspond to a significant knowledge and capacity to synthesise a broad range of simple structures, whose selectivity and efficiency as PDT sensitizers can be modulated for different cellular and tissue specificities. Our most recent developments in this area will be presented in this communication.

  5. Broad Absorption Line Variability in Radio-Loud Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Welling, C A; Brandt, W N; Capellupo, D M; Gibson, R R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability within a sample of 46 radio-loud quasars (RLQs), selected from SDSS/FIRST data to include both core-dominated (39) and lobe-dominated (7) objects. The sample consists primarily of high-ionization BAL quasars, and a substantial fraction have large BAL velocities or equivalent widths; their radio luminosities and radio-loudness values span ~2.5 orders of magnitude. We have obtained 34 new Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) spectra of 28 BAL RLQs to compare to earlier SDSS data, and we also incorporate archival coverage (primarily dual-epoch SDSS) for a total set of 78 pairs of equivalent width measurements for 46 BAL RLQs, probing rest-frame timescales of ~80-6000 d (median 500 d). In general, only modest changes in the depths of segments of absorption troughs are observed, akin to those seen in prior studies of BAL RQQs. Also similar to previous findings for RQQs, the RLQs studied here are more likely to display BAL variability on longer rest-frame timescal...

  6. Transient C IV Broad Absorption Lines in radio detected QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Vivek, M; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    We study the transient (i.e. emerging or disappearing) C IV broad absorption line (BAL) components in 50 radio detected QSOs using multi-epoch spectra available in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10. We report the detectionof 6 BALQSOs having at least one distinct transient C IV absorption component. Based on the structure function analysis of optical light curves, we suggest that the transient absorption is unlikely to be triggered by continuum variations. Transient absorption components usually have low C IV equivalent widths ( 10000 \\kms) and typically occur over rest-frame timescales > 800 days. The detection rate of transient C IV absorption seen in our sample is higher than that reported in the literature. Using a control sample of QSOs, we show that this difference is most likely due to the longer monitoring time-scale of sources in our sample while the effect of small number statistics cannot be ignored. Thus, in order to establish the role played by radio jets in driving the BAL outflows, we need a larger...

  7. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéra, A.-C.; Riquier, H.; Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  8. X-Ray Continua of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    The targets for this program, PG1416-129 and LBQS 2212-1759 were known to be Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BALQSOs). BALQSOs are highly absorbed in soft X-rays. Good high energy response of Rossi-XTE made them ideal targets for observation. We observed LBQS 2212-1759 with PCA. We have now analyzed the data and found that the source was not detected. Since our target was expected to be faint, reliable estimate of background was very important. With the release of new FTOOLS (version 4.1) we were able to do so. We also analyzed a well known bright object and verified our results with the published data. This gave us confidence in the non-detection of our target LBQS 2212-1759. We are currently investigating the implications of this non-detection. Due to some scheduling problems, our second target PG1416-129 was not observed in A01. It was observed on 06/26/98. This target was detected with RXTE. We are now working on the spectral analysis with XSPEC.

  9. Modulational instability of broad spectra of lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A universal nonlinear formalism in which the fields are represented as a sum of their regular and random components is applied to derive integral equations describing the modulational instability of the spectra of lower hybrid waves. The modulational instability of the one-dimensional spectra of lower hybrid waves is investigated. It is shown that the 'short-scale' instability of one-dimensional spectra behaves as the 'short-scale' instability of a monochromatic pump wave; in particular, the maximum growth rate of the short-scale instability differs from that of the instability of a monochromatic pump wave by a numerical factor of order unity. It is demonstrated that the 'long-scale' instability of the wave spectra is generally weaker than the instability of a monochromatic pump wave. The instability thresholds can exist only for spectra occupying the entire range of wavenumbers in which the waves can be excited. A transition from a weakly turbulent state to a strongly turbulent state is studied. It is shown that such a transition is physically meaningful only in systems in which the weakly turbulent spectrum of the waves in the space of wave vectors is very broad. The problem of describing the effect of the modulational instability on the lower hybrid current drive is discussed

  10. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wera, A.-C., E-mail: anne-catharine.wera@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium); Riquier, H., E-mail: helene.riquier@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unite de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Heuskin, A.-C., E-mail: anne-catherine.heuskin@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium); Michiels, C., E-mail: carine.michiels@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Unite de Recherche de Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, S., E-mail: stephane.lucas@fundp.ac.be [NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur-FUNDP (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  11. Oxygen consumption of rats with broad intestinal resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to investigate possible alterations in oxygen consumption in an animal model with broad intestinal resection. Oxygen consumption and the thermal effect of a short meal were measured in rats subjected to short bowel syndrome. Four groups of rats were used. Group I was the control group, group II was sham operated, group III was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection, and group IV was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection with colon interposition. Ninety days after surgery, oxygen consumption was measured over a period of 6 h with the animals fasted overnight. The thermal effect of feeding was determined in another session of oxygen consumption measurement in animals fasted for 12 h. A 12-kcal meal was then introduced into the animal chamber and oxygen consumption was measured for a further 4 h. No differences in fasting oxygen consumption or in the thermal effect of the meal were detected among the groups studied. It is concluded that short bowel syndrome does not affect the overall energy expenditure of rats.

  12. More Evidence for the Intermediate Broad Line Region of the Mapped AGN PG 0052+251

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2013-01-01

    In the manuscript, the properties of the proposed intermediate BLR are checked for the mapped AGN PG 0052+251. With the considerations of the apparent effects of the broad He {\\sc ii} line on the observed broad H$\\beta$ profile, the line parameters (especially the line width and the line flux) of the observed broad H$\\alpha$ and the broad H$\\beta$ are carefully determined. Based on the measured line parameters, the model with two broad components applied for each observed broad balmer line is preferred, and then confirmed by the calculated much different time lags for the inner/intermediate broad components and the corresponding virial BH masses ratio determined by the properties of the inner and the intermediate broad components. Then, the correlation between the broad line width and the broad line flux is checked for the two broad components: one clearly strong negative correlation for the inner broad component, but one positive correlation for the intermediate broad component. The different correlations fo...

  13. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  14. Ability to develop broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies is not restricted by the germline immunoglobulin gene repertoire1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Cathrine; Shrestha, Ram K.; Lambson, Bronwen E.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Wright, Imogen A.; Naicker, Dshanta; Goosen, Mark; Berrie, Leigh; Ismail, Arshad; Garrett, Nigel; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Moore, Penny L.; Travers, Simon A.; Morris, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The human immunoglobulin repertoire is vast, producing billions of unique antibodies from a limited number of germline immunoglobulin genes. The immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) is central to antigen binding and is comprised of 48 functional genes. Here we analyzed whether HIV-1 infected individuals who develop broadly neutralizing antibodies show a distinctive germline IGHV profile. Using both 454 and Illumina technologies we sequenced the IGHV repertoire of 28 HIV-infected South African women from the Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South African (CAPRISA) 002 and 004 cohorts, 13 of whom developed broadly neutralizing antibodies. Of the 259 IGHV alleles identified in this study, approximately half were not found in the International Immunogenetics Database (IMGT). This included 85 entirely novel alleles and 38 alleles that matched rearranged sequences in non-IMGT databases. Analysis of the rearranged H chain V region genes of monoclonal antibodies isolated from 7 of the CAPRISA women and previously isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies from other donors provided evidence that at least 8 novel or non-IMGT alleles contributed to functional antibodies. Importantly, we found that despite a wide range in the number of IGHV alleles in each individual, including alleles used by known broadly neutralizing antibodies, there were no significant differences in germline IGHV repertoires between individuals who do and do not develop broadly neutralizing antibodies. This study reports novel IGHV repertoires and highlights the importance of a fully comprehensive immunoglobulin database for germline gene usage prediction. Furthermore, these data suggest a lack of genetic bias in broadly neutralizing antibody development in HIV-1 infection, with implications for HIV vaccine design. PMID:25825450

  15. Survey of pharmacists and physicians on drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives and broad-spectrum antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters KP

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate physician and pharmacist knowledge on potential drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives (COC and broad-spectrum antibiotics and determine if any difference exists between responses.Methods: Two hundred licensed retail pharmacists and 200 licensed family practice physicians in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland were mailed an anonymous survey between August 2007 and November 2007. The survey consisted of 3 short questions asking practitioners about their current opinion on drug interactions with COCs and whether an alternative form of contraception is needed for patients taking COC and concomitant broad-spectrum antibiotics. The main outcome measure of the survey included: identifying how physicians and pharmacists handle prescribing or dispensing COCs along with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Gender, educational degree, and years in practice were also collected. Results: A total of 182 participants returned the surveys (57% were physicians and 43% were pharmacists. When asked if broad-spectrum antibiotics have a clinically significant interaction with COCs, 82.7% of physicians and 88.5% of pharmacists answered, “yes”. Of the respondents, 84.6% stated that the drug interaction warrants the patient to be advised to use back-up contraception. A total of 90.1% stated that they currently instruct patients to use back-up contraception when prescribing or dispensing antibiotics to a patient who is on COC, with no statistically significant difference existing between the responses of the pharmacists and the physicians.Conclusion: Physicians and pharmacists believe that broad-spectrum antibiotics decrease the effectiveness of COCs. These practitioners warn their patients of this interaction and advise the use of back-up contraception. More education should be provided to practitioners regarding the data concerning COCs and broad spectrum antibiotics and lack of a proven interaction.

  16. Tackling Disrespectful, Unprofessional Provider Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    To address problematic provider behaviors that can affect patient safety, physician leaders at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) developed the Coworker Observation Reporting System (CORS), a systematized approach for retrieving and addressing concerns about providers reported by staff. To encourage staff members to report concerns, they have to trust that the organization is going to respond, and they also have to feel that they have a certain element of psychological safety. Selected peer messengers share staff complaints with providers, enabling them to offer their perspectives on the issues or events in question. Three years into the implementation of CORS, investigators found that the majority of providers self-correct their behaviors when reports about staff concerns are shared. Additional level 1, level 2, and level 3 interventions are built into the CORS system for providers who fail to self-correct after one or two reports. PMID:27295820

  17. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D

    2015-12-01

    Deregulation of angiogenesis--the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature--is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding "the most important target" may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the "Halifax Project" within the "Getting to know cancer" framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor angiogenesis and the

  18. Using the occupational personality questionnaire (OPQ for measuring broad traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acceptance of the Big Five model implies that personality consists of relatively independent dimensions that form a taxonomy whereby individual differences may be explained. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the subscales of an established personality inventory that measures narrow traits of personality, the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ, could be reduced meaningfully to fit a broad factor model within a South African context. The OPQ 5.2 concept model was administered to 453 job applicants in the telecommunications sector. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor structure that included five factors corresponding to the Big Five model of personality. The sixth factor, labeled Interpersonal Relationship Harmony, resembled the description of the Chinese tradition factor, extracted in a non-Western society. Opsomming Die wye aanvaarding van die Groot-Vyfmodel impliseer dat persoonlikheid uit relatief onafhanklike dimensies bestaan wat ’n taksonomie vorm waarmee individuele verskille verklaar kan word. Die doel van die ondersoek was om vas te stel of die subskale van ’n gevestigde persoonlikheidsvraelys wat gedetailleerde persoonlikheidstrekke meet, die Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ, op sinvolle wyse gereduseer kon word tot ’n breë faktormodel in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Die OPQ 5.2 konsepmodel is toegepas op 453 werkapplikante in die telekommunikasiesektor. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het ’n sesfaktorstruktuur gelewer, insluitende vyf faktore wat met die Groot Vyf persoonlikheidsmodel ooreenstem. Die sesde faktor wat as Interpersoonlike Verhoudingsharmonie benoem is, toon ooreenstemming met die Chinese tradisiefaktor wat in ’n nie-Westerse samelewing onttrek is.

  19. Directed abstraction: Encouraging broad, personal generalizations following a success experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunick, Peter V; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 2010; Salancik, 1974), to create a new technique to encourage people with negative self-views to generalize broadly from a success experience to the self-concept. We call this technique directed abstraction. In Experiment 1, participants with negative self-views who completed a directed abstraction writing task following success feedback regarding a novel laboratory task generalized more from that success, reporting higher ability levels and greater expectations of future success in the relevant domain. In Experiment 2, directed abstraction produced similar results (including more positive self-related affect, e.g., pride) after participants recalled a past public speaking success. In Experiment 3, participants high in fear of public speaking gave two speeches in a context designed to be challenging yet also to elicit successful performances. Directed abstraction helped these participants generalize from their success to beliefs about their abilities, expectations about the future, and confidence as a speaker. In Experiment 4, directed abstraction following success on a verbal task increased persistence in the face of failure on a subsequent verbal task. We discuss implications for understanding how and when people generalize from a success, compare directed abstraction to existing interventions, and suggest practical applications for this influence technique. PMID:25984786

  20. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of AGN winds using Broad and mini-Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.

    2015-07-01

    BAL/mini-BALs are observed in the UV spectra of ˜ 20-30% of optically selected AGN as broad absorption troughs blueshifted by several thousands km/s, indicative of powerful nuclear winds. They could be representative of the average AGN if their winds cover only 20-30% of the continuum source, and/or represent an evolutionary state analogous to the high-soft state of BHB, when the jet emission is quenched and strong X-ray absorbing equatorial disk winds are virtually ubiquitous. High-quality, possibly time-resolved X-ray/UV studies are crucial to assess the global amount and 'character' of absorption in BAL/mini-BAL QSOs and to constrain the physical mechanism responsible for the launch and acceleration of their winds, therefore placing them in the broader context of AGN geometry and evolution. I will review here the known X-ray properties of BAL/mini-BAL QSOs, and present new results from a comprehensive X-ray spectral analysis of all the Palomar-Green BAL/mini-BAL QSOs with available XMM-Newton observations, for a total of 51 pointings of 14 different sources. These will include the most recent results from a high-quality simultaneous XMM/HST observational campaign on the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041, that unveiled with stunning details the X-ray/UV connection in action in an AGN disk wind through correlated X-ray/UV absorption variability.

  1. Interpreting broad emission-line variations II: Tensions between luminosity, characteristic size and responsivity

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the variability behaviour of the broad Hb emission-line to driving continuum variations in the best-studied AGN NGC 5548. For a particular choice of BLR geometry, Hb surface emissivity based on photoionization models, and using a scaled version of the 13 yr optical continuum light curve as a proxy for the driving ionizing continuum, we explore several key factors that determine the broad emission line luminosity L, characteristic size R(RW), and variability amplitude (i.e., responsivity) eta, as well as the interplay between them. For fixed boundary models which extend as far as the hot-dust the predicted delays for Hb are on average too long. However, the predicted variability amplitude of Hb provides a remarkably good match to observations except during low continuum states. We suggest that the continuum flux variations which drive the redistribution in Hb surface emissivity F(r) do not on their own lead to large enough changes in R(RW) or eta(eff). We thus investigate dust-bounded BLRs for w...

  2. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  3. Niclosamide is a proton carrier and targets acidic endosomes with broad antiviral effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jurgeit

    Full Text Available Viruses use a limited set of host pathways for infection. These pathways represent bona fide antiviral targets with low likelihood of viral resistance. We identified the salicylanilide niclosamide as a broad range antiviral agent targeting acidified endosomes. Niclosamide is approved for human use against helminthic infections, and has anti-neoplastic and antiviral effects. Its mode of action is unknown. Here, we show that niclosamide, which is a weak lipophilic acid inhibited infection with pH-dependent human rhinoviruses (HRV and influenza virus. Structure-activity studies showed that antiviral efficacy and endolysosomal pH neutralization co-tracked, and acidification of the extracellular medium bypassed the virus entry block. Niclosamide did not affect the vacuolar H(+-ATPase, but neutralized coated vesicles or synthetic liposomes, indicating a proton carrier mode-of-action independent of any protein target. This report demonstrates that physico-chemical interference with host pathways has broad range antiviral effects, and provides a proof of concept for the development of host-directed antivirals.

  4. Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie M; Long, Feng; Edeling, Melissa A; Lin, Hueylie; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Fong, Rachel H; Kahle, Kristen M; Smit, Jolanda M; Jin, Jing; Simmons, Graham; Doranz, Benjamin J; Crowe, James E; Fremont, Daved H; Rossmann, Michael G; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-11-19

    We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and multiple functional assays, we determined that broadly neutralizing MAbs block multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, including entry and egress, and bind to a conserved epitope on the B domain of the E2 glycoprotein. A 16 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Fab fragment bound to CHIKV E2 B domain provided an explanation for its neutralizing activity. Binding to the B domain was associated with repositioning of the A domain of E2 that enabled cross-linking of neighboring spikes. Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern. PMID:26553503

  5. TERRAIN, PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  6. Types of health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physicians; Nurses; Health care providers; Doctors; Pharmacists ... with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). NURSING CARE Registered nurses (RNs) have graduated from a nursing program, have ...

  7. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  8. Should Governments Provide Catastrophe Insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffee, Dwight; Russell, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina and the terrorist attacks of 9/11 2001 have focused attention on the appropriate role of government in providing insurance against catastrophes. This paper argues that wherever possible governments should follow policies which enable the continuation of a private insurance market. In the event that government must itself provide catastrophe insurance it should follow the same actuarially based pricing and reserving rules that would be followed by a competitive private market.

  9. Broad-Band EUV Multilayer Coatings For Solar Physics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new class of aperiodic multilayer coating that is designed to provide high normal-incidence reflectance over a wide...

  10. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  11. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  12. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller is...... grid by outputting at least a predetermined minimum electrical power....

  13. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. PMID:26988200

  14. Knudsen Gas Provides Nanobubble Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seddon, James R.T.; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    We provide a model for the remarkable stability of surface nanobubbles to bulk dissolution. The key to the solution is that the gas in a nanobubble is of Knudsen type. This leads to the generation of a bulk liquid flow which effectively forces the diffusive gas to remain local. Our model predicts th

  15. Broad-band analysis of the spectral evolution of GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Corbel, S.

    2015-07-01

    Black Hole X-ray binaries display large outbursts during which their spectral properties are strongly variable. Their high-energy emission includes the contribution of thermal and non-thermal components that are respectively attributed to the emission of an accretion disk and the one of a jet. How these structures form and evolve over time is still under investigation. The aim of our group is to provide the most up to date generic properties of these objects, as observed along the course of their outbursts, in order to constrain the theoretical models. Therefore, I will present the systematic broad-band analysis of the spectral properties of black hole binaries that we are currently developing, using the 2010 outburst of GX 339-4 as an example. I will give an overview of the results we obtained using observations at all wavelengths from proprietary radio data to hard X-rays.

  16. Structure and Kinematics of the Broad-Line Region and Torus of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskell, C Martin; Klimek, Elizabeth S

    2008-01-01

    Energetics considerations imply that the broad-line region (BLR) has a high covering factor. The absence of absorption from the BLR means that the BLR has to have a flattened distribution and be seen through a polar hole. The BLR is the inward extension of the torus and they have similar geometries and covering factors. Reconciling velocity-resolved reverberation mapping, spectropolarimetry, and the increasing blueshifting of BLR lines with decreasing distance from the centre, implies that the BLR has a significant inflow component. This inflow provides the mass inflow rate needed to power the AGN. We suggest that the mechanism producing the outward transport of angular momentum necessary for the net inflow of the BLR is the magneto-rotational instability, and that the BLR and outer accretion disc are one and the same.

  17. A broadly tunable autocorrelator for ultra-short, ultra-high power infrared optical pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szarmes, E.B.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We describe the design of a crossed-beam, optical autocorrelator that uses an uncoated, birefringent beamsplitter to split a linearly polarized incident pulse into two orthogonally polarized pulses, and a Type II, SHG crystal to generate the intensity autocorrelation function. The uncoated beamsplitter accommodates extremely broad tunability while precluding any temporal distortion of ultrashort optical pulses at the dielectric interface, and the specific design provides efficient operation between 1 {mu}m and 4 {mu}m. Furthermore, the use of Type II SHG completely eliminates any single-beam doubling, so the autocorrelator can be operated at very shallow crossed-beam angles without generating a background pedestal. The autocorrelator has been constructed and installed in the Mark III laboratory at Duke University as a broadband diagnostic for ongoing compression experiments on the chirped-pulse FEL.

  18. Induction of broadly neutralizing H1N1 influenza antibodies by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Jen; Boyington, Jeffrey C; McTamney, Patrick M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pearce, Melissa B; Xu, Ling; Andersen, Hanne; Rao, Srinivas; Tumpey, Terrence M; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Nabel, Gary J

    2010-08-27

    The rapid dissemination of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus underscores the need for universal influenza vaccines that elicit protective immunity to diverse viral strains. Here, we show that vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and boosting with seasonal vaccine or replication-defective adenovirus 5 vector encoding HA stimulated the production of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies. This prime/boost combination increased the neutralization of diverse H1N1 strains dating from 1934 to 2007 as compared to either component alone and conferred protection against divergent H1N1 viruses in mice and ferrets. These antibodies were directed to the conserved stem region of HA and were also elicited in nonhuman primates. Cross-neutralization of H1N1 subtypes elicited by this approach provides a basis for the development of a universal influenza vaccine for humans. PMID:20647428

  19. Broad energy spectrum of laser-accelerated protons for spallation-related physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam of MeV protons, accelerated by ultraintense laser-pulse interactions with a thin target foil, is used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for spallation physics. The laser-generated proton beam is shown (protons were measured) to have a broad energy distribution, which closely resembles the expected energy spectrum of evaporative protons (below 50 MeV) produced in GeV-proton-induced spallation reactions. The protons are used to quantify the distribution of residual radioisotopes produced in a representative spallation target (Pb), and the results are compared with calculated predictions based on spectra modeled with nuclear Monte Carlo codes. Laser-plasma particle accelerators are shown to provide data relevant to the design and development of accelerator driven systems

  20. Data-intensive science applied to broad-scale citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochachka, Wesley M; Fink, Daniel; Hutchinson, Rebecca A; Sheldon, Daniel; Wong, Weng-Keen; Kelling, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Identifying ecological patterns across broad spatial and temporal extents requires novel approaches and methods for acquiring, integrating and modeling massive quantities of diverse data. For example, a growing number of research projects engage continent-wide networks of volunteers ('citizen-scientists') to collect species occurrence data. Although these data are information rich, they present numerous challenges in project design, implementation and analysis, which include: developing data collection tools that maximize data quantity while maintaining high standards of data quality, and applying new analytical and visualization techniques that can accurately reveal patterns in these data. Here, we describe how advances in data-intensive science provide accurate estimates in species distributions at continental scales by identifying complex environmental associations. PMID:22192976

  1. Solar Atmospheric Magnetic Energy Coupling: Broad Plasma Conditions and Temperature Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Orange, N Brice; Gendre, Bruce; Morris, David C; Oluseyi, Hakeem M

    2016-01-01

    Solar variability investigations that include its magnetic energy coupling are paramount to solving many key solar/stellar physics problems. Particularly understanding the temporal variability of magnetic energy redistribution and heating processes. Using three years of observations from the {\\it Solar Dynamics Observatory's} Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Heliosemic Magnetic Imager, radiative and magnetic fluxes were measured from coronal hole, quiet Sun, active regions, active region cores (i.e., inter moss), and at full-disk scales, respectively. We present, and mathematically describe, their coupling of radiative fluxes, across broad temperature gradients, to the available photospheric magnetic energy. A comparison of the common linear relationship of radiative to magnetic coupling is performed against our extended broken power-law description, which reveals a potential entanglement of thermodynamic and magnetic energy contributions in existing literature. As such, our work provides an improved approach...

  2. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  3. Peracetic Acid Treatment Generates Potent Inactivated Oral Vaccines from a Broad Range of Culturable Bacterial Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Wotzka, Sandra Y; Toska, Albulena; Diard, Médéric; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Slack, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in part due to difficulties in generating specific mucosal adaptive immune responses without disrupting the mucosal microbial ecosystem itself. Here, we present a very simple tool to generate inactivated mucosal vaccines from a broad range of culturable bacteria. Oral gavage of 10(10) peracetic acid-inactivated bacteria induces high-titer-specific intestinal IgA in the absence of any measurable inflammation or species invasion. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this technique is sufficient to provide fully protective immunity in the murine model of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis, even in the face of severe innate immune deficiency. PMID:26904024

  4. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  5. A measure of the broad substrate specificity of enzymes based on 'duplicate' catalytic residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability of an enzyme to select and act upon a specific class of compounds with unerring precision and efficiency is an essential feature of life. Simultaneously, these enzymes often catalyze the reaction of a range of similar substrates of the same class, and also have promiscuous activities on unrelated substrates. Previously, we have established a methodology to quantify promiscuous activities in a wide range of proteins. In the current work, we quantitatively characterize the active site for the ability to catalyze distinct, yet related, substrates (BRASS. A protein with known structure and active site residues provides the framework for computing 'duplicate' residues, each of which results in slightly modified replicas of the active site scaffold. Such spatial congruence is supplemented by Finite difference Poisson Boltzmann analysis which filters out electrostatically unfavorable configurations. The congruent configurations are used to compute an index (BrassIndex, which reflects the broad substrate profile of the active site. We identify an acetylhydrolase and a methyltransferase as having the lowest and highest BrassIndex, respectively, from a set of non-homologous proteins extracted from the Catalytic Site Atlas. The acetylhydrolase, a regulatory enzyme, is known to be highly specific for platelet-activating factor. In the methyltransferase (PDB: 1QAM, various combinations of glycine (Gly38/40/42, asparagine (Asn101/11 and glutamic acid (Glu59/36 residues having similar spatial and electrostatic profiles with the specified scaffold (Gly38, Asn101 and Glu59 exemplifies the broad substrate profile such an active site may provide. 'Duplicate' residues identified by relaxing the spatial and/or electrostatic constraints can be the target of directed evolution methodologies, like saturation mutagenesis, for modulating the substrate specificity of proteins.

  6. Intergroup Dialogue: Education for a Broad Conception of Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue provides what students need in order to relate and collaborate across differences, something they have to do in community projects that usually involve interactions across racial, social class, religious, and geographical divides. In this article, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of intergroup dialogue, drawing from a…

  7. China's sputtering housing boom poses broad economic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Koech, Janet; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    China’s economic slowdown and changing demographics cloud its housing market’s long-term prospects. While urbanization and a lack of alternative investment opportunities provide short-run support, the housing sector’s difficulties imperil China’s financial sector and the global recovery.

  8. The Chinese Housing Provident Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Buttimer Jr; Anthony Yanxiang Gu; Tyler T. Yang

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese government has embarked upon an effort to reduce the number of tenants living in publicly owned housing. This is a significant challenge for any government, but may be especially so for a country where private homeownership is a new option. Out of concern that many of its citizens could not afford to purchase their housing units, the Chinese government created the Housing Provident Fund. This program, which is similar to housing fund programs in other countries such as Thailand an...

  9. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnowski, Germán Claudio

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein ...

  10. A provider based accounting architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Parhonyi, R.; Quartel, D.; Pras, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a novel content accounting architecture. Content accounting is becoming increasingly important since it is anticipated that in the near future more billable content will be published on the Internet. The presented architecture has a distributed functionality and an innovative view with respect to the payment system that is incorporated. The architecture enables outsourcing of the accounting functions. In particular, it is shown how Internet service providers can be involved...

  11. Amplifier similariton laser with extra-broad bandwidth output pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, D. A.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Zolotovskii, I. O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an advanced scheme of amplifier similariton laser providing an output pulse spectrum much wider than the gain bandwidth. The upgrade is an additional dispersive element introduced into the cavity to locally increase the peak pulse power. The proposed scheme demonstrates a drastic increase in the output pulse spectrum width, reduction of the pulse duration, and an increase in the output peak pulse power after compression.

  12. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/Va correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 108 M sun. Our analysis implies that at a given M BH, z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  13. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis of the key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and ...

  14. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  15. Microbial transglutaminase displays broad acyl-acceptor substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Keillor, Jeffrey W.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2013-01-01

    The great importance of amide bonds in industrial synthesis has encouraged the search for efficient catalysts of amide bond formation. Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is heavily utilized in crosslinking proteins in the food and textile industries, where the side chain of a glutamine reacts with....... Importantly, very small amines carrying either the electron-rich azide or the alkyne groups required for click chemistry were highly reactive as acyl-acceptor substrates, providing a robust route to minimally modified, “clickable” peptides. These results demonstrate that MTG is tolerant to a variety of...

  16. Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services

    CERN Document Server

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V

    2011-01-01

    "Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.

  17. Broad-spectrum identification and discrimination between biothreat agents and near-neighbor species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, Anthony P.; Leski, Tomasz A.; Cheng, Luke; Wang, Zheng; Stenger, David A.; Lin, Baochuan

    2009-05-01

    A comprehensive resequencing microarray "Tropical and Emerging Infections (TessArray RPM-TEI 1.0 array)" has been developed to identify and distinguish between biothreat organisms of interest and genetically close related species. This array has undergone validation using an innovative approach where synthetic DNA fragments are used for organisms that it is not safe to work with outside a biosafety 3 facilities. The approach was confirmed from testing a subset of target organisms, such as Ebola viruses and Lassa viruses, at USAMRIID. Most potential biothreat organisms are actually endemic in some part of the world. Proper surveillance of biothreat agents will require some form of monitoring the evolution of the indigenous organisms under their natural environment, so when changes in the organisms occur, the diagnostic assays for these organisms can be reviewed to assure they still provide detection. Using the resequencing microarray (RPM) for detection in locations such as the Africa can support indigenous monitoring as it provides sequence information. An ongoing collaboration with Njala University aims to establish a broad-spectrum pathogen surveillance capability in the Republic of Sierra Leone, West Africa using RPM technology combined with a Geographic Information System. This has the potential to improve the public health efforts in an infected area as well as provide monitoring of the changes occurring to a biothreat organism, i.e. Lassa viruses, in its natural location.

  18. Learning from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: prospects for more broadly effective influenza vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ethan C. Settembre; Philip R. Dormitzer; Rino Rappuoli

    2011-01-01

    Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic. This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.%@@ Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic.This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies.Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.

  19. The Global Evidence Mapping Initiative: Scoping research in broad topic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavender Emma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence mapping describes the quantity, design and characteristics of research in broad topic areas, in contrast to systematic reviews, which usually address narrowly-focused research questions. The breadth of evidence mapping helps to identify evidence gaps, and may guide future research efforts. The Global Evidence Mapping (GEM Initiative was established in 2007 to create evidence maps providing an overview of existing research in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI. Methods The GEM evidence mapping method involved three core tasks: 1. Setting the boundaries and context of the map: Definitions for the fields of TBI and SCI were clarified, the prehospital, acute inhospital and rehabilitation phases of care were delineated and relevant stakeholders (patients, carers, clinicians, researchers and policymakers who could contribute to the mapping were identified. Researchable clinical questions were developed through consultation with key stakeholders and a broad literature search. 2. Searching for and selection of relevant studies: Evidence search and selection involved development of specific search strategies, development of inclusion and exclusion criteria, searching of relevant databases and independent screening and selection by two researchers. 3. Reporting on yield and study characteristics: Data extraction was performed at two levels - 'interventions and study design' and 'detailed study characteristics'. The evidence map and commentary reflected the depth of data extraction. Results One hundred and twenty-nine researchable clinical questions in TBI and SCI were identified. These questions were then prioritised into high (n = 60 and low (n = 69 importance by the stakeholders involved in question development. Since 2007, 58 263 abstracts have been screened, 3 731 full text articles have been reviewed and 1 644 relevant neurotrauma publications have been mapped, covering fifty-three high priority

  20. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Timme

    Full Text Available The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum" as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1 the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2 the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  1. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis of the...... key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and 19 interviews with workers through the use of qualitative and quantitative interview frameworks. It...... highlights a high degree of similarities between managers and workers, though knowledge of (cognitive level) the concept ‘CSR’ differ considerably. Informal practices are widespread and of key importance to the SMEs, expressed by managers and workers alike. History, industry and manager-workers relations are...

  2. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller is...... arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...... changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical...

  3. Sublingual immunization with M2-based vaccine induces broad protective immunity against influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Shik Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e of influenza A virus is a rationale target antigen candidate for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza as M2e undergoes little sequence variation amongst human influenza A strains. Vaccine-induced M2e-specific antibodies (Abs have been shown to display significant cross-protective activity in animal models. M2e-based vaccine constructs have been shown to be more protective when administered by the intranasal (i.n. route than after parenteral injection. However, i.n. administration of vaccines poses rare but serious safety issues associated with retrograde passage of inhaled antigens and adjuvants through the olfactory epithelium. In this study, we examined whether the sublingual (s.l. route could serve as a safe and effective alternative mucosal delivery route for administering a prototype M2e-based vaccine. The mechanism whereby s.l. immunization with M2e vaccine candidate induces broad protection against infection with different influenza virus subtypes was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant M2 protein with three tandem copies of the M2e (3M2eC was expressed in Escherichia coli. Parenteral immunizations of mice with 3M2eC induced high levels of M2e-specific serum Abs but failed to provide complete protection against lethal challenge with influenza virus. In contrast, s.l. immunization with 3M2eC was superior for inducing protection in mice. In the latter animals, protection was associated with specific Ab responses in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that s.l. immunization with 3M2eC vaccine induced airway mucosal immune responses along with broad cross-protective immunity to influenza. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the M2-based vaccine approach to control epidemic and pandemic influenza infections.

  4. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  5. Interface-driven magnetocapacitance in a broad range of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered by the revival of multiferroic materials, a lot of effort is presently underway to find a coupling between a capacitance and a magnetic field. We show in this paper that interfaces are the right way of increasing such a coupling provided free charges are localized on these two-dimensional defects. Starting from commercial diodes at room temperature and going to grain boundaries in giant permittivity materials and to ferroelectric domain walls, a clear magnetocapacitance is reported which is all the time more than a few per cent for a magnetic field of 90 kOe. The only tuning parameter for such strong coupling to arise is the dielectric relaxation time which is reached on tuning the operating frequency and the temperature in many different materials. (fast track communication)

  6. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain

  7. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  8. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  9. A broad distribution of the alternative oxidase in microsporidian parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A P Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasitic eukaryotes that were considered to be amitochondriate until the recent discovery of highly reduced mitochondrial organelles called mitosomes. Analysis of the complete genome of Encephalitozoon cuniculi revealed a highly reduced set of proteins in the organelle, mostly related to the assembly of iron-sulphur clusters. Oxidative phosphorylation and the Krebs cycle proteins were absent, in keeping with the notion that the microsporidia and their mitosomes are anaerobic, as is the case for other mitosome bearing eukaryotes, such as Giardia. Here we provide evidence opening the possibility that mitosomes in a number of microsporidian lineages are not completely anaerobic. Specifically, we have identified and characterized a gene encoding the alternative oxidase (AOX, a typically mitochondrial terminal oxidase in eukaryotes, in the genomes of several distantly related microsporidian species, even though this gene is absent from the complete genome of E. cuniculi. In order to confirm that these genes encode functional proteins, AOX genes from both A. locustae and T. hominis were over-expressed in E. coli and AOX activity measured spectrophotometrically using ubiquinol-1 (UQ-1 as substrate. Both A. locustae and T. hominis AOX proteins reduced UQ-1 in a cyanide and antimycin-resistant manner that was sensitive to ascofuranone, a potent inhibitor of the trypanosomal AOX. The physiological role of AOX microsporidia may be to reoxidise reducing equivalents produced by glycolysis, in a manner comparable to that observed in trypanosomes.

  10. Broad scan linkage analysis in a large Tourette family pedigree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, A.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wetering, B.J.M. van der [Univ. Hospital Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-09-01

    Attempts to find a gene causing Tourette syndrome (TS) using linkage analysis have been unsuccessful even though as much as 65% of the autosomal genetic map has been excluded by the pooled results from several laboratories collaborating worldwide. One reason for this failure may be the misclassification of affection status of marry-in spouses. Specifically, we have found that six unrelated spouses in our Utah TS pedigree suffer from TS, obsessive-compulsive disorder or chronic motor tics. In light of these findings we decided to conduct a complete genomic scan from this Utah kindred with polymorphic markers in three related sibships in which there was no assortative mating. A linkage study assuming autosomal dominant inheritance was done using tetranucleotide repeat markers developed at the University of Utah. We selected markers that were less than 300 bp in size and that gave a heterozygosity of over 70% upon analysis in 4 CEPH families. Results to date with 95 markers run at an interval of 30 cM (covering 61% of the genome) show no evidence of linkage. We intend to extend the coverage to 100% of the genome. Pending completion of this scan, failure to provide evidence of linkage in our TS pedigree might then be attributed to phenotypic misclassification or erroneous assumptions regarding the genetic model of transmission.

  11. Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thang B.; Mikkelsen, Maiken H.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of electrical tuning of plasmon resonances of optical nanopatch antennas over a wide wavelength range. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes separated from a gold film by a thin 8 nm polyelectrolyte spacer layer. By using ionic liquid and indium tin oxide coated glass as a top electrode, we demonstrate dynamic and reversible tuning of the plasmon resonance over 100 nm in the visible wavelength range using low applied voltages between -3.0 V and 2.8 V. The electrical potential is applied across the nanoscale gap causing changes in the gap thickness and dielectric environment which, in turn, modifies the plasmon resonance. The observed tuning range is greater than the full-width-at-half-maximum of the plasmon resonance, resulting in a tuning figure of merit of 1.05 and a tuning contrast greater than 50%. Our results provide an avenue to create active and reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic components for applications in optoelectronics and sensing.

  12. Identification of Ebsulfur Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Huy X; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-07-19

    Invasive fungal infections are on the rise due to an increased population of critically ill patients as a result of HIV infections, chemotherapies, and organ transplantations. Current antifungal drugs are helpful, but are insufficient in addressing the problem of drug-resistant fungal infections. Thus, there is a growing need for novel antimycotics that are safe and effective. The ebselen scaffold has been evaluated in clinical trials and has been shown to be safe in humans. This makes ebselen an attractive scaffold for facile translation from bench to bedside. We recently reported a library of ebselen-inspired ebsulfur analogues with antibacterial properties, but their antifungal activity has not been characterized. In this study, we repurposed ebselen, ebsulfur, and 32 additional ebsulfur analogues as antifungal agents by evaluating their antifungal activity against a panel of 13 clinically relevant fungal strains. The effect of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by three of these compounds was evaluated. Their hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities were also determined using mouse erythrocytes and mammalian cells. The MIC values of these compounds were found to be in the range of 0.02-12.5 μg mL(-1) against the fungal strains tested. Notably, yeast cells treated with our compounds showed an accumulation of ROS, which may further contribute to the growth-inhibitory effect against fungi. This study provides new lead compounds for the development of antimycotic agents. PMID:27334363

  13. Broad-Bandwidth FPGA-Based Digital Polyphase Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamot, Robert F.; Monroe, Ryan M.

    2012-01-01

    With present concern for ecological sustainability ever increasing, it is desirable to model the composition of Earth s upper atmosphere accurately with regards to certain helpful and harmful chemicals, such as greenhouse gases and ozone. The microwave limb sounder (MLS) is an instrument designed to map the global day-to-day concentrations of key atmospheric constituents continuously. One important component in MLS is the spectrometer, which processes the raw data provided by the receivers into frequency-domain information that cannot only be transmitted more efficiently, but also processed directly once received. The present-generation spectrometer is fully analog. The goal is to include a fully digital spectrometer in the next-generation sensor. In a digital spectrometer, incoming analog data must be converted into a digital format, processed through a Fourier transform, and finally accumulated to reduce the impact of input noise. While the final design will be placed on an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the building of these chips is prohibitively expensive. To that end, this design was constructed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). This 6-Gsps (gigasample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming fast Fourier transform (FFT). Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers.

  14. Broad-spectrum sun-protective action of Porphyra-334 derived from Porphyra vietnamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are enormous UV-protective compounds present in the current world market, out of which 98% give protection against UV-B range and the remaining 2% are potent against far UV-A range only. Furthermore, these synthetic compounds have various problems related to photo-stability and cross-stability. There is a vital need of sunscreen agents that will remain stable for prolonged periods and provide broad-spectrum protection against harmful UV range. The Indian Ocean contains large amounts of macro-algae which synthesize varied amount of mycosporine amino acids, "sun-protective compounds" by shikmic acid pathway. In the present study, we have evaluated the sunscreen protection provided by Porphyra-334, a mycosporine amino acid isolated from Indian sp. of Porphyra. Furthermore, the isolated compound was detected by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprinting, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultraviolet (UV, whereas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and infrared spectrometry were used for its structural characterization. Stability studies were performed under different storage and pH conditions. Ultimately a sunscreen formulation was developed and its potential against marketed Aloe vera gel was evaluated by in vitro sunscreen protection method. It was observed that sunscreen potential of Porphyra-334 was 5.11-fold greater than that of the marketed Aloe vera gel preparation.

  15. Personal glucose meters for detection and quantification of a broad range of analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-02-03

    A general methodology for the development of highly sensitive and selective sensors that can achieve portable, low-cost and quantitative detection of a broad range of targets using only a personal glucose meter (PGM) is disclosed. The method uses recognition molecules that are specific for a target agent, enzymes that can convert an enzyme substrate into glucose, and PGM. Also provided are sensors, which can include a solid support to which is attached a recognition molecule that permits detection of a target agent, wherein the recognition molecule specifically binds to the target agent in the presence of the target agent but not significantly to other agents as well as an enzyme that can catalyze the conversion of a substance into glucose, wherein the enzyme is attached directly or indirectly to the recognition molecule, and wherein in the presence of the target agent the enzyme can convert the substance into glucose. The disclosed sensors can be part of a lateral flow device. Methods of using such sensors for detecting target agents are also provided.

  16. Sugarcane Phenological Date Estimation Using Broad-Band Digital Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Chahardoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural industry, precision farming is the most important task that attracts lots of attentions. The health of the plant depends mostly on the amount of water in its access that can be estimated through vegetation indices. These indices can be extracted from satellite images through Image processing algorithms. The objective of this research was to provide an equation for assessment of the quality of the phenological dates of the sugarcane in Degree-Day (DD which are usually derived using satellite data. Then these calibration equations can be used in the collection of some ground truth data applicable in remote sensing where ever the need arises. A simple way for implementing this task is to develop an algorithm (an equation with which we can (to a limited extent quantify the interaction of light (in the RGB region of spectrum with the plant foliage to have DDs as their outputs. To do this 63 digital photographs were taken in three field campaigns on Sep29, 2006 through Oct1, 2006 from Amirkabir and Dea`bal-Khazaie sugarcane sites located in the south-west of Iran. These photographs included 9 different stages of the sugarcane growth and bare soil. It was found that on the average, the effect of dust on the leaves is an increase in DN values of about 9, 8 and 13 for bands red, green and blue respectively. To find an algorithm for determination of plant phenological date four different methods were used. These were Rectangular Method (RM, Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM, Thresholding Method (TM and Hybrid Method (HM. To test the ability of different methods in the prediction of plants DDs, three photographs with known DDs and vegetation cover percentage were used. Entering these predicted DDs and true values in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the degree of significance level of the predicted value of each method was evaluated. As a result MLM with R2 of 0.987 and TM method with R2 of 0.989 both with significance level of 0.827 were the

  17. Expression of the Broad Autism Phenotype in Simplex Autism Families from the Simons Simplex Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.

    2014-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…

  18. 78 FR 38311 - Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy... Intervene On June 18, 2013, Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates (transferors) and Aquenergy Systems, Inc. (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Cherokee...

  19. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North...

  20. Development of a freshwater lens in the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, Laurien; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2003-01-01

    The Mesozoic Broad Fourteens Basin is a northwest-southeast trending structural element, situated in the southern North-Sea,Netherlands offshore. Biodegraded and water-washed oils in the southern Broad Fourteens Basin indicate topography-driven meteoric water flow during Late Cretaceous inversion. D

  1. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  2. Broad gain of the Er/Al-doped fiber amplifier by pumping with a white light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad gain of 88 nm from 1511 to 1599 nm upon pumping of an Er/Al-doped fiber amplifier with a white LED was demonstrated. The multiple absorption bands located in visible wavelength of Er3+ ions were simultaneously excited with the white LED. Optical gains of 13 dB and 12 dB, respectively, were obtained in the Er/Al-doped fiber and the Er-doped fiber. The 3 dB gain bandwidth of the Er/Al-doped fiber amplifier was 46 nm broader than that of the Er-doped fiber amplifier -- Highlights: • Broad gain characteristic around 1550 nm of the Er/Al-doped fiber was investigated upon pumping with white LED. • Optical gain of 13 dB at 1550 nm with 3 dB gain bandwidth of 88 nm was obtained. • Gain bandwidth of the Er/Al-doped fiber amplifier was twice as broad as that of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. • White LED-pumped Er/Al-doped fiber amplifier not only provides the required gain bandwidth but also reduces the manufacturing cost

  3. Broad T-cell receptor repertoire in T-lymphocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have enormous potential for the treatment of inherited and acquired disorders. Recently, antigen-specific T lymphocytes derived from hiPSCs have been reported. However, T lymphocyte populations with broad T cell receptor (TCR diversity have not been generated. We report that hiPSCs derived from skin biopsy are capable of producing T lymphocyte populations with a broad TCR repertoire. In vitro T cell differentiation follows a similar developmental program as observed in vivo, indicated by sequential expression of CD7, intracellular CD3 and surface CD3. The γδ TCR locus is rearranged first and is followed by rearrangement of the αβ locus. Both γδ and αβ T cells display a diverse TCR repertoire. Upon activation, the cells express CD25, CD69, cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and cytolytic proteins (Perforin and Granzyme-B. These results suggest that most, if not all, mechanisms required to generate functional T cells with a broad TCR repertoire are intact in our in vitro differentiation protocol. These data provide a foundation for production of patient-specific T cells for the treatment of acquired or inherited immune disorders and for cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Detection of Extremely Broad Water Emission from the Molecular Cloud Interacting Supernova Remnant G349.7+0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, J.; Hewitt, J. W.; Boogert, A.; Kaufman, M.; Gusdorf, A.

    2015-10-01

    We performed Herschel HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE observations toward the molecular cloud interacting supernova remnant G349.7+0.2. An extremely broad emission line was detected at 557 GHz from the ground state transition 110-101 of ortho-water. This water line can be separated into three velocity components with widths of 144, 27, and 4 km s-1. The 144 km s-1 component is the broadest water line detected to date in the literature. This extremely broad line width shows the importance of probing shock dynamics. PACS observations revealed three additional ortho-water lines, as well as numerous high-J carbon monoxide (CO) lines. No para-water lines were detected. The extremely broad water line is indicative of a high velocity shock, which is supported by the observed CO rotational diagram that was reproduced with a J-shock model with a density of 104 cm-3 and a shock velocity of 80 km s-1. Two far-infrared fine-structure lines, [O i] at 145 μm and [C ii] line at 157 μm, are also consistent with the high velocity J-shock model. The extremely broad water line could be simply from short-lived molecules that have not been destroyed in high velocity J-shocks; however, it may be from more complicated geometry such as high-velocity water bullets or a shell expanding in high velocity. We estimate the CO and H2O densities, column densities, and temperatures by comparison with RADEX and detailed shock models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  6. Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-02-04

    A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 μm). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

  7. High-power, low-lateral divergence broad area quantum cascade lasers with a tilted front facet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a simple technique to improve the beam quality of broad area quantum cascade lasers. Moderately tilted front facets of the laser provide suppression of higher order lateral waveguide modes. A device with a width of 60 μm and a front facet angle of 17° shows a nearly diffraction limited beam profile. In addition, the peak output power and the slope efficiency of the device are increased since most of the light inside the cavity is emitted through the tilted front facet by an asymmetric light intensity distribution along the cavity

  8. Broad band high energy observations of the superluminal jet source GRO J1655-40 during an outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S.N.; Ebisawa, K.; Sunyaev, R.; Ueda, Y.; Harmon, B.A.; Sazonov, S.; Fishman, G. J.; Inoue, H; Paciesas, W. S.; Takahashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The X-ray/radio transient superluminal jet source GRO J1655-40 was recently suggested to contain a black hole from optical observations. Being a relatively close-by system (d \\sim 3.2 kpc), it can likely provide us with rich information about the physics operating in both galactic and extragalactic jet sources. We present the first simultaneous broad band high energy observations of GRO J1655-40 during the 1995 July-August outburst by three instruments: ASCA, WATCH/GRANAT and BATSE/CGRO, in t...

  9. Putting beta-diversity on the map: broad-scale congruence and coincidence in the extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan W McKnight

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Beta-diversity, the change in species composition between places, is a critical but poorly understood component of biological diversity. Patterns of beta-diversity provide information central to many ecological and evolutionary questions, as well as to conservation planning. Yet beta-diversity is rarely studied across large extents, and the degree of similarity of patterns among taxa at such scales remains untested. To our knowledge, this is the first broad-scale analysis of cross-taxon congruence in beta-diversity, and introduces a new method to map beta-diversity continuously across regions. Congruence between amphibian, bird, and mammal beta-diversity in the Western Hemisphere varies with both geographic location and spatial extent. We demonstrate that areas of high beta-diversity for the three taxa largely coincide, but areas of low beta-diversity exhibit little overlap. These findings suggest that similar processes lead to high levels of differentiation in amphibian, bird, and mammal assemblages, while the ecological and biogeographic factors influencing homogeneity in vertebrate assemblages vary. Knowledge of beta-diversity congruence can help formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms governing regional diversity patterns and should inform conservation, especially as threat from global climate change increases.

  10. The impact of JWST broad-band filter choice on photometric redshift estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Bisigello, L; Colina, L; Fèvre, O Le; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pérez-González, P G; Pye, J; van der Werf, P; Ilbert, O; Grogin, N; Koekemoer, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6-5.0 {\\mu}m and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at {\\lambda}>5.0 {\\mu}m. In this work we analyse the impact of choosing different combinations of NIRCam and MIRI broad-band filters (F070W to F770W), as well as having ancillary data at {\\lambda}=10, but the zphot quality significantly degrades at S/N<=5. Adding MIRI photometry with one magnitude brighter depth than the NIRCam depth allows for a redshift recovery of 83-99%, depending on SED type, and its effect is particularly noteworthy for galaxies with nebular emission. The vast majority of NIRCam galaxies with [F150W]=29 AB mag at z=7-10 will be detected with MIRI at [F560W, F770W]<28 mag if these sources are at least mildly evolved or have spectra with emission lines boosting the mid-infrared fluxes.

  11. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fire rates of vegetation regeneration between ecoregions. We then related precipitation, temperature, and elevation records at four temporal scales to rates of post-fire vegetation regeneration to ascertain the influence of climate on post-fire vegetation dynamics. We found that broad-scale climate factors are an important influence on post-fire vegetation regeneration. Most notably, higher rates of post-fire regeneration occurred with warmer minimum temperatures. Increases in precipitation also resulted in higher rates of post-fire vegetation growth. While explanatory power was slight, multiple statistical approaches provided evidence for real ecological drivers of post-fire regeneration that should be investigated further at finer scales. The sensitivity of post-disturbance vegetation dynamics to climatic drivers has important ramifications for the management of ecosystems under changing climatic conditions. Shifts in temperature and precipitation regimes are likely to result in changes in post-disturbance dynamics, which could represent important feedbacks into the global climate system.

  12. A broad deglacial δ13C minimum event in planktonic foraminiferal records in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific upwelling zone has been suspected of playing an important role in the global atmospheric CO2 changes associated with glacial-interglacial cycles.In order to assess the influencing scope of the surface water deglacial δ13C minimum in the tropical Iow-latitude Pacific,the core DGKS9603, collected from the middle Okinawa Trough, was examined for δ13C records of planktonic foraminifera N. dutertrei and G. ruber. The planktonic foraminiferal δ13C records show a clear decreasing event from 20 to 6 cal. kaBP., which is characterized by long duration of about 14 ka and amplitude shift of 0.4 × 10-3. Its minimum value occurred at 15.7 cai kaBP. The event shows fairly synchrony with the surface water deglacial δ13C minimum identiffed in the tropical Pacific and its marginal seas. Because there is no evidence in planktonic foraminiferal fauna and δ18O records for upwelling and river runoff enhancement,the broad deglacial δ13C minimum event in planktonic foraminiferal records revealed in core DGKS9603 might have been the direct influencing result of the deglacial surface water of the tropical Pacific. The identification for the event in the Okinawa Trough provides new evidence that the water evolution in the tropical low-latitude Pacific plays a key role in large regional, even global carbon cycle.

  13. Sensitivity analysis and benchmarking of low and broad energy photon measurements for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While gamma measurements are a well understood technique for estimating burn up and cooling time in spent nuclear fuel, only a few isotopes are currently used and calculations are dependent on operator declarations. Utilizing a larger set of nuclide measurements as well as including low energy measurements (around 100 keV) could provide a significant increase in the information gained from such measurements. Nuclides investigated in this work include 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 137Cs, 154Eu, 241Am, 155Eu, 149Sm, and 155Gd. Low energy, broad range, and high energy gamma measurements have been performed on a variety of spent uranium dioxide and MOX fuel from PWRs. Selected measured fuel locations have been simulated with Origen, TransLAT, SCALE, and Monteburns to benchmark each of these programs with destructive analysis results. Monteburns was identified as the most accurate program for prediction of isotopes of interest and will be used for future analysis. Origen was chosen as a quick but relatively accurate program to perform a preliminary sensitivity analysis of the effects of fuel parameters (burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) on each nuclide measurement. (author)

  14. Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices. (paper)

  15. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Barton

    Full Text Available Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both.

  16. Toward broad-band x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance in longitudinal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollefs, K. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Meckenstock, R.; Spoddig, D.; Römer, F. M.; Hassel, Ch.; Schöppner, Ch.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ney, V.; Ney, A., E-mail: andreas.ney@jku.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Halbleiter-und Festkörperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-06-14

    An ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible setup for broad-band X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) in longitudinal geometry is introduced which relies on a low-power, continuous-wave excitation of the ferromagnetic sample. A simultaneous detection of the conventional ferromagnetic resonance via measuring the reflected microwave power and the XFMR signal of the X-ray absorption is possible. First experiments on the Fe and Co L{sub 3}-edges of a permalloy film covered with Co nanostripes as well as the Fe and Ni K-edges of a permalloy film are presented and discussed. Two different XFMR signals are found, one of which is independent of the photon energy and therefore does not provide element-selective information. The other much weaker signal is element-selective, and the dynamic magnetic properties could be detected for Fe and Co separately. The dependence of the latter XFMR signal on the photon helicity of the synchrotron light is found to be distinct from the usual x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect.

  17. Origin of the X-ray Broad Iron Spectral Feature in GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of GRS 1915+105 is known to have a ``broad iron spectral feature'' in the spectral hard state. Similar spectral features are often observed in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and other black-hole binaries (BHBs), and several models have been proposed for explaining it. In order to distinguish spectral models, time variation provides an important key. In AGNs, variation amplitude has been found to drop significantly at the iron K-energy band at timescales of ~10 ks. If spectral variations of black-holes are normalized by their masses, the spectral variations of BHBs at timescales of sub-seconds should exhibit similar characteristics to those of AGNs. In this paper, we investigated spectral variations of GRS 1915+105 at timescales down to ~10 ms. This was made possible for the first time with the Suzaku XIS Parallel-sum clocking (P-sum) mode, which has the CCD energy-resolution as well as a time-resolution of 7.8 ms. Consequently, we found that the variation amplitude of GRS 1915+105 does not d...

  18. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Classifying Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Metrics, Issues and a New Catalogue Constructed from SDSS DR5

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Knigge, C; Goad, M R

    2009-01-01

    We apply a recently developed method for classifying broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) to the latest QSO catalogue constructed from Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our new hybrid classification scheme combines the power of simple metrics, supervised neural networks and visual inspection. In our view the resulting BALQSO catalogue is both more complete and more robust than all previous BALQSO catalogues, containing 3552 sources selected from a parent sample of 28,421 QSOs in the redshift range 1.7provide all of the meta-data used in constructing our catalogue, for every object in the parent QSO sampl...

  20. Inhibition of influenza virus replication by targeting broad host cell pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Marois

    Full Text Available Antivirals that are currently used to treat influenza virus infections target components of the virus which can mutate rapidly. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of resistant strains to one or many antivirals in recent years. Here we compared the antiviral effects of lysosomotropic alkalinizing agents (LAAs and calcium modulators (CMs, which interfere with crucial events in the influenza virus replication cycle, against avian, swine, and human viruses of different subtypes in MDCK cells. We observed that treatment with LAAs, CMs, or a combination of both, significantly inhibited viral replication. Moreover, the drugs were effective even when they were administered 8 h after infection. Finally, analysis of the expression of viral acidic polymerase (PA revealed that both drugs classes interfered with early events in the viral replication cycle. This study demonstrates that targeting broad host cellular pathways can be an efficient strategy to inhibit influenza replication. Furthermore, it provides an interesting avenue for drug development where resistance by the virus might be reduced since the virus is not targeted directly.

  1. Myxozoan infections of caecilians demonstrate broad host specificity and indicate a link with human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Holzer, Astrid S; Okamura, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans are parasitic cnidarians that infect a wide variety of hosts. Vertebrates typically serve as intermediate hosts whereas definitive hosts are invertebrates, including annelids and bryozoans. Myxozoans are known to exploit species in two of the three extant amphibian orders (Anura: frogs and toads; Caudata: newts and salamanders). Here we use museum collections to determine, to our knowledge for the first time, whether myxozoans also exploit the third amphibian order (Gymnophiona: caecilians). Caecilians are a poorly known group of limbless amphibians, the ecologies of which range from aquatic to fully terrestrial. We examined 12 caecilian species in seven families (148 individuals total) characterised by a diversity of ecologies and life histories. Using morphological and molecular surveys, we discovered the presence of the myxozoan Cystodiscus axonis in two South American species (one of seven examined families) of aquatic caecilians - Typhlonectes natans and Typhlonectes compressicauda. All infected caecilians had been maintained in captivity in the United Kingdom prior to their preservation. Cystodiscus axonis is known from several Australian frog species and its presence in caecilians indicates a capacity for infecting highly divergent amphibian hosts. This first known report of myxozoan infections in caecilians provides evidence of a broad geographic and host range. However, the source of these infections remains unknown and could be related to exposure in South America, the U.K. or to conditions in captivity. PMID:26945641

  2. Toward broad-band x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance in longitudinal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible setup for broad-band X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) in longitudinal geometry is introduced which relies on a low-power, continuous-wave excitation of the ferromagnetic sample. A simultaneous detection of the conventional ferromagnetic resonance via measuring the reflected microwave power and the XFMR signal of the X-ray absorption is possible. First experiments on the Fe and Co L3-edges of a permalloy film covered with Co nanostripes as well as the Fe and Ni K-edges of a permalloy film are presented and discussed. Two different XFMR signals are found, one of which is independent of the photon energy and therefore does not provide element-selective information. The other much weaker signal is element-selective, and the dynamic magnetic properties could be detected for Fe and Co separately. The dependence of the latter XFMR signal on the photon helicity of the synchrotron light is found to be distinct from the usual x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect

  3. Simulation of broad spectral bandwidth emitters at 1060 nm for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, I. G.; Childs, D. T. D.; Stevens, B. J.; Groom, K. M.; Hogg, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    The simulation of broad spectral bandwidth light sources (semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and superluminescent diodes (SLD)) for application in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography is reported. The device requirements and origin of key device parameters are outlined, and a range of single and double InGaAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) active elements are simulated with a view to application in different OCT embodiments. We confirm that utilising higher order optical transitions is beneficial for single QW SOAs, but may introduce deleterious spectral modulation in SLDs. We show how an addition QW may be introduced to eliminate this spectral modulation, but that this results in a reduction of the gain spectrum width. We go on to explore double QW structures where the roles of the two QWs are reversed, with the narrow QW providing long wavelength emission and gain. We show how this modification in the density of states results in a significant increase in gain-spectrum width for a given current.

  4. AAV ancestral reconstruction library enables selection of broadly infectious viral variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Ortiz, J; Ojala, D S; Westesson, O; Weinstein, J R; Wong, S Y; Steinsapir, A; Kumar, S; Holmes, I; Schaffer, D V

    2015-12-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have achieved clinical efficacy in treating several diseases. However, enhanced vectors are required to extend these landmark successes to other indications and protein engineering approaches may provide the necessary vector improvements to address such unmet medical needs. To generate new capsid variants with potentially enhanced infectious properties and to gain insights into AAV's evolutionary history, we computationally designed and experimentally constructed a putative ancestral AAV library. Combinatorial variations at 32 amino acid sites were introduced to account for uncertainty in their identities. We then analyzed the evolutionary flexibility of these residues, the majority of which have not been previously studied, by subjecting the library to iterative selection on a representative cell line panel. The resulting variants exhibited transduction efficiencies comparable to the most efficient extant serotypes and, in general, ancestral libraries were broadly infectious across the cell line panel, indicating that they favored promiscuity over specificity. Interestingly, putative ancestral AAVs were more thermostable than modern serotypes and did not use sialic acids, galactose or heparan sulfate proteoglycans for cellular entry. Finally, variants mediated 19- to 31-fold higher gene expression in the muscle compared with AAV1, a clinically used serotype for muscle delivery, highlighting their promise for gene therapy. PMID:26186661

  5. The Tully-Fisher Relation and Its Residuals for a Broadly Selected Sample of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pizagno, J; Weinberg, D H; Rix, H W; Pogge, R W; Grebel, E K; Harbeck, D; Blanton, M; Brinkmann, J; Gunn, J E; Pizagno, James; Prada, Francisco; Weinberg, David H.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pogge, Richard W.; Grebel, Eva K.; Harbeck, Daniel; Blanton, Michael; Gunn, James E.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the relation between galaxy luminosity and disk circular velocity (the Tully-Fisher [TF] relation), in the g, r, i, and z-bands, for a broadly selected sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with the goal of providing well defined observational constraints for theoretical models of galaxy formation. The input sample of 234 galaxies has a roughly flat distribution of absolute magnitudes in the range -18.5 > Mr > -22, and our only morphological selection is an axis-ratio cut b/a < 0.6 to allow accurate inclination corrections. Long-slit spectroscopy yields usable H-alpha rotation curves for 170 galaxies. Observational errors, including distance errors due to peculiar velocities, are small compared to the intrinsic scatter of the TF relation. The slope of the forward TF relation steepens from -5.4 +/- 0.2 mag/log(km/s) in the g-band to -6.4 +/- 0.2 mag/log(km/s) in the z-band. The intrinsic scatter is approximately 0.4 mag in all bands. The scatter is not dominated by rare outliers o...

  6. Unsupervised segmentation of broad classes from waveforms: Towards a model of early phonological acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly held that an important aspect of early phonological acquisition is the ability to learn sound distributions, or statistical learning. Yet significant differences in lexical representations are often observed in studies of infant speech perception, suggesting a protracted process of phonological development. The goal of the current project is to develop a model that links holistic and segmental representation of spoken words, using tools from contemporary speech recognition. In the present stage, the model focuses on the pre-lexical level of phonological development, and tries to identify segmental representations from acoustic signals of isolated words. The segmental representations are based on units that correspond to acoustic phonetic classes, and learning involves updating the unit models in parallel with updating phonotactics. Starting from acoustic segmentations, the model iteratively updates knowledge of the units and phonotactics, and renews segmentation hypotheses regarding each word until convergence. The results of running this algorithm on TIMIT and infant-directed speech data suggest that the model approximately identifies segment-sized broad classes in an unsupervised manner. This statistical approach also provides a different perspective on the role of lexicon in phonological development.

  7. Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2012-06-01

    A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices.

  8. MoS2-InGaZnO Heterojunction Phototransistors with Broad Spectral Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaehyun; Kwak, Hyena; Lee, Youngbin; Kang, Yu-Seon; Cho, Mann-Ho; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) heterostructure phototransistor consisting of solution-based synthetic molybdenum disulfide (few-layered MoS2, with a band gap of ∼1.7 eV) and sputter-deposited a-IGZO (with a band gap of ∼3.0 eV) films as a novel sensing element with a broad spectral responsivity. The MoS2 and a-IGZO films serve as a visible light-absorbing layer and a high mobility channel layer, respectively. Spectroscopic measurements reveal that appropriate band alignment at the heterojunction provides effective transfer of the visible light-induced electrons generated in the few-layered MoS2 film to the underlying a-IGZO channel layer with a high carrier mobility. The photoresponse characteristics of the a-IGZO transistor are extended to cover most of the visible range by forming a heterojunction phototransistor that harnesses a visible light responding MoS2 film with a small band gap prepared through a large-area synthetic route. The MoS2-IGZO heterojunction phototransistors exhibit a photoresponsivity of approximately 1.7 A/W at a wavelength of 520 nm (an optical power of 1 μW) with excellent time-dependent photoresponse dynamics. PMID:26989951

  9. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath major hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Scott W; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plumes of hot upwelling rock rooted in the deep mantle have been proposed as a possible origin of hotspot volcanoes, but this idea is the subject of vigorous debate. On the basis of geodynamic computations, plumes of purely thermal origin should comprise thin tails, only several hundred kilometres wide, and be difficult to detect using standard seismic tomography techniques. Here we describe the use of a whole-mantle seismic imaging technique--combining accurate wavefield computations with information contained in whole seismic waveforms--that reveals the presence of broad (not thin), quasi-vertical conduits beneath many prominent hotspots. These conduits extend from the core-mantle boundary to about 1,000 kilometres below Earth's surface, where some are deflected horizontally, as though entrained into more vigorous upper-mantle circulation. At the base of the mantle, these conduits are rooted in patches of greatly reduced shear velocity that, in the case of Hawaii, Iceland and Samoa, correspond to the locations of known large ultralow-velocity zones. This correspondence clearly establishes a continuous connection between such zones and mantle plumes. We also show that the imaged conduits are robustly broader than classical thermal plume tails, suggesting that they are long-lived, and may have a thermochemical origin. Their vertical orientation suggests very sluggish background circulation below depths of 1,000 kilometres. Our results should provide constraints on studies of viscosity layering of Earth's mantle and guide further research into thermochemical convection. PMID:26333468

  10. Chemical Abundances in Broad Emission Line Regions The "Nitrogen-Loud" QSO 0353-383

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, J A; Korista, K T; Ferland, G J; Dietrich, M; Warner, C

    2003-01-01

    The intensity of the strong N V 1240 line relative to C IV 1549 or to He II 1640 has been proposed as an indicator of the metallicity of QSO broad emission line regions, allowing abundance measurements in a large number of QSOs out to the highest redshifts. Previously, it had been shown that the (normally) much weaker lines N III] 1750 and N IV] 1486 could be used in the same way. The redshift 1.96 QSO 0353-383 has long been known to have N III] and N IV] lines that are far stronger relative to Ly-alpha or C IV than in any other QSO. Because in this particular case these intercombination lines can be easily measured, this unusual object provides an ideal opportunity for testing whether the N V line is a valid abundance indicator. Using new observations of Q0353-383 made both with HST in the ultraviolet and from the ground in the visible passband, we find that intensity ratios involving the strengths of N V, N IV] and N III] relative to lines of He, C and O all indicate that nitrogen is overabundant relative t...

  11. A broad band x-ray imaging spectrophotometer to observe SN1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a broad band x-ray imaging spectrophotometer (BBXRIS), to be flown as a sounding rocket payload in late 1987. It has been built to make high spatial and spectral resolution observations of SN1987A. The focal plane instrument, an imaging gas scintillation proportional counter, offers energy resolution of 8% (FWHM) at 6 keV, and is sensitive to x-rays from 0.1 to 20.0 keV. Soft x-rays (0.1--1.8 keV) are imaged by a nested pair of Wolter Type I grazing incidence mirrors with a resolution of 8 arcmin, a field of view of 2.6 degrees, and an effective area of 70 cm2 at 0.2 keV. A specially designed collimator is able to resolve SN1987A from LMC X-1 and provide approximately 70 cm2 of effective area from 0.1--20.0 keV

  12. Line shape variability in a sample of AGN with broad lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ilic, D.; Popovic, L. C.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Kovacevic, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of their key features that enables us to study in more details the structure of AGN emitting regions. Especially, the broad line profiles, that vary both in flux and shape, give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGN, those with broad emission li...

  13. Conception of Philosophy Given in Broad-Spectrum Philosophy and its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the conception of philosophy given in broad-spectrum philosophy and its significance. “What’s philosophy” is a question at once ancient and new and regarding this question, different philosophical schools or philosophers have different answers. Based on a summary of modern scientific achievements, Broad-spectrum Philosophy gives this matter a new solution. What this thesis concerns includes the theoretical basis of the solution and the significance of it. As a research result, we clearly describe the conception of philosophy given in broad-spectrum philosophy and show the significance of this field.

  14. BROAD Lyα EMISSION FROM THREE NEARBY BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Lyα emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk 421 (z = 0.030) and PKS 2005-489 (z = 0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk 501 (z = 0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) show no Lyα emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are symmetrically placed around the active galactic nucleus (AGN), we use these measured Lyα emission features to constrain either the relativistic Γ values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic Γ values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk 421 and PKS 2155-304 are high enough to suggest that covering factors of BLR clouds of ∼1%-2% might be required to provide consistency with earlier values of Doppler boosting and viewing angles suggested for this class of BL Lacs. This discrepancy also exists in the case of M 87, where the amount of Doppler boosting in our direction is expected to be minimal, again suggestive of a small covering factor of BLR clouds. If, as these small covering factors might suggest, the assumptions of a density-bounded model could be more correct, then the observed Lyα luminosities require that BL Lac/FR 1 nuclei possess very little warm gas (10-4 to 10-5 Msun) as suggested by Guilbert et al. If these clouds are in pressure balance with a hotter (∼106 K) gas, the BLR contains too little mass to power the AGN by accretion alone.

  15. OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXY 3C 390.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Matthias; Peterson, Bradley M.; Grier, Catherine J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Eastman, Jason; Frank, Stephan; Gonzalez, Raymond; Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: dietrich@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign on the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 to improve the measurement of the size of the broad emission-line region and to estimate the black hole mass. Optical spectra and g-band images were observed in late 2005 for three months using the 2.4 m telescope at MDM Observatory. Integrated emission-line flux variations were measured for the hydrogen Balmer lines H{alpha}, H{beta}, H{gamma}, and for the helium line He II{lambda}4686, as well as g-band fluxes and the optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum at {lambda} = 5100 A. The g-band fluxes and the optical AGN continuum vary simultaneously within the uncertainties, {tau}{sub cent} (0.2 {+-} 1.1) days. We find that the emission-line variations are delayed with respect to the variable g-band continuum by {tau}(H{alpha}) 56.3{sup +2.4}{sub -6.6} days, {tau}(H{beta}) = 44.3{sup +3.0}{sub -3.3} days, {tau}(H{gamma}) = 58.1{sup +4.3}{sub -6.1} days, and {tau}(He II 4686) = 22.3{sup +6.5}{sub -3.8} days. The blue and red peaks in the double-peaked line profiles, as well as the blue and red outer profile wings, vary simultaneously within {+-}3 days. This provides strong support for gravitationally bound orbital motion of the dominant part of the line-emitting gas. Combining the time delay of the strong Balmer emission lines of H{alpha} and H{beta} and the separation of the blue and red peaks in the broad double-peaked profiles in their rms spectra, we determine M {sup vir}{sub bh} = 1.77{sup +0.29}{sub -0.31} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and using {sigma}{sub line} of the rms spectra M {sup vir}{sub bh} 2.60{sup +0.23}{sub -0.31} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole of 3C 390.3, respectively. Using the inclination angle of the line-emitting region which is measured from superluminal motion detected in the radio range, accretion disk models to fit the optical double-peaked emission-line profiles, and X-ray observations

  16. OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXY 3C 390.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign on the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 to improve the measurement of the size of the broad emission-line region and to estimate the black hole mass. Optical spectra and g-band images were observed in late 2005 for three months using the 2.4 m telescope at MDM Observatory. Integrated emission-line flux variations were measured for the hydrogen Balmer lines Hα, Hβ, Hγ, and for the helium line He IIλ4686, as well as g-band fluxes and the optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum at λ = 5100 Å. The g-band fluxes and the optical AGN continuum vary simultaneously within the uncertainties, τcent (0.2 ± 1.1) days. We find that the emission-line variations are delayed with respect to the variable g-band continuum by τ(Hα) 56.3+2.4–6.6 days, τ(Hβ) = 44.3+3.0–3.3 days, τ(Hγ) = 58.1+4.3–6.1 days, and τ(He II 4686) = 22.3+6.5–3.8 days. The blue and red peaks in the double-peaked line profiles, as well as the blue and red outer profile wings, vary simultaneously within ±3 days. This provides strong support for gravitationally bound orbital motion of the dominant part of the line-emitting gas. Combining the time delay of the strong Balmer emission lines of Hα and Hβ and the separation of the blue and red peaks in the broad double-peaked profiles in their rms spectra, we determine M virbh = 1.77+0.29–0.31 × 108 M☉ and using σline of the rms spectra M virbh 2.60+0.23–0.31 × 108 M☉ for the central black hole of 3C 390.3, respectively. Using the inclination angle of the line-emitting region which is measured from superluminal motion detected in the radio range, accretion disk models to fit the optical double-peaked emission-line profiles, and X-ray observations, the mass of the black hole amounts to Mbh = 0.86+0.19–0.18 × 109 M☉ (peak separation) and Mbh 1.26+0.21–0.16 × 109 M☉ (σline), respectively. This result is consistent with the black hole masses indicated by simple

  17. Measuring Consumer Valuation of Limited Provider Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Marzilli Ericson; Amanda Starc

    2015-01-01

    We measure the breadth of insurance networks in the Massachusetts health insurance exchange. Using our measures, we estimate consumer willingness-to-pay for broad and narrow networks. We find that consumers have a wide range of plans available with dramatically different networks. While consumers value broader networks, their willingness-to-pay is smaller than the brand premium, indicating an additional role for brand preferences. Consumers place additional value on star hospitals, which may ...

  18. TANK-binding kinase-1 broadly affects oyster immune response to bacteria and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueying; Huang, Baoyu; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2016-09-01

    As a benthic filter feeder of estuaries, the immune system of oysters provides one of the best models for studying the genetic and molecular basis of the innate immune pathway in marine invertebrates and examining the influence of environmental factors on the immune system. Here, the molecular function of molluscan TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) (which we named CgTBK1) was studied in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Compared with known TBK1 proteins in other model organisms, CgTBK1 contains a conserved S-TKc domain and a coiled coil domain at the N- and C-terminals but lacks an important ubiquitin domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CgTBK1 was ubiquitous in all selected tissues, with highest expression in the gills. CgTBK1 expression was significantly upregulated in response to infections with Vibrio alginolyticus, ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 reference strain and μvar), and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid sodium salt, suggesting its broad function in immune response. Subcellular localization showed the presence of CgTBK1 in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells, suggesting its potential function as the signal transducer between the receptor and transcription factor. We further demonstrated that CgTBK1 interacted with CgSTING in HEK293T cells, providing evidence that CgTBK1 could be activated by direct binding to CgSTING. In summary, we characterized the TBK1 gene in C. gigas and demonstrated its role in the innate immune response to pathogen infections. PMID:27422757

  19. Systems analysis of a RIG-I agonist inducing broad spectrum inhibition of virus infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Line Goulet

    Full Text Available The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5'pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5'pppRNA, and not by IFNα-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5'pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5'pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents.

  20. Four broad temperament dimensions: Description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eFisher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI. Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: 1 Curious/Energetic, 2 Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, 3 Analytical/Tough-minded, and 4 Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: 1 gender; 2 level of education; 3 religious preference; 4 political orientation; 5 the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the Fisher Temperament Inventory and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n=215, which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.

  1. Gravitational microlensing of quasar Broad Line Regions: the influence of fractal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent models for the emission clouds within the Broad Line Region of quasars suggest that they are due to transient overdensities within an overall turbulent medium. If this were the case, the broad line emission would spatially appear fractal, possessing structure on a range of scales. This paper examines the influence of such fractal structure when a quasar is microlensed by a population of intervening masses. It is found that while the highest fractal levels can undergo significant microlensing magnification, when these light curves are superimposed to create an emission line profile, the resultant emission line profile remains relatively constant for physical models of the Broad Line Region. It is concluded that the detection of the possible fractal structure of Broad Line Regions via gravitational microlensing is not practical.

  2. Are broad optical balmer lines from central accretion disk in PG 1613+658?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report positive correlations between broad line width and broad line flux for the broad balmer lines of the long-term observed AGN PG 1613+658. Rather than the expected negative correlations under the widely accepted virialization assumption for AGN BLRs, the positive correlations indicate much different BLR structures of PG 1613+658 from the commonly considered BLR structures which are dominated by the equilibrium between radiation pressure and gas pressure. Therefore, accretion disk origin is preferred for the observed broad single-peaked optical balmer lines of PG 1613+658, because of the mainly gravity dominated disk-like BLRs with radial structures having few effects from radiation pressure.

  3. Discovery of two broad absorption line quasars at redshift about 4.75 using the Lijiang 2.4m telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, WeiMin; Wang, FeiGe; Yang, JinYi; Yang, Qian; Bai, JinMing

    2015-01-01

    The ultraviolet broad absorption lines have been seen in the spectra of quasars at high redshift, and are generally considered to be caused by outflows with velocities from thousands kilometers per second to one tenth of the speed of light. They provide crucial implications for the cosmological structures and physical evolutions related to the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Recently, through a dedicated program of optically spectroscopic identifications of selected quasar candidates at redshift 5 by using the Lijiang 2.4 m telescope, we discovered two luminous broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) at redshift about 4.75. One of them may even have the potentially highest absorption Balnicity Index (BI) ever found to date, which is remarkably characterized by its deep, broad absorption lines and sub-relativistic outflows. Further physical properties, including the metal abundances, variabilities, evolutions of the supermassive black holes (SMBH) and accretion disks associated with the feedback pro...

  4. Is the Broad-Line Region Clumped or Smooth? Constraints from the H alpha Profile in NGC 4395, the Least Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Laor, A; Ho, L C; Filippenko, A V; Laor, Ari; Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2005-01-01

    The origin and configuration of the gas which emits broad lines in Type I active galactic nuclei is not established yet. The lack of small-scale structure in the broad emission-line profiles is consistent with a smooth gas flow, or a clumped flow with many small clouds. An attractive possibility for the origin of many small clouds is the atmospheres of bloated stars, an origin which also provides a natural mechanism for the cloud confinement. Earlier studies of the broad-line profiles have already put strong lower limits on the minimum number of such stars, but these limits are sensitive to the assumed width of the lines produced by each cloud. Here we revisit this problem using high-resolution Keck spectra of the H alpha line in NGC 4395, which has the smallest known broad-line region (~10^14 cm). Only a handful of the required bloated stars (each having r~10^14 cm) could fit into the broad-line region of NGC 4395, yet the observed smoothness of the H alpha line implies a lower limit of ~10^4-10^5 on the num...

  5. Redox-directed cancer therapeutics: Taurolidine and Piperlongumine as broadly effective antineoplastic agents (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    MÖHLER, HANS; PFIRMAN, ROLF W.; Frei, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the oxygen stress response pathway is considered a promising strategy to exert antineoplastic activity in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Supporting this view, we summarize the mechanism of action of Taurolidine and Piperlongumine, two antineoplastic agents with strikingly broad tumor selectivity. Taurolidine enhances the oxidative stress (ROS) selectively in tumor cells. Its cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, which includes tumor stem cells, is based on the...

  6. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  7. The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Parish-Morris, Julia; Hsin, Olivia; Bush, Jennifer C; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly understood. This study utilizes the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) in parents and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in children to examine this connecti...

  8. BROAD-BAND EMISSION OF Cr3+ IN MgAl2O4 SPINEL

    OpenAIRE

    Strek, W.; Dere, P.; Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.

    1987-01-01

    The double luminescence behaviour of Cr (III) in synthetic MgAl2O4 spinel was observed. The nature of such a behaviour is investigated by means the time-resolved luminescence studies at different excitation wavelengths. It is shown that the broad-broad emission observed in synthetic spinel is due to the spin-allowed 4T2 → 4A2 fluorescence transition.

  9. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    OpenAIRE

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along a depth gradient in the Oosterschelde to a) investigate whether a relation exists between shell shape and depth, b) test if the broad-shelled specimens might represent M. galloprovincialis (or a hy...

  10. Pioneering Plus a Broad Product Line Strategy: Higher Profits or Deeper Losses?

    OpenAIRE

    William Boulding; Markus Christen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests firms can build a market share advantage by preempting later entrants with a broad product line and expanding rapidly into related markets. Whether such a strategy leads to a pioneering profit advantage relative to followers also depends on its cost effects. In this paper, we examine when the market share advantage of a pioneering firm with a broad product line strategy translates into a profit advantage by examining the cost effects of this strategy. Using the prof...

  11. Large area buried nanopatterning by broad ion implantation without any mask or direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Satpati, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    We have introduced here a simple, single step and cost effective broad ion beam technique for preparation of nanoscale electronic, magnetic, optical and mechanical devices without the need of resist, mask, or focused electron and ion beams. In this approach, broad beam ion implantation of desired atom on a prefabricated ion beam patterned surface promotes site selective deposition by adjusting the local angle of ion implantation. We show that implantation of Fe ions on an O+ induced pre fabri...

  12. THE RESPONSE STRATEGY OF MAIZE, PEA AND BROAD BEAN PLANTS TO DIFFERENT OSMOTIC POTENTIAL STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad; SHADADD M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differen...

  13. Broad Balmer line emission and cosmic ray acceleration efficiency in supernova remnant shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Morlino, G.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Bandiera, R.; Amato, E.

    2013-01-01

    Balmer emission may be a powerful diagnostic tool to test the paradigm of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in young supernova remnant (SNR) shocks. The width of the broad Balmer line is a direct indicator of the downstream plasma temperature. In case of efficient particle acceleration an appreciable fraction of the total kinetic energy of the plasma is channeled into CRs, therefore the downstream temperature decreases and so does the broad Balmer line width. This width also depends on the level o...

  14. FLOW OVER A BROAD-CRESTED WEIR IN SUBCRITICAL FLOW CONDITIONS, PHYSICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed hooman hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weirs are a small overflow-type dams commonly used to raise the level of a river or stream and cause a large change of water level behind them. The use of portable instrument like kinds of weirs, flumes, floats, and volumetric tank are common. Discharges measured range from a trickle in ditch to a flood on the Amazon. Many researchers have studied the head discharge relations for flows over sharp-crested weirs and broad-crested weirs with a simple cross section shape, such as rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, truncated triangular, and others Basic experiments were conducted on rectangular broad-crested weirs with different geometry. It was found that the discharge coefficient of a rectangular broad-crested weir is related to upstream total head above the crest, length of weir and Channel breadth. Multiple regression analysis equations based on the dimensional analysis concept were developed for computing the discharge coefficient of a rectangular broad-crested weirs and discharge coefficient equation was used for computing the discharge over the broad-crested weirs. Good agreements between the measured values and the values computed from the predictive equation are obtained. Therefore, a reliable equation for calculating the discharge coefficient of rectangular broad-crested weirs in subcritical flow conditions is presented.

  15. The Effects of Somatic Hypermutation on Neutralization and Binding in the PGT121 Family of Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneault, Francois; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Briney, Bryan; Ramos, Alejandra; Saye, Karen F.; Le, Khoa; Mahan, Alison; Wang, Shenshen; Kardar, Mehran; Yaari, Gur; Walker, Laura M.; Simen, Birgitte B.; St. John, Elizabeth P.; Chan-Hui, Po-Ying; Swiderek, Kristine; Kleinstein, Stephen H.; Alter, Galit; Seaman, Michael S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Koller, Daphne; Wilson, Ian A.; Church, George M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Poignard, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) are typically highly somatically mutated, raising doubts as to whether they can be elicited by vaccination. We used 454 sequencing and designed a novel phylogenetic method to model lineage evolution of the bnAbs PGT121–134 and found a positive correlation between the level of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and the development of neutralization breadth and potency. Strikingly, putative intermediates were characterized that show approximately half the mutation level of PGT121–134 but were still capable of neutralizing roughly 40–80% of PGT121–134 sensitive viruses in a 74-virus panel at median titers between 15- and 3-fold higher than PGT121–134. Such antibodies with lower levels of SHM may be more amenable to elicitation through vaccination while still providing noteworthy coverage. Binding characterization indicated a preference of inferred intermediates for native Env binding over monomeric gp120, suggesting that the PGT121–134 lineage may have been selected for binding to native Env at some point during maturation. Analysis of glycan-dependent neutralization for inferred intermediates identified additional adjacent glycans that comprise the epitope and suggests changes in glycan dependency or recognition over the course of affinity maturation for this lineage. Finally, patterns of neutralization of inferred bnAb intermediates suggest hypotheses as to how SHM may lead to potent and broad HIV neutralization and provide important clues for immunogen design. PMID:24278016

  16. Abundance and local range of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Alligatoridae in the northwest of Santa Catarina Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Moraes Tomás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the distribution and relative abundance of the broad-snouted caiman on Santa Catarina Island. The study estimated the relative abundance of caiman along the rivers at Estação Ecológica de Carijós, in addition to evaluating the occurrence of this species in the entire area of the Ratones River plain on the northwestern portion of the island. The mean relative abundance obtained by nocturnal counts was 0.25 (±0.07 caiman/km surveyed. There was a weak correlation between the number of caimans and the air temperature. Based on interviews with the local community and nocturnal surveys of caimans in rivers and reservoirs surrounding the protected area, we concluded that the range occupied by caimans covered the entire area of the Ratones river plain, inhabiting natural habitats (rivers, mangroves, swamps as well as artificial habitats (reservoirs and water channels. Although this study provides basic information about the broad-snouted caiman population on this part of the island, it is aimed mainly at providing guidance for future research.

  17. Diagnostics for the structure of AGNs’broad line regions with reverberation mapping data:confirmation of the two-component broad line region model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the ten Reverberation Mapping(RM) sources with public data based on the two-component model of the Broad Line Region(BLR).In fitting their broad Hβ Mlines,six of them only need one Gaussian component,one of them has a double-peak profile,one has an irregular profile,and only two of them need two components,i.e.,a Very Broad Gaussian Component(VBGC) and an Inter-Mediate Gaussian Component(IMGC).The Gaussian components are assumed to come from two distinct regions in the two-component model;they are the Very Broad Line Region(VBLR) and the Inter-Mediate Line region(IMLR).The two sources with a two-component profile are Mrk 509 and NGC 4051.The time lags of the two components of both sources satisfy tIMLR/tVBLR=V 2VBLR/V 2IMLR,where tIMLR and tVBLR are the lags of the two components while VIMLR and VVBLR represent the mean gas velocities of the two regions,supporting the two-component model of the BLR of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGNs).The fact that most of these ten sources only have the VBGC confirms the assumption that RM mainly measures the radius of the VBLR;consequently,the radius obtained from the R-L relationship mainly represents the radius of VBLR.Moreover,NGC 4051,with a lag of about 5 days in the one component model,is an outlier on the R-L relationship as shown in Kaspi et al.(2005);however this problem disappears in our two-component model with lags of about 2 and 6 days for the VBGC and IMGC,respectively.

  18. Manganese Oxide Nanoarchitectures as Broad-Spectrum Sorbents for Toxic Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey W; Wallace, Jean M; Peterson, Gregory W; Huynh, Kim

    2016-01-20

    We demonstrate that sol-gel-derived manganese oxide (MnOx) nanoarchitectures exhibit broad-spectrum filtration activity for three chemically diverse toxic gases: NH3, SO2, and H2S. Manganese oxides are synthesized via the reaction of NaMnO4 and fumaric acid to form monolithic gels of disordered, mixed-valent Na-MnOx; incorporated Na(+) is readily exchanged for H(+) by subsequent acid rinsing to form a more crystalline H-MnOx phase. For both Na-MnOx and H-MnOx forms, controlled pore-fluid removal yields either densified, yet still mesoporous, xerogels or low-density aerogels (prepared by drying from supercritical CO2). The performance of these MnOx nanoarchitectures as filtration media is assessed using dynamic-challenge microbreakthrough protocols. We observe technologically relevant sorption capacities under both dry conditions and wet (80% relative humidity) for each of the three toxic industrial chemicals investigated. The Na-MnOx xerogels and aerogels provide optimal performance with the aerogel exhibiting maximum sorption capacities of 39, 200, and 680 mg g(-1) for NH3, SO2, and H2S, respectively. Postbreakthrough characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirms that NH3 is captured and partially protonated within the MnOx structure, while SO2 undergoes oxidation by the redox-active oxide to form adsorbed sulfate at the MnOx surface. Hydrogen sulfide is also oxidized to form a combination of sulfate and sulfur/polysulfide products, concomitant with a decrease in the average Mn oxidation state from 3.43 to 2.94 and generation of a MnOOH phase. PMID:26741498

  19. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  20. The Impact of Project-Based Climate Change Learning Experiences on Students' Broad Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWaters, J.; Powers, S. E.; Dhaniyala, S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based pedagogical approaches such as project- and inquiry-based techniques have been shown to promote effective learning in science and engineering. The impact of project-based learning experiences on middle school (MS), high school (HS), and undergraduate (UG) students' climate literacy was investigated as part of a NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) project. Project-based modules were developed and taught by MS and HS teachers who participated in climate change education workshops. UG students enrolled in a climate science course completed independent research projects that provided the basis for several of the HS/MS modules. All modules required students to acquire and analyze historical temperature data and future climate predictions, and apply their analysis to the solution of a societal or environmental problem related to our changing climate. Three versions of a quantitative survey were developed and used in a pre-test/post-test research design to help evaluate the project's impact on MS, HS, and UG students' climate literacy, which includes broad climate knowledge as well as affective and behavioral aspects. Content objectives were guided primarily by the 2009 document, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. All three groups of students made modest but statistically significant cognitive (p<<0.001) and affective (p<0.01) gains; UG students also showed an increase in behavior scores (p=0.001). Results of an ANCOVA showed significant differences in students' cognitive (p<0.001), behavioral (p=0.005) and self-efficacy (p=0.012) outcomes among the 9 participating MS and HS classrooms, where both teacher and module content varied. The presentation will include a description of some key aspects of the project-based curricula developed and used in this research, the development and content of the climate literacy survey, and the interpretation of specific pre/post changes in participating students relative to the content

  1. Broad-area detection of structural irregularities in composites using fibre Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Claire E.; Norman, Patrick; Moss, Scott; Ratcliffe, Colin; Crane, Roger

    2010-04-01

    The Structural Irregularity and Damage Evaluation Routine (SIDER) is a broadband vibration-based technique that uses features in complex curvature operating shapes to locate damage and other areas with structural stiffness variations. It is designed for the inspection of large-scale composite structures not amenable to more conventional inspection methods. The current SIDER methodology relies on impact excitation at a series of grid points on the structure and records the response using a small number of accelerometers to determine the operational curvature shapes. This paper reports on a modification to the SIDER technique whereby the acceleration measurements are replaced with in-plane strain measurements using Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs). One of the major challenges associated with using Bragg gratings for this type of response measurement is that the strains induced by structural vibrations tend to be low, particularly at higher frequencies. This paper also reports on the development of an intensity-based, swept wavelength interrogation system to facilitate these measurements. The modified SIDER system was evaluated on an E-glass/vinyl ester composite test beam containing a machined notch. The measurements accurately detected the presence and location of the notch. The distributive capacity of FBGs means that these sensors have the potential to replace the excitation grid with a measurement grid, allowing for single point or environmental excitation. The spatially separated measurements of strain can be used to provide the curvature shapes directly. This change in approach could potentially transition SIDER from an interval-based, broad-area inspection tool to an in-service structural health monitoring system.

  2. Nail Disease for the Primary Care Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Fleckman, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Nail disorders are a common presenting complaint for both the primary care physician and the dermatologist. Nail diagnoses are broad in scope and include infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic conditions. Onychomycosis is an especially common nail condition, and treatment should always be preceded by appropriate fungal studies for confirmation of diagnosis. Inflammatory conditions of the nail unit can mimic onychomycosis, and a dermatologist can assist with diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Likewise, subungual tumors often require biopsy, and should be evaluated by a dermatologist who is experienced in nail evaluation and treatment. PMID:26476249

  3. Development of a Memory Game to Improve Knowledge Retention in Preparation for Broad Scope Exams in an Introductory Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, H. M.; Bilsley, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    As the demand for introductory earth science classes rises at educational institutions, large class sizes place strain on the educator's time and ability to offer extensive project-based assignments. As a result, exams covering a broad spectrum of material are more heavily weighted in students' grades. Students often struggle on the first exam, as they attempt to retain a large amount of information from several different topics, while having no exposure to the type of questions that will be asked. This frequently leads to a large dropout rate early in the academic term, or at least a sense of discouragement and stress among struggling students. To better prepare students for a broad scope exam, a review activity modelled after the traditional Milton Bradley "Memory" game was developed to remind students of what would be covered on the exam, prepare them for the style of questions that may be asked, as well as provide a fun, interactive, and educational activity. The Earth Science Memory Game was developed to have interchangeable sets to cover a broad range of topics and thus also be reusable for the duration of the course. Example games sets presented include, but are not limited to, the scientific method, minerals, rocks, topographic maps, tectonics, geologic structures, volcanoes, and weather. The Earth Science Memory Game not only provides an effective review tool to improve success rates on broad scope exams, but is also customizable by the instructor, reusable, and easily constructed by common office supplies.

  4. Broad Line Region Physical Conditions along the Quasar Eigenvector 1 Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Negrete, C A; Dultzin, D; Zamfir, S; Bachev, R

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] We compare broad emission line profiles and estimate line ratios for all major emission lines between Ly-alpha and H-beta in a sample of six quasars. The sources were chosen with two criteria in mind: the existence of high quality optical and UV spectra as well as the possibility to sample the spectroscopic diversity in the 4D Eigenvector 1 context . In the latter sense each source occupies a region (bin) in the FWHM(H-beta) vs. optical FeII strength plane that is significantly different from the others. High S/N H-beta emission line profiles are used as templates for modeling the other lines (Ly-alpha, CIV 1549, HeII 1640, Al III 1860, Si III] 1892, and Mg II 2800). We can adequately model all broad lines assuming the existence of three components distinguished by blueshifted, unshifted and redshifted centroids (indicated as blue, broad and very broad component respectively). The broad component (high electron density, low ionization parameter; high column density) is present in almost all type-1 ...

  5. The Fundamental Plane of the Broad-line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) mainly arise from gas photoionized by continuum radiation from an accretion disk around a central black hole. The shape of the broad-line profile, described by ${\\cal D}_{_{\\rm H\\beta}}={\\rm FWHM}/\\sigma_{_{\\rm H\\beta}}$, the ratio of full width at half maximum to the dispersion of broad H$\\beta$, reflects the dynamics of the broad-line region (BLR) and correlates with the dimensionless accretion rate ($\\dot{\\mathscr{M}}$) or Eddington ratio ($L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd}$). At the same time, $\\dot{\\mathscr{M}}$ and $L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd}$ correlate with ${\\cal R}_{\\rm Fe}$, the ratio of optical Fe II to H$\\beta$ line flux emission. Assembling all AGNs with reverberation mapping measurements of broad H$\\beta$, both from the literature and from new observations reported here, we find a strong bivariate correlation of the form $\\log(\\dot{\\mathscr{M}},L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd})=\\alpha+\\beta{\\cal D}_{_{\\rm H\\beta}}+\\gamma{\\cal R}_{\\rm Fe},$ where $\\alpha=(2.47,0.31...

  6. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Pa alpha and Pa beta, and find that it scales with the ionising continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionisation theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution ...

  7. Estimating carbon dioxide fluxes from temperate mountain grasslands using broad-band vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wohlfahrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and the simple ratio (SR were calculated from measurements of reflectance of photosynthetically active and short-wave radiation at two temperate mountain grasslands in Austria and related to the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE measured concurrently by means of the eddy covariance method. There was no significant statistical difference between the relationships of midday mean NEE with narrow- and broad-band NDVI and SR, measured during and calculated for that same time window, respectively. The skill of broad-band NDVI and SR in predicting CO2 fluxes was higher for metrics dominated by gross photosynthesis and lowest for ecosystem respiration, with NEE in between. A method based on a simple light response model whose parameters were parameterised based on broad-band NDVI allowed to improve predictions of daily NEE and is suggested to hold promise for filling gaps in the NEE time series. Relationships of CO2 flux metrics with broad-band NDVI and SR however generally differed between the two studied grassland sites indicting an influence of additional factors not yet accounted for.

  8. Targeting N-Glycan Cryptic Sugar Moieties for Broad-Spectrum Virus Neutralization: Progress in Identifying Conserved Molecular Targets in Viruses of Distinct Phylogenetic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA, for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn. These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation.

  9. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  10. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Smoot, George F

    2013-01-01

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectru...

  11. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. PMID:26971117

  12. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  13. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific

  14. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are important holographic optical elements in many spectral systems. Using multiple volume gratings, whether multiplexed or arranged sequentially, provides advantages to many types of systems in overall efficiency, dispersion performance, flexibility of design, etc. However, the use of multiple gratings---particularly when the gratings are multiplexed in a single holographic optical element (HOE)---is subject to inter-grating coupling effects that ultimately limit system performance. Analyzing these coupling effects requires a more complex mathematical model than the straightforward analysis of a single volume grating. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions. Applications of this theory to broad- and narrow-band systems are explored in detailed simulations. Broadband systems include spectrum splitters for diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. Volume Bragg gratings can serve as effective spectrum splitters, but the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit ultimate performance. We explore broadband multi-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in sandwiched arrangements where individual single-grating HOEs are placed in series, and in multiplexed arrangements where multiple gratings are recorded in a single HOE. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems

  15. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  16. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-120 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is providing important insights regarding the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific mAb, termed 35O22, which binds novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with an IC50<50 μg/ml. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg/ml, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed it to bind a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current mAb-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis, and vaccine design. PMID:25186731

  17. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-gp120 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Imamichi, Hiromi; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A; Bailer, Robert T; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F; Wyatt, Richard T; Sanders, Rogier W; Binley, James M; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D; Connors, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) <50 μg ml(-1). The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg ml(-1), among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design. PMID:25186731

  18. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-gp120 interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Imamichi, Hiromi; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark [NIH

    2015-10-15

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) <50 μg ml-1. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg ml-1, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design.

  19. Broad line emission from iron K- and L-shell transitions in the active galaxy 1H 0707-495.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A C; Zoghbi, A; Ross, R R; Uttley, P; Gallo, L C; Brandt, W N; Blustin, A J; Boller, T; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Larsson, J; Miller, J M; Miniutti, G; Ponti, G; Reis, R C; Reynolds, C S; Tanaka, Y; Young, A J

    2009-05-28

    Since the 1995 discovery of the broad iron K-line emission from the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15 (ref. 1), broad iron K lines have been found in emission from several other Seyfert galaxies, from accreting stellar-mass black holes and even from accreting neutron stars. The iron K line is prominent in the reflection spectrum created by the hard-X-ray continuum irradiating dense accreting matter. Relativistic distortion of the line makes it sensitive to the strong gravity and spin of the black hole. The accompanying iron L-line emission should be detectable when the iron abundance is high. Here we report the presence of both iron K and iron L emission in the spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495. The bright iron L emission has enabled us to detect a reverberation lag of about 30 s between the direct X-ray continuum and its reflection from matter falling into the black hole. The observed reverberation timescale is comparable to the light-crossing time of the innermost radii around a supermassive black hole. The combination of spectral and timing data on 1H 0707-495 provides strong evidence that we are witnessing emission from matter within a gravitational radius, or a fraction of a light minute, from the event horizon of a rapidly spinning, massive black hole. PMID:19478778

  20. On the Origin of Broad Iron Lines in Neutron Star Low-mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Miller, Jon M; Barret, Didier; Fabian, Andy C; D'Ai, Antonino; Parker, Michael L; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Burderi, Luciano; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Egron, Elise; Homan, Jeroen; Iaria, Rosario; Lin, Dacheng; Miller, M Coleman

    2015-01-01

    Broad Fe K emission lines have been widely observed in the X-ray spectra of black hole systems, and in neutron star systems as well. The intrinsically narrow Fe K fluorescent line is generally believed to be part of the reflection spectrum originating in an illuminated accretion disk, and broadened by strong relativistic effects. However, the nature of the lines in neutron star LMXBs has been under debate. We therefore obtained the longest, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a neutron star LMXB to date with a 300 ks Chandra HETGS observation of Serpens X-1. The observation was taken under the "continuous clocking" mode and thus free of photon pile-up effects. We carry out a systematic analysis and find that the blurred reflection model fits the Fe line of Serpens X-1 significantly better than a broad Gaussian component does, implying that the relativistic reflection scenario is much preferred. Chandra HETGS also provides highest spectral resolution view of the Fe K region and we find no strong evidence for add...

  1. Potential Broad Spectrum Inhibitors of the Coronavirus 3CLpro: A Virtual Screening and Structure-Based Drug Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Berry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses represent a significant disease burden; however, there is currently no antiviral strategy to combat infection. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS less than 10 years later demonstrates the potential of coronaviruses to cross species boundaries and further highlights the importance of identifying novel lead compounds with broad spectrum activity. The coronavirus 3CLpro provides a highly validated drug target and as there is a high degree of sequence homology and conservation in main chain architecture the design of broad spectrum inhibitors is viable. The ZINC drugs-now library was screened in a consensus high-throughput pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking approach by Vina, Glide, GOLD and MM-GBSA. Molecular dynamics further confirmed results obtained from structure-based techniques. A highly defined hit-list of 19 compounds was identified by the structure-based drug design methodologies. As these compounds were extensively validated by a consensus approach and by molecular dynamics, the likelihood that at least one of these compounds is bioactive is excellent. Additionally, the compounds segregate into 15 significantly dissimilar (p < 0.05 clusters based on shape and features, which represent valuable scaffolds that can be used as a basis for future anti-coronaviral inhibitor discovery experiments. Importantly though, the enriched subset of 19 compounds identified from the larger library has to be validated experimentally.

  2. Potential Broad Spectrum Inhibitors of the Coronavirus 3CLpro: A Virtual Screening and Structure-Based Drug Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael; Fielding, Burtram C; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2015-12-01

    Human coronaviruses represent a significant disease burden; however, there is currently no antiviral strategy to combat infection. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) less than 10 years later demonstrates the potential of coronaviruses to cross species boundaries and further highlights the importance of identifying novel lead compounds with broad spectrum activity. The coronavirus 3CL(pro) provides a highly validated drug target and as there is a high degree of sequence homology and conservation in main chain architecture the design of broad spectrum inhibitors is viable. The ZINC drugs-now library was screened in a consensus high-throughput pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking approach by Vina, Glide, GOLD and MM-GBSA. Molecular dynamics further confirmed results obtained from structure-based techniques. A highly defined hit-list of 19 compounds was identified by the structure-based drug design methodologies. As these compounds were extensively validated by a consensus approach and by molecular dynamics, the likelihood that at least one of these compounds is bioactive is excellent. Additionally, the compounds segregate into 15 significantly dissimilar (p < 0.05) clusters based on shape and features, which represent valuable scaffolds that can be used as a basis for future anti-coronaviral inhibitor discovery experiments. Importantly though, the enriched subset of 19 compounds identified from the larger library has to be validated experimentally. PMID:26694449

  3. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  4. Broad absorption line quasars have the same cool dust emission as quasars without BALs

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Grimes, Jennifer A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of a sub-millimeter survey of SDSS broad CIV absorption line quasars is discussed. It is found that the sub-millimeter flux distribution of BAL quasars is similar to that of non-BAL quasars. This is consistent with the idea that all quasars contain broad absorption line regions, but only a fraction of them are visible along our line-of-sight. The observations are inconsistent with BAL quasars being observed at a special evolutionary epoch co-inciding with a high star-formation rat...

  5. Broad emission lines variability: a window into the heart of AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Ilic, Dragana; Popovic, Luka C.; Shapovalova, Alla I.; Afanasiev, V.L.; V. H. Chavushyan; Burenkov, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Kovacevic, A.

    2016-01-01

    The broad emission lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known to vary both in flux and shape, and are often showing very complex line profiles. They can give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. The BLR is close to the supermassive black hole in AGN and may hold basic information about the formation and fueling of AGN. Here we summarize the results of the line and continuum variability of a ...

  6. A pilot survey of junior doctors' confidence in tasks related to broad aspects of competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Skaarup, Anne Marie; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Medical authorities and society are recommending that postgraduate medical education prepare physicians for broad aspects of competence. The most effective ways to prepare physicians for these are not known. The aim of this pilot study was to survey junior doctors' growth in confidence in different...... useful in facilitating learning of the tasks. These results suggest that growth of confidence in the physician roles proceeds at different rates during postgraduate training. Additional research is needed to identify effective ways for junior doctors to learn broad aspects of competence. Longitudinal...... tracking will be important to evaluate the effect of educational interventions on patient care. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Sep...

  7. A comparison between two permanent broad band ocean bottom seismometers in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, T.; Deschamps, A.; Ugalde, A.; Jara, J. A.; Hello, Y.; Goula, X.; Olivera, C.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to compare two permanent broad band ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in terms of noise conditions by taking to account their similar instrumentation types, but their very different site characteristics. Both OBS stations have Güralp CMG-3T three component broad band sensors and differential pressure gauges (DPG). The first sensor operates since August 2005 under the framework of a research project that aims to improve the knowledge of the seismicity and seismic risk in the Tarragona region (north eastern Spain). This pioneering project in Spain is being carried out by the Institut Geològic de Catalunya (IGC) and the Observatori de l'Ebre, in collaboration with the Spanish oil company Repsol Investigaciones Petrolíferas, and is being financed by the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (CASABLANCA REN2003-06577), FEDER funding, the IGC and the Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. The OBS is installed inside the security perimeter of the Casablanca oil platform, which is located 40 km offshore Tarragona. The sensors are submerged at about 400 m to the SW of the oil platform at about 150 m in depth. Data are digitized on-site and are transmitted through a submarine cable to the platform, where they are recorded. In July 2007 some improvements were made: i) the OBS was completely buried and the DPG was moved about 10 m away from the OBS; and ii) via satellite signal transmission was implemented, which allowed to have continuous and real time data in Barcelona so that the OBS could be integrated into the Catalan Seismic Network. The second seismometer operates in the frame of the Antares neutrino telescope project developed in Liguria Sea. Geoazur is carrying out the project of deployment of a broad band seismological instrument in the aim of developing the permanent sea floor observation knowledge necessary to characterize Ligurian Sea seismicity and seismic risk along French Riviera coast (SE France). The operation was facilitated by the

  8. Effect of Radiation processing on sensory and chemical characteristics of broad beans (Giza,2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad bean is the important leguminous protein consumed in egypt as a source of protein diet. The most popular way of preparing beans is the stewd form (Fool Medames). However, great losses due to insect infestation occur during storage. To combat these losses radiation processing has been used as an effective alternative of chemical fumigants to combat insect pets. The beans were irradiated at 25.5, 10 and kgy. The effects of treatments were investigated on sensory and chemical characteristics and on the solubility of broad beans protein, the amino acids content and on the nutritive value of bean protein from the view of its amino acids profile. The results of study indicate that the sensory evaluation of sewed irradiated 2.5 and 5 kGy samples revealed no significantdiffference in hardness, gumminess and acceptability. moreover, no significant changes in adhesivess, between samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 KGy, irradiation up to 20 KGy was found to improve the hardness of stewed broad bean which would improve the quality of broad of bean

  9. Observation of electro-activated localized structures in broad area VCSELs

    OpenAIRE

    Parravicini, J.; Brambilla, M; Columbo, L.; Prati, F.; C. Rizza; Tissoni, G.; Agranat, A. J.; DelRe, E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the electro-activation of a localized optical structure in a coherently driven broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operated below threshold. Control is achieved by electro-optically steering a writing beam through a pre-programmable switch based on a photorefractive funnel waveguide.

  10. Hate Speech or Free Speech: Can Broad Campus Speech Regulations Survive Current Judicial Reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Gregory M.; Rossow, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    Federal courts have found speech regulations overbroad in suits against the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin System. Attempts to assess the theoretical justification and probable fate of broad speech regulations that have not been explicitly rejected by the courts. Concludes that strong arguments for broader regulation will…

  11. A Search for "Dwarf" Seyfert Nuclei; 4, Nuclei with Broad H-$\\alpha$ Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Sargent, W L W; Peng, C Y; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Peng, Chien Y.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey designed to search for low-luminosity, "dwarf" Seyfert nuclei in a magnitude-limited sample of 486 bright, northern galaxies. Moderate-resolution spectra of exceptionally high quality were obtained in part to detect broad H-alpha emission, similar in character to, but much weaker than, the broad permitted lines that define type 1 Seyfert nuclei. One of the primary goals of the survey is to better quantify the faint end of the luminosity function of active galactic nuclei. This paper describes the subset of nuclei showing definite or probable evidence of broad H-alpha emission. We outline the procedures for determining the presence of this elusive spectral feature, steps for its quantitative measurement, and the associated systematic errors. Of the 211 emission-line galaxies classified as having Seyfert or LINER nuclei in our survey, the broad H-alpha line was detected with confidence in 34 objects, and with less certainty in another 12. Most of the det...

  12. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pejchal; K.J. Doores; L.M. Walker; R. Khayat; P.S. Huang; S.K. Wang; R.L. Stanfield; J.P. Julien; A. Ramos; M. Crispin; R. Depetris; U. Katpally; A. Marozsan; A. Cupo; S. Maloveste; Y. Liu; R. McBride; Y. Ito; R.W. Sanders; C. Ogohara; J.C. Paulson; T. Feizi; C.N. Scanlan; C.H. Wong; J.P. Moore; W.C. Olson; A.B. Ward; P. Poignard; W.R. Schief; D.R. Burton; I.A. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 a

  13. Efficiency of the magnetic treatment of broad bean seeds cultivated under experimental plot conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podleśna A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The tests were carried out in the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation in Puławy under experimental plot conditions in the years 2000-2001. The factor of the first order were two varieties of broad bean: Nadwiślański - a traditional form and Tim - a self-determining form, while the second factor was - 3 exposure doses of magnetic induction intensity. The magnetic treatment of the seed was done in the Department of Physics at the University of Agriculture in Lublin using a specially constructed device for the magnetic treatment of seeds prior to sowing equipped with an electromagnet with fluent regulation of magnetic induction. The research confirmed the positive effect of the magnetic treatment on the germination and emergence of both broad bean cultivars. Plant emergence was more regular after the use of the aforementioned treatment and occured 2-3 days earlier in com- parison to the control plants. The magnetic treatment of broad bean seeds prior to sowing exerted a significant influence on the increase of seed yield. However, the efficiency of this treatment was dependent on the weather. The gain in seed yield resulting from the pre-sowing treatment of seeds with a magnetic field for both forms of broad bean was due to the higher number of pods per plant and the fewer plant losses in the unit area in the growing season.

  14. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible for the...

  15. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 –1. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  16. Transformation of Rhizobia with Broad-Host-Range Plasmids by Using a Freeze-Thaw Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vincze, Eva; Bowra, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Several species of rhizobia were successfully transformed with broad-host-range plasmids of different replicons by using a modified freeze-thaw method. A generic binary vector (pPZP211) was maintained in Mesorhizobium loti without selection and stably inherited during nodulation. The method could extend the potential of rhizobia as a vehicle for plant transformation.

  17. Structure, stability, and spectra of lateral modes of a broad-area semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Petersen, Paul Michael; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral modes of a broad-area semiconductor laser. The structure of the modes are classified into four categories and the modes are traced in the frequency versus pump rate diagram. It is shown how the branches of the frequency tuning curves for the...

  18. A robot to detect and control broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Samsom, J.; Polder, G.; Vijn, M.P.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Lamaker, E.J.J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kempenaar, C.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Broad-leaved dock is a common and troublesome grassland weed with a wide geographic distribution. In conventional farming the weed is normally controlled by using a selective herbicide, but in organic farming manual removal is the best option to control this weed. The objective of our work was to de

  19. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt.html... outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals for broadly applicable... questions about this notice, contact Ms. Lula H. Melton, Air Quality Assessment Division, Office of...

  20. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  1. History of petroleum systems in the southern part of the Broad Fourteens Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.; Simmelink, H.J.; Balen, R.T. van; David, P.

    2003-01-01

    2D Basin modelling was used to evaluate the response of source rock maturation, and of petroleum expulsion, migration, accumulation and preservation to the evolution of the southern part of the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin. Modelling results show that the temperature, maturation and petroleum gene

  2. Sarcomas associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: broad anatomical and morphological spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Therkildsen, Christina; Nissen, Anja; Akerman, Måns; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is primarily linked to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but is associated with a broad tumor spectrum. Though not formally part of the syndrome, occasional sarcomas have been reported in individuals with HNPCC. We used the national Danish HNPCC-...

  3. Are Broad-Spectrum Fluoroquinolones More Likely To Cause Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhalla, Irfan A.; Muhammad M Mamdani; Simor, Andrew E; Kopp, Alex; Rochon, Paula A; Juurlink, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Limited evidence suggests that broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease than levofloxacin. In a population-based case-control study of outpatients prescribed fluoroquinolones, we found no increased risk of C. difficile-associated disease requiring hospitalization among patients prescribed gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin compared to levofloxacin.

  4. Investigation into the interchangeability of generic formulations using immunosuppressants and a broad selection of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.; Teerenstra, S.; Neef, C.; Burger, D.M.; Maliepaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To date, the interchangeability of generic drugs has only been investigated for a limited number of medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate generic-generic drug interchangeability in a large subset of generic formulations in order to cover a broad spectrum of drugs. METHOD

  5. Nucleotide Sequence and Characterization of the Broad-Host-Range Lactococcal Plasmid pWVO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, Cornelis; Tolner, Berend; Bron, Sierd; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus; Seegers, Jozef

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Lactococcus lactis broad-host-range plasmid pWVO1, replicating in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, was determined. This analysis revealed four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF A appeared to encode a trans-acting 26.8-kDa protein (RepA), necessary for repli

  6. Resistance of nanobacteria isolated from urinary and kidney stones to broad-spectrum antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sardarabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscopic life forms called Nanobacteria or calcifying nanoparticles (CNP are unconventional agents. These novel organisms are very small (0.1 to 0.5 microns and possess unusual properties such as high resistance to heat and routine antimicrobial agents. Nanobacteria are 100 times smaller than bacteria and protected by a shell of apatite, so they could be as candidate for emerging and progress of in vivo pathological calcification. In this study, the inhibitory effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on growth of these new forms of life has been investigated.Powdered urinary and kidney stones were demineralized with HCl and neutralized with appropriate buffers and became filtered. Finally suspension was incubated in DMEM medium with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and broad-spectrum antibiotics (100U/ml for penicillin and 100μg/ml for streptomycin for 60 days.In the presence of broad-spectrum antibiotics, Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed a spherical shape of these nanobacteria. Also, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed a pick for calcium and phosphor. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results illustrated cover around the nanobacteria.The growth of calcifying nanoparticles after adding the broad-spectrum antibiotics may be due to their apatite hard shells supporting them against penetration of the antibiotics.

  7. Reverberation Mapping of the Broad-line Region in NGC 5548: Evidence for Radiation Pressure?

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Huang, Ying-Ke; Bi, Shao-Lan; Bai, Jin-Ming; Ho, Luis C; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    NGC 5548 is the best-observed reverberation-mapped active galactic nucleus with long-term, intensive monitoring. Here we report results from a new observational campaign between January and July, 2015. We measure the centroid time lag of the broad H$\\beta$ emission line with respect to the 5100 \\AA continuum and obtain $\\tau_{\\rm cent} = 7.20^{+1.33}_{-0.35}$ days in the rest frame. This yields a black hole mass of $M_{\\bullet}=8.71^{+3.21}_{-2.61} $x$ 10^{7}M_{\\odot}$ using a broad H$\\beta$ line dispersion of $3124\\pm302$ km s$^{-1}$ and a virial factor of $f_{_{\\rm BLR}}=6.3\\pm1.5$ for the broad-line region (BLR), consistent with the mass measurements from previous H$\\beta$ campaigns. The high-quality data allow us to construct a velocity-binned delay map for the broad H$\\beta$ line, which shows a symmetric response pattern around the line center, a plausible kinematic signature of virialized motion of the BLR. Combining all the available measurements of H$\\beta$ time lags and the associated mean 5100 {\\AA}...

  8. Fluid flow in the northern Broad Fourteens Basin during Late Cretaceous inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2003-01-01

    A basin-scale hydrogeological study of the inverted northern Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore, has resulted in a reconstruction of geological evolution, an estimate of Late Cretaceous topography and model scenarios of syn-inversion meteoric water infiltration. This study was performed in

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Rapid CIV Broad Absorption Line Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, C. J.; Hall, P. B.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M.; Filiz Ak, N.; Chen, Yuguang; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Green, Paul J.; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, C. S.; McGreer, Ian D.; Pâris, I.; Peterson, B. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (˜4000 km s-1 wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (˜29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ˜10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of ne ≳ 3.9 × 105 cm-3. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  10. Broad Hbeta Emission-Line Variability in a Sample of 102 Local Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Runco, Jordan N; Bennert, Vardha N; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S; Malkan, Matthew A; Lazarova, Mariana S; Auger, Matthew W; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 10^7 M_sun was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10-m telescope to study the scaling relations between MBH and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hbeta emission line within the ~3-9 year time-frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hbeta emission line is of particular interest, not only since it is used to estimate MBH, but also since its strength and width is used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (~66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ~38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hbeta line virtually disappears in 3/102 (~3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing-look AGNs. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Broad-Spectrum Xenobiotic Degrader Achromobacter xylosoxidans ADAF13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidansADAF13, isolated from farmland soil, possesses a large number of putative degradation genes and pathways that break down a wide variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, and other high-impact xenobiotics. These properties make this strain an excellent candidate for further development as a broad-spectrum bioremediation agent. PMID:27081123

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Broad-Spectrum Xenobiotic Degrader Achromobacter xylosoxidans ADAF13

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans ADAF13, isolated from farmland soil, possesses a large number of putative degradation genes and pathways that break down a wide variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, and other high-impact xenobiotics. These properties make this strain an excellent candidate for further development as a broad-spectrum bioremediation agent.

  13. A new approach to assymmetric feedback in a segmented broad area diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present the demonstration of a non-critical setup for asymmetric feedback in a segmented broad area diode laser. We compare the dependence of the beam quality on the position of the dispersive element for standard spectral beam combining and our new non-critical setup. We find that our new...

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing in Mesolithic North East Europe Unearths a New Sub-Clade within the Broadly Distributed Human Haplogroup C1

    OpenAIRE

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Brotherton, Paul; Balanovsky, Oleg; Templeton, Jennifer EL; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Khartanovich, Valery; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang; The Genographic Consortium

    2014-01-01

    The human mitochondrial haplogroup C1 has a broad global distribution but is extremely rare in Europe today. Recent ancient DNA evidence has demonstrated its presence in European Mesolithic individuals. Three individuals from the 7,500 year old Mesolithic site of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov, Western Russia, could be assigned to haplogroup C1 based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I sequences. However, hypervariable region I data alone could not provide enough resolution to establish the phyloge...

  15. Artificial neural network model to predict slag viscosity over a broad range of temperatures and slag compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, Marc A. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Macchi, Arturo [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Lu, Dennis Y.; Hughes, Robin W.; McCalden, David; Anthony, Edward J. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Threshold slag viscosity heuristics are often used for the initial assessment of coal gasification projects. Slag viscosity predictions are also required for advanced combustion and gasification models. Due to unsatisfactory performance of theoretical equations, an artificial neural network model was developed to predict slag viscosity over a broad range of temperatures and slag compositions. This model outperforms other slag viscosity models, resulting in an average error factor of 5.05 which is lower than the best obtained with other available models. Genesee coal ash viscosity predictions were made to investigate the effect of adding Canadian limestone and dolomite. The results indicate that magnesium in the fluxing agent provides a greater viscosity reduction than calcium for the threshold slag tapping temperature range. (author)

  16. Characterization of HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses against Peptides Selected with Broad Population and Pathogen Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Norstrom, Melissa M.; Czarnecki, Chris;

    2012-01-01

    CD4+ T cells orchestrate immunity against viral infections, but their importance in HIV infection remains controversial. Nevertheless, comprehensive studies have associated increase in breadth and functional characteristics of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells with decreased viral load. A major challenge...... for the identification of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting broadly reactive epitopes in populations with diverse ethnic background stems from the vast genomic variation of HIV and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Here, we describe a novel epitope selection strategy, PopCover, that...... aims to resolve this challenge, and identify a set of potential HLA class II-restricted HIV epitopes that in concert will provide optimal viral and host coverage. Using this selection strategy, we identified 64 putative epitopes (peptides) located in the Gag, Nef, Env, Pol and Tat protein regions of...

  17. Ferrocene-Substituted Naphthalenediimide with Broad Absorption and Electron-Transport Properties in the Segregated-Stack Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Atsuro; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2016-05-23

    A new naphthalenediimide (NDI) molecule, where two ferrocene (Fc) units were directly attached to both imide nitrogens (Fc-NDI-Fc), was synthesized. The Fc units provide high crystallinity to Fc-NDI-Fc with good solubility to conventional organic solvents. The Fc units also work as electron-donating substituents, in contrast to the electron-deficient NDI unit, resulting in broad charge-transfer absorption of Fc-NDI-Fc from the UV region to 1500 nm in the solid state. The crystal structure analysis revealed that Fc-NDI-Fc formed a segregated-stack structure. The DFT calculation based on the crystal structure showed that the NDI π-orbitals extended over two axes. The extended π-network of the NDI units led to the electron-transport properties of Fc-NDI-Fc, which was confirmed using a flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity technique. PMID:27061109

  18. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  19. Quality of anti-malarial drugs provided by public and private healthcare providers in south-east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzochukwu Benjamin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little existing knowledge about actual quality of drugs provided by different providers in Nigeria and in many sub-Saharan African countries. Such information is important for improving malaria treatment that will help in the development and implementation of actions designed to improve the quality of treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the quality of drugs used for the treatment of malaria in a broad spectrum of public and private healthcare providers. Methods The study was undertaken in six towns (three urban and three rural in Anambra state, south-east Nigeria. Anti-malarials (225 samples, which included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, quinine, and chloroquine, were either purchased or collected from randomly selected providers. The quality of these drugs was assessed by laboratory analysis of the dissolution profile using published pharmacopoeial monograms and measuring the amount of active ingredient using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Findings It was found that 60 (37% of the anti-malarials tested did not meet the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP specifications for the amount of active ingredients, with the suspect drugs either lacking the active ingredients or containing suboptimal quantities of the active ingredients. Quinine (46% and SP formulations (39% were among drugs that did not satisfy the tolerance limits published in USP monograms. A total of 78% of the suspect drugs were from private facilities, mostly low-level providers, such as patent medicine dealers (vendors. Conclusion This study found that there was a high prevalence of poor quality drugs. The findings provide areas for public intervention to improve the quality of malaria treatment services. There should be enforced checks and regulation of drug supply management as well as stiffer penalties for people stocking substandard and counterfeit drugs.

  20. Insure Kids Now (IKN) (Dental Care Providers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Insure Kids Now (IKN) Dental Care Providers in Your State locator tool is provided, in accordance with the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization...

  1. Identifiable Data Files - Medicare Provider Analysis and ...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) File contains data from claims for services provided to beneficiaries admitted to Medicare certified inpatient...

  2. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  3. Institutional Provider and Beneficiary Summary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS IPBS PUFs are aggregated files in which each record summarizes information for a particular institutional provider. An institutional provider refers to a...

  4. Railroad Lines, Published in Not Provided, Embarq.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  5. Internet Provider Facilities, Published in 2006, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Internet Provider Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  6. An analysis of healthcare providers' online ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Black; Lindsay Thompson; Heidi Saliba; Kara Dawson; Nicole Paradise Black

    2009-01-01

    Background Many websites allow consumers to evaluate their healthcare experience yet scant data exist that explore the type and content of reviews. Objective To evaluate and describe online healthcare provider reviews. Methods We analysed 16 703 ratings on 6101 providers from four US cities. Ratings spanned five categories and an overall provider score. We also performed text analyses of narrative commentary (n = 15 952). Results Providers had a high mean score for each category (3.7...

  7. 5 CFR 890.910 - Provider information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provider information. 890.910 Section 890.910 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.910 Provider information. The hospital provider information used...

  8. Broadly tunable graphene plasmons using an ion-gel top gate with low control voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Debo; Li, Zhenjun; Bai, Bing; Yang, Xiaoxia; Dai, Qing

    2015-11-01

    The electrostatic tunability of graphene is vital in the field of active plasmons and would be beneficial in tunable infrared and terahertz optical element applications. The key to realizing broad tunability is achieving high carrier densities in graphene. Here we use an ion-gel, currently one of the most efficient dielectrics with ultra-high capacitance, to realize broadly tunable graphene plasmons (~1270 cm-1) with low voltage modulation (~4 V shifted from the Dirac point). We further explore the coupling between graphene plasmons and the molecular vibration modes of the ion-gel, since strong plasmon-phonon coupling can split the plasmon resonance peak into multi-peaks and reduce their tunability. Our experiments demonstrate weak plasmon-phonon coupling in the graphene/ion-gel system, which has limited effects on plasmon properties. These properties make ion-gels an effective dielectric for broadly tunable graphene plasmonic devices, such as new optical modulators, filters and wavelength multiplexers.The electrostatic tunability of graphene is vital in the field of active plasmons and would be beneficial in tunable infrared and terahertz optical element applications. The key to realizing broad tunability is achieving high carrier densities in graphene. Here we use an ion-gel, currently one of the most efficient dielectrics with ultra-high capacitance, to realize broadly tunable graphene plasmons (~1270 cm-1) with low voltage modulation (~4 V shifted from the Dirac point). We further explore the coupling between graphene plasmons and the molecular vibration modes of the ion-gel, since strong plasmon-phonon coupling can split the plasmon resonance peak into multi-peaks and reduce their tunability. Our experiments demonstrate weak plasmon-phonon coupling in the graphene/ion-gel system, which has limited effects on plasmon properties. These properties make ion-gels an effective dielectric for broadly tunable graphene plasmonic devices, such as new optical modulators

  9. Home Care Providers to the Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen M; Brøndum, Stig; Thomas, Grethe;

    2015-01-01

    ). METHODS: We evaluated a one-year prospective study that trained home care providers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and using an AED in cases of suspected OHCA. Data were collected from cardiac arrest case files, case files from each provider dispatch and a survey among dispatched...... providers. The study was conducted in a rural district in Denmark. RESULTS: Home care providers were dispatched to 28 of the 60 OHCAs that occurred in the study period. In ten cases the providers arrived before the ambulance service and subsequently performed CPR. AED analysis was executed in three cases...

  10. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (UWASH); (Progenics); (ICL); (Weill-Med); (NIH); (JSTA); (Scripps); (Oxford)

    2015-10-15

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man{sub 9} at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short {beta}-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  11. Synthesis and Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Some Novel Benzo-Heterocyclic Amine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel unsaturated five-membered benzo-heterocyclic amine derivatives were synthesized and assayed to determine their in vitro broad-spectrum antiviral activities. The biological results showed that most of our synthesized compounds exhibited potent broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Notably, compounds 3f (IC50 = 3.21–5.06 μM and 3g (IC50 = 0.71–34.87 μM showed potent activity towards both RNA viruses (influenza A, HCV and Cox B3 virus and a DNA virus (HBV at low micromolar concentrations. An SAR study showed that electron-withdrawing substituents located on the aromatic or heteroaromatic ring favored antiviral activity towards RNA viruses.

  12. Requirements, needs, and concepts for a new broad-application test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a variety of reasons, including (a) the increasing demands of the 1990s regulatory environment, (b) limited existing test capactiy and capability to satisfy projected future testing missions, and (c) an expected increasing need for nuclear information to support development of advanced reactors, there is a need for requirements and preliminary concepts for a new broad-application test reactor (BATR). These requirements must include consideration not only for a broad range of projected testing missions but also for current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements. The requirements will form the basis for development and assessment of preconceptual reactor designs and lead to the identification of key technologies to support the government's long-term strategic and programmatic planning. This paper outlines the need for a new BATR and suggests a few preliminary reactor concepts that can meet that need

  13. Preliminary evidence for progressive sestonic food depletion in incoming tide over a broad tidal sand flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Charles H.; Black, Robert

    1991-04-01

    Sequential sampling of a water mass flooding over a broad intertidal sand flat at Shark Bay, Western Australia demonstrated a pattern of progressively declining chlorophyll concentrations. After 3 h 25 min of movement up over the intertidal flat, the already low concentration (0·06 μg l -1) of chlorophyll a had declined by 25%. If representative of average conditions, this observed rate of sestonic food depletion, when combined with reductions in feeding time during low tide, would predict a 59% lower growth for mid-intertidal vs. subtidal suspension-feeding bivalves. Previously published reductions in bivalve growth with increased elevation at this site are not much larger (57, 61, 86 and 92%) than predicted, implying that food depletion in incoming tides may help constrain growth of suspension feeders on broad intertidal sand flats.

  14. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:27199430

  15. Constraining Variable High Velocity Winds from Broad Absorption Line Quasars with Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Daryl; Green, Paul J; Aldcroft, Tom; Anderson, Scott F

    2012-01-01

    Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars probe the high velocity gas ejected by luminous accreting black holes. BAL variability timescales place constraints on the size, location, and dynamics of the emitting and absorbing gas near the supermassive black hole. We present multi-epoch spectroscopy of seventeen BAL QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory's 1.5m telescope's FAST Spectrograph. These objects were identified as BALs in SDSS, observed with Chandra, and then monitored with FAST at observed-frame cadences of 1, 3, 9, 27, and 81 days, as well as 1 and 2 years. We also monitor a set of non-BAL quasars with matched redshift and luminosity as controls. We identify significant variability in the BALs, particularly at the 1 and 2 year cadences, and use its magnitude and frequency to constrain the outflows impacting the broad absorption line region.

  16. A Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth-stimulating Peptide from Broad Bean (Vicia faba . Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, broad bean protein hydrolysates (BPH produced by alcalase with strong-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB was first time reported. In order to obtain the key peptide that have growth-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB, gel filtration chromatography and Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC were applied to isolate and purify the peptides from BPH. Finally, F4-2 elicited the highest activity for LAB, corresponding to amino acid sequence Ser-Ala-Gln (304.10Da was identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS. Thus, this study shows that broad bean peptide is a good source to promote the LAB growth and this function is reported for the first time.

  17. Broad Absorption Line Variability in Repeat Quasar Observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, B F; Brunner, R J; Hall, P B; Schneider, D P; York, D G; Vanden Berk, D E; Brinkmann, J; Lundgren, Britt F.; Wilhite, Brian C.; Brunner, Robert J.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We present a time-variability analysis of 29 broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) observed in two epochs by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). These spectra are selected from a larger sample of BALQSOs with multiple observations by virtue of exhibiting a broad CIV $\\lambda$1549 absorption trough separated from the rest frame of the associated emission peak by more than 3600 km s$^{-1}$. Detached troughs facilitate higher precision variability measurements, since the measurement of the absorption in these objects is not complicated by variation in the emission line flux. We have undertaken a statistical analysis of these detached-trough BALQSO spectra to explore the relationships between BAL features that are seen to vary and the dynamics of emission from the quasar central engine. We have measured variability within our sample, which includes three strongly variable BALs. We have also verified that the statistical behavior of the overall sample agrees with current model predictions and previous studies o...

  18. Evidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Sluse, D; Anguita, T; Braibant, L; Riaud, P

    2015-01-01

    Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing in gravitationally lensed quasars is one of the few techniques which can test this model, yielding to the measurement of the size and of the temperature profile of the accretion disc. We present spectroscopic observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, which reveal partial microlensing of the continuum emission that appears to originate from two separated regions, a microlensed region corresponding the compact accretion disc, and a non-microlensed region, more extended and contributing to at least 30\\% of the total UV-continuum flux. Because this extended continuum is occulted by the broad absorption line clouds, it is not associated to the host galaxy, but rather to light scattered in the neighbourhood of the central engine. We measure the amplitude of microlensing of t...

  19. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  20. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J.; Liu, L.; Luo, B.; Wang, W.; Jing, F.; Wei, X.; Zhang, X.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  1. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP

  2. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Weaver, Scott C; Wong, Gerard C L

    2011-09-20

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored. PMID:21930925

  3. System and method for deflecting and focusing a broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and system for deflecting a broad ion plasma beam which includes an ion source for forming an ion plasma, an extraction means for extracting a broad ion plasma beam from the ion plasma, and deflection means including a non-grounded surface located in the path of the ion plasam beam and at an angle to the path for deflecting the ion plasma beam to a target material. A grounded, screen grid is located in front of the deflecting means in the path of the ion plasma. The screen grid has openings which permit passage of the ions in the ion plasma, but block passage of the electrons. The plasma beam is deflected by the deflection means and the grounded, screen grid onto the target material for sputter cleaning, deposition and ion milling applications

  4. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible for the...... lack of soft Xray emission. Broad-band X-ray observations of a sample of BAL QSOs are proposed with a high throughput mission SPECTRUM-RONTGEN-GAMMA (SRG), to find out whether these sources are intrinsically weak over the entire bandwidth of X-rays or only in the soft X-rays due to absorption resulting...... from the line of sight passing through large column density clouds. Simultaneous UV observations will help to constrain the ionization state of the absorbers, and also improve the overall UV to X-ray continuum measurements in them....

  5. Cavity solitons in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers below threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavity solitons are stationary self-organized bright intensity peaks which form over a homogeneous background in the section of broad area radiation beams. They are generated by shining a writing/erasing laser pulse into a nonlinear optical cavity, driven by a holding beam. The ability to control their location and their motion by introducing phase or amplitude gradients in the holding beam makes them interesting as mobile pixels for all-optical processing units. We show the generation of a number of cavity solitons in broad-area vertical cavity semiconductor microresonators electrically pumped above transparency but slightly below threshold. We analyze the switching process in details. The observed spots can be written, erased, and manipulated as independent objects, as predicted by the theoretical model. An especially tailored one is used to simulate the studied phenomena and to compare our simulations to the experimental findings with good agreement

  6. Advanced wide-field broad-passband refracting field correctors for large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, H. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Anderson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Design objectives, constraints, and optical data are presented for specific corrector designs under consideration for several large telescope projects. These include a preliminary 30-arcmin prime focus (f/2.0) refracting field corrector system for the University of California Ten-Meter Telescope (UC TMT); a compact 40-arcmin internal Cassegrain (f/1.75 hyperbola to f/5.0) broad-passband (3300 A to 1.0 micron) corrector suitable for imaging and multi-object spectroscopy at the UC TMT; three 60-arcmin Cassegrain correctors for 300-inch f/1.8 and f/2.0 parabolic primary mirrors suitable for a Fifteen-Meter NNTT/MMT; and a 300-inch 40-arcmin external Cassegrain (f/1.0 parabola to f/4.0) broad-passband (3300 A to 1.0 micron) corrector with ADC.

  7. Broad range pH sensor based on sol-gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xiao-peng

    2014-01-01

    A broad-range fibre optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is presented in this paper. This sensor is prepared by immobilizing a mixture of three pH sensitive indicators (dyes):cresol red, bromophenol blue and chlorophenol red onto the unclad fibre surface using a sol–gel cladding technology. Triton is introduced into the sol–gel cladding to improve the cladding quality. Smooth and strong sol–gel cladding with entrapped indicators and triton has been fabricated and observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and an atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pH sensor based the cladding has shown a linear, reversible and repeatable response over a broad range of pH values between 4.5 and 13.0.

  8. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao-Jing Zhang; Jing-Ming Bai; Yu-Ying Bao; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    BL Lacertae is one of the famous AGN that shows convincing evidence to support periodic variability. We compile R-band data and radio 22 GHz database from the available literature to build the light curves and to calculate broad-band spectral indices. This paper employs the wavelet periodic estimation method. The analysis results indicate that the most possible period is 7.02–7.36 yr in the selected wave-bands. The broad-band spectral indices have a possible period of 4.11 yr as a half value in selected wave-bands. The results confirm that the variability period in the radio 22 GHz is in agreement with the optical R band of about 7.01 yr, as also mentioned in other literatures.

  9. Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathy; Hunolt, Greg; Booth, Arthur L.; Banks, Mel

    2011-01-01

    The Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool (CET) and Comparables Database (CDB) package provides to NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) the ability to estimate the full range of year-by-year lifecycle cost estimates for the implementation and operation of data service providers required by ESE to support its science and applications programs. The CET can make estimates dealing with staffing costs, supplies, facility costs, network services, hardware and maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software licenses, software development and sustaining engineering, and the changes in costs that result from changes in workload. Data Service Providers may be stand-alone or embedded in flight projects, field campaigns, research or applications projects, or other activities. The CET and CDB package employs a cost-estimation-by-analogy approach. It is based on a new, general data service provider reference model that provides a framework for construction of a database by describing existing data service providers that are analogs (or comparables) to planned, new ESE data service providers. The CET implements the staff effort and cost estimation algorithms that access the CDB and generates the lifecycle cost estimate for a new data services provider. This data creates a common basis for an ESE proposal evaluator for considering projected data service provider costs.

  10. 9G4 autoreactivity is increased in HIV-infected patients and correlates with HIV broadly neutralizing serum activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Kobie

    Full Text Available The induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb response against HIV-1 would be a desirable feature of a protective vaccine. Vaccine strategies thus far have failed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses; however a minority of HIV-infected patients do develop circulating BNAbs, from which several potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been isolated. The findings that several BNmAbs exhibit autoreactivity and that autoreactive serum antibodies are observed in some HIV patients have advanced the possibility that enforcement of self-tolerance may contribute to the rarity of BNAbs. To examine the possible breakdown of tolerance in HIV patients, we utilized the 9G4 anti-idiotype antibody system, enabling resolution of both autoreactive VH4-34 gene-expressing B cells and serum antibodies. Compared with healthy controls, HIV patients had significantly elevated 9G4+ serum IgG antibody concentrations and frequencies of 9G4+ B cells, a finding characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, both of which positively correlated with HIV viral load. Compared to the global 9G4-IgD--memory B cell population, the 9G4+IgD--memory fraction in HIV patients was dominated by isotype switched IgG+ B cells, but had a more prominent bias toward "IgM only" memory. HIV envelope reactivity was observed both in the 9G4+ serum antibody and 9G4+ B cell population. 9G4+ IgG serum antibody levels positively correlated (r = 0.403, p = 0.0019 with the serum HIV BNAbs. Interestingly, other serum autoantibodies commonly found in SLE (anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-CL did not correlate with serum HIV BNAbs. 9G4-associated autoreactivity is preferentially expanded in chronic HIV infection as compared to other SLE autoreactivities. Therefore, the 9G4 system provides an effective tool to examine autoreactivity in HIV patients. Our results suggest that the development of HIV BNAbs is not merely a consequence of a general breakdown in

  11. Broadband and Broad-Angle Low-Scattering Metasurface Based on Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiang; Dong, Di Sha; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-01-01

    A broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Based on the optimization algorithm and far-field scattering pattern analysis, we propose a rapid and efficient method to design metasurfaces, which avoids the large amount of time-consuming electromagnetic simulations. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show that the proposed metasurface is insensitive to the polarization of incident waves, and presents good scattering-reduction properties for oblique incident waves. PMID:25089367

  12. Broadband and Broad-Angle Low-Scattering Metasurface Based on Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Wang; Jie Zhao; Qiang Cheng; Di Sha Dong; Tie Jun Cui

    2014-01-01

    A broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Based on the optimization algorithm and far-field scattering pattern analysis, we propose a rapid and efficient method to design metasurfaces, which avoids the large amount of time-consuming electromagnetic simulations. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show that the proposed metasurface is insensitive to the polarization of incident waves, and presents good scattering-reduction prope...

  13. Locating ‘Grit’ Within a Framework of Broad and Narrow Personality Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhassan, Abedrahman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the factor structure of a positive personality trait known as Grit and investigate its predictive validity for achievement outcomes. Grit is defined and organised in a self-report scale in terms of two factors: Consistency of Interest and the Perseverance of Effort towards long term goals (Duckworth et al., 2007). Grit correlated positively to broad and narrow measures of Conscientiousness and negatively to those of Neuroticism. Exploratory fac...

  14. Harnessing prions as test agents for the development of broad-range disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenführ, Katja; Beekes, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The development of disinfectants with broad-range efficacy against bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions constitutes an ongoing challenge. Prions, the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or its variant (vCJD) rank among the pathogens with the highest resistance to disinfection. Pilot studies have shown that different procedures devised for prion disinfection were also highly effective against microbial pathogens....

  15. Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars as a class of low luminosity AGNs

    OpenAIRE

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Ceglowski, M.; Roskowinski, C.; Gawronski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption lines seen in some quasars prove the existence of ionized plasma outflows from the accretion disk. Outflows together with powerful jets are important feedback processes. Understanding physics behind BAL outflows might be a key to comprehend Galaxy Evolution as a whole. First radio-loud BAL quasar was discovered in 1997 and this discovery has opened new possibilities for studies of the BAL phenomena, this time on the basis of radio emission. However, information about the radi...

  16. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Epiphytic and Endophytic Fungi from Marine Organisms: Isolation, Bioassay and Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Zhu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new marine derived antibiotics, 43 epi- and endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the surface or the inner tissue of different marine plants and invertebrates. Through preliminary and secondary screening, 10 of them were found to be able to produce broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites. By morphological and molecular biological methods, three active strains were characterized to be Penicillium glabrum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Alternaria alternata.

  17. Broad-Complex acts downstream of Met in juvenile hormone signaling to coordinate primitive holometabolan metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopová, Barbora; Jindra, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 3 (2008), s. 559-568. ISSN 0950-1991 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1032; GA AV ČR IAA5007305; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : metamorphosis * juvenile hormone * broad-complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.812, year: 2008

  18. Structure and Kinematics of the Broad-Line Region and Torus of Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Goosmann, Rene W.; Klimek, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Energetics considerations imply that the broad-line region (BLR) has a high covering factor. The absence of absorption from the BLR means that the BLR has to have a flattened distribution and be seen through a polar hole. The BLR is the inward extension of the torus and they have similar geometries and covering factors. Reconciling velocity-resolved reverberation mapping, spectropolarimetry, and the increasing blueshifting of BLR lines with decreasing distance from the centre, implies that th...

  19. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    OpenAIRE

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.

    2013-01-01

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis per...

  20. Efficient, designable, and broad-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    OpenAIRE

    Anquillare, E. L.; Miller, O D; Hsu, C. W.; DeLacy, B. G.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Johnson, S. G.; Soljacic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength resonators, ranging from single atoms to metallic nanoparticles, typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad and varied frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two-to-ten-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures, and can approach fundamental limits to broadband scattering fo...

  1. Prevalence of Broad-Host-Range Lytic Bacteriophages of Sphaerotilus natans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Ellen C.; Schrader, Holly S.; Rieland, Brenda; Thompson, Thomas L.; Lee, Kit W.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.; Kokjohn, Tyler A.

    1998-01-01

    Two bacteriophage collections were examined with regard to their ability to form plaques on multiple bacterial host species. Nine of 10 phages studied were found to be broad-host-range bacteriophages. These phages fell into two groups. Group 1, the SN series, was isolated from sewage treatment plant samples with Sphaerotilus natans ATCC 13338 as a host. The DNAs of these bacteriophages contained modified bases and were insensitive to cleavage by type I and II restriction endonucleases. The ef...

  2. African Cultural and Literary Specificity in the Broad Translation Quality Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Wanchia T. Neba

    2015-01-01

    Beyond revisiting the byzantine and seemingly inconclusive debate on translation quality assurance and assessment, this article investigates the extent of an across-the-board applicability of existing quality assessment frameworks to the broad translation quality debate, against a strong backdrop of culture-specificity. It, first and foremost, exemplifies cultural and literary specificity through linguistically open-ended African creative writing, examines the variegated concept of translatio...

  3. Cholera and the Pump on Broad Street: The Life and Legacy of John Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Laura

    2009-01-01

    There is still a pump in the Golden Square neighborhood on what was once called Broad Street. It does not work, for it is merely a replica of the original, and like the original its handle is missing. It serves as a curiously simple monument to the events that took place over one hundred years ago, when the real pump supplied water to the Broad…

  4. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Jenny C; Martin, Hilary C; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Rimmer, Andy; Kanapin, Alexander; Lunter, Gerton; Fiddy, Simon; Allan, Chris; Aricescu, A Radu; Attar, Moustafa; Babbs, Christian; Becq, Jennifer; Beeson, David; Bento, Celeste; Bignell, Patricia; Blair, Edward; Buckle, Veronica J; Bull, Katherine; Cais, Ondrej; Cario, Holger; Chapel, Helen; Copley, Richard R; Cornall, Richard; Craft, Jude; Dahan, Karin; Davenport, Emma E; Dendrou, Calliope; Devuyst, Olivier; Fenwick, Aimée L; Flint, Jonathan; Fugger, Lars; Gilbert, Rodney D; Goriely, Anne; Green, Angie; Greger, Ingo H; Grocock, Russell; Gruszczyk, Anja V; Hastings, Robert; Hatton, Edouard; Higgs, Doug; Hill, Adrian; Holmes, Chris; Howard, Malcolm; Hughes, Linda; Humburg, Peter; Johnson, David; Karpe, Fredrik; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kini, Usha; Knight, Julian C; Krohn, Jonathan; Lamble, Sarah; Langman, Craig; Lonie, Lorne; Luck, Joshua; McCarthy, Davis; McGowan, Simon J; McMullin, Mary Frances; Miller, Kerry A; Murray, Lisa; Németh, Andrea H; Nesbit, M Andrew; Nutt, David; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Oturai, Annette Bang; Pagnamenta, Alistair; Patel, Smita Y; Percy, Melanie; Petousi, Nayia; Piazza, Paolo; Piret, Sian E; Polanco-Echeverry, Guadalupe; Popitsch, Niko; Powrie, Fiona; Pugh, Chris; Quek, Lynn; Robbins, Peter A; Robson, Kathryn; Russo, Alexandra; Sahgal, Natasha; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A; Schuh, Anna; Silverman, Earl; Simmons, Alison; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Taylor, John; Thakker, Rajesh V; Tomlinson, Ian; Trebes, Amy; Twigg, Stephen R F; Uhlig, Holm H; Vyas, Paresh; Vyse, Tim; Wall, Steven A; Watkins, Hugh; Whyte, Michael P; Witty, Lorna; Wright, Ben; Yau, Chris; Buck, David; Humphray, Sean; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Bell, John I; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Bentley, David; Donnelly, Peter; McVean, Gilean

    2015-01-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number...... of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritization. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and external databases, deploying multiple annotation tools and using familial transmission...

  5. Broad geographic, taxonomic and ecological patterns of interpopulation variation in the dietary habits of snakes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Luiselli

    2006-01-01

    Because of their unique morphological and ecological characteristics (i.e. being obligate carnivorous, solitary, and ingesting their prey whole), snakes are expected to show unusual dietary patterns compared to other ectothermic vertebrates, and the best way to explore this is to analyse the snake dietary patterns globally. Here I review and analyse the peer-reviewed snake diet literature available in order to explore whether there are broad patterns in the interpopulation variability of diet...

  6. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypo...

  7. A Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth-stimulating Peptide from Broad Bean (Vicia faba .) Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xiao; Yuan Liu; Rizwan-ur-Rehman; Ran Kang; Yanping Wang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, broad bean protein hydrolysates (BPH) produced by alcalase with strong-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was first time reported. In order to obtain the key peptide that have growth-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB), gel filtration chromatography and Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) were applied to isolate and purify the peptides from BPH. Finally, F4-2 elicited the highest activity for LAB, corresponding to amin...

  8. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sener AKINCI; Tamer B�Y�KKESK?N; Ahmet ERO?LU; Birsen Eygi ERDO?AN

    2009-01-01

    Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected...

  9. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A. Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Scott C Weaver; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacit...

  10. A low-temperature external cavity diode laser for broad wavelength tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, William G.; Rosenberg, Jason S.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a low-temperature external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system for broad wavelength tuning. The performance achieved with multiple diode models addresses the scarcity of commercial red laser diodes below 633 nm, which is a wavelength range relevant to spectroscopy of many molecules and ions. Using a combination of multiple-stage thermoelectric cooling and water cooling, the operating temperature of a laser diode is lowered to -64{\\deg}C, more than ...

  11. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (mollusca, bivalvia, mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    OpenAIRE

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Van De Velde, G; Gittenberger, E; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along a depth gradient in the Oosterschelde to a) investigate whether a relation exists between shell shape and depth, b) test if the broadshelled specimens might represent M. galloprovincialis (or a hyb...

  12. On the apparent absence of broad iron lines in Seyfert galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bhayani, Shyam; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of XMM-Newton observations of eleven Seyfert galaxies that appear to be missing a broad iron K alpha line. These objects represent a challenge to the established paradigm for active galactic nuclei, where a relatively cold accretion disc feeds the central black hole. In that paradigm, X-ray illumination of the accretion disc should lead to continuum and fluorescence emission from iron which is broadened and shifted by relativistic effects close the hole. We extend the w...

  13. The Problem of Broad and Narrow Context in Cross-cultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Luan HONG

    2006-01-01

    In cross-cultural communication activities, different languages and cultures will affect the success and failure of communication. This paper explains the importance of context in cross -cultural communication according to the cultural comparison of broad and narrow context.
    Key words: cross cultural, context, difference, importance
    Résumé Pendant la communication interculturelle, la différence des langues et des cultures influencent la...

  14. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jenny C; Martin, Hilary C.; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Rimmer, Andy; Kanapin, Alexander; Lunter, Gerton; Fiddy, Simon; Allan, Chris; Aricescu, A. Radu; Attar, Moustafa; Babbs, Christian; Becq, Jennifer; Beeson, David

    2015-01-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom prior screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritisation. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and e...

  15. A PERVASIVE BROAD COMPONENT IN H I EMISSION LINE PROFILES: TEMPERATURE, TURBULENCE, OR A HELIUM SIGNATURE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussian analysis of interstellar neutral hydrogen emission profiles has revealed a pervasive broad component with a width on the order of 34 km s-1. When present, this component can most readily be identified in high galactic latitude directions where the H I profiles are either intrinsically weak or simple. Examination of published data reveals that this characteristic line width has been found in a variety of other H I features including compact high-velocity clouds, very-high-velocity clouds, and the Magellanic Stream. When its presence is accounted for in the analysis of H I profiles, other families of line widths at 14 and 6 km s-1 are clearly revealed. Possible mechanisms for producing this broad background component are discussed, including temperature, turbulence, and the critical ionization velocity effect. A line width on the order of 34 km s-1 would imply a kinetic temperature of 24,000 K, too high to keep the gas neutral; hence it should not be observed in H I emission spectra. Turbulent motions could explain a pervasive broad component, but not why it always has the same numerical value in various classes of H I emission line features. The critical ionization velocity effect hypothesis is intriguing because 34 km s-1 is the value for helium. Clearly, this could be a coincidence but the other prominent distribution peaks correspond to two families of critical ionization velocities of abundant interstellar elements including C, N, and O (about 14 km s-1) and metals (about 6 km s-1). Unfortunately, the mechanism by which this effect operates, even in laboratory situations, is not clearly understood. It is suggested that further investigation of the distribution of H I component line widths by allowing for the existence of a pervasive broad underlying component may cast a clearer light on this intriguing phenomenon.

  16. Broad-spectrum respiratory tract pathogen identification using resequencing DNA microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Baochuan; Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J.; Jennifer A. Thornton; Schnur, Joel M.; Thach, Dzung C.; Blaney, Kate M.; Ligler, Adam G.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Santiago, Jose; Walter, Elizabeth A.; Agan, Brian K.; Metzgar, David; Seto, Donald; Daum, Luke T.

    2006-01-01

    The exponential growth of pathogen nucleic acid sequences available in public domain databases has invited their direct use in pathogen detection, identification, and surveillance strategies. DNA microarray technology has offered the potential for the direct DNA sequence analysis of a broad spectrum of pathogens of interest. However, to achieve the practical attainment of this potential, numerous technical issues, especially nucleic acid amplification, probe specificity, and interpretation st...

  17. CO-DESIGNING BROAD SCOPE OF TECHNOLOGY-BASED APPLICATIONS IN AN EXPLORATORY PARTNERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Gillier, Thomas; Piat, Gérald

    2008-01-01

    8 pages International audience Joint-ventures, sub-contracts, co-developments, alliances, R&D consortia ; inter-firms partnerships have been strongly increasing for two last decades and becoming a major issue in the field of management and design research. This paper presents an industrial practice which consists in codesigning a broad scope of technology-based applications in an exploratory partnership [Segrestin, 2005]. First, we propose a brief overview of inter-firm R&D cooperations...

  18. Broad band high frequency analyzer for measurements of lightning-induced signals onboard the TARANIS satellite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Kolmašová, Ivana; Lán, Radek; Uhlíř, Luděk; Rauch, J. L.

    Prague: International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 2015. A11p-137. [Earth and Environmental Sciences for Future Generations. General Assembly of International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics /26./. 22.06.2015-02.07.2015, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : high frequency waves * broad band analyzer Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.iugg2015prague.com/abstractcd/data/HtmlApp/main.html#

  19. The role of the singing acoustic cues in the perception of broad affect dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mouawad, Pauline; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam; Gégout-Petit, Anne; Semal, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    International audience This experiment investigated the role of acoustic correlates of the singing voice in the perception of broad affect dimensions using the two-dimensional model of affect. The dataset consisted of vocal and glottal recordings of a sung vowel interpreted in different singing expressions. Listeners were asked to rate the sounds according to four perceived affect dimensions. A cross-tabulation was done between the singing expressions and affect judgments. A one-way ANOVA ...

  20. CIV Broad Absorption Line Acceleration in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; J. R. Trump; Ak, N. Filiz; Anderson, S. F.; Green, Paul J.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, M.; Vivek, M.; Beatty, T. G.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the largest systematic investigation of broad absorption line (BAL) acceleration to date. We use spectra of 140 quasars from three Sloan Digital Sky Survey programs to search for global velocity offsets in BALs over timescales of ~2.5-5.5 years in the quasar rest frame. We carefully select acceleration candidates by requiring monolithic velocity shifts over the entire BAL trough, avoiding BALs with velocity shifts that might be caused by profile variability. The CIV BA...

  1. Atomic orientation by a broadly frequency-modulated radiation: theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, G; Dancheva, Y

    2016-01-01

    We investigate magnetic resonances driven in thermal vapour of alkali atoms by laser radiation broadly modulated at a frequency resonant with the Zeeman splitting. A model accounting for both hyperfine and Zeeman pumping is developed and its results are compared with experimental measurements performed at relatively weak pump irradiance. The interplay between the two pumping processes generates intriguing interaction conditions, often overlooked by simplified models.

  2. Atomic orientation driven by broadly-frequency-modulated radiation: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, G.; Biancalana, V.; Dancheva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate magnetic resonances driven in thermal vapor of alkali-metal atoms by laser radiation broadly modulated at a frequency resonant with the Zeeman splitting. A model accounting for both hyperfine and Zeeman pumping is developed, and its results are compared with experimental measurements performed at relatively weak pump irradiance. The interplay between the two pumping processes generates intriguing interaction conditions, often overlooked by simplified models.

  3. Can Increasing Smallholder Farm Size Broadly Reduce Rural Poverty in Zambia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Jayne, T.S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite Zambia’s sustained and fairly robust agricultural growth since 2000, rural poverty levels have remained at about 80% over the past 15 years. Because over 70% of Zambia’s agricultural households are small-scale farmers cultivating less than two hectares of land, they must effectively contribute to agricultural growth if the process of growth is to be broadly based in Zambia.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Broad and Ultrapotent Human Monoclonal Antibodies with Therapeutic Activity against Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott A; Silva, Laurie A; Fox, Julie M; Flyak, Andrew I; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Khomadiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W; Kahle, Kristen M; Fong, Rachel H; Swayne, Sherri; Doranz, Benjamin J; McGee, Charles E; Heise, Mark T; Pal, Pankaj; Brien, James D; Austin, S Kyle; Diamond, Michael S; Dermody, Terence S; Crowe, James E

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that causes acute febrile infection associated with polyarthralgia in humans. Mechanisms of protective immunity against CHIKV are poorly understood, and no effective therapeutics or vaccines are available. We isolated and characterized human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize CHIKV infectivity. Among the 30 mAbs isolated, 13 had broad and ultrapotent neutralizing activity (IC50 vaccine development. PMID:26159721

  5. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MagdalenaPopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  6. Emerging broad-spectrum resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: Mechanisms and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Potron, Anaïs; Poirel , Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is quite common among non-fermenting Gram-negative rods, in particular among clinically relevant species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. These bacterial species, which are mainly nosocomial pathogens, possess a diversity of resistance mechanisms that may lead to multidrug or even pandrug resistance. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenemases conferring resistance to carbapenem...

  7. Multiple and bilateral benign cystic teratomas of ovary with broad ligament leiomyoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Choukimath S.M; Ramalingappa C.A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign cystic teratoma is the most common tumor of ovary. Though bilateralism is seen in 10-15% of the cases, bilateral and multiple benign cystic teratomas are rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Aim: We present a case of bilateral and multiple benign cystic teratomas with a broad ligament leiomyoma. Case findings: A 38 –year- old female presented with lower abdominal pain of 5 months duration. Ultrasonography of abdomen showed bilateral multiple adnexal...

  8. GMRT radio detection of broad lined Type Ic supernova ASASSN-16fp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayana, A. J.; Chandra, Poonam

    2016-06-01

    We observed broad lined Type Ic supernova ASASSN-16fp (ATel #9086, #9124, #9128, #9134) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) on 2016 June 29.00 UT in 1390 MHz band. We clearly detect radio emission from the supernova position. The flux density of the supernova in this band is 252+/-74 uJy. More observations are planned. We thanks GMRT staff for carrying out the observations.

  9. Transformation of Actinomyces spp. by a gram-negative broad-host-range plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, M K; Kozelsky, C S

    1994-01-01

    The gram-negative broad-host-range vector pJRD215 was transferred by electroporation into strains of Actinomyces viscosus or Actinomyces naeslundii at efficiencies which ranged from 10(2) to 10(7) transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA. The Actinomyces transformants expressed pJRD215-encoded resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. Moreover, the transforming plasmid DNA had not undergone any deletions or rearrangements, nor had it integrated into the genomes of these strains.

  10. Scope Economies and Competition Beyond the Balance Sheet: a ‘broad banking’ Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Carbó Valverde; Francisco Rodríguez Fernández

    2004-01-01

    There is a recent trend in banking research aiming to assess how financial innovation and technology are affecting bank cost, revenue and profits. Most of the studies have not found significant cost, profit or revenue complementarities either between traditional and non-traditional banking products or between traditional activities themselves. We study complementarities in a ‘broad banking’ environment: the Spanish banking sector. The results indicate that after including off-balance sheet bu...

  11. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Landais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(- genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  12. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Juan Cha; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and -ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible correlation between different broad band spectral indices (r.o, r.x, ir.o, ir.x, o., x.) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we suggested that the seed photons of the -ray drive from the synchrotron radiation themselves.

  13. The pupal specifier broad directs progressive morphogenesis in a direct-developing insect

    OpenAIRE

    Erezyilmaz, Deniz F.; Riddiford, Lynn M.; Truman, James W.

    2006-01-01

    A key regulatory gene in metamorphosing (holometabolous) insect life histories is the transcription factor broad (br), which specifies pupal development. To determine the role of br in a direct-developing (hemimetabolous) insect that lacks a pupal stage, we cloned br from the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Of’br). We find that, unlike metamorphosing insects, in which br expression is restricted to the larval–pupal transition, Of’br mRNA is expressed during embryonic development and is ma...

  14. Convenient broad-host-range unstable vectors for studying stabilization cassettes in diverse bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, Aneta A.; GLABSKI, Krzysztof; Kulinska, Anna; Lewicka, Ewa; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Markowska, Aleksandra; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-copy-number vectors of potential wide application in biotechnology need to encode stabilization modules ensuring their stable inheritance. The efficiency of stabilization may vary depending on the plasmid host so a thorough analysis of stabilization functions is required before use. Results To facilitate such analysis highly unstable, mobilizable, broad-host-range (BHR) vectors based on RK2 replicon were constructed. The vectors are suitable for testing of various stabilization...

  15. Edge effects on epiphytes in montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzhang Ma; Wenyao Liu; Lipan Yang; Guoping Yang

    2008-01-01

    Epiphytes are important components in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems, and are well-known for their sensitivity to environmental changes. To understand epiphyte’s response to forest fragmentation and edge effects, we established four plots at the edges of a montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan. Within each plot, we established four transects at 10, 20, 40, and 80 m from forest edge to study the species composition, biomass, and life form of e...

  16. Identification of broad-band waves above the auroral acceleration region: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Backrud

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate broad-band emissions at frequencies above the ion gyrofrequency on auroral field lines at geocentric distances of about 4.5 Earth radii. Observations by the Cluster satellites are used to study the wave characteristics and to determine the wave modes involved. All events include some bursts of broad-band emissions with a substantial component of the electric field parallel to the geomagnetic field. Studying the polarization of the emissions we find that linear waves in a homogeneous plasma can be used to theoretically describe the observations.

    The broad-band emissions include short bursts of ion acoustic waves, and longer periods of ion Bernstein and Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron (EIC waves. All waves occur during the same event within a few seconds, with EIC waves as the most common. Theoretically, there is no sharp limit between these wave modes and they can be described by the same dispersion surface. These emissions are closely associated with low-frequency Alfvén waves, indicating a possible generation mechanism.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; electric fields; plasma waves and instabilities

  17. Line shape variability in a sample of AGN with broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, D; Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kovacevica, A

    2015-01-01

    The spectral variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of their key features that enables us to study in more details the structure of AGN emitting regions. Especially, the broad line profiles, that vary both in flux and shape, give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGN, those with broad emission lines in their spectra, of the data obtained from the international long-term optical monitoring campaign coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. The main aim of this campaign is to study the physics and kinematics of the BLR on a uniform data set, focusing on the problems of the photoionization heating of the BLR and its geometry, where in this paper we give for a first time a comparative analysis of the variabilty of five type 1 AGN, discussing their complex BLR physics and ...

  18. Line Shape Variability in a Sample of AGN with Broad Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, D.; Popović, L. Č.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-12-01

    The spectral variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of the key features that enables us to study in more detail, the structure of AGN emitting regions. Especially, the broad line profiles that vary both in flux and shape, give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGNs, those with broad emission lines in their spectra, of the data obtained from the international long-term optical monitoring campaign coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. The main aim of this campaign is to study the physics and kinematics of the BLR on a uniform data set, focusing on the problems of the photoionization heating of the BLR and its geometry, where, in this paper, we give for a first time, a comparative analysis of the variabilty of five type 1 AGNs, discussing their complex BLR physics and geometry in the framework of the estimates of the supermassive black hole mass in AGN.

  19. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectrum. Using the publicly available code BINGO, we numerically calculate the local fNL for this model in equilateral and arbitrary triangular configurations of wavevectors and show that the obtained non-Gaussianity for this model is consistent with Planck results. In this paper we have also considered different spectral tilts at different bins to identify the cosmological scale that the spectral index needs to have a red tilt and it is interesting to report that spectral index cannot be well constrained up to k ≈ 0.01Mpc−1

  20. Targeting an Essential GTPase Obg for the Development of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonventre, Josephine A; Zielke, Ryszard A; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2016-01-01

    A promising new drug target for the development of novel broad-spectrum antibiotics is the highly conserved small GTPase Obg (YhbZ, CgtA), a protein essential for the survival of all bacteria including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). GC is the agent of gonorrhea, a prevalent sexually transmitted disease resulting in serious consequences on reproductive and neonatal health. A preventive anti-gonorrhea vaccine does not exist, and options for effective antibiotic treatments are increasingly limited. To address the dire need for alternative antimicrobial strategies, we have designed and optimized a 384-well GTPase assay to identify inhibitors of Obg using as a model Obg protein from GC, ObgGC. The assay was validated with a pilot screen of 40,000 compounds and achieved an average Z' value of 0.58 ± 0.02, which suggests a robust assay amenable to high-throughput screening. We developed secondary assessments for identified lead compounds that utilize the interaction between ObgGC and fluorescent guanine nucleotide analogs, mant-GTP and mant-GDP, and an ObgGC variant with multiple alterations in the G-domains that prevent nucleotide binding. To evaluate the broad-spectrum potential of ObgGC inhibitors, Obg proteins of Klebsiella pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were assessed using the colorimetric and fluorescence-based activity assays. These approaches can be useful in identifying broad-spectrum Obg inhibitors and advancing the therapeutic battle against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:26848972