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Sample records for areca

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ARECA CATECHU (ARECA NUT) HUSK EXTRACTS AGAINST COMMON ORAL PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bobby Cyriac; Vidya Pai; Ipe Varghese; Manjula Shantaram; Maji Jose

    2012-01-01

    The husk fibres of Areca catechu (areca nut) are reported to be used by the people of rural areas of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka for cleaning their teeth. The beneficial effects of these plant materials are not scientifically proven, so the study was carried out to estimate the antimicrobial properties of A.catechu against common oral pathogens. These antimicrobial properties in addition to mechanical cleansing property of the fibers of areca nut could improve the oral health. Alcoholic an...

  2. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ARECA CATECHU (ARECA NUT HUSK EXTRACTS AGAINST COMMON ORAL PATHOGENS

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    Maria Bobby Cyriac

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The husk fibres of Areca catechu (areca nut are reported to be used by the people of rural areas of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka for cleaning their teeth. The beneficial effects of these plant materials are not scientifically proven, so the study was carried out to estimate the antimicrobial properties of A.catechu against common oral pathogens. These antimicrobial properties in addition to mechanical cleansing property of the fibers of areca nut could improve the oral health. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of husk of Areca catechu were prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans, Prevotella intermedia were performed by agar well diffusion method. Alcoholic extract of Areca catechu husk fibers showed dose dependent positive inhibitory effect against Candida albicans with zone of inhibition of 5-9 mm. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts did not show significant antimicrobial activity against other tested organisms. As our study failed to demonstrate significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic organisms and a periodontal pathogen, we conclude that areca husk when used for routine oral care, would improve the oral health primarily through mechanical cleansing rather than antimicrobial activity. However, the results indicate that areca husk contains chemical components that has antifungal effect. Therefore this plant material can be a potential source for developing natural antifungal agents against C. albicans which is a common oral pathogen.

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Phenolic Compounds of Areca Nut(Areca catechu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing; WU Jiao; HAN Zhuang; MEI Wen-li; DAI Hao-fu

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Areca catechu L.(Palmae),commonly known as an important economical seed crop,is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas,including India,Southeast Asia,East Africa and New Guinea.Areca nut(frequently known as betel nut) is the ripe fruit of the tree A.catechu.Areca nut can be chewed and it is a common masticatory in tropical and subtropical countries.It was estimated in the early 1990s that 10% to 20% of the world's population chewed betel quid daily.

  5. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

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    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari. PMID:25674328

  6. Uji Aktivitas Antidiare Ekstrak Etanol Sabut Pinang (Areca catechu L.) Terhadap Tikus

    OpenAIRE

    Tamimi, Tarry Hayati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Areca nut included Palmae plants that are almost in all parts of Indonesia. Areca husks have not been scientifically tested as a drug, not like a leaf and areca seeds. Pectin and flavonoids contained in the areca husks can be used as antidiarrheal medication. Objective: The objective of this research was to know the characteristics and chemical compounds of simplex powder and ethanol extract of areca husk, and antidiarrheal activity of ethanol extract of areca husk compared wit...

  7. Effect of Maturation Degree of Areca Nut and Binder Treatment to The Physicochemical Properties and Citotoxicity of Spray-Dried Areca Nut (Areca catechu L Extracted Powder

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    Yernisa Yernisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut (Areca catechu L is a rich polyphenol source which is potential health-benefit. Polyphenol could extract from the sources and then converted to solid powder by spray drying. Polyphenol powder is easy to use and to introduce it into food (materials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maturation degree of areca nut (unripe, ripe and binder treatment (without a binder, arabic gum 2% w/v on the  physicochemical properties and citotoxicity of spray-dried areca nut extracted powder. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD. Data were analysed statistically used an analysis of variance. Analysis of the results exhibited unripe areca nut produced powder  with higher in yield, moisture content and total phenolic content but had no significant effect on pH and lower in bulk density and solubility than ripe areca nut. Arabic gum treatment produced powders with higher in yield, and solubility, but had no significant effect on moisture content and lower in bulk density, pH and total phenolic content than the treatment without binder. The areca nut extracted powders from all combination of treatments exhibited high cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 less than 1000 ppm, excepted the powders from ripe areca nut with arabic gum.

  8. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Rachana V.; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-01-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against hali...

  9. Areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu: A growing threat

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    Rajan Gunaseelan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Areca nut is the fourth main psychoactive substance in the world. In India, tobacco is added to the quid, and the commercially manufactured nonperishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or gutkha are on the rise in the market. Objective : To find out the prevalence of areca nut among the rural residents of Sriperambudur Taluk . Settings and Design: A community-based survey using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Materials and Methods :0 The survey was conducted in 2 villages and their colonies, which were randomly selected out of 168 villages. Data was collected from 500 residents of the study population. The survey was conducted for a period of 2 months. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 10.0. Results :The study participants were more likely to initiate areca nut use by 22 years of age. As many as 19.8% (n = 99 of the study participants chewed areca nut products, out of whom 11.2% (n = 56 indulged in chewing habit alone (areca nut products. Areca nut use was higher among male study subjects compared to females. The commercial forms of areca nut products (gutkha were the most prevalent ones [47.5% (n = 47 of those who used areca nut] observed in the community. Compared to female participants, male participants were more likely to perceive areca nut use as the most harmful habit draining the community health and wealth. Conclusion :There seems to be an increase in the prevalence of areca nut use. The community also perceives it to be a harmful habit. Therefore, effective interventions should be targeted towards the high-risk subpopulation of the community to decrease the prevalence of areca nut use in rural Tamil Nadu.

  10. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

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    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border. PMID:24029401

  11. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  12. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

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    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Areca Fiber and Maize Powder Hybrid Composites

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    Kishan Naik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are gaining the interest in packaging, domestic, low cost housing and other general applications. In this work the mechanical properties of randomly distributed areca fiber and maize powder reinforced phenol formaldehyde were studied. From the results Youngs modulus is maximum found in 300 ml of resin. The maximum tensile strength is for 300B composite plate. The maximum Young’s modulus for 300B is 135MPa, for bending strength of various composite plates, the composite plate with 400 ml PF resin shows the maximum bending load compared to other composite plates. The composite plate of 400C shows the maximum bending load compared to other composite plates. The maximum bending load for 400C composite plate is 0.854 kN. The adhesive tensile strength increases with decrease in Areca fiber and increase in maize powder up to 700 gms of Areca and 300 gms of maize powder. Later the adhesive tensile strength decreases with decrease in Areca fiber and increase in maize powder. Maximum adhesive tensile stress is 0.137 MPa for 400B composite plate compared to remaining composite plates.

  14. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

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    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  15. Areca Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Effect of Chemical Treatments on Impact Strength

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    S. Dhanalakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, impact strength of untreated, alkali treated, potassium permanganate treated, benzoyl chloride treated and acrylic acid treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites were studied under 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% fiber loadings. Impact strength increased with increase in fiber loading up to 60% and then showed a decline for all untreated and chemically treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The acrylic acid treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites with 60% fiber loading showed highest impact strength of 28.28 J/mm2 amongst all untreated and chemically treated areca/epoxy composites with same 60% fiber loading.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Areca Fiber and Maize Powder Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Kishan Naik; Swamy, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Natural fibers are gaining the interest in packaging, domestic, low cost housing and other general applications. In this work the mechanical properties of randomly distributed areca fiber and maize powder reinforced phenol formaldehyde were studied. From the results Youngs modulus is maximum found in 300 ml of resin. The maximum tensile strength is for 300B composite plate. The maximum Young’s modulus for 300B is 135MPa, for bending strength of various composite plates, the co...

  17. A review of the systemic adverse effects of areca nut or betel nut

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    Apurva Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut is widely consumed by all ages groups in many parts of the world, especially south-east Asia. The objective of this review is to systematically review and collate all the published data that are related to the systemic effects of areca nut. The literature search was performed by an electronic search of the Pubmed and Cochrane databases using keywords and included articles published till October 2012. We selected studies that covered the effect of areca nut on metabolism, and a total of 62 studies met the criteria. There is substantial evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut in cancers of the mouth and esophagus. Areca nut affects almost all organs of the human body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive organs. It causes or aggravates pre-existing conditions such as neuronal injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, asthma, central obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc. Areca nut affects the endocrine system, leading to hypothyroidism, prostate hyperplasia and infertility. It affects the immune system leading to suppression of T-cell activity and decreased release of cytokines. It has harmful effects on the fetus when used during pregnancy. Thus, areca nut is not a harmless substance as often perceived and proclaimed by the manufacturers of areca nut products such as Pan Masala, Supari Mix, Betel quid, etc. There is an urgent need to recognize areca nut as a harmful food substance by the policy makers and prohibit its glamorization as a mouth freshener. Strict laws are necessary to regulate the production of commercial preparations of areca nut.

  18. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

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    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children. PMID:20306864

  19. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children.

  20. Areca nut use among rural residents of Sriperambudur Taluk: A qualitative study

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    Gunaseelan R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O0 bjective: The main objective of the study was to understand the perceptions of the residents of rural part of Sriperambudur Taluk, regarding areca nut use. This article discusses the findings of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions at rural part of Sriperambudur Taluk. Materials and Methods: A community-based survey was conducted using qualitative methods. Out of 168 villages, 11 were randomly chosen. Fifteen in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions were conducted. Only those above 10 years of age and who used areca nut either in processed or un-processed form were included in the study. Results: Among different forms of areca nut products, the use of Hans, which is a commercial flavored product containing areca nut, tobacco and other ingredients is believed to be the most prevalent habit in all the age groups. Chewing areca nut is the initiating habit, leading to other habits such as smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages. Residents less than 30 years of age chew areca nut products for fun or because of peer pressure whereas the 30 to 50 year olds get habituated due to reasons such as boredom and family problems. Although there is awareness regarding the ill-effects of tobacco use, there is not much awareness regarding areca nut. According to the residents, the community has not given enough thought regarding areca nut products and therefore no action has been taken to mitigate this high-risk behavior. Conclusion: It is the perception of the community that there is an increasing trend in the use of areca nut especially the commercial forms such as Hans , in rural Tamilnadu. Habit gets initiated at a very young age; therefore age specific intervention programs should be implemented. Periodic research should be conducted to better understand the changing trends of chewing areca nut products.

  1. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai–Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Chue, Amy L; Verena I. Carrara; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Sue J Lee; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai–Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse...

  2. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

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    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances. PMID:15361101

  3. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature

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    Sidramesh Shivanand Muttagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. Results: All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut′s deleterious effects. Conclusion: Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.

  4. Use of Areca nut pericarp as a substrate for the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea cultivation

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    Sripheuk, P.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut pericarp and pararubber sawdust were used as a substrates for Volvariella volvacea cultivation. The five formulas of substrates were used as spawing media : entirely Areca nut pericarp, Areca nut pericarp : pararubber sawdust (ratios 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and entirely pararubber sawdust. Five kilograms of each substrates was spread in baskets for 15 days until harvesting time. The average yields obtained were 600.0 (B.E. = 34.20%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25%, 380.0 (B.E. = 21.66%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25% and 330.0 (B.E. = 18.81% g/basket, respectively. Using entirely Areca nut pericarp gave thehighest yield, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from using entirely pararubber sawdust.

  5. Evaluation of a self-rating screening test for areca quid abusers in Taiwan.

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    Chen, M-J; Yang, Y-H; Shieh, T-Y

    2002-07-01

    Areca quid chewing is a popular habit and areca is a well-known ethnopsychopharmalogic agent in southeast Asia. While the chewing habit is legal and also socially acceptable in many places of Taiwan, the public health problem of high oral cancer incidence has remained a priority on the health care list in our local health department. Helping areca quid chewers to reduce or even stop the habit will be paramount in the oral cancer prevention programme. Hence, in order to identify the appropriate strategy for stopping the chewing habit, it is important to distinguish whether an areca quid chewer has reached the level of substance abuse.In accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorder (fourth edition, DSM-IV), we developed a specific self-report questionnaire modified from the famous SCAN system, DSM-IV and ICD-10. The initial screening test for areca quid abusers had 52 questions. Its components included the onset age and frequency, subjective craving and feeling, social problems, physical problems, oral symptoms, psychological and abstinence-related problems, the motivation and capacity to abstain, and demographic data. The answers were divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. One hundred and twenty-five areca quid users (53 men, 72 women) were recruited. The abusers tended to have older age, less education, and higher daily consumption of areca quid. There were no differences on motivation to quit chewing (abstinence) between abusers and non-abusers. There were no statistical differences on tobacco-smoking and alcohol-drinking behavior. Based on the statistical analysis of receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves, 11 questions were chosen for the Self-report Screening Test for Areca quid Abuser (SSTAA). An areca quid chewer's answers with a score of 4 or more in these 11 questions would be considered an areca quid abuser. The modified process of SSTAA is performed for the evaluation of the native culture-related substance user. At this current

  6. Role of Areca Nut Induced TGF-β and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction in the Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

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    Pant, Ila; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Rao, Somanahalli Girish; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2015-01-01

    Areca nut consumption has been implicated in the progression of Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSF); an inflammatory precancerous fibrotic condition. Our previous studies have demonstrated the activation of TGF-β signaling in epithelial cells by areca nut components and also propose a role for epithelial expressed TGF-β in the pathogenesis of OSF. Although the importance of epithelial cells in the manifestation of OSF has been proposed, the actual effectors are fibroblast cells. However, the role of areca nut and TGF-β in the context of fibroblast response has not been elucidated. Therefore, to understand their role in the context of fibroblast response in OSF pathogenesis, human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) were treated with areca nut and/or TGF-β followed by transcriptome profiling. The gene expression profile obtained was compared with the previously published transcriptome profiles of OSF tissues and areca nut treated epithelial cells. The analysis revealed regulation of 4666 and 1214 genes by areca nut and TGF-β treatment respectively. The expression of 413 genes in hGF cells was potentiated by areca nut and TGF-β together. Further, the differentially expressed genes of OSF tissues compared to normal tissues overlapped significantly with areca nut and TGF-β induced genes in epithelial and hGF cells. Several positively enriched pathways were found to be common between OSF tissues and areca nut +TGF-β treated hGF cells. In concordance, areca nut along with TGF-β enhanced fibroblast activation as demonstrated by potentiation of αSMA, γSMA and collagen gel contraction by hGF cells. Furthermore, TGF-β secreted by areca nut treated epithelial cells influenced fibroblast activation and other genes implicated in fibrosis. These data establish a role for areca nut influenced epithelial cells in OSF progression by activation of fibroblasts and emphasizes the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in OSF.

  7. Peroxidase as the Major Protein Constituent in Areca Nut and Identification of Its Natural Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports illustrate the diverse effects of chewing the areca nut, most of which are harmful and have been shown to be associated with oral cancer. Nearly all of the studies are focused on the extract and/or low molecular weight ingredients in the areca nut. The purpose of this report is to identify the major protein component in the areca nut. After ammonium sulfate fractionation, the concentrated areca nut extract is subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography. A colored protein is eluted at low NaCl concentration and the apparently homogeneous eluent represents the major protein component compared to the areca nut extract. The colored protein shares partial sequence identity with the royal palm tree peroxidase and its peroxidase activity is confirmed using an established assay. In the study, the natural substrates of areca nut peroxidase are identified as catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B1. The two former substrates are similarly oxidized to form a 576 Da product with concomitant removal of four hydrogen atoms. Interestingly, oxidation of procyanidin B1 occurs only in the presence of catechin or epicatechin and an additional product with an 864 Da molecular mass. In addition, procyanidin B1 is identified as a peroxidase substrate for the first time.

  8. Safrole-DNA adducts in tissues from esophageal cancer patients: clues to areca-related esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Ming; Liu, Tsung-Yung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tang, Hseau-Chung; Leh, Julie; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lee, Chun-Jean; Lee, Yung-Chie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that areca quid chewing can be an independent risk factor for developing esophageal cancer. However, no studies are available to elucidate the mechanisms of how areca induces carcinogenesis in the esophagus. Since the areca nut in Taiwan contains a high concentration of safrole, a well-known carcinogenic agent, we analyzed safrole-DNA adducts by the 32P-postlabelling method in tissue specimens from esophageal cancer patients. In total, we evaluated 47 patients with esophageal cancer (16 areca chewers and 31 non-chewers) who underwent esophagectomy at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1996 and 2002. Of the individuals with a history of habitual areca chewing (14 cigarette smokers and two non-smokers), one of the tumor tissue samples and five of the normal esophageal mucosa samples were positive for safrole-DNA adducts. All patients positive for safrole-DNA adducts were also cigarette smokers. Such adducts could not be found in patients who did not chew areca, irrespective of their habits of alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking (psafrole was also tested in vitro in three esophageal cell lines and four cultures of primary esophageal keratinocytes. In two of the esophageal keratinocyte cultures, adduct formation was increased by treatment with safrole after induction of cytochrome P450 by 3-methyl-cholanthrene. This paper provides the first observation of how areca induces esophageal carcinogenesis, i.e., through the genotoxicity of safrole, a component of the areca juice.

  9. Potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Amol M; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Vyawahare, Neeraj S; Hadambar, Avinash A; Thorve, Vrushali S

    2010-12-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. (ANE) nut was screened for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant potential. Three doses of ANE (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg orally) were tested for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Evaluation of analgesic activity of ANE was performed using hot plate and formalin test in mice. ANE showed maximum increase in hot plate reaction time (56.27%, pAreca catechu could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. PMID:20849907

  10. The anti-inflammatory effect of Indonesian Areca catechu leaf extract in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, KANG PA; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Kim, Ji-Su; Dirgantara, Septrianto; Maeng, Won Jai; Hong, Heeok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme can cause inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is also involved in the inflammatory response through regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Areca catechu is one of the known fruit plants of the Palmaceae family. It has been used for a long time as a source of herbal medicine in Indonesia. In this study, we explored the effect of Indonesian Areca catechu leaf ethanol extract ...

  11. Complete genome sequence of a novel velarivirus infecting areca palm in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongmei; Qi, Shuishui; Chang, Zhaoxia; Rong, Qiqi; Akinyemi, Ibukun A; Wu, Qingfa

    2015-09-01

    The complete genome of a novel virus, provisionally named areca palm velarivirus 1 (APV1), was identified in areca palm exhibiting leaf yellowing symptoms in Hainan province, China. The genome of APV1 consists of 16,080 nucleotides and possesses 11 open reading frames (ORFs), sharing 56.4% nucleotide sequence identity with little cherry virus 1 (NC_001836.1). The genome organization of APV1 is highly similar to that of members of the genus Velarivirus (family Closteroviridae). Phylogenetic analysis placed APV1 together with members of the genus Velarivirus. PMID:26088445

  12. Developmental patterning and segregation of alkaloids in areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) revealed by magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimany, Amitava; George, Christy; Naik, Hemanta R; Pinto, Danica Glenda; Chandrakumar, N; Pradeep, T

    2016-05-01

    Areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) is consumed by people from different parts of Asia, including India. The four major alkaloids present in areca nut are arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline and guvacine. Upon cutting, the nut reveals two kinds of regions; white and brown. In our present study, we have monitored the formation of these two regions within the nut during maturation, using the non-invasive techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and volume localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) imaging have been used to study the associated change in the alkaloid contents of these two regions during the growth of the nut. Our study reveals that white and brown regions start forming within the nut when the liquid within starts solidifying. At the final stage of maturity, arecoline, arecaidine and guvacoline get segregated in the brown region whereas guvacine gets to the white region of the nut. The transport of molecules with maturity and corresponding pattern formation are expected to be associated with a multitude of physiochemical changes.

  13. Developmental patterning and segregation of alkaloids in areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) revealed by magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimany, Amitava; George, Christy; Naik, Hemanta R; Pinto, Danica Glenda; Chandrakumar, N; Pradeep, T

    2016-05-01

    Areca nut (seed of Areca catechu) is consumed by people from different parts of Asia, including India. The four major alkaloids present in areca nut are arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline and guvacine. Upon cutting, the nut reveals two kinds of regions; white and brown. In our present study, we have monitored the formation of these two regions within the nut during maturation, using the non-invasive techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and volume localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) imaging have been used to study the associated change in the alkaloid contents of these two regions during the growth of the nut. Our study reveals that white and brown regions start forming within the nut when the liquid within starts solidifying. At the final stage of maturity, arecoline, arecaidine and guvacoline get segregated in the brown region whereas guvacine gets to the white region of the nut. The transport of molecules with maturity and corresponding pattern formation are expected to be associated with a multitude of physiochemical changes. PMID:26896852

  14. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant an...

  15. Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Areca Seed Polyphenols and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Min Zhang; Wu-Yang Huang; Wen-Xue Chen; Lin Han; Hai-De Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are functional compounds in plants, which possess many bioactivities beneficial for humans. The aim of this study was to establish a highly efficient method for extracting polyphenol compounds from areca seeds and further to identify polyphenols and antioxidant properties of the seeds. A quadratic general rotary unitized design was used to determine the optimal extraction process. The polyphenols were identified using LC-TOF-MS. By comparison with ascorbic acid (Vc), the antioxida...

  16. Ingredients contribute to variation in production of reactive oxygen species by areca quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Li, Chien-Ming; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Chen, Chung-Ho

    2006-06-01

    Areca quid (AQ) chewing has been implicated an independent risk factor for the development of oral cancer. Taiwanese areca quid (AQ) refers to a combination of areca nut (AN), lime, and inflorescence of Piper betle Linn. (IPB) or Piper betle leaf (PBL). Studies of AQ in other countries reported that AN extract combined with lime generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical (HO.), known to be a contributing factor in oral mucosa damage. To determine whether HO. is formed in the oral cavity during AQ chewing, the formation of meta-tyrosine (m-Tyr) and ortho-tyrosine (o-Tyr) from l-phenylalanine (Phe) was confirmed. It was demonstrated that combined aqueous extracts of AN, lime, metal ions (such as Cu2+ and Fe2+), and IPB or PBL produced HO.. Thus, the yield of HO. significantly increases when higher amounts of IPB or lime are added and also when Cu2+ and Fe2+ are increased. Further, the omission of any one of these ingredients significantly reduces the formation of HO.. Our results found that chewing AQ with IPB generated significantly higher HO. than chewing AQ with PBL, and may result in greater oxidative damage to the surrounding oral mucosa. PMID:16840253

  17. Epithelial atrophy in oral submucous fibrosis is mediated by copper (II) and arecoline of areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Pant, Ila; Narra, Sivakrishna; Radhesh, Rekha; Ranganathan, Kannan; Rao, Somanahalli Girish; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of oral cavity to areca nut is associated with several pathological conditions including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Histopathologically OSF is characterized by epithelial atrophy, chronic inflammation, juxtaepithelial hyalinization, leading to fibrosis of submucosal tissue and affects 0.5% of the population in the Indian subcontinent. As the molecular mechanisms leading to atrophied epithelium and fibrosis are poorly understood, we studied areca nut actions on human keratinocyte and gingival fibroblast cells. Areca nut water extract (ANW) was cytotoxic to epithelial cells and had a pro-proliferative effect on fibroblasts. This opposite effect of ANW on epithelial and fibroblast cells was intriguing but reflects the OSF histopathology such as epithelial atrophy and proliferation of fibroblasts. We demonstrate that the pro-proliferative effects of ANW on fibroblasts are dependent on insulin-like growth factor signalling while the cytotoxic effects on keratinocytes are dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of keratinocytes with arecoline which is a component of ANW along with copper resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity which becomes comparable to IC(50) of ANW. Furthermore, studies using cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry and plasmid cleavage assay suggested that the presence of arecoline increases oxidation reduction potential of copper leading to enhanced cleavage of DNA which could generate an apoptotic response. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay and Ki-67 index of OSF tissue sections suggested epithelial apoptosis, which could be responsible for the atrophy of OSF epithelium.

  18. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  19. Effect of areca on contraction of colonic muscle strips in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Ping Xie; Wei Li; Song-Yi Qu; Tian-Zhen Zheng; Ying-Li Yang; Yong-Hui Ding; Yu-Ling Wei; Lian-Bi Chen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of areca on the contractileactivity of isolated colonic muscle strips in rats andmechanism involved.METHODS: Each strip (LMPC, longitudinal muscle ofproximal colon; CMPC, circular muscle of proximal colon;LMDC, longitudinal muscle of distal colon; CMlC, circularmuscle of distal colon. ) was suspended in a tissue chambercontaining 5 mL Krebs solution (37 ℃), bubbledcontinuously with 950 mL@ L-1 O2 and 50 mL@ L-1 CO2 . Themean contractile amplitude (A), the resting tension (T),and the contractile frequency (F) were simultaneouslyrecorded on recorders.RESULTS: Arsca dose dependently increased the meancontractile amplitude, the resting tension of proximal anddistal colonic smooth muscle strips in rats ( P < 0.05). Italso partly increased the contractile frequency of colonicsmooth muscle strips in rats ( P < 0.05). The effects werepartly inhibited by atropine (the resting tension of LMPCdecreased from 0. 44 ± 0. 12 to 0. 17 ± 0.03; the restingtension of LMDC decreased from 0.71 ± 0.14 to 0.03 ± 0.01;the mean contractile amplitude of LMPC increased from -45.8 ± 7.2 to -30.5 ± 2.9; the motility index of CMDC decreasedfrom 86.6± 17.3 to 32.8 ± 9.3; P< 0.05 vs areca), but theeffects were not inhibited by hexamethonium (P> 0.05).CONCLUSION: Areca stimulated the motility of isolatedcolonic smooth muscle strips in rats. The stimulation ofareca might be relevant with M reoeptor partly.

  20. The antidepressant like action of ethanolic extract of areca catechu on behavioral models of depression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar M. Bende

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The results of present study suggest that the areca catechu nut ethanolic extract 50mg/kg possess potential anti-depression like effect without generalized CNS depression. Further studies are needed to confirm this. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2098-2102

  1. Study of Fastness, UV Protection, Deodorization and Antimicrobial Properties of Silk Fabrics Dyed with the Liquids Extracted from the Gallnuts, Areca Nuts, and Pomegranate Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Soun.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the fastness, UVprotection, deodorization, and antimicrobial properties of silk fabrics dyed with liquids extracted from the gallnuts, areca nuts, and pomegranate peels.

  2. Study of Fastness, UV Protection, Deodorization and Antimicrobial Properties of Silk Fabrics Dyed with the Liquids Extracted from the Gallnuts, Areca Nuts, and Pomegranate Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Jin Soun.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fastness, UVprotection, deodorization, and antimicrobial properties of silk fabrics dyed with liquids extracted from the gallnuts, areca nuts, and pomegranate peels.

  3. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  4. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapepol Bavovada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae (AC and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae (QI were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl4. It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress−induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts.

  5. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products.

  6. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    P. Murugakoothan; S. Ananth; P. Vivek; T. Arumanayagam

    2014-01-01

    A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- ...

  7. Oral submucous fibrosis: Comparing clinical grading with duration and frequency of habit among areca nut and its products chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareedi Mukram Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To evaluate the effect of frequency, duration and type of areca nut products on the incidence and severity of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF. Materials and methods: Patients with the limited mouth opening and associated blanched oral mucosa with palpable fibrous bands were included in this study. Biopsies were done and the informed consent was taken from each patient included in this study. The tissues were taken from the affected areas and then studied histopathologically. The data was analysed statistically using X 2 -test. Results: In this present prospective study done in 197 subjects (189 males and 8 females who were screened and diagnosed clinically having OSMF with age ranging from 22 to 61 years with mean 38.8 years. Gutkha-chewing habit alone was identified in 58 subjects and those associated with gutkha and tobacco were 33 with mean age of 28.2 years and 32.3 years, respectively. The number of people getting affected with OSMF is more associated with gutkha and areca nut with the P-value of the analysis ranging from 0.05 to 0.01. Conclusion: The occurrence of OSMF is related to areca nut and its products. The duration and frequency of its use and type of areca nut product has effect on the incidence and severity of OSMF. Gutkha and pan masala have more deleterious and faster effects on oral mucosa. The gutkha-chewing habit along with the other habits does not have any significant effect on the rate of occurrence and incidence and severity of the OSMF.

  8. Effect of Curing on the Tensile and Flexural Performance of Fully Biodegradable Corn Starch/Areca Frond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Shenoy Heckadka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites have monopolized the automotive, construction, and packaging industry. Their high strength to weight ratio has made them an integral part of numerous engineering applications. In this study biodegradable matrix is combined with areca frond fibres for developing composites for low strength structural applications. Areca frond fibres were extracted and treated with sodium bicarbonate to improve the surface characteristics. Hand lay-up and compression moulding techniques were used to fabricate composites having unidirectional fibre orientation. The specimens prepared were exposed to varied environments, namely, sunlight, OTG oven, steam oven, and hot air oven, for curing and the results were analyzed to best suit the implicated requirements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in surface characteristics of the frond fibres after treatment. Tensile and flexural strength of starch based/areca frond reinforced composites were evaluated according to ASTM standards. Test results revealed that composites cured in a steam oven resulted in improved tensile and flexural strength compared to other curing environments.

  9. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anajwala Chetan C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 µg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461µg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  11. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit. PMID:9890449

  12. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit.

  13. Hydroxyl radical formation and oxidative DNA damage induced by areca quid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Lan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Tsung-Yun

    2002-02-01

    Chewing areca quid (AQ) has been implicated as a major risk factor for the development of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies have suggested that AQ-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the contributing factors for oral carcinogenesis. However, the AQ used in Taiwan is different from that used in other countries. This study is designed to test whether ROS are generated and the consequent effects in locally prepared AQ in vivo. We measured the hydroxyl radical formation, as represented by the presence of o- and m-tyrosine in saliva from volunteers who chewed AQ containing 20 mg phenylalanine. Their saliva contained significantly higher amounts (p leaf. We further tested the oxidative DNA damaging effect of the reconstituted AQ, as evidenced by the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels, in hamster buccal pouch. Following daily painting for 14 d, the 8-OH-dG level in hamster buccal pouch is significantly elevated (p < .05) in the AQ-treated group versus the controls. These findings demonstrate that ROS, such as hydroxyl radical, are formed in the human oral cavity during AQ chewing, and chewing such prepared AQ might cause oxidative DNA damage to the surrounding tissues. PMID:11911495

  14. Biosorption of lead (II) from water using heartwood charcoal of Areca catechu: equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H. P.; Chakravarty, P.

    2013-09-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the removal of Pb(II) from water by using heartwood charcoal of Areca catechu (HCAC). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties at different contact times (5-30 min), concentrations (0.1-10 mg/L), amounts of adsorbents (0.1-0.6 g), and in a range of pH 2-7. Most favorable biosorption condition was found at pH 5.0, 0.5 g biomass dosage and at 25 min equilibrium time. The experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Freundlich isotherm was found to well represent the measured sorption data implying HCAC has heterogeneous surface. Lagergren first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model were used to analyze the biosorption data; it was observed that the pseudo-second-order model best represented the relationship. Scanning electron microscopy image and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were also incorporated in support of the study. The result shows that HCAC has the potentiality to remove Pb(II) from water.

  15. Areca nut and betel quid chewing among South Asian immigrants to Western countries and its implications for oral cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Auluck, A; Hislop, G; Poh, C; Zhang, L.; Rosin, MP

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian community is the largest and one of the fastest growing minority groups in Canada, according to the 2006 census. These immigrants bring to Canada talents and skills that can promote Canada’s economy and cultural diversity, but they also bring lifestyle habits that may lead to serious health issues. Chewing areca nut and betel quid (paan, with and without tobacco) is a known risk factor for oral cancer. This habit is common in the Indo-Canadian population, as evidenced by its s...

  16. 槟榔致癌物质与口腔癌%Areca nut-related carcinogens and oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄龙; 翦新春

    2014-01-01

    Areca nut is a recently confirmed classⅠcarcinogen. The areca nut chewing habit is a primary environmental risk factor for the development of oral cancer due to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of arecoline(ARC), areca-containing tannins, areca-specific nitrosamine(ASNA), and reactive oxygen species(ROS) produced during areca nut chewing. ARC is capable of inducing apoptosis of oral fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results of different types of short-term screening tests differ, so the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of areca-containing tannins remain controversial. Tannin-containing polyphenolic fraction is a primary carcinogenic ingredient. 3-Methyl-nitrosamino propionaldehyde can induce DNA strand breakage and DNA-protein cross-linkage for human buccal keratinocytes. 3-Methyl-nitrosamino propionitrile is a potent carcinogen that can induce nasal, esophageal, and tongue tumors in laboratory animals. ROS produced during areca nut chewing can promote tumorigenesis by inducing DNA oxidative damage and activating oncogenes. A newly found proteoglycan in the 3.0×104 to 10.0× 104 relative molecular mass fraction of areca nut extract induces oxidative stress and modulates a signaling cascade that upregulates hypoxia, inducing factor-1α expression in oral cancer cells, which eventually leads to autophagy. Autophagy can help cancer cells survive ARC-induced apoptosis and promote the development of oral cancer. Areca nut extract can enhance tongue cancer cell-induced platelet aggregation by generating ROS, thus promoting tongue cancer metastasis.%槟榔为一级致癌物,咀嚼槟榔引起口腔癌缘于槟榔中的槟榔碱(ARC)、槟榔鞣质、槟榔特异性亚硝胺(ASNA)和活性氧(ROS)等具有细胞毒性、遗传毒性、致突变性和致癌性。ARC可诱导口腔成纤维细胞、角质形成细胞和人脐静脉内皮细胞程序性死亡。槟榔鞣质有否遗传毒性

  17. Effect of dichloromethane fraction of Areca catechu nut on monoamines associated behaviors and tyramine pressor sensitivity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Abbas, Ghulam; Ahmed, Fahad Shabbir; Rahman, Attaur; Dar, Ahsana

    2014-03-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the effect of Areca catechu nut dichloromethane fraction (7 mg/kg) on monoamines (serotonin and dopamine) modulation (5-hydroxytryptophan-induced tremors and phenylethylamine-induced stereotypes) and its interaction with tyramine (cheese effect). The dichloromethane fraction caused pronounced increase in 5-HTP-induced tremors (50%) with negligible PEA-induced stereotypes (20%). Additionally, it did not produce a significant increase in the tyramine pressor effects. These results suggest that the dichloromethane fraction of A. catechu nut primarily elevates serotonin levels (probably via monoamine oxidase A inhibition) and does not induce cheese effect. PMID:24577919

  18. Impacts of autophagy-inducing ingredient of areca nut on tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yen

    Full Text Available Areca nut (AN is a popular carcinogen used by about 0.6-1.2 billion people worldwide. Although AN contains apoptosis-inducing ingredients, we previously demonstrated that both AN extract (ANE and its 30-100 kDa fraction (ANE 30-100K predominantly induce autophagic cell death in both normal and malignant cells. In this study, we further explored the action mechanism of ANE 30-100K-induced autophagy (AIA in Jurkat T lymphocytes and carcinoma cell lines including OECM-1 (mouth, CE81T/VGH (esophagus, SCC25 (tongue, and SCC-15 (tongue. The results showed that chemical- and small hairpin RNA (shRNA-mediated inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK resulted in the attenuation of AIA in Jurkat T but not in OECM-1 cells. Knockdown of Atg5 and Beclin 1 expressions ameliorated AIA in OECM-1/CE81T/VGH/Jurkat T and OECM-1/SCC25/SCC-15, respectively. Furthermore, ANE 30-100K could activate caspase-3 after inhibition of Beclin 1 expression in OECM-1/SCC25/SCC15 cells. Meanwhile, AMPK was demonstrated to be the upstream activator of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK in Jurkat T cells, and inhibition of MEK attenuated AIA in Jurkat T/OECM-1/CE81T/VGH cells. Finally, we also found that multiple myeloma RPMI8226, lymphoma U937, and SCC15 cells survived from long-term non-cytotoxic ANE 30-100K treatment exhibited stronger resistance against serum deprivation through upregulated autophagy. Collectively, our studies indicate that Beclin-1 and Atg5 but not AMPK are commonly required for AIA, and MEK/ERK pathway is involved in AIA. Meanwhile, it is also suggested that long-term AN usage might increase the resistance of survived tumor cells against serum-limited conditions.

  19. Role of areca nut induced JNK/ATF2/Jun axis in the activation of TGF-β pathway in precancerous Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Ila; Rao, S. Girish; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is potentially premalignant with progressive and irreversible extracellular matrix deposition accompanied by epithelial atrophy and like other fibrotic disorders, is primarily a TGF-β driven disease. OSF is caused by prolonged chewing of areca nut. Our previous studies reported a pivotal role for TGF-β activation and its effects contributing to OSF. However, the mechanism for activation of TGF-β signaling in OSF is still unknown. In this study we demonstrate activation of TGF-β signaling with sub-cytotoxic dose of areca nut in epithelial cells and discovered a key role for pJNK in this process. In good correlation; pJNK was detected in OSF tissues but not in normal tissues. Moreover, activation of JNK was found to be dependent on muscarinic acid receptor induced Ca2+/CAMKII as well as ROS. JNK dependent phosphorylation of ATF2/c-Jun transcription factors resulted in TGF-β transcription and its signaling. pATF2/p-c-Jun were enriched on TGF-β promoter and co-localized in nuclei of epithelial cells upon areca nut treatment. In corroboration, OSF tissue sections also had nuclear pATF2 and p-c-Jun. Our results provide comprehensive mechanistic details of TGF-β signaling induced by etiological agent areca nut in the manifestation of fibrosis which can lead to new therapeutic modalities for OSF. PMID:27708346

  20. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  1. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  2. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: Consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Ikeda, N.; P C Gupta; Warnakulasuriya, S; C. DE W. van Wyk; Shrestha, P.; Axéll, T.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that 'quid' be defined as 'a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or bot...

  3. 槟榔化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents from the Fruits of Areca catechu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文强; 王红程; 王文婧; 王英; 张晓琦; 叶文才

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the fruits of Areca catechu. Methods: The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel,RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results: Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the fruits of Areca catechu. Their structures were identified as isorhamnetin(1) ,quercetin(2) ,liquiritigenin(3) ,5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavanone(4) ,( + )-catechin(5) ,resveratrol(6) ,ferulic acid(7) ,vanillic acid(8) ,5,8-epidioxiergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol(9) ,stigmasta-4-en-3-one(10) ,β-sitosterol(11) ,cycloartenol( 12) ,and de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (13) .respectively. Conclusion: Compounds 2~4,6,7,9,10,12,13 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究槟榔种子的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱、反相RP-18柱、Sephadex LH-20柱等色谱方法进行分离纯化,根据理化性质与波谱数据鉴定化合物结构.结果:分离鉴定了13个化合物,分别为:异鼠李素(1)、槲皮素(2)、甘草素(3)、5,7,4’-trihydroxy-3’,5’-dimethoxyflavanone(4)、(+)-儿茶素(5)、反式白黎芦醇(6)、阿魏酸(7)、香草酸(8)、过氧麦角甾醇(9)、豆甾-4-烯-3-酮(10)、β-谷甾醇(11)、环阿尔廷醇(12)、de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (13).结论:其中,化合物2~4、6、7、9、10、12、13为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  4. A new matrix for analyzing low molecular mass compounds and its application for determination of carcinogenic areca alkaloids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chia-Hsien; Lu, Chi-Yu

    2009-09-01

    Arecoline is the main alkaloid present in the areca nut (or betel nut) and it has central nervous system effects. Its pharmacological activities induce the constriction of the bronchial smooth muscles, and stimulation of the lacrimal and intestinal glands. Chewing areca nut is harmful to health because this habit may increase the risk of the development of oral cancer. In this study, a fast method was provided for the determination of areca alkaloids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometer with a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer. Traditionally the MALDI-TOF method was not suitable for the analysis of small molecular weight (m/zplate. This new matrix was also used to test the MALDI imaging experiment. Application of this MALDI-TOF method for trace analysis of arecoline by this new matrix in human plasma at sub microM level proved workable. PMID:19699399

  5. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murugakoothan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- Ray spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies of pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 were carried out to analyze their structural, optical, functional group, compositional and morphological details. The dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using TiO2 nano particles coated on FTO glass plate which is sensitized by the natural dye as photo anode and platinum coated FTO as counter electrode. The natural dye sensitized solar cell showed a solar light energy to electron conversion efficiency of 0.76 %.

  6. Protective Effect of Areca catechu Leaf Ethanol Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in ICR Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Lee, Sang-Rak; Hong, Heeok

    2016-02-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common digestive disorder that results in considerable suffering. Hence, this digestive pathology has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Although numerous drugs have been developed to treat gastric ulcers, therapeutic approaches for many of the complications associated with these drugs remain to be identified. For this reason, many natural compounds have been explored as alternatives for these drugs. In this study, we have investigated the effectiveness of Areca catechu leaf ethanol extract (ACE) for treating ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice. We performed histological as well as immunohistochemical examinations to explore the therapeutic properties of ACE. We also examined the levels of inflammatory signaling molecules to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of ACE. The histochemical data demonstrate that ACE can protect the mucosal epithelium as well as the vascular supply in the gastric tract. Furthermore, ACE significantly reduced the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Taken together, these data suggest that ACE administration may have the potential as an alternative treatment for gastric ulcer because of its cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and ability to promote the rejuvenation and revascularization of the damaged gastric epithelium. PMID:26540449

  7. The Protective Effects of Areca catechu Extract on Cognition and Social Interaction Deficits in a Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulimiti Adilijiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness with an unclear cause. One theory is that demyelination of white matter is one of the main pathological factors involved in the development of schizophrenia. The current study evaluated the protective effects of Areca catechu nut extract (ANE on a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model. Two doses of ANE (1% and 2% were administered orally in the diet for 8 weeks. Animals subjected to demyelination showed impaired spatial memory and less social activity. In addition, mice subjected to demyelination displayed significant myelin damage in cortex and demonstrated a higher expression of NG2 and PDGFRα and AMPK activation. ANE treatment not only significantly enhanced cognitive ability and social activity, but also protected myelin against cuprizone toxicity by promoting oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC differentiation. In addition, ANE treatment demonstrated significant dephosphorylation of AMPKα, indicating a regulatory role for ANE in schizophrenia. This study showed that ANE treatment may enhance cognitive ability and social activity by facilitating OPC differentiation and protecting against myelin damage in cortex. Results also suggest the AMPK signaling pathway may be involved in this process.

  8. Areca Nut Chewing and an Impaired Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate as Significant Risk Factors for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Xu, Ran; Zhao, Xiaokun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xuan; Wu, Shuiqing; Ai, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the predictive value of preoperative clinicopathological variables, with a special focus on areca nut chewing, on disease recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Data from 242 patients diagnosed with NMIBC between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Fifteen clinicopathological variables were analyzed to evaluate their prognostic value. During a mean observation period of 21 months, disease recurrence occurred in 140 patients (57.9%). On multivariate analysis, heavy-areca nut chewing (HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.37–3.47), current smoking (HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.99–4.80), moderately impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.09–2.83), severely impaired eGFR (HR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.70–6.48) and tumor grade (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.36–2.77) were independent factors for recurrence, based on which a risk factor model was developed to stratify patients into high, medium and low risk groups. In conclusion, our study suggests that in addition to quitting smoking, quitting areca nut chewing may also reduce the risk of first recurrence in NMBIC patients, monitoring and preserving their renal function may be beneficial as well. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the prognostic significance of these factors and the risk stratification model in this population. PMID:27385379

  9. Precocious anaphase and expression of Securin and p53 genes as candidate biomarkers for the early detection in areca nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkalang, Sillarine; Banerjee, Atanu; Dkhar, Hughbert; Nongrum, Henry B; Ganguly, Buddha; Islam, Mohammad; Rangad, Gordon M; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2015-05-01

    Research over the years has generated enough evidence to implicate areca nut, as a carcinogen in humans. Besides oral, significant rise in the incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, liver and stomach was seen among areca nut chewers. Early diagnosis seems key to understand the initial processes of carcinogenesis which is highly curable. In North-East India, betel quid contains raw areca nut (RAN), lime and small portion of betel leaf without any other constituents. This study was not intended to isolate any active ingredients from the RAN and to look its action. The present objective is to validate the screening of precocious anaphase and analysis of expression of Securin and p53 in non-target cells like human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) as early indicative parameters of RAN + lime-induced cancers. A total of 35 mice were examined at different time points for following ad libitum administration of RAN extract in drinking water with lime. Peripheral blood was collected from 32 human donors of which, 24 were RAN + lime heavy chewers. Expression of genes was assessed by immunoblotting and/or by immunohistochemistry. Histological preparation of stomach tissue of mice revealed that RAN + lime induced stomach cancer. A gradual increase in the frequency of precocious anaphases and aneuploid cells was observed in both RAN + lime-treated mouse BMC and human PBL of RAN heavy chewers. Levels of p53 and Securin were increased in these cells during early days of RAN + lime exposure. The level of Securin was significantly higher in human tumour samples than their adjacent normal counterpart. The expression of Securin was increased significantly in RAN + lime-administered mice as well as in stomach tumour. Present study revealed that precocious anaphase and expression of p53 and Securin in non-target cells are significantly associated with an increased risk of RAN-induced cancer and thus these parameters can be of early diagnostic value

  10. Precocious anaphase and expression of Securin and p53 genes as candidate biomarkers for the early detection in areca nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkalang, Sillarine; Banerjee, Atanu; Dkhar, Hughbert; Nongrum, Henry B; Ganguly, Buddha; Islam, Mohammad; Rangad, Gordon M; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2015-05-01

    Research over the years has generated enough evidence to implicate areca nut, as a carcinogen in humans. Besides oral, significant rise in the incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, liver and stomach was seen among areca nut chewers. Early diagnosis seems key to understand the initial processes of carcinogenesis which is highly curable. In North-East India, betel quid contains raw areca nut (RAN), lime and small portion of betel leaf without any other constituents. This study was not intended to isolate any active ingredients from the RAN and to look its action. The present objective is to validate the screening of precocious anaphase and analysis of expression of Securin and p53 in non-target cells like human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) as early indicative parameters of RAN + lime-induced cancers. A total of 35 mice were examined at different time points for following ad libitum administration of RAN extract in drinking water with lime. Peripheral blood was collected from 32 human donors of which, 24 were RAN + lime heavy chewers. Expression of genes was assessed by immunoblotting and/or by immunohistochemistry. Histological preparation of stomach tissue of mice revealed that RAN + lime induced stomach cancer. A gradual increase in the frequency of precocious anaphases and aneuploid cells was observed in both RAN + lime-treated mouse BMC and human PBL of RAN heavy chewers. Levels of p53 and Securin were increased in these cells during early days of RAN + lime exposure. The level of Securin was significantly higher in human tumour samples than their adjacent normal counterpart. The expression of Securin was increased significantly in RAN + lime-administered mice as well as in stomach tumour. Present study revealed that precocious anaphase and expression of p53 and Securin in non-target cells are significantly associated with an increased risk of RAN-induced cancer and thus these parameters can be of early diagnostic value.

  11. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chen, Shiao-Yun; Liao, Chang-Hui; Tung, Yuan-Yii; Lin, Bor-Ru; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2002-05-01

    There are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. AN extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Contrastingly, Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract inhibited AA-, collagen-, and U46619-induced platelet aggregation, and TXB2 and prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) production. PBL extract also inhibited platelet TXB2 and PGD2 production triggered by thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas little effect on platelet aggregation was noted. Moreover, PBL is a scavenger of O2(*-) and *OH, and inhibits xanthine oxidase activity and the (*)OH-induced PUC18 DNA breaks. Deferoxamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and neomycin prevented AN-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. Indomethacin, genistein, and PBL extract inhibited only TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed little effect on AN-induced platelet aggregation, whereas catalase and DMT inhibited the AN-induced TXB2 production. These results suggest that AN-induced platelet aggregation is associated with iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, phospholipase C activation, and TXB2 production. PBL inhibited platelet aggregation via both its antioxidative effects and effects on TXB2 and PGD2 production. Effects of AN and PBL on platelet aggregation and AA metabolism is crucial for platelet activation in the oral mucosa and cardiovascular system in BQ chewers. PMID:11978487

  12. The influence of Se content of the seed and the root of Areca catechu by fermenting of Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium as an antimicrobial gargle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITIN YULINERI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the using of Areca catechu seeds and roots extract contain selenium which fermented by Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium as a gargle had been conducted. The aim of the research was to know the influence of Se content of the seed and the root of Areca catechu by fermenting of Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium on the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The research consisted of four stages i.e. fermented the extract, isolated S. mutans, tested the activity of the antimicrobial and analyzed selenium concentration in the extract. The result showed that the concentration of selenium has fluctuation. The highest content of selenium of the seeds extract at 2.2 g/L concentration was 3.05 ppb on the fifteenth day while on the root extract at 8.8 g/L was 14.03 ppb on the twenty first day fermentation. Both of the extract has potential used as antiseptic gargle. The antimicrobial agents could inhibit the growth of S. mutans better than the three kinds of commercial gargles.

  13. EFECTO DE ASPERSIONES FOLIARES CON UNA MEZCLA DE OLIGOGALACTURÓNIDOS EN EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE PALMA ARECA (Dypsis lutescens H. Wendel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Benítez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, recientemente denominada Dypsis lutescens, es una de las plantas más usadas a nivel mundial en paisajismo y está catalogada como una de las más populares plantas del interior de edificios en el mundo; la Golden Cane o Areca Palm apenas necesita una introducción. El Pectimorf es un bioestimulante vegetal obtenido en el Departamento de Fisiología y Bioquímica Vegetal del INCA, a partir de la degradación enzimática del ácido péctico de la corteza de los frutos cítricos. Debido a la corta viabilidad que presentan las semillas de estas plantas, son sembradas todas al unísono, alcanzando su estado óptimo para la comercialización al mismo tiempo, por lo que el objetivo de nuestro trabajo estuvo encaminado a evaluar el efecto del Pectimorf en el crecimiento de plantas de palma areca (Dypsis lutescens. El experimento se realizó en áreas del INCA, en el que se realizaron aspersiones foliares de Pectimorf (1, 5 y 10 mg.L-1 y un tratamiento control. Las aspersiones se realizaron en tres momentos: tres, tres y seis meses, y tres y nueve meses, y las evaluaciones se hicieron en tres momentos del ciclo del cultivo: seis, nueve y 12 meses después de emergidas las plantas. Las variables del crecimiento evaluadas fueron: altura de las plantas, diámetro (ø del tallo, número de hojas, longitud de las raíces, y masa seca de parte aérea y raíces. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad del Pectimorf como estimulador del crecimiento de las plantas de palma areca, obteniéndose que cuando estas fueron asperjadas a los tres y seis meses, con concentraciones de 1 mg.L-1, se incrementaron significativamente las variables de crecimiento relacionadas con la parte aérea de las plantas, en comparación con el tratamiento control, favoreciendo las propiedades ornamentales de esta especie.

  14. Chemical morphology of Areca nut characterized directly by Fourier transform near-infrared and mid-infrared microspectroscopic imaging in reflection modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) imaging techniques are essential tools to characterize the chemical morphology of plant. The transmission imaging mode is mostly used to obtain easy-to-interpret spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, the native chemical compositions and physical structures of plant samples may be altered when they are microtomed for the transmission tests. For the direct characterization of thick plant samples, the combination of the reflection NIR imaging and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) MIR imaging is proposed in this research. First, the reflection NIR imaging method can explore the whole sample quickly to find out typical regions in small sizes. Next, each small typical region can be measured by the ATR-MIR imaging method to reveal the molecular structures and spatial distributions of compounds of interest. As an example, the chemical morphology of Areca nut section is characterized directly by the above approach. PMID:27374557

  15. Clinico-epidemiological profile of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions among areca nut, tobacco and alcohol users in Eastern India: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With an increase in the abuse of various oral habitual products in India over the past few decades; the incidence of oral potentially malignant conditions as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC rates have also increased. No recent study has been conducted reporting the scenario of oral cancer and potentially malignant conditions in Eastern India (specifically Kolkata. Aims: The present study was conducted at Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College, Kolkata during 2010-2011 to find a possible correlation between the effects of the different oral habits, age, sex and the different types of oral mucosal lesions among patients reported to the hospital. This study also enabled us to see the predilection of the various histopathological stages of the lesions for different sites of the oral cavity. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 698 patients having either oral potentially malignant or malignant lesion. The control group consisted of 948 patients who had reported to the hospital for different oral/dental problems and had the habit of tobacco, areca nut and/or alcohol usage for at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis : The unadjusted odds ratio, the 95% confidence interval, and the P value were calculated to correlate patients with/without different kinds of habit and having/not having various kinds of oral lesions. Results: Our study shows that for males having the habit of taking smokeless tobacco or mixed habit poses the highest risk for developing SCC. For females, significant risk of developing SCC was found in patients habituated to processed areca nut chewing. Conclusion: This study presents probably for the first time in recent years the occurrence of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions amongst patients having deleterious habits in a hospital based population of Kolkata.

  16. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ARECA CATECHU LINN ON β-AMYLOID (25-35 INDUCED COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kannan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia in elderly. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. But some category of drugs like AchE inhibitors and NMDA antagonists were used along with some antioxidants and some other supportive therapy. There is a possibility to slow down the brain’s degeneration caused by Alzheimer’s with natural treatments. In the present study animals were divided randomly into five groups of six animals each. Group I animals were given 0.1 % w/v CMC orally by using intra-gastric catheter at dose (10 ml/kg, Group III and Group IV animals were pretreated with hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu Linn (HAEAC for a period of 3 weeks (200 and 400 mg/ kg b.w and Group V animals were treated with donepezil (1.5 mg/kg/b.w i.p and were kept in light/dark cycle. During this period the animals were trained in water-maze, Y-maze, exploratory behaviour and passive avoidance apparatus for memory. Amnesia is induced by intra cerebro ventricular injection (I.C.V of β-amyloid (25-35. I.C.V injection for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were performed on the 21st day of the pretreated animals and continued for 5 days. The last dose was given 60 minutes prior to behavioral testing and on 30th day scarification of animals was done for in-vitro studies. Hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu Linn showed significant protective effect on neurodegeneration and also showed improvement on memory retention activity when compared with β-amyloid (25-35 induced animals (Group II.

  17. Antidepressant Activity of Total Phenolic Extracts from the Shell of Areca Catechu%槟榔壳总酚类提取物抗抑郁作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何嘉泳; 陈杰桃; 辛志添; 黄保; 陈晓盈; 何细新; 江仁望

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨槟榔壳总酚类提取物对抑郁模型小鼠的抗抑郁作用.方法:采用小鼠悬尾、强迫游泳等抑郁模型,以小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察槟榔壳总酚类抗抑郁活性.结果:槟榔壳总酚类320,160 mg·kg-1剂量组均能显著减少小鼠悬尾和强迫游泳的不动时间.结论:槟榔壳总酚类可以改善小鼠的绝望行为,具有明显的抗抑郁作用.%Objective: To investigate the antidepressant effects of total phenolic extracts from the shell of Areca catechu. Method: The tail suspending test ( TST ) and forced swimming test{ FST ) were earned out to determine the antidepressant activity of total phenolic extracts from the shell of Areca catechu in mice with the immobility time as the index. Result: The total phenolic extracts at the dosage of 320 and 160 mg · kg could significantly shorten the mouse immobility time in TST and FST. Conclusion: The total phenolic extracts from the shell of Areca catechu with antidepressant activity can obviously improve the symptoms of the depressive mice.

  18. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens)=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Christina da Silva Wanderley; Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fert...

  19. Areca Nut Components Affect COX-2, Cyclin B1/cdc25C and Keratin Expression, PGE2 Production in Keratinocyte Is Related to Reactive Oxygen Species, CYP1A1, Src, EGFR and Ras Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chi Chang; Yi-Jane Chen; Hsiao-Hua Chang; Chiu-Po Chan; Chien-Yang Yeh; Yin-Lin Wang; Ru-Hsiu Cheng; Liang-Jiunn Hahn; Jiiang-Huei Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Aims Chewing of betel quid (BQ) increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), possibly by BQ-induced toxicity and induction of inflammatory response in oral mucosa. Methods Primary gingival keratinocytes (GK cells) were exposed to areca nut (AN) components with/without inhibitors. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain r...

  20. Effects of Cutting leaves on growth conditions of Areca catechu%剪叶对槟榔生长状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱日高

    2013-01-01

    为探寻促使槟榔(Areca catechu)叶片早脱落,槟榔提前开花的方法,以七年生海南本地槟榔为试验对象,对槟榔最下面3片大叶进行纵向不同程度剪叶,研究其对叶片含水量、叶绿素含量及内含物的影响,以此了解剪叶对槟榔生长状况的影响.结果表明,剪叶处理对槟榔生长状况产生了一定的影响,剪叶程度不同产生的影响也不同.对照组中即自然状态下叶片含水量一直处于下降趋势,纵向剪叶可使叶片含水量处于比较平稳的状态;剪叶对最下面的叶片叶绿素含量影响明显,剪叶程度越大越明显,但对于整体叶绿素含量无明显影响;剪叶后蛋白质含量先升后降;淀粉含量先降再升再降再升;可溶性糖含量先升高后降低最后保持平衡状态.%To explore methods for urge the defoliation and flowering of betelnut (Areca catechu),taking 7-year-old local betelnut in Hainan as experimental objects,the bottom 3 big leaves was cut through the longitudinal direction for different degree,of which the effects on content of water,chlorophyll and inclusions in leaf was studied so that the effects of cutting leaves on growth conditions of betelnut could be understand.The results showed that cutting leaves had certain effects on growth conditions of betelnut,and the effects differed with the difference of cutting degree.In leaves under nature conditions which was not cut,the water content decreased continuously,while cutting leaves through the longitudinal direction could hold water content stable.The effect of cutting leaves on chlorophyll content was the most obvious in the lowest leaves,the higher the cutting degree,the more obvious the effect was.However,the effect of cutting leaves on chlorophyll content of the whole was not obvious.After cutting leaves,the protein content increased firstly and then decreased,while the changing dynamic for starch content was increase-decrease-increase-decrease.The content of soluble

  1. Inhibition of Tanshinone IIA, Salvianolic Acid A and Salvianolic Acid B on Areca Nut Extract-Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been reported to possess excellent antifibrotic activity. In this study, we have investigated the effect and mechanism of tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, salvianolic acid A (Sal-A and salvianolic acid B (Sal-B, the important active compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on areca nut extract (ANE-induced oral submucous fibrosis (OSF in vitro. Through human procollagen gene promoter luciferase reporter plasmid assay, hydroxyproline assay, gelatin zymography assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot assay, the influence of these three compounds on ANE-stimulated cell viability, collagen accumulation, procollagen gene transcription, MMP-2/-9 activity, MMP-1/-13 and TIMP-1/-2 expression, cytokine secretion and the activation of PI3K/AKT, ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK and TGF-β/Smads pathways were detected. The results showed that Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B could significantly inhibit the ANE-stimulated abnormal viability and collagen accumulation of mice oral mucosal fibroblasts (MOMFs, inhibit the transcription of procollagen gene COL1A1 and COL3A1, increase MMP-2/-9 activity, decrease TIMP-1/-2 expression and inhibit the transcription and release of CTGF, TGF-β1, IL-6 and TNF-α; Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B also inhibited the ANE-induced activation of AKT and ERK MAPK pathways in MOMFs and the activation of TGF-β/Smads pathway in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B possess excellent antifibrotic activity in vitro and can possibly be used to promote the rehabilitation of OSF patients.

  2. Screening of Leaf Cutting Flower Varieties Interplanted With Areca Catechu in Hainan Province%海南槟榔林下套种切叶花卉品种筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任军方; 张浪; 姜殿强; 李海文; 云勇

    2015-01-01

    After respectively interplanting Asplenium nidus ,Chrysalidocarpuslutescens and Philodenron selloum Koch in the undergrow th of Areca catechu ,the research conducts a study on the grow th process at different matrixes and canopy densities .The results show that the best effect comes from the mixed matrix of coconut residuum ,farmyard manure and undergrow th original soil .When canopy density is 70% ,the grow th of leaf cutting flowers is the best .While the growing status of Asplenium nidus and Chrysalidocarpuslutes‐cens in undergrowth of Areca catechu is fine and the two can be selected as the preferred varieties .%在槟榔林下分别套种鸟巢蕨、散尾葵、春羽,对不同基质,不同郁闭度,进行了生长过程研究,结果表明:椰糠、农家肥和槟榔林下原土混合基质,效果最好;70%郁闭度时,切叶花卉生长最好;而鸟巢蕨和散尾葵在槟榔林下生长状态良好,为优选品种。

  3. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control, T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both. Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9 produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha; T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso. A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9

  4. 槟榔花提取物中没食子酸等9种多酚类化合物的测定%Analysis of Nine Phenolic Compounds of Areca Inflorescence Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春梅; 黄玉林; 程芳芳; 王仁才; 沈雁; 唐敏敏; 陈卫军

    2011-01-01

    The separation conditions of chromatography were optimized with a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic photodiode array detection(RP-HPL£-PAD)method for the determination of nine polyphenols in three Areca inflorescences. The relationship of glacial acetic acid concentration in mobile phase and the . Retention time, the effects of mobile phase composition, flow phase and the proportion of methanol were discussed respectively. Then the influence of gradient separation conditions was established. At the same time, three Areca inflorescences extracts of phenolic compounds were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that the three extracts all contained gallic acid, coumalic acid, epicatechin, fumalic acid, naringenin and rutin, in which the contents of epicatechin, gallic acid and coumalic acid were higher than others.%采用反相高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测法(RP-HPLC-PAD)对槟榔花3种提取物中多酚类化合物的色谱分析条件进行优化,分别探讨流动相的组成、流动相中醋酸浓度、醋酸与甲醇的比例和柱温对保留时间的影响,确定梯度分离条件,并对3种不同槟榔花提取物中多酚类化合物进行定量分析.结果表明,3种提取物中均含没食子酸、香豆酸、表儿茶素、阿魏酸、芦丁和柚皮素,其中表儿茶素、没食子酸和香豆酸的含量相对较高.

  5. Effects of Water Stress to Morphology and Activity of Root in Seedling of Areca catechu L.%水分胁迫对槟榔幼苗根系形态与活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪立; 李琼; 杨福孙; 何云; 申志斌

    2011-01-01

    以槟榔为试验材料,采用盆栽法研究土壤不同相对含水量对槟榔幼苗根系形态和部分生理特性的影响.结果表明:(1)干旱处理使槟榔根系生物量及根冠比增加,叶片生物量下降,各器官中水分含量差异不显著.(2)干旱处理主要影响槟榔根系的数量、长度和粗度,从而影响根系表面积与体积,主要表现为:根长为0~5 cm的根系数量及单株总根数降低,根长大于10 cm的根系数量增加;根系表面积及根系体积在不同根段均以正常处理最高,而根系表面积大于6 cm2和根系体积大于0.5 cm3根段随水分含量的增加均呈下降趋势.(3)干旱处理对槟榔根系活力的影响为前期大于后期,随干旱程度的增加,根系活力下降越大.此结果表明槟榔主要通过调整根系数量、长度及粗度来适应干旱的环境条件,但干旱又明显抑制了槟榔的生长.%Pot experiments was used to study the effects of different relative water content of soils to the root morphology and partial physiological characteristic in seedling of Areca. The results indicated that drought treatment would lead to root biomass and ratio of root to shoot increase and to leaf biomass decrease with no significant difference with water content of all organs. Drought mainly affected the number, length and roughness of root, consequently affected the surface area and volume of root. The effects would be reflected in the declining of roots ranging from 0 to 5 cm and the total root amount of a single plant, and in the increase of roots longer than 10 cm . The control was the highest among root surface area and volume of the different root segments. As for the surface area of root larger than 6 cm2 and the volume of root more than 0.5 cm3, the root segments gradually declined with the increase of water content. The effect was greater in early stages than later stages in root activity under drought stress. Severer and longer drought would lead to greater

  6. Areca nut components affect COX-2, cyclin B1/cdc25C and keratin expression, PGE2 production in keratinocyte is related to reactive oxygen species, CYP1A1, Src, EGFR and Ras signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Chewing of betel quid (BQ increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF, possibly by BQ-induced toxicity and induction of inflammatory response in oral mucosa.Primary gingival keratinocytes (GK cells were exposed to areca nut (AN components with/without inhibitors. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting. PGE2/PGF2α production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Areca nut extract (ANE stimulated PGE2/PGF2α production, and upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, but inhibited expression of keratin 5/14, cyclinB1 and cdc25C in GK cells. ANE also activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Src and Ras signaling pathways. ANE-induced COX-2, keratin 5, keratin 14 and cdc25C expression as well as PGE2 production were differentially regulated by α-naphthoflavone (a CYP 1A1/1A2 inhibitor, PD153035 (EGFR inhibitor, pp2 (Src inhibitor, and manumycin A (a Ras inhibitor. ANE-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by piper betle leaf (PBL extract and hydroxychavicol (two major BQ components, dicoumarol (aQuinone Oxidoreductase--NQO1 inhibitor and curcumin. ANE-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by catalase and enhanced by dicoumarol, suggesting that AN components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and oral cancer via induction of aberrant differentiation, cytotoxicity, COX-2 expression, and PGE2/PGF2α production.CYP4501A1, reactive oxygen species (ROS, EGFR, Src and Ras signaling pathways could all play a role in ANE-induced pathogenesis of oral cancer. Addition of PBL into BQ and curcumin consumption could inhibit the ANE-induced inflammatory response.

  7. 槟榔花果中槟榔碱含量的时空变化%Temporal and Spatial Variations of Arecoline Content in Flower and Fruit of Areca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊

    2014-01-01

    The arecoline contents in different parts of areca inflorescences and fruit clusters at different developmental stages were tested by using pharmacopeia method .The results showed that the ripe seeds had the highest content of arecoline in endo -sperm, and the lowest content in pericarp .The difference in arecoline content in the same part of inflorescences /fruit clusters at different developmental stages was significant , but there was no significant difference in arecoline content in different parts of inflo -rescences /fruit clusters at the same developmental stage .%采用药典法对槟榔不同发育时期花序材料的不同部位进行槟榔碱含量检测。结果表明:成熟种果胚乳的槟榔碱含量最高,而果皮的含量最低;不同时期花序/果穗的相同部位间槟榔碱含量存在显著差异,同一时期花序/果穗的不同部位间不存在显著差异。

  8. 热泵干燥槟榔中试工艺参数优化%Technologic parameter optimization in pilot-scale process of heat pump drying ofAreca catechuL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容鹄; 高元能; 冯建成; 谢辉; 邓浩; 庄光辉; 窦志浩

    2016-01-01

    Areca catechu L. belongs to perennial aiphyllium of palmae. It has very high medicinal value and is regarded as the first one of 4 kinds of the south medicines in China.Areca catechu L. abounds in Hainan, 10% for fresh food, more than 90% dried for further processing,Areca catechu L. drying has become the important processing industry in Hainan, the annual output of dried betel nut is about 200 000 t, and the annual output value is more than 10 billion yuan. For theAreca catechu L. drying, there are hot air drying and vacuum freeze drying, which have not been applied in production because of the limitation of experimental conditions and equipments, and the traditional furnace drying, steam drying and heat pump drying are used in production. The traditional furnace drying is a kind of small workshop processing, and its characteristics of small scale, large labor intensity and serious pollution are difficult to adapt to the modern agriculture development, so it has been gradually eliminated. For the steam drying whose heat source is from the burning coal, the characteristic of large scale and high mechanical strength adapts to the intensive agricultural product processing development, however it is limited because of a lot of greenhouse gases emitted from burning coal. Only the energy-conservation and environment-protection drying method is suitable for theAreca catechu L. drying industry’s sustainable and healthy development. The betel nut drying was studied using the heat pump drying equipment in this paper. The influences of boiling time on betel nut hardness, and drying temperature and loading capacity on moisture content of dried fruit were analyzed via the single factor experiment. The technology parameters of heat pump drying were optimized by the orthogonal experiment, and the quality of the dried betel nut was evaluated using the weighted score method. After 30-day storage, the physical, chemical and microbiological indicators of the dried fruits were

  9. 超高压处理对槟榔芋淀粉理化性质的影响%The Influence of Ultra High Pressure Treatment on the Physicochemical Properties of Areca Taro Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文婷; 郭泽镔; 曾绍校; 郑宝东

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we studied the influence of different pressure treatment on the physicochemical properties? of areca taro starch,the raw material,which was modified by ultra high pressure(UHP).The result showed that the solubility and dilation of the modified starch were decreased at first and then increased with the increase of pressure,but both fo the indices remained much lower than the native starch ; the light transmittance increased significantly after the ultra high pressure treatment; and the freeze-thaw ability was improved obviously after 200 MPa pressure treatment.And after 300 MPa treatment,the hardness,gumminess and chewiness of the modified starch were increased obviously,but there were no significant changes in the springiness and cohesiveness.The determined results of RVA showed:the peak viscosity of the modified starch was significantly increased with the increase of pressure ; the breakdown of the modified starch was induced increasing slightly than the native starch,while there were no obvious changes in the setback values;the 200 MPa pressure treatment could significantly reduce the gelatinization temperature.It indicated that the physicochemical properties of areca taro starch could be improved under certain pressure treatment.%以槟榔芋淀粉为原料,采用超高压技术对淀粉进行改性处理,研究不同压力处理对其理化性质的影响.结果表明:随着压力的增大,槟榔芋淀粉的溶解度、膨胀度呈先减小后增大的趋势,但是均显著低于原淀粉;超高压处理可以显著增大槟榔芋淀粉的透光率;经200 MPa压力处理后,其冻融稳定性有明显改善.经300 MPa压力处理后,槟榔芋淀粉凝胶的硬度、咀嚼性和胶黏性都显著增加,但弹性和凝聚性变化不显著.RVA测定结果表明:淀粉糊的峰值黏度随处理压力的增大而显著增大;改性后槟榔芋淀粉的崩解值略高于原淀粉,而回生值变化不显著;200 MPa压力处理可降低槟榔

  10. 槟榔有效组分的提取分离及其对大鼠胃平滑肌收缩作用影响的研究%Study on Extraction Separation of Areca Catechu and the Effect on Gastric Smooth Muscle Contraction in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 范尧夫; 吕涛; 魏睦新; 胡兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective;To discuss F57 of areca catechu on gastric smooth muscle contraction in rats,and analyse the mechanism. Methods : HPLC was adopted to separate F57 from areca catechu. Membrane filtration and exclusion chromatography were used for separation and purification of areca catechu. Observed the effcet of different concentration F57 on gastric smooth muscle contraction. Then phento-lamine,atropine and verapamil were treated with muscel,and observed contraction by F57. Results:①F57 that was separated from areca catechu containing arecoline. Arecoline showed a good linear relationship in range of 18. 6 - 112. 7 μg( r = 0. 9997 ) . ②Compared with control group, different concentration F57 increased contractility and contraction amplitude in gastric smooth muscle. There were significant differently(P <0.01). ③Verapamil and atropine inhibited smooth muscle contraction caused by F57(P<0. 05). Conclusions: HPLC has accuracy and good reproducibility. F57 can obviously restrain smooth muscle contraction in rats. The mechanism may associate with calcium channel and M-cholinergic receptor. Reference citation: Li Chen, Fan Yaofu, Lv Tao, et al. Study on Extraction Separation of Areca Catechu and the Effect on Gastric Smooth Muscle Contraction in Rats[J]. China Journal of Chinese Medicine,2013,28(5) :683 -685.%目的:探讨槟榔的有效组分F57对大鼠胃平滑肌收缩运动的影响,并初步分析其作用机制.方法:建立高效液相色谱法从槟榔中分离有效组分F57的方法,采用膜过滤和凝胶排阻色谱法(Sephadex G-25)对槟榔成分进行分离纯化,观察不同浓度F57对大鼠胃平滑肌的收缩作用;再分别予以阻断剂酚妥拉明、阿托品和维拉帕米孵育肌条,观察F57对肌条的收缩效应.结果:①从槟榔中分离出有效组分F57,其含有的槟榔碱在18.6~112.7μg范围内呈线性关系(r=0.999 7);②不同浓度F57均可增加大鼠离体胃平滑肌肌条的收缩力和收缩振幅,与对

  11. The Effect of Water and Nutrient Stress on the Growth and Physiological Characters of Areca catechu L.Seedlings%水肥胁迫对槟榔幼苗生长及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹红星; 孙程旭; 李和帅; 黄丽云; 冯美利

    2012-01-01

    该文研究了不同水肥胁迫处理对盆栽槟榔幼苗生长及生理特性的影响.结果表明:在水分和养分胁迫处理下,随着胁迫时间的延长,槟榔幼苗的生长受到抑制,株高和叶面积增速缓慢,根冠比增大;叶片质膜透性增大,可溶性糖和脯氨酸质量分数升高,在处理60 d和90 d时分别与其对照的差异具有统计学意义;SOD活性呈先上升后下降的趋势,在60 d时达到高峰;POD酶活性呈上升的趋势,在90 d时达到最大值;在试验处理期间与对照相比,质膜透性、可溶性糖和脯氨酸质量分数的变化幅度大;其次是SOD酶和POD酶活性;植株的株高和叶面积的变化较慢.%The effect of water and nutrient stress on the growth and physiological characters of Areca catechu L. seedlings were studied. The results obtained were as follows: under water and nutrient stress treatment, with the prolonging of stress time, plant growth was inhibited: the increase in plant height and leaf area slowed down, and the root/shoot ratio increased greatly; leaf membrane permeability, soluble sugar content and proline content increased and showed significant difference from those of the control on the 60th and 90th days from the commencement of the treatment; the activity of SOD first increased and then decreased and reached the peak level on the 60th day, but the activity of POD showed an increasing tendency and the highest value was attained on the 90th day. During the experiment, compared to the control treatment, the variable indexes were listed as: leaf membrane permeability, soluble sugar content and pro-line content>the activity of SOD and POD>plant height and leaf area.

  12. Influence of different planting spacing of areca nut intercropping with Vanilla on soil microbes and nutrients%槟榔不同株行距间作香草兰对土壤养分和微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 王辉; 赵青云; 庄辉发; 宋应辉; 朱自慧

    2013-01-01

    This paper was aimed to study the effects of areca nut intercropping with vanilla on soil microbes and nutrients.The different plant and row densities of areca nut intercropping with vanilla and monocropping of vanilla were used as treatments to study the number of soil microbes,the content of soil nutrients,as well as the relationship among them.The results indicated that the intercropping system significantly increased the number of soil microbes,moreover,ameliorated microbial community structure.The treatment of planting spacing of 2.0 m x 2.5 m (Tr2) of areca nut significantly increased soil pH,organic matter,total potassium,alkaline hydrolysable N,available P,available K,exchangeable Ca,available iron and available boron.The Pearson Product-moment correlation analysis showed that the number of soil microbes positively correlated with the content of soil nutrients in vanilla plantation.In conclusion,the sound system was planting spacing of 2.0 m x 2.5 m (Tr2) of areca nut intercropping with vanilla,which had obvious effects on soil microbial community structure and soil nutrients,furthermore,the number of soil microbes was closely related to the content of soil nutrients.%为了揭示槟榔不同株行距间作香草兰对土壤微生物和土壤养分的影响,以生产上槟榔3个种植密度间作香草兰为处理,人工荫棚单作香草兰为对照,测定和分析土壤中微生物的数量和土壤养分的含量.结果表明,槟榔间作香草兰可显著提高土壤微生物的数量,改良土壤微生物群落中真菌、细菌和放线菌的比例.槟榔株行距为2.0m×2.5 m(Tr2)的处理,土壤pH值及有机质、全K、碱解N、速效P、速效K、交换性Ca、有效Fe、有效B含量均显著提高.Pearson积矩相关分析表明,土壤中各类微生物的数量与土壤养分含量之间存在着多种显著的相关关系.槟榔株行距为2.0 m×2.5 m间作香草兰对土壤微生物数量及其比例与土壤养分含量具有良好的

  13. Culture Exhibition and Construction of the Tourist Sphere in Ethnic Tourism Destination:A Case Study of Areca Valley in Sanya%民族旅游地的文化展示与“旅游域”建构*--以三亚槟榔谷为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学基; 孙九霞

    2015-01-01

    旅游开发使得民族文化在“旅游域”中变成了可展示和可观赏的事项。以三亚槟榔谷为例,运用人类学田野调查方法,对其旅游发展过程中的“文化展示”及其“旅游域”的形成过程进行深入分析,认为民族旅游地旅游域中的文化展示是依托族群“自用”文化进行“旅游域”中“他用”文化生产的过程,既是一种族群自身的文化自觉,也是一种多方主体的文化协商;舞台化既是“旅游域”建构的手段,也是“旅游域”进行文化展示的基本特征;“旅游域”的建构过程中,游客的凝视催生了文化“有根的移植”,继而在“旅游域”内部发生生活空间的重建。%Tourism development has made it possible for ethnic culture to be visible and ornamental in the tourist sphere.Taking Areca Valley in Sanya as an example,this paper used Anthropological Fieldwork to conduct an in-depth analysis of the culture ex-hibition and its tourist sphere’s forming process in the development of the valley.The author holds the view that the culture exhi-bition of ethnic tourism destination is the production process of other-consumption culture in the tourist sphere based on the self-consumption culture of ethnic group.Meanwhile,the culture exhibition of tourist sphere is an ethnic group’s culture conscious-ness,as well as a cultural negotiation of multiple subjects.Stagedness is not only the method of tourist sphere’s construction,but also the main characteristic of its culture exhibition.In the process of tourist sphere’s construction,tourist gaze hastens the cul-tural transplant with roots,thus reconstructing the living space inside the tourist sphere.

  14. Research on the ratio and contents of N, P, K by arecanut (Areca catechu L.) leaves in different growth conditions%不同生长条件下槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量及其比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽兰; 甘炳春; 魏建和; 许明会; 王旭东

    2011-01-01

    采用田间调查与实验室分析相结合,探讨海南地区不同产量水平、不同生长年限、正常结果与黄化槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量变化规律.结果表明,槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾比例约为1:0.081:0.356.高产组槟榔叶片平均氮含量比中高产组和中产组的分别高10.45%和21.73%;而比低产组槟榔叶片的高了36.86%.正常结果树(低产组槟榔)叶片平均氮含量比黄化组(轻)和黄化组(重)的分别高10.15%和19.49%;黄化组(轻)槟榔叶片平均氮含量比黄化组(重)的高11.61%.高产组槟榔叶片平均磷含量比中高产组和中产组的分别高10.71%和13.64%;而比低产组槟榔叶片的高17.02%.正常结果槟榔(低产组)叶片平均磷含量比黄化组(轻)和黄化组(重)的分别高10.87%和18.48%;黄化组(轻)槟榔叶片平均磷含量比黄化组(重)的高8.5%.高产组槟榔叶片平均钾含量比中高产组和中产组的分别高17.24%和25.00%;而比低产组槟榔叶片的高31.96%.正常结果槟榔(低产组)叶片平均钾含量比黄化组(轻)和黄化组(重)的分别高15.15%和19.42%;黄化组(轻)槟榔叶片平均钾含量比黄化组(重)的高5.03%.不同生长年限槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量有所差异,随着树龄增加,高产组槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量比较低产组的高.槟榔叶片氮含量最高,钾次之,磷最低.氮磷钾含量对槟榔产量提高有很大影响,槟榔黄化病可能引起叶片中N、P、K含量降低.%Aimed to analyze the content of N, P and K of betel leaves, the normal leave the ones with yellow leaf disease were collected from fruit-bearing arecanut (Areca catechu L.) with different production levels, at different growth years in Hainan.The results showed the ratio of N∶ P∶ K was 1∶0.081∶0.356 in arecanut leaves.The ayerage N contents in high-yield group(HYG) were 10.45%, 21.73% and 36.86% higher than those in middle high-yield (MHYG), middle-yield group(MYG), and low-yield group (LYG

  15. Phylogenetic analysis identifies a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae'-related strain associated with yellow leaf disease of areca palm (Areca catechu L.) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Manimekalai; Nair, Smita; Soumya, V P; Thomas, George V

    2013-04-01

    Yellow leaf disease (YLD) with phytoplasmal aetiology is a serious disease of arecanut palm in India. The present study was undertaken to characterize the 16S rRNA and secA gene sequences of the Indian arecanut YLD phytoplasma for 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species assignment and 16Sr group/subgroup classification. Phytoplasma 16S rRNA genes were amplified using three sets of semi-nested/nested primers, 1F7/7R3-1F7/7R2, 4Fwd/3Rev-4Fwd/5Rev and P1/P7-R16F2n/R16R2, producing amplicons of 491, 1150 and 1250 bp, respectively, from diseased samples. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced. A blast search showed that the sequences had 99 % similarity with sugar cane white leaf phytoplasma (16SrXI) and Napier grass stunt phytoplasma (16SrXI). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed the clustering of YLD phytoplasma with the rice yellow dwarf and Bermuda grass white leaf groups. The YLD phytoplasma F2nR2 sequence shared 97.5 % identity with that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae' and 97.8 % identity with that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis'. Hence, for finer differentiation, we examined the secA gene-based phylogeny, where the YLD phytoplasma clustered with Napier grass stunt and sugar cane grassy shoot phytoplasmas, both belonging to the rice yellow dwarf group. Hence, we are assigning the Indian arecanut YLD phytoplasma as a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae'-related strain. Virtual RFLP analysis of a 1.2 kb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (F2nR2 region) identified the Indian arecanut YLD phytoplasma as a member of 16SrXI-B subgroup. We name the phytoplasma Indian yellow leaf disease phytoplasma, to differentiate it from the Hainan YLD phytoplasma, which belongs to group 16SrI. PMID:22843718

  16. Effects of shading on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of leaf in areca (Areca catechu L.) seedling stage%遮光处理对槟榔苗期叶绿素荧光特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福孙; 孙爱花; 王燕丹; 符常明; 周兆德; 陈慧娟

    2009-01-01

    以移栽后45 d的海南槟榔苗为材料,通过遮光处理使棚内光照强度为自然光的40%和20%,并以完全自然光照为对照,研究了槟榔苗期的叶绿素含量及叶绿素荧光变化规律.结果表明:遮光处理使槟榔叶片的叶绿素含量明显增加,并使荧光参数Fo、Fm、Fv、Fv/F0、Fv/Fm、qP等提高及qN、NPQ降低,其中以40%光照处理的效果最明显,说明热带地区种植槟榔,苗期全光照可能使叶片光合作用受到抑制,需要进行遮光处理且以保持40%自然光照较适宜.

  17. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Sazwi, Nordin; Nalina, Thurairajah; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five ...

  18. Study on the chewing gum of edible areca%槟榔口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁腊梅; 梁帅; 张海德

    2011-01-01

    为了研发咀嚼槟榔片的替代品,应用正交实验的方法,以槟榔提取液为原料,添加淀粉糖浆、食用香精等物质制成槟榔口香糖.实验结果表明,胶基量占35%,槟榔提取液量占5%,淀粉糖浆量占40%,香精量占0.3%,所制得的槟榔口香糖适口性最好.

  19. GC-MS Analysis of Fatty Acids of Areca Nut Seed Oil%槟榔果仁油提取及其脂肪酸分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文化; 李忠海; 张海德; 蒋爱民; 崔阳阳; 郑仕宏; 付希; 何双

    2010-01-01

    槟榔果仁含有约14%左右的油脂,为探讨槟榔脂肪酸的主要种类,用不同的溶剂对槟榔种子中的脂肪酸进行提取,确定了乙酸乙酯为较好的提取溶剂,考察了提取温度、提取时间和料液比三个因素对提取槟榔种子油的影响,确定了最佳工艺参数为:提取温度为60℃,提取时间是2 h,料液比为1:8.将提取油脂甲酯化后,利用气相色谱质谱联用法鉴定出了11种成分及各种成分的相对含量.结果表明:槟榔果仁中含量较高的脂肪酸是亚油酸32.12%,油酸29.50%,棕榈酸27.70%,表明槟榔的脂肪酸中既含高含量的饱和脂肪酸棕榈酸,有含高含量的多不饱和脂肪酸(亚油酸).

  20. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE CONSERVACIÓN EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE PALMA ARECA (DYPSIS LUTESCENS, H. WENDEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Doria González

    2012-01-01

    donde la germinación fue casi nula después de dos y tres meses de conservación, alcanzando valores de 10 y 25 %, respectivamente. En relación con el porcentaje de humedad, las semillas conservadas en envases cerrados herméticamente presentaron los mayores valores, mientras que las almacenadas en bolsas de tela, exhibieron los menores porcentajes en ambos periodos de estudio.

  1. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ARECA CATECHU LINN ON β-AMYLOID (25-35) INDUCED COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kannan; D. Sivaraman; P. Muralidharan; N. Deepakvenkataraman

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia in elderly. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. But some category of drugs like AchE inhibitors and NMDA antagonists were used along with some antioxidants and some other supportive therapy. There is a possibility to slow down the brain’s degeneration caused by Alzheimer’s with natural treatments. In the present study animals were divided randomly into five groups of six animals each. Group I animals were given 0.1 % w/v ...

  2. Detection of the Phytoplasmas Associated with Yellow Leaf Disease of Areca catechu L.in Hainan Province of China by Nested PCR%利用巢式PCR对海南槟榔(Areca catechu L.)黄化病的初步检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚奎; 甘炳春; 张争; 隋春; 魏建和; 杨云; 杨新全

    2010-01-01

    通过对海南槟榔黄化病病原的研究,初步确定其病原物,对开展后续研究及防治策略提供依据.利用巢式PCR方法,对在海南3个市县采集的28个黄化病植株的不同组织进行了植原体检测,结果表明:在2个市县9个槟榔黄化病病株叶片中检测到了植原体,而在根和茎中没有发现植原体.将扩增片段克隆后测序得到1249bp的完整植原体序列.利用MEGA3软件构建了系统发育进化树,同源性聚类发现其属于翠菊黄花组B亚组.初步判断发生在海南的槟榔黄化病是由于植原体引起.

  3. Oral submucous fibrosis at pediatric age, now time to think: Series of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The younger generation is consuming areca nut and areca nut products, which is coming in the market with different multicolored attractive pouches and easily available in each and every corner of the road. For the children from the lower socioeconomic strata, areca nut use is rampant. Alarmingly, it has been seen that the highest period of risk for engaging in areca nut alone is between the ages of 5 and 12. Oral submucous fibrosis associated with areca nut in children is a great concern for the Society and the Government. Factors associated with this report for consuming areca nut are levels of awareness, household environment, peer pressure, low cost, easy availability etc.

  4. Pengendalian Hama Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) Dengan Ekstrak Biji Pinang Pada Tanaman Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Yunidawati, Wiwik

    2012-01-01

    Wiwik Yunidawati, 2012. Pest Control of Golden Snails (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) by Areca Extract On Rice Plants. Application of Areca extract can be used to control Golden snail in rice planting. The purpose of this research is to obtain the suitable concentration of Areca extracts to control Golden snail. The research was conducted on December 2010 to April 2011 at the screen house of Observation Laboratory of Plant Disease and Biological Agents and “Balai Benih Induk Murni” Deli Se...

  5. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the avail...

  6. 槟榔叶片总蛋白质提取及双向电泳条件初探%Establishment of Methods for the Extraction and Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Analysis of Leaf Proteins of Areca catechu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 曾莉娟; 王健华; 刘志昕

    2009-01-01

    采用3种提取植物组织蛋白的方法(TCA/丙酮沉淀法、E-TCA法、酚法)提取槟榔叶片总蛋白,在蛋白产量,一维和二维电泳图谱等方面对3种方法的提取效果进行比较.结果表明,TCA/丙酮沉淀法效果较好,是槟榔叶片总蛋白提取的可选方法,同时优化了双向电泳的条件和上样量.

  7. 槟榔土壤养分与叶片营养含量变化调查及相关分析研究%Changes of Nutrient Content in Leaf and Soil of Areca catechu Orchard and Their Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽兰; 甘炳春; 魏建和; 许明会; 王旭东

    2010-01-01

    为探讨槟榔叶片营养与土壤养分间关系,在海南槟榔种植园采集槟榔与相应土壤样品,包括槟榔不同生产管理水平、正常结果和黄化槟榔区,分析不同生产管理水平和正常结果与黄化槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾和土壤养分含量,以及槟榔营养含量与土壤养分含量相关系数.结果表明:土壤有机质与土壤碱解氮、全磷、速效磷和速效钾均呈极显著正相关关系,全磷与速效磷、全钾与速效钾含量间呈极显著正相关关系,碱解氮、全磷、速效磷和速效钾之间呈极显著正相关关系,全钾与全磷呈显著正相关关系.有机质、碱解氮、全磷、速效磷、全钾、速效钾与叶片全N、P、K都呈极显著正相关关系.因此,槟榔土壤碱解氮、全磷、速效磷和速效钾间存在彼此互相促进的关系;槟榔土壤有机质、碱解氮、全磷、速效磷、全钾和速效钾含量变化对槟榔叶片N、P、N含量会产生正向影响.

  8. 槟榔黄化病叶片差异表达蛋白筛选与鉴定%Screening and Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins of leaf of Areca infeced by Yellow-leaf disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉娟; 李涛; 王健华; 张雨良; 刘志昕

    2010-01-01

    以相同品种,树龄、长势一致的黄化病槟榔和健康槟榔叶片为试材,采用TCA(三氯乙酸),丙酮法制备蛋白质样品,结合双向电泳-质谱结合技术,分析病原菌-槟榔互作后差异表达蛋白.结果表明.双向电泳SDSPAGE胶中黄化病槟榔叶片与健康叶片平均蛋白质点数分别为1 081个和960个,其中差异明显的点34个.选择5个差异蛋白点进行质谱(MALDI-TOF-MS)鉴定,并进行数据库查询,结果鉴定了2个蛋白质,分别为核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化/加氧酶和蕈状支原体高同源蛋白,这些蛋白质可能参与了槟榔黄化病发生和发展过程.另外3个蛋白点在数据库中未检索到同源性和匹配率较高的蛋白质,认为是未知蛋白.

  9. 海南省槟榔主产区槟榔黄化病发生现状%Yellow Leaf Disease Occurrence Status of the Major Areca Nut Plantation in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨枝林; 周亚东; 沙林华; 张先敏; 罗湘粤

    2013-01-01

    为了阐明槟榔黄化病在海南地区的病害发生规律,对海南省主要槟榔种植园进行了槟榔黄化病病害调查.结果表明:东西线平均发病率分别为41.38%和37.67%,年份越久的的槟榔园槟榔黄化病病情越严重,槟榔黄化病死亡率总体上随着发病率的上升而提高.

  10. Occurrence of yellow leaf disease on Areca catectu L.and its influence on the yield in Hainan%海南槟榔黄化病发生及对产量的影响调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚奎; 战晴晴; 杨新全; 卢丽兰; 甘炳春

    2014-01-01

    黄化病是槟榔上的重要病害,作者对海南主要槟榔产区该病发生危害做了调查.结果表明:各地区平均发病率为23.81%,坡地的发病率大于平地和低洼地,发病时间越长产量降低越多.

  11. 槟榔黄化病组织RNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of Methods for Extracting Total RNA from Yellow Leaf Disease Tissue of Areca catechu L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚奎; 杨云; 隋春; 甘炳春; 魏建和

    2010-01-01

    为了从发生黄化病的槟榔茎、叶、花中提取到完整的RNA,采用了CTAB法、Trizol法和异硫氰酸胍法提取槟榔黄化病组织RNA.从RNA的完整性、产率和纯度方面对这几种方法进行了比较,结果表明,异硫氰酸胍法所得RNA完整性较好,条带清晰无明显降解,OD260/OD280介于1.8-2.0之间,RNA得率较高,为120 μg/g以上,并能成功进行反转录制备cDNA,表明该RNA可以进行后续分子生物学操作.

  12. Efficient Isolation of Total RNA from Areca Leaf for High-throughput Sequencing%适合于高通量测序的槟榔总RNA的提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉龙; 姜达; 李明容; 黄惜; 夏志辉

    2015-01-01

    为了获得能满足高通量测序要求的槟榔叶片总RNA,采用通用植物总RNA提取试剂盒和异硫氰酸胍-苯酚法提取槟榔叶片的总RNA.结果表明:异硫氰酸胍-苯酚法提取的总RNA完整性好、纯度高,通用植物总RNA提取试剂盒不能从槟榔叶片中提取完整的总RNA;70℃,10 min的热处理会导致槟榔总RNA的降解,苯酚/氯仿抽提能得到高纯度、完整性好的总RNA;总RNA质量浓度达到979 mg·L-1,OD260/OD280=1.98,OD260/OD230=2.31,能满足转录组高通量测序的要求.

  13. 槟榔提取物抑制人类口腔黏膜成纤维细胞生长的实验研究%Research on Effects of Areca Nut Extract on Human Oral Fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云枝; 凌天牖

    2002-01-01

    目的通过比较正常口腔黏膜和口腔黏膜下纤维性变(OSF)组织中成纤维细胞(FB)增殖差异、检测槟榔提取物(ANE)对成纤维细胞增殖的影响,来探讨OSF的发病机理.方法对人类口腔黏膜成纤维细胞进行分离培养,然后用四唑盐(MTT)比色试验法检测OSF患者和正常人口腔黏膜FB增殖状况,并且观察ANE对FB增殖的影响.结果表示增殖水平的OD值在OSF-FB为0.254±0.045,高于NM-FB的OD值0.236±0.012(P<0.05),ANE以浓度-效应依赖关系抑制FB增殖.结论 OSF-FB细胞增殖率较NM-FB高;ANE对口腔黏膜FB有细胞毒作用,提示槟榔及其有效成分不完全是通过直接刺激FB增殖而诱发OSF.

  14. Trait characters and high-yielding cultivation technique for Fu Ding areca Colocasia esculenta%福鼎槟榔芋特征特性与高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2006-01-01

    福鼎槟榔芋又名山前芋、福鼎芋,属天南星科芋属的一个栽培种。它以个体大,品质优,质地松酥.香气浓厚,风味独特,富含淀粉、蛋白质及各种氨基酸而享誉国内外.于1983年荣获国家经贸部优质产品荣誉证书.并定名为福鼎芋,被列为国家出口品牌品种。

  15. 槟榔与白胡椒对猪囊尾蚴形态学改变的影响%Morphological observation of semen areca and white pepper against cysticercus cellulosae in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文爱; 李泽民; 王伯霞

    2003-01-01

    目的观察研究中药槟榔、白胡椒对体外培养的猪囊尾蚴形态学改变的影响. 方法取经槟榔、白胡椒药液作用不同时间的囊尾蚴进行大体形态及扫描电镜观察. 结果经槟榔、白胡椒分别作用30 min, 1 h后所有虫体蠕动均停止. 槟榔、白胡椒对囊尾蚴分别作用20 min, 40 min, 虫体表面开始出现部分剥蚀区, 且随时间延长, 其剥蚀区增大. 结论两种药物作用于囊尾蚴的效果均好, 可以作为人或猪囊虫病的治疗药物.

  16. 高温干蒸工艺软化槟榔及其灭菌效果研究%Study on inteneration and sterilization of areca by high-temperature dry steam treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 徐欢欢; 邓建阳; 蒋雪薇; 李浩

    2015-01-01

    采用高温干蒸工艺,对槟榔壳的软化及原籽内生菌的灭菌效果进行研究,试验结果表明:在温度110℃、0.05 MPa、15 min高温干蒸工艺条件下,能较好软化槟榔纤维,且不会影响槟榔产品的其它品质.同时,该条件下对槟榔原籽内生菌也有很好的减菌、灭菌效果.高温干蒸工艺替代常压煮籽工艺,可为槟榔加工提供一种安全且效果良好的新方法.

  17. 槟榔南瓜子合剂对猪带绦虫作用的超微结构观察%ULTRASTRUCTURE OBSERVATION ON TAENIA SOLIUM EXPELLED BY DECOCTION OF ARECA AND PUMPKIN SEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田喜凤; 戴建军; 董路; 贺宝玲; 杨兆勇; 赵丽娜

    2002-01-01

    目的研究槟榔南瓜子合剂对猪带绦虫的杀虫机理. 方法猪带绦虫患者,晨空腹口服熟的、研成粉末的南瓜子仁100 g,30 min后服用槟榔煎剂(100 g,加水500 ml,煎煮),30 min后服用50%的硫酸镁60 ml.驱出的猪带绦虫活虫,以0.2 mol/L,pH7.2 PBS冲洗3次,2.5%戊二醛固定24 h以上.分别取幼节、成节、孕节各两节,每节取2小块,修成1 mm3,置2.5%戊二醛中备用.另取犬肠道内的豆状带绦虫(Taenia pisiformis)及患者驱虫前自动排出的新鲜孕节片(3节)作对照.将上述虫块取出,PBS 冲洗3次后,1%四氧化锇后固定4 h,冲洗3次,梯度酒精脱水,环氧树脂618浸透、包埋,超薄切片,厚50~70 nm,经醋酸铀和枸橼酸铅双重染色,透射电镜观察. 结果槟榔南瓜子合剂驱出的猪带绦虫的超微结构与正常对照组基本相同.(1)皮层无损伤.远端胞质区表面的微毛完整,胞质区内的囊泡、线粒体、内质网等细胞器无肿胀;核周胞质无变性、无细胞器减少或出现大量囊泡;(2)实质无变化.实质浅层的环肌束和纵肌束排列整齐,无肌纤维断裂和线粒体肿胀.实质深层的实质细胞和支持细胞结构正常. 结论槟榔南瓜子合剂对猪带绦虫的驱虫机理主要是麻痹作用,对神经无损伤.与阿苯达唑对猪带绦虫的损伤作用明显不同.

  18. Determination of Polyphenols Ingredients Present in Areca Husk and Its Antioxidant Activity%槟榔壳多酚组分及抗氧化活性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李专; 祁静; 赵松林

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed for the simultaneous determination of betel nut shell in a variety of phenolic compounds by high performance capillary electrophoresis method,analyzed the separation effect of different concentrations and pH values of buffer on 10 analytes,finally determined the best electrolytic buffer was 0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0 borate buffer,UV detection wavelength 280 nm,separation voltage 20 kV.The method is simple and fast,within 20 min 10 kinds of phenolic materials can be completely separated,the detection limit is 0.5~4.5 mg/L.In addition,this article further determines of the betel nut shell polyphenol antioxidant activity,by using three evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of index,namely:the DPPH free radical scavenging ability,reduction ability as well as ABTS free radical scavenging ability.%建立测定槟榔壳中多种酚类物质的高效毛细管电泳方法,分析不同浓度和不同pH值硼酸缓冲液对10种标准品的分离效果,最后确定最佳缓冲液为0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0的硼酸缓冲液,紫外检测波长为280 nm,分离电压为20 kV.方法简便快速,能在20 min之内将10种酚类物质完全分离开,检测限为0.5~4.5 mg/L.此外,进一步测定了槟榔壳多酚的抗氧化活性,选用3个评价抗氧化能力的指标,即:对DPPH自由基的清除能力、对还原能力以及对ABTS自由基的清除能力.

  19. Role of drinking water copper in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arakeri, G.; Hunasgi, S.; Colbert, S.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Brennan, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is thought to be multifactorial in origin, the chewing of areca nut is thought to be the main cause. Alkaloids and tannins in areca nut are responsible for fibrosis, but recent evidence has suggested that copper ions are also an important mediator, and in a sm

  20. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment. PMID:11308356

  1. Oral submucous fibrosis: a review article on etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, J; Gupta, N; Bali, R

    2014-01-01

    Areca quid chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazard to a large population worldwide. Commercially freeze dried products such as pan masala, guthka and mawa have high concentration of areca nut per chew and appear to cause OSMF more rapidly than by self prepared conventional betel quid that contain smaller amounts of areca nut. The basic constituent of areca nut is either raw or dried or boiled or baked. Diverse agents including lime, tobacco, catechu, cloves, saffron and leaf of piper betel leaves may form a part of formulation. Many of the undesirable aspects of areca nut have been attributed to arecoline. These chemical appear to interfere with the molecular processes of deposition and or degradation of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen, causing imbalance in the normal process. The most likely events that take place with regards to the above imbalance may be reduced phagocytosis of collagen by fibroblasts, up or down regulation of copper dependent enzyme lysyl oxidase, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases . It has been postulated that areca nut may also induce the development of the disease by increased levels of cytokines in the lamina propria. Current evidence implicates collagen related genes in susceptibility and pathogenesis of OSMF. The individual mechanisms operating at various stages of the disease--initial, intermediate and advanced--need further study in order to propose appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:25552225

  2. 不同生长状况下槟榔叶片Na+与Cl-含量调查及分析%The Analysis of the Na+ and Cl-Contents in the Leaves of Areca catechu L.Under Different Growth Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽兰; 甘炳春; 许明会; 周亚奎; 王旭东

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to analyze the Na" and Cl" dynamic of the arecanut leaves from different yield levels, different growth years and the ones with yellow leaf disease. The leaves were collected from normal fruit-bearing arecanut in different production levels and different growth years and those of yellow leaf disease for the experimental materials. The results showed that the Na+ content was high in leaves. The average Na+ content was 1.9%. The Na+ content of the arecanut leaves had not a significant change, and which didn' t show a line trend with arecanut yield varying. The differences in Na+ content between normal arecanut leaves and ones with yellow leaf disease was not significant. The Cl" content of arecanut leaves decreased with yield declining, The Cl" content of arecanut leaves in the middle- and low-yield groups decreased by about 30% and 45% than that in high-yield group, respectively. The Cl" content of yellow leaf disease was 60% lower than that of high-yield group, and was 28% lower than that of low-yield group. Na+ content of Arecanut leaves decreased with the growth time. However, the Cl" content of arecanut leaves had no significant change with growth time increasing. There was no significant difference between different grades in productions, Na+ declined along with arecanut growing time increasing. Arecanut leaves with the high yield have relatively high Cl-, and Cl-content of arecanut with yellow leaf disease was significantly lower than that of the normal arecanut, Cl- content has not an obvious linear trend with the growing time.%探讨不同产量水平、正常结果与黄化病槟榔叶片Na+与Cl-含量变化及不同生长年限槟榔叶片Na+与Cl-含量变化规律.以海南不同产量水平中不同生长年限正常结果与黄化槟榔叶片为试验材料,分析不同产量水平、正常结果与黄化槟榔叶片Na+、Cl-含量,以及不同生长年限槟榔叶片Na+、Cl-含量变化情况.结果表明:槟榔叶片含有较高Na离子.Na+平均含量约1.9%.槟榔叶片Na+随着产量水平无直线变化趋势.正常结果与黄化槟榔叶片Na+含量差异也不明显.Cl-含量在槟榔叶片较低.槟榔叶片Cl-含量随着槟榔产量下降有所下降,中产组和低产组的比高产组的分别下降了约30%和45%.黄化槟榔叶片Cl-含量比高产和低产组的低约60%和28%.槟榔叶片Na+含量随着生长年限呈下降趋势,而槟榔叶片Cl-含量随着生长年限无明显直线变化规律.结论:不同产量槟榔间Na+含量差异不明显.高产量的槟榔叶片Cl-含量比较高,黄化槟榔叶片Cl-含量明显低于正常槟榔的.Na+随着槟榔生长年限增加有所下降但Cl-无明显直线变化趋势.

  3. 鸦胆子、黄连、白头翁和槟榔对人芽囊原虫体外杀虫作用的比较%In Vitro Antiprotozoal Effects of Brucea javanica,Coptis chinensis, Radix pulsatillae and Arecae on Blastocystis hominis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 乔继英; 张荣; 魏志超; 蔡娟

    2007-01-01

    目的 通过比较鸦胆子、黄连、白头翁和槟榔对人芽囊原虫的体外杀虫作用,筛选出对人芽囊原虫有效的中药及浓度.方法 分别于加药24 h和72 h后对细胞进行计数,来评价药物的作用效果.结果 鸦胆子的最适浓度为1 600~3 200 μg/ml;黄连的最适浓度为6 400 μg/ml;白头翁不能完全杀死虫体,其最低抑虫浓度为800 μg/ml;槟榔无效.结论 鸦胆子、黄连、白头翁和槟榔是传统的治疗肠道感染和抗肠道寄生虫的中草药.通过比较药物最适浓度和最低抑虫浓度,发现鸦胆子的杀虫效果强于黄连;白头翁可抑制虫体繁殖;槟榔对人芽囊原虫无抑制和杀灭作用.

  4. Correlates of tobacco-use pattern amongst adolescents in two schools of New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwal A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As adolescent tobacco use has been found to be a major predictor of future use, preventive efforts need to be focused on this section of population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of knowledge regarding tobacco, risk-taking attitude, peers, and other influencers on tobacco and areca nut use, amongst adolescents. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A school-based cross-sectional study covering two schools. Students of classes IX and XI, of selected schools, participated in the study (n = 596. METHODS: A pretested and validated, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic factors, awareness regarding tobacco, risk-taking attitudes, role of peers and other influencers, and tobacco, areca nut and alcohol use, were studied. Statistical analysis: 0 Point estimates, 98% Confidence Intervals, tests of significance, bivariate and multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost 42% of tobacco users started before the age of 12 years. Peer pressure, general stress, and media were important influencers. Logistic regression analysis showed that students in public school were using more tobacco [Odds ratio (OR = 1.85, P = 0.174] and tobacco/areca nut (OR = 1.14, P = 0.02. The difference in use between the genders and class in which studying was statistically not significant. Lesser proportion of those possessing adequate knowledge regarding tobacco used it as compared to those without adequate knowledge (OR = 0.13, P < 0.001 however, possession of adequate knowledge was not a good predictor of areca nut consumption (OR = 0.86, P = 0.585. The most important correlate for tobacco use (OR = 6.41, P < 0.001 and areca nut use (OR = 11.17, P < 0.001 was risk-taking attitude. CONCLUSION: Multipronged and concerted efforts targeting children at an early age are required to prevent tobacco and areca nut use among adolescents.

  5. Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health. PMID:19004423

  6. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  7. The mutagenicities of alkaloids and N-nitrosoguvacoline from betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Peng, C H

    1996-08-01

    In Taiwan, betel quid is a natural masticatory, which is composed of fresh green areca fruit, Piper betle and slaked lime paste. Areca fruit contains some alkaloids, of which arecoline is the major one. N-Nitrosoguvacoline (NG), one of the N-nitrosation products of arecoline, is the only one N-nitrosamine found in Taiwanese betel quid chewing saliva. The mutagenic studies in Ames Salmonella microsome test showed that crude alkaloid extracts of areca fruit and arecoline were active in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, and NG was weakly active in TA98 and TA100. The activities in both arecoline and NG decreased further in the presence of rat liver S9 mix. Nitrite was significantly consumed during the N-nitrosation of arecoline and sodium nitrite at acidic condition (pH 3), whereas the formation of NG was favored at neutral condition (pH 7). Crude phenolic extracts of leaf and inflorescence of Piper betle inhibited the formation of NG by blocking the nitrite. However, a high amount of crude phenolic extracts of areca fruit enhanced the formation of NG. PMID:8692215

  8. Factors associated with tobacco smoking among 6-10 grade school students in an urban taluka of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the factors related to tobacco smoking among students of grade 6-10 in an urban setting in Sindh, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in public and private schools of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2009. Methodology: A sample of 501 students from grade 6-10 were selected through simple random sampling and probability proportional to size. Students answered to a pre-tested questionnaire on socio demography and tobacco use. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency distribution. Results: About 9% of the students were smoking some form of tobacco. Ten percent had tried cigarette smoking and about 80% and 61% were chewing Areca nuts and 'Paan' (concoction of Areca nuts, tobacco, hydrated lime, herbs and spices wrapped in betel leaf. Being old, male gender, peer influence, personal attitude toward future smoking, chewing 'Gutka' (concoction of tobacco, Areca nuts and hydrated lime) and having a more educated mother was associated with greater frequency of smoking any form of tobacco. Conclusion: High frequency of tobacco smoking, the attitude toward tobacco consumption and a very high consumption of Areca nuts and other chewable tobacco products by the children warrants urgent action in order to control the tobacco epidemic in Pakistan. (author)

  9. Sprague-Dawley rats are a sustainable and reproducible animal model for induction and study of oral submucous fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Maria; Kamath, V. V.; P S Krishnanand; R Komali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic debilitating disease predominantly affecting the oral cavity and oropharynx. Characteristic histological traits of OSF include epithelial atrophy, inflammation, and a generalized submucosal fibrosis. Several studies and epidemiological surveys provide substantial evidence that areca nut is the main etiological factor for OSF. Hesitance of patients to undergo biopsy procedure together with clinicians becoming increasingly reluctant to take...

  10. Sprague-Dawley rats are a sustainable and reproducible animal model for induction and study of oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a chronic debilitating disease predominantly affecting the oral cavity and oropharynx. Characteristic histological traits of OSF include epithelial atrophy, inflammation, and a generalized submucosal fibrosis. Several studies and epidemiological surveys provide substantial evidence that areca nut is the main etiological factor for OSF. Hesitance of patients to undergo biopsy procedure together with clinicians becoming increasingly reluctant to take biopsies in cases of OSF has prompted researchers to develop animal models to study the disease process. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluates the efficacy, sustainability, and reproducibility of using Sprague-Dawley (SD rats as a possible model in the induction and progression of OSF. Buccal mucosa of SD rats was injected with areca nut and pan masala solutions on alternate days over a period of 48 weeks. The control group was treated with saline. The influence of areca nut and pan masala on the oral epithelium and connective tissue was evaluated by light microscopy. Results: Oral submucous fibrosis-like lesions were seen in both the areca nut and pan masala treated groups. The histological changes observed included: Atrophic epithelium, partial or complete loss of rete ridges, juxta-epithelial hyalinization, inflammation and accumulation of dense bundles of collagen fibers subepithelially. Conclusions: Histopathological changes in SD rats following treatment with areca nut and pan masala solutions bears a close semblance to that seen in humans with OSF. The SD rats seem to be a cheap and efficient, sustainable and reproducible model for the induction and development of OSF.

  11. Elevation of S100A4 expression in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: involvement in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding proteins, is dramatically elevated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. Areca quid chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. OSF has been considered as a pre-cancerous condition of oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the critical role of S100A4 expression in the pathogenesis of OSF both in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Thirty OSF tissues from areca quid chewers and ten normal buccal mucosa samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry for S100A4 expression in vivo. Collagen gel contraction capability and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1/MMP9 in arecoline-stimulated BMFs with S100A4 knockdown was presented in vitro. Initially, S100A4 expression was higher in areca quid chewing-associated OSF specimens than normal buccal mucosa specimens (p = 0.001. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, led to dose- and time-dependent elevation of S100A4 expression in normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts BMFs (p<0.05. The additions of pharmacological agents rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor, and Bay117082 (NF-κB inhibitor were found to inhibit arecoline-induced S100A4 expression (p<0.05 in BMFs. Down-regulation of S100A4 by lentiviral infection significantly reversed arecoline-induced collagen gel contraction and TIMP1/MMP9 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that S100A4 expression is significantly up-regulated in OSF specimens. Arecoline-induced S100A4 expression was down-regulated by rapamycin, PD98059, and Bay117082. Targeting S100A4 might be a potential therapeutic target for OSF through TIMP1/MMP9 down-regulation.

  12. Betel: consumption and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1998-01-01

    Betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. Betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (Areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (Piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). Approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western Pacific basin and south Asia. Only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. When betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. There is copious production of a blood-red saliva that can stain oral structures. After years of chewing, the teeth may become red-brown to nearly black. Betel use is associated with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and squamous cell carcinoma. Use of betel is discouraged in Western countries because of its alleged carcinogenic and perceived dysesthetic properties; nevertheless, betel is widely available in the West. PMID:9448210

  13. Inventarisasi dan Pemanfaatan Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr) oleh Masyarakat Sekitar Hutan (Studi Kasus Desa Sihombu, Kecamatan Tarabintang,

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, Rionaldo

    2014-01-01

    Aren (A. pinnata) are included in the arecaceae (areca nut) and are included in the inclosed seed plants (angiospermae). Aren is a forest plant that has many benefits but is not yet used by forest communities widely. The purpose of this study is to elevate the potential, distribution and utilization of aren. This research was using compartment sampling with compartment strip technique. The result showed that optimal growth of aren in elevate 550-560 mdpl and the utilization ...

  14. Estimation of uranium in some edible and commercial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA (particle track analysis) method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated. PMID:15215323

  16. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith Raveendran; Sameera G Nath

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary pre...

  17. Paan and Gutka Use in the United States: A Pilot Study in Bangladeshi and Indian-Gujarati Immigrants in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M.; Gustavo CRUZ; Kerr, Ross; Katz, Ralph.

    2006-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco and areca nut are popular with South Asians and South Asian immigrants, most commonly used as paan and gutka. Their regular use leads to oral cancer. The South Asian community in the U.S. is rapidly growing, where paan and gutka are readily available. The study was the first exploration of the migration of the paan and gutka habits, and their use in the U.S.

  18. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Bottom heating system using geothermal power for propagation. Final report, Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to develop and study a bottom-heating system in a greenhouse utilizing geothermal energy to aid germination and speed growth of palms. Source of heat was geothermal brine from HGP-A well. The project was successful; the heat made a dramatic difference with certain varieties, such as Areca catechu (betelnut) with 82% germination with heat, zero without. For other varieties, germination rates were much closer. Quality of seed is important. Tabs, figs.

  19. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan; Nalini Aswath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA]) and nutritional parameters such as...

  20. Estimation of Uranium in Some Edible and Commercial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choudhury

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm

  1. Drug: D09096 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09096 Formula, Drug Keimeisankabukuryo Areca [DR:D06782], Chaenomeles fruit [DR:D09192], Aurantii nobilis pericarpium [DR:D06897], Platycodon root [DR:D06703], Evodia fruit [DR:D00173], Perilla herb [DR:D06755], Dry ginger [DR:D06744], Poria sclerotium [DR:D06783] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for dampness Diuretic formulas D09096 Keimeisankabukuryo PubChem: 96025776 ...

  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients with and without predisposing habits in glossal and extra-glossal site: An institutional experience in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patients with or without predisposing habits in glossal and extraglossal sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of OSCC cases over a period of 13.75 years from the archives of Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Demographic details, site, details of habits, and grade of OSCC were retrieved. Social Package for Social Service version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and comparison of mean were employed appropriately. RESULTS: There were 151 OSCC cases, of which 60.9% (92/151 were males, 21.2% (32/151 were aged ≤40 years and 27.82% (42/151 occurred in the tongue. The glossal to extraglossal site ratio was 1:2.6. Predisposing habits were present in 52.4% of glossal OSCC and 82.6% with extra-glossal sites (P = 0.000. Besides tobacco, exclusive areca nut chewing was observed in 15.23% (23/151 patients. Thirty-nine (25.8% belonged to non-tobacco, non-areca nut, non-alcohol (NTND group with male to female ratio was1:3. DISCUSSION: In our cohort, 112 of 151 OSCC (74.8% had at least one predisposing habit. Chewing of areca nut alone was a predisposing habit by itself. In addition, there was a small, subset of cases that were not associated with history of any habits. This study brings to focus the subsets of OSCC predisposed by areca nut and NTND, that needs to be studied further.

  3. An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Aspiration Masquerading as Pulmonary Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopathi, Nageswara Rao; Mandava, Venu; P, Prabahkar Rao; Kolaparthy, Lakshmaikanth

    2015-06-01

    Foreign body aspiration into the airways is a common occurrence in inebriated conditions, paediatric age group and or loss of cough reflex. Acute symptoms, often times are recognized and medical assistance is sought. Subtle aspirations, unrecognized and stationed for longer time in the abode of airways pose variegated clinical picture. The authors present herewith an unsuspected case of Areca nut in a middle-aged woman mimicking eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:26266154

  4. Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India

    OpenAIRE

    K.A. Subramanian; Sivaramakrishnan, K.G.; Gadgil, Madhav

    2005-01-01

    The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as ...

  5. Epidemiology of betel quid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P C; Ray, C S

    2004-07-01

    Betel quid chewing is an ancient practice common in many countries of Asia and among migrated communities in Africa, Europe and North America. It enjoys complete social acceptance in many societies and is also popular among women. In its most basic form, betel quid consists of betel leaf (Piper betel), areca nut, the main psychoactive ingredient, and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Areca nut is said to be the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. There are a great variety of ingredients and ways of preparing betel quid in different countries. In some, particularly in India, tobacco is added to the quid. In recent years, commercially-manufactured non-perishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or betel quid mixtures and gutka), not containing betel leaf, have been marketed. Within a short period of about 2 decades, this industry has risen in value to several hundred US million dollars. Use of areca nut in any form is not safe for oral health; the use of commercially manufactured forms seems even riskier. PMID:15389304

  6. 口腔黏膜下纤维性变癌变的相关危险因素分析%The analysis on risk factors for carcinogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳波; 尹晓敏; 高义军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the risk factors of malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). [Methods] A total of 461 cases with OSF and 62 cases with malignant transformation of OSF were analyzed retrospectively. Single factor test was first performed to examine the associations between malignant transformation of OSF and each of risk factors including age, sex, occupation, educational level, duration of areca nut chewing, frequency of areca nut chewing, alcohol and tobacco consumption ^ mouth openings accompanied by oral leukoplakia or oral lichen planus etal. Then the association of these selected factors with malignant transformation of OSF was e- valuated using multiple logistic regression analysis. [Results] Age, education, mouth opening, areca nut chewing, duration of areca nut chewing, smoking, duration and frequency of smoking, drinking were chosen as risk factors incorporated into the multiple logistic regression models. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, frequency of areca nut chewing, smoking and duration of smoking were associated with significantly increased risk for the malignant transformation of OSF (P <0.05). [ Conclusion ] The risk factors for the malignant transformation of OSF were age, frequency of areca nut chewing, smoking and duration of smoking.%目的 通过对461例口腔黏膜下纤维性变(oral submucous fibrosis,OSF)及62例OSF癌变患者进行回顾性综合分析,探讨OSF癌变的相关危险因素.方法 首先进行单因素检验,观察年龄、性别、职务、文化程度、咀嚼槟榔的时间和频率、吸烟量、饮酒、是否伴发白斑或扁平苔藓、张口度等15个相关因素与OSF癌变的关系,筛选与OSF癌变相关的变量,进入多因素Logistic回归分析模型,计算这些因素的相对危险度(OR值)及95%的可信区间.结果 单因素分析结果显示:年龄、文化程度、张口度、咀嚼槟榔、咀嚼槟榔的持续时间、吸烟、吸烟持

  7. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines. PMID:19114402

  8. Developing a Betel Quid Cessation Program on the Island of Guam

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, John; Kawamoto, Crissy; Pokhrel, Pallav; Paulino, Yvette; Herzog, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is a psychoactive drug preparation typically made up of a combination of areca quid, slaked lime, piper betel leaf and tobacco. It is the fourth most commonly consumed drug in the world with global use concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region (Boucher and Mannan, 2002; Warnakulasuriya and Peters, 2002). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified betel quid as a Group 1 carcinogen (IARC, 2004; Lin et al., 2006), and its use has been associated with oral and oropha...

  9. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing. PMID:18353040

  10. Betel quid-induced oral lichen planus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2003-04-01

    The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman. PMID:12729096

  11. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary prevention by recognizing that the risk factors are common to most other diseases.

  12. ALLELOPATHIC STUDIES OF UNDERSTOREY WEEDS BY AGROFORESTRY TREES IN HOME GARDENS OF MIZORAM

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    UK Sahoo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic impact of multiple trees was studied on the composition, density and biomass of herbaceous weeds in home gardens of Mizoram,North-East India. The weed density in the control was significantly (PAleurites fordii>Areca catechu>Azadiratcha indica,Gmelina arborea and Toona ciliata > Tectona grandis. No relationship between the light intensity and nutrient status of the soil beneath the tree species with the under storey weed diversity and density depicts less impact of the growth resources on weed vegetation

  13. Anti-necrosis potential of polyphenols against snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols from the extracts of Areca catechu L. and Quercus infectoria Oliv. inhibited phospholipase A(2), proteases, hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase of Naja naja kaouthia Lesson (NK) and Calloselasma rhodostoma Kuhl (CR) venoms by in vitro tests. Both extracts inhibited the hemorrhagic activity of CR venom and the dermonecrotic activity of NK venom by in vivo tests. The inhibitory activity of plant polyphenols against local tissue necrosis induced by snake venoms may be caused by inhibition of inflammatory reactions, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The result implies the therapeutic potential of plant polyphenols against necrosis in snakebite victims. PMID:19874222

  14. [Our investigation on the chemistry of biologically active natural products. With the object of exploitation for structure determination methods, and elucidation of vital function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, T

    1993-03-01

    Our investigation on the chemistry of biologically active natural products during the last 40 years since 1953 are reviewed in this paper. The following subjects are discussed: I. photochemical relationship between rhodopsin and compounds related to areca alkaloid, II. furanoid diterpenoid constituents from dioscoreaceae plants and colombo root, III. field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of biologically active natural glycosides and glycosphingolipids, IV. investigation of biologically active marine natural products, 1) constituents of steroid glycoside sulfates from Asteroidea, 2) spine toxins from Acanthaster planci, 3) constituents of triterpenoid glycoside sulfates from Holothuroidea, 4) constituents of isoprenoids from Opisthobranchia and Octocorallia, 5) constituents of glycosphingolipids from Asteroidea. PMID:8509990

  15. Inventory of palm species in Mioswaar island, Teluk Wondama Regency, West Irian Jaya (Papua

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    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to find out palms species diversity in Mioswaar Island, Teluk Wondama Regency, West Irian Jaya (Papua. The research result indicated that the forest of Mioswaar Island had been 3 sub families of palms, i.e. Arecoideae, Calamoideae, and Coryphoideae, consist of 12 genera, namely: Areca, Arenga, Calamus, Caliprocalix, Caryota, Gronophyllum, Gulubia, Licuala, Orania, Metroxylon, Pigafetta, and Pinanga. The most common species palm was Arenga microcarpa, Gulubia costata, and Gronophyllum pinangoides. In this island, palms grew at 2-200 asl.

  16. Contribution of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 genotypes to oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-06-01

    The DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is thought to play a major role in double-strand break repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Very possibly, defective double-strand break repair of cells can lead to carcinogenesis. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to reveal the contribution of XRCC3 genotypes to individual oral cancer susceptibility. In this hospital-based research, the association of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539, rs28903081 genotypes with oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped. The results showed that there was significant differential distribution among oral cancer and controls in the genotypic (p=0.001428) and allelic (p=0.0013) frequencies of XRCC3 rs861539. As for the other polymorphisms, there was no difference between case and control groups. In gene-lifestyle interaction analysis, we have provided the first evidence showing that there is an obvious joint effect of XRCC3 rs861539 genotype with individual areca chewing habits on oral cancer risk. In conclusion, the T allele of XRCC3 rs861539, which has an interaction with areca chewing habit in oral carcinogenesis, may be an early marker for oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  17. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. PMID:11385294

  18. Evaluation for antidiabetic activity in selected medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes were investigated. The nuts of Areca cathecu, leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ficus deltoidea were each extracted by boiling in distilled water. The aqueous extracts were filtered and the filtrates were then spray dried. Their biological evaluation was conducted to determine their blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Commercially available antidiabetic drug, glybenclamide was used as positive control. Toxicity of the extracts was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality assay and in vivo acute toxicity test in rats. Aqueous extracts of all the plants studied showed significant reduction in blood glucose level up to 50% in rats over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The largest reduction in blood glucose levels was exhibited by the aqueous extracts of the Lagestroemia speciosa, followed by the Ficus deltoidea and Areca cathecu. There was no evidence of toxicity of the extracts against the brine shrimp (up to 4,000 μg/ml) and in rats (up to 0.2% body weight). (Author)

  19. Oral mucosal lesions associated with use of quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avon, Sylvie Louise

    2004-04-01

    Quid is a mixture of substances that is placed in the mouth or actively chewed over an extended period, thus remaining in contact with the mucosa. It usually contains one or both of 2 basic ingredients, tobacco and areca nut. Betel quid or paan is a mixture of areca nut and slaked lime, to which tobacco can be added, all wrapped in a betel leaf. The specific components of this product vary between communities and individuals. The quid habit has a major social and cultural role in communities throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and locations in the western Pacific. Following migration from these countries to North America, predominantly to inner city areas, the habit has remained prevalent among its practitioners. Many dentists are unaware of the prevalence of the quid or paan habit in the Asian patient population. The recognition of the role of such products in the development of oral precancer and cancer is of great importance to the dental practitioner. A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions have been reported in association with quid and tobacco use, and the association of these conditions with the development of oral cancer emphasizes the importance of education to limit the use of quid. In most cases, cessation of the habit produces improvement in mucosal lesions as well as in clinical symptoms. PMID:15120019

  20. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai

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    Kiran Kumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition associated with the use of areca nut in various forms. There are very few reports to correlate the clinical stage to histopathological grading in OSF. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted on 75 OSF cases who visited our hospital in Chennai from 2000-2003. A detailed history of each patient was recorded along with a clinical examination. Biopsy was performed for histopathological correlation. Clinical stage of the disease in terms of the ability to open one′s mouth was correlated with histopathological grading. Results: The male to female ratio of OSF cases was 6:1. All forms of areca nut products were associated with OSF. Chewing of paanmasala was associated with early presentation of OSF as compared to chewing of the betel nut. Out of 57 cases, which were in clinical stage II, 91.2% had histological grading of I and II in equal proportions and 8.8% had histological grade III. Out of 13 cases that showed a clinical stage of III, 52% showed a histological grade of II, 40% grade III and 8% grade I. Conclusion: In the present study, there was no direct correlation between clinical stages and histopathological grading. The possibility of difference in the severity and extent of fibrosis in different regions of the oral mucosa and involved muscles were considered as contributory factors for this variation.

  1. Oral White Lesions: Presentation and Comparison of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Other Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare oral submucous fibrosis with other white oral lesions for presentation and associated factors. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Departments of Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Karachi, from May 2008 to May 2009. Methodology: Patients presenting with oral white lesions were selected by consecutive non-purposive sampling and clinico-demographic data was collected. For patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), additional information like duration of habits, maximal incisal opening (MIO), presence of any other associated lesion were noted. OSF was compared with other white lesions for any association between characteristic of subjects. Chi-square and independent t-tests for determining the statistical significance at p < 0.05. Results: OSF was present in 59.6% (n = 106) of the 178 patients; other white lesions were 40.4% (n = 72). The mean age of patients with OSF was 34 +- 12.7 years and 45.81 +- 16.2 years in patients with other white lesions, (p < 0.0001). Items containing areca nut were consumed more by patients with OSF, with a significant (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with other white lesions. Conclusion: OSF was the predominant white lesion in patients examined at DIKIOHS. Areca nut was found to be chewed more by patients with OSF and still longer by patients with SCC. (author)

  2. Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences

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    M Ayyanar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Results of an ethnobotanical study of wound healing treatments among the tribal people of Tirunelveli hills in southern India are presented. A total of 46 plants belonging to 44 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against wounds and related injuries such as cuts, burns, bruises caused by external injury, boils, sores, abscess and wounds created during delivery. Leaves were the most frequently utilized plant part and most herbal remedies are prepared as paste and applied externally; in some cases medicinal preparations were also administered orally. Of the plants collected in the present study none of the plants have been reported to have such specific wound healing compounds except Areca catechu and Scoparia dulcis. The present study suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. Industrial Relevance: The study of ethnomedical systems and herbal medicines as therapeutic agents of a paramount importance in addressing health problems of traditional communities and third world countries as well as industrialized societies. Of the reported plants,  Acalypha indica, Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Calotropis gigantea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscosa, Eupatorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa, Ixora coccinia, Morinda pubescens, Opuntia dillenii, Pongamia pinnata, Scoparia dulcis and Vitex altissima were studied in animal models for wound healing, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity on the basis of their use in traditional medicine as wound healers and these plants can be used to formulate drugs in pharmaceutical companies.

  3. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  4. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

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    SHIVANAND BHAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.

  5. del Jardín Botánico Nacional

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    Carmen E. Duarte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en las especies seleccionadas por el Jardín Botánico, por su interés económico y turístico, para valorar el efecto del agua tratada magnéticamente en el cultivo y en el sistema de riego. Se evaluaron parámetros biológicos e hidráulicos, en comparación con el testigo; entre ellos se encuentran las evaluaciones de dinámica de crecimiento, largo de las hojas de diferentes especies de arecas tales como: de Cuba (Coco thrinax crinita, endémica y Thrinax radiata, de Brasil (Syagrus romanzoffiana, de Australia (Wodretia bifurcata, de África (Latania loddigesii y de Asia (Pinanga kuhlii y determinaciones de los gastos medios de los emisores y coeficiente de uniformidad del sistema para determinar la eficiencia del mismo. Para el tratamiento de las aguas se utilizó un dispositivo magnetizador de imanes permanentes acoplado al sistema de riego, con la finalidad de mejorar la calidad del agua de riego en el Jardín Botánico. Los resultados más relevantes reflejan que las arecas responden a la estimulación producida por el agua tratada magnéticamente y que disminuye la sedimentación de sales sobre el follaje, elevando la vida útil del sistema de riego

  6. Development of photochemoprotective herbs containing cosmetic formulations for improving skin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Swarnlata; Chhabra, Sumit Kour; Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Shailendra

    2012-01-01

    Botanical photochemoprotectives are used because they act on various stages to prevent skin cancer and photoaging. The aim of this study was to prepare herbal creams from various photochemoprotective herbs and to perform efficacy studies on them by using physicochemical, microbiological, safety, psychometric, biophysical, and sun protection factor measurements. Herbal creams were prepared by incorporating hydroalcoholic extracts of Curcuma caesia (rhizome), Areca catechu (seeds), Centella asiatica (leaves) Cinnamon zeylanicum (dried bark), and Tamarindus indica (fruit pulp) in varied concentrations (1-5% w/w) in a base cream. The efficacy of all formulations was checked out for four weeks on 60 normal subjects on the volar forearm for evaluation of biophysical properties, and for psychometric evaluations (fragrance, lathery feel, softness, irritation, stickiness, smoothness, and aftereffect on the skin) and safety measurements. In the biophysical characterization, a cutometer for viscoelasticity, a mexameter for melanin content, a corneometer for hydration, and a sebumeter for sebum determination were used. All the cream formulations with 1% and 3% w/w extracts showed positive results and passed physicochemical, microbiological, and safety tests. The SPF values increased as the concentration of extract was increased up to a limit in the formulations. The SPF values were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in formulations with 3% herbal extract than with 1% herbal extract. Increased skin hydration, sebum levels, viscoelasticity, and decreased melanin values were obtained. The Cinnamon, Centella, and Tamarindus formulations were found more effective as photoprotectives than the Areca and Curcuma formulations. PMID:22591563

  7. 响应面分析用于槟榔储藏条件考察的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪美; 孔维军; 胡一晨; 杨美华

    2015-01-01

    探寻 A.flavus 菌株在槟榔原药材中生长及产黄曲霉毒素(AFB1,AFB2,AFG1和 AFG2)的规律,分析槟榔药材的最佳储藏条件。采用响应面分析法(Response Surface Analysis,RSA)结合 Central composite 设计,通过测定染菌后的槟榔中水分含量及总黄曲霉毒素的变化,考察温度(Temp,20~40℃)和湿度(Hum,80%~95%)两个环境因子对药材上 A.flavus菌株产毒的影响,分析该菌株的最适产毒条件。结果发现,储藏后的槟榔水分含量发生了显著的增加;当湿度范围为90%~95%,温度高于25℃时,A.flavus 菌株在槟榔中生长较快并产生大量黄曲霉毒素。研究表明,当储存条件为湿度小于90%,温度低于25℃,槟榔药材在储藏过程中不易霉变产毒,为槟榔储藏规范的制定及降低真菌毒素污染的概率提供了较好的依据。%The paper was to explore the law of growth of A.flavus and production of aflatoxins(AFB1 ,AFB2,AFG1 and AFG2) in raw Areca catechu and to study the optimal storage conditions of Areca catechu.Two environmental factors including temperature (temp,20 ~40 ℃)and humidity(Hum,80% ~95%)were investigated on the impact of the production of aflatoxins by A.flavus in medicinal herbs.The change of moisture content and the content of total aflatoxins after storage was tested through response sur-face analysis(RSA)combined with Central composite design,in order to analyze the environmental condition of the least aflatoxins production.The results showed that the moisture content of Areca catechu was significantly enhanced after storage.When the hu-midity was in range of 90% ~95% and temperature was higher than 25 ℃,A.flavus grew quickly and produced large amounts of aflatoxins on Areca catechu.The study showed that Areca catechu was not easy to mildew and produce toxins in environment with humidity less than 90%,temperature below 25 ℃.The result provided reference

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  9. 食用槟榔及其与口腔癌间的关系%Betel-quid chewing and its relationship with oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小钧; 席庆

    2015-01-01

     Betel-quid chewing is common in South Asia, South-east Asia, and the Pacific Islands, especially in our country. Betel-quid contains various ingredients, including areca-nut, tobacco, betel leaf, betel vine, inflorescence, slaked lime, and some special flavored substances. The composition and processing of betel-quid vary in different countries. However, areca-nut and tobacco are consistent main components. Areca-nut contains betel alkaloid, tannin betel nut, betel nut-specific nitrosamines, and reactive oxygen, which exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogen effects. Previous studies showed that betel-quid chewing is a significant factor contributing to oral submucous fibrosis and is related to the incidence of oral cancer, leukoplakia, lichen planus, and so on. This paper presents the prevalence of areca-nut consumption, ingredients, and carcinogenic mechanism to provide a scientific basis for oral cancer prevention and awareness.%食用槟榔在南亚和东南亚以及环太平洋地区的岛屿非常普遍,在中国亦有蔓延扩大的趋势。槟榔咀嚼块一般由槟榔、烟草、槟榔叶、蒌叶、花序和熟石灰以及一些特殊的调味剂组成,不同国家和地区的槟榔咀嚼块的组成及加工方法不一,但槟榔和烟草等是槟榔咀嚼块中最主要的组成部分。食用槟榔是导致口腔黏膜下纤维化的最主要原因,可增加口腔癌发病率且与口腔白斑和口腔扁平苔藓等癌前病变密切相关。食用槟榔之所以会导致口腔癌,是因为槟榔中的多种活性成分和代谢产物有细胞毒性、遗传毒性甚至直接致癌性,这些物质包括槟榔生物碱、槟榔鞣质、槟榔特异性亚硝胺和活性氧等。本文

  10. Quality of paper boards from arecanut leaf sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, R; Viswanathan, R; Devadas, C T

    2002-03-01

    A study was carried on utilizing arecanut leaf sheath for making paper boards. Paper boards were made with various combinations of arecanut leaf sheath with waste paper, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 3:1, 2:1, control (100% areca leaf sheath) and the qualities of these paper boards were tested as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 1060 (part-I)-1966). The paper boards made with more arecanut sheath materials had more resistance to water absorption. The addition of paper increased the substance weight of the paper boards. The 2:1 and 3:1 combinations of arecanut leaf sheath and waste paper had best tear strength, tensile strength, bursting strength and water resistance with minimum substance weight. PMID:11848383

  11. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo. PMID:25650283

  12. Health Beliefs About Tobacco With Betel Nut Use Among Adults in Yap, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareg, Aileen Rosogmar Castaritas; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Santos, Hildemar Dos

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is high among Pacific Islanders in general and little tobacco research has been done in Yap, Micronesia. This study aimed to explore perceptions of tobacco use coupled with chewing of betel (areca) nut among adults in Yap using self-administered questionnaires based on the health belief model. A Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree or very unlikely to very likely) was used to measure susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy among individuals aged 18 and older. Older adults felt quitting tobacco or betel nut use would be significantly more difficult because of social reasons and withdrawal problems. Most participants felt susceptible to tobacco-related diseases. These findings possibly indicate a receptive attitude toward any future tobacco use prevention and intervention program. Older Yapese population would need to be especially targeted. Health promotion programs should target smoking behaviors and risk reduction. PMID:26099155

  13. Oral Submucous Fibrosis Secondary to Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Case Report, Etiopathogenesis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P T; Khaitan, T; Sarkar, S B; Sinha, R

    2016-02-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a premalignant condition that has received considerable attention in the recent past because of its chronic debilitating and resistant nature. Over the past decades, dental researchers have reported overwhelming evidence about various etiological factors of OSMF. It has been the subject of controversy ever since Schwartz first described the condition in 1952. Areca nut is considered the primary etiology along with other local irritants like capsaicin, pungent and spicy food, nutritional deficiency, defective iron metabolism, collagen metabolic disorder and genetic predisposition. Association of iron deficiency anemia and OSMF is very sparse in literature. Here, we present a case report of a 58 year old male patient where the patient presented with OSMF where iron deficiency anemia was found to be the main etiological factor.

  14. Biochemical and molecular genetic approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Sung, Woo Kyung; Piao, Wen Hua [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. About 100 medicinal plants were purchased and methanol extract samples were prepared. Radio-protective and radio-sensitizing activities of these samples were screened. Seven samples showed above 20% radio-protective activities: Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, Alpiniae officinari rhizoma, Meliae fructus, Alpiniae katsumadaii semen, Betulae cortex. Acanthopanax sessiliflous showed the highest radio-sensitizing effect and 10 other samples revealed moderate activities: Melia japonica, Agastache rugosa, Platycodon gradiflorum, Broussonetia bazinoki, Angelica gigas, Inula helenium, Chelidonium majus, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Dioscorea batatas. (author). 49 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Inhibition of Naja kaouthia venom activities by plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pakmanee, Narumol; Suttisri, Rutt; Saen-oon, Suwipa

    2005-03-21

    Plant polyphenols from the aqueous extracts of Pentace burmanica, Pithecellobium dulce, Areca catechu and Quercus infectoria were tested for their inhibitory activities against Naja kaouthia (NK) venom by in vitro neutralization method. The first three extracts could completely inhibit the lethality of the venom at 4 LD50 concentration and the venom necrotizing activity at the minimum necrotizing dose while also inhibited up to 90% of the acetylcholinesterase activity of NK venom at much lower tannin concentrations than that of Quercus infectoria. The ED50 of plant tannins in inhibiting NK venom activities varied according to condensed tannins and their content in the extracts. Molecular docking of the complexes between alpha-cobratoxin and either hydrolysable or condensed tannins at their lowest energetic conformations were proposed. The anti-venom activities of these plant polyphenols by selectively blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and non-selectively by precipitation of the venom proteins were suggested. PMID:15740891

  16. A review on harmful effects of pan masala

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    A Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pan masala (PM is a mixture of areca nut with slaked lime, catechu and other flavoring agents. It is widely available and used by all the sections of the Indian society. It is genotoxic as it increases sister chromatin exchange and chromatin aberrations. Among humans, it is a leading cause of oral submucous fibrosis that often progresses to oral cancer. Among experimental animals, it leads to neoplastic lesions in lung, liver and stomach. It is hepatotoxic leading to increased level of enzymes, deranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is harmful to kidneys and testes leading to increased creatinine and sperm deformities respectively. PM is a very harmful substance affecting almost all organ systems, and there is immediate need for a national policy on complete ban on the production, storage, sale and marketing of PM.

  17. The alternative choices of masticatory customs by local people in Wasur National Park, Merauke, Papua

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    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The flora diversity and the interesting customs in East Indonesia, particularly in Papua, have not been explored intensively. This study encountered the relationship between traditional customs and usage of plant species by the local people in Wasur National Park Area, Merauke sub-district, Merauke district. One of them was masticatory. It has been well known by Indonesians in most parts of Indonesia, including societies in Wasur National Park. The major societies live in Wasur National Park are Kanum, Morori and Marind. Besides gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxburgh and sirih (Piper betle L., the young fruit of betel nut (Areca catechu L. is usually consumed it as masticatory materials, by man and women. Several plant species, usually used alternative choices by Kanum, Morori and Marind were openg (Exocarpus latifolius R.Br.; Santalaceae, tawal (Celastraceae, sambiwal (Erythroxylum ecarinatum Burck; Erythroxylaceae, ntuo (Cryptocaria nitida R.A.Philippi; Lauraceae and agya (Endiandra montana C.T. White; Lauraceae.

  18. Prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan and related sociodemographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y C; Chiang, T A; Chang, S J; Hsieh, S F

    1992-07-01

    The prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan was surveyed in a group of Chinese people from Kaohsiung city and in a second group from the aboriginal inhabitants of South Taiwan. In all 1299 participants constituted Group 1 (85.2% response rate) and 827 Group 2 (70.1% response rate). People were interviewed in their homes in house-to-house survey, according to a structured questionnaire developed and evaluated by the authors. Of the Kaohsiung inhabitants covering all ages and both sexes, 6% was a current betel chewer and 4% was an ex-chewer, whereas 42% of the aborigines aged over 15 yr was a current chewer and 1% an ex-chewer. Lifetime prevalence was 10%. Betel chewing enjoys islandwide popularity among the 20 million inhabitants of Taiwan; the number of current and ex-users was estimated at 2.0 million (95% CI 1.6-2.4 million). The betel quid was prepared in two different ways. In one, used mainly by aborigines, fresh areca nut was simply wrapped with betel leaf and in another, popular mainly among Chinese, a lengthwise piece of betel fruit and lime paste was sandwiched between two halves of an areca nut. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and drinker, but tobacco was not found to be chewed together with betel quid. Consumption varied between 14 to 23 portions per day, with individual frequencies ranging widely from 1 to over 200 portions a day. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that lesser educated older men, blue collar workers, smokers and drinkers were the likeliest betel chewers. PMID:1501158

  19. Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants extract against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, goat farming, either as a full-time or part-time activity, is in increasingly being recognized as an economically beneficial livestock enterprise in tropical and sub tropical countries. Despite this popularity of goat industry, several constraints have limited the full potential of this farming activity in these countries. Among the multitude of impediments, which limit the development of the goat industry, gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major constraint in Sri Lanka like in other parts of the tropics. Recent studies in Sri Lanka have shown, gastrointestinal nematode infections decrease the productivity, particularly weight gain in meat goats in the dry zone. The work done in dry zone of Sri Lanka has indicated that an overwhelming majority (99%) of goats were affected by a moderate to high gastrointestinal nematode infection. Successful control gastrointestinal nematodiasis infection is important for the sustainable productivity of the goat industry. The control of gastrointestinal nematodiasis is usually performed using synthetic anthelmintics. The appearance of nematode resistance to these anthelmintics and several other factors highlight the need to developing alternatives. This stimulated the research of alternatives, such as medicinal plants to control gastrointestinal nematodiasis. According to circumstances and depending on their efficacy, naturally produced plant anthelmintics offer an alternative that can overcome some of these problems and is both sustainable and environmentally acceptable. Fifteen plant extracts were screened using an in vitro larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Out of the fifteen crude extracts Azadiractha indica (neem) seed (NS), Areca catechu(areca-nut) unripe fruit kernel(AUFK), Adhatoda vasica (pavatta-adathoda) leaves (PL), caused a significant(P 0.05). ANUFK and PL extracts at the dose rates used was effective in controlling the GI nematodiasis in goats. ANUFK and PL could be used in control

  20. Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia

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    Subhash Chandra Bose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is a common, potentially premalignant lesion with malignant transformation rate from 1 to 17% with highest transformation rate for the lesions on the floor of the mouth, soft palate and tongue. One of the main etiological factors is consuming areca nut and its commercial preparations which generate high levels of reactive oxygen species during their metabolism. So the aim of this present study is to evaluate the plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant mineral zinc, glutathione and total antioxidant status (TAS in leukoplakia patients. Materials and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we selected 23 newly diagnosed oral leukoplakia patients of both sexes within the age group 28-40 years and the same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals without having history of any systemic illness were selected as control group. In both the groups, we measured plasma antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc, GSH and TAS. Student′s t test was applied and the P value <0.001 was considered as statistically significant. Results: We observed very low levels of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc and antioxidant metabolite GSH (P<0.001 and at the same time we also observed very poor (TAS (P<0.001 in leukoplakia patients when compared to patients in control group. Conclusion: The consumption of tobacco or areca quid which contains high copper levels creates an oxidative stress like environment during their metabolism, might play a major role in causation and propagation of oral leukoplakia.

  1. Quantitative analysis of serum levels of trace elements in patients with oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A randomized cross-sectional study

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    Sreelatha S Hosthor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Metabolic disorders, oral precancerous conditions and oral cancer are accompanied by alterations in the concentration of one or more trace elements like copper, iron, zinc, magnesium etc., in some body fluids, especially blood serum or plasma, which can help not only in the early diagnosis and treatment but also in prognosis. The objective of the study is to evaluate the levels of circulating trace elements (copper, iron, magnesium, zinc and calcium in serum of patients with Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC, to analyze the alteration and identify the best predictors amongst these parameters for disease occurrence and progression and their association with areca nut and betel quid chewing habits. Materials and Method: Serum levels of trace elements (copper, iron, magnesium, zinc and calcium were estimated using electronic absorption colorimetric method. These levels were compared with controls and statistically evaluated using ANOVA and POST-HOC TUKEY tests. Results: The data analysis revealed that serum copper levels increased gradually from precancer to cancer, as the duration of betel quid chewing habit increased. However, serum iron, magnesium, zinc levels were decreased significantly in both the groups. Serum calcium levels were increased in the cancer group owing to bone resorption in the later stages of the disease, whereas it was close to normal in OSF patients. Among all the trace elements, the best predictor for occurrence of both the lesions was copper. Conclusion: The present study shows that the above trace elements may be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of OSF and OSCC. Betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are frequently associated with both disease states and may play a role in altering the serum levels of these trace elements. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

  2. Study on Behavioral Responses of Asecodes hispinarum to Four Palm Plants Volatiles%椰甲截脉姬小蜂对4种棕榈科植物挥发物的行为反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓君; 陈青; 覃伟权; 唐超; 金启安; 温海波

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The article aimed to elucidate the attracting effects of the four palm plants volatiles to Asecodes hispinarum. [Method] The behavioral response of A. hispinarum females to the volatiles emitted from 4 palm plants (Cocos nucifera, Roystonea regia, Areca catechu and Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) were studied by using a Y-tube olfactometer. [Result]The volatiles emitted from undamaged and mechanically damaged heart leaves of 4 palm plants had not attraction to A. hispinarum; the attraction of volatiles from 3L-Cocos nucifera, 3L-Areca catechu and 3L-Chrysalidocarpus lutescens complexes to A.hispinarum females were only evident between 20 h and 48 h after infestation by 10 B.longissima 3th larvae per leaf, but not before or after. The volatiles from 3L-Roystonea regia complexes had evident abstraction at 36 h and 48 h, but not at other time. The behavioral responses of the female parasitoids to different larvae-plam complexes were not evident at 48 h; in contrast, parasitoids preferred the volatiles from 3L-Cocos nucifera. [Conclusion] The volatiles from heart leaves of host plants damaged by the larvae of B. longissima could attract A.hispinarum to locate to the host habitat.%[目的]阐明4种棕榈科植物挥发物对椰甲截脉姬小蜂的引诱作用.[方法]用"Y"型嗅觉仪观测了椰甲截脉姬小蜂雌蜂对4种棕榈科植物(椰子Cocos nucifera,大王椰子Roystonea regia,槟榔Areca catechu和散尾葵Chrysalidocarpus lutescens)的行为反应.[结果]4种棕榈科植物未受害心叶和机械损伤心叶挥发物对椰甲截脉姬小蜂没有明显的吸引作用;每叶10头椰心叶甲3龄幼虫为害20~48 h,幼虫-散尾葵心叶复合体、幼虫-槟榔心叶复合体和幼虫-椰子心叶复合体对椰甲截脉姬小蜂有明显的吸引作用;幼虫-大王棕心叶复合体仅在36、48 h对椰甲截脉姬小蜂有明显的吸引作用;小于或大于这些时间范围,4种复合体对椰甲截脉姬小蜂都没有明显的吸引

  3. Factores que influyen en la embriogénesis somática in vitro de palmas (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viñas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Factors affecting in vitro somatic embryogenesis of palms (Arecaceae Resumen La embriogénesis somática (ES es una vía de desarrollo in vitro que presenta una serie de ventajas sobre otras técnicas utilizadas para la regeneración de palmas. Esta técnica tiene gran potencial para superar las limitaciones observadas al tratar de propagar clonalmente estas plantas utilizando yemas basales. A pesar de la conocida recalcitrancia que presentan las palmas al cultivo in vitro, si se utilizan los reguladores de crecimiento apropiados, el tipo y el estado de desarrollo del explante adecuados, así como genotipos con buena respuesta, es muy probable que se obtengan buenos resultados. Esto ha sido demostrado parcialmente en Phoenix dactylifera (palma dátil, Elaeis guineensis (palma aceitera, Bactris gasipaes (pejibaye y Cocos nucifera (coco. También se ha logrado generar protocolos eficientes en otras palmas menos estudiadas, como Geonoma gamiova (una palma ornamental, Euterpe edulis (palmito dulce y Areca catechu (palma de betel. La inducción de ES se ha conseguido principalmente con el uso de auxinas. De ellas, la que se ha utilizado con más frecuencia es el ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, aunque en algunos casos (como en pejibaye y palma aceitera se ha usado picloram y dicamba, también con buenos resultados. Los explantes más utilizados han sido inflorescencias, ápices y segmentos basales de hojas, todos con un estado de desarrollo incipiente. También se ha visto que el tamaño del explante y el medio de cultivo juegan un papel importante en la respuesta. En este trabajo se presenta una recopilación de los trabajos más importantes sobre ES en esta familia de plantas y del efecto de varios factores sobre su establecimiento y desarrollo. Palabras clave: Explante; genotipo; medio de cultivo; regeneración; reguladores de crecimiento

  4. Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson, and on low gley humic soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial and the field design was split plot replicated three times. The main plot was no shade tree, shade of Leucaena glauca and Areca catechuwhile the subsplots were fertilizer dose (per ha/year, i.e. (P0 without fertilizer; (P1 140 kg Urea, 35 kg SP-36, 70 kg KCl; (P2 280 kg Urea, 70 kg SP-36,140 kg KCl; and (P3 560 kg Urea, 140 kg SP-36, 280 kg KCl. The result showed that P. cablin cultivation without shading gave better growth and yield than the shading treatment; meanwhile Leucaenashading showed better growth and early yield than the A. catechushading. Fertilizer rate of P1 produced highest leaf weight and oil yield, although P3 possessed the highest growth variables of plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and chlorophyll content. For the dry weight biomass variable, highest yield was obtained from no shade tree and P1 treatment. Using chromatography gas analysis, retention time of patchouly alcohol is 15—18 minutes, it was found that the content was influenced by shading treatment, i.e. 25.15% in monoculture, 28.73% in Leucaena and 25.21% in A. catechutreatment. For the oil viscosity variable, the monoculture treatment showed the highest value (23.21 centipoise, followed by A. catechu(11.60 centipoise and Leucaenatreatment (8.65 centipoise. Intercropping of P. cablinwith young cacao did not show negative effect on young cacao growth. This study demonstrated that pre-cropping of

  5. Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Nair, J; Friesen, M D; Bartsch, H; Ohshima, H

    1995-05-01

    The habit of betel quid chewing, common in South-East Asia and the South Pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline pH have been implicated as the agents responsible for DNA and tissue damage. To determine whether hydroxyl radical (HO.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from L-phenylalanine was measured. Both o- and m-tyrosine were formed in vitro in the presence of extracts of areca nut and/or catechu, transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+ and lime or sodium carbonate (alkaline pH). Omission of any of these ingredients from the reaction mixture significantly reduced the yield of tyrosines. Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as ethanol, D-mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the phenylalanine oxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. Five volunteers chewed betel quid consisting of betel leaf, areca nut, catechu and slaked lime (without tobacco). Their saliva, collected after chewing betel quid, contained high concentrations of p-tyrosine, but no appreciable amounts of o- or m-tyrosine. Saliva samples from the same subjects after chewing betel quid to which 20 mg phenylalanine had been added contained o- and m-tyrosine at concentrations ranging from 1010 to 3000 nM and from 1110 to 3140 nM respectively. These levels were significantly higher (P < 0.005) than those of subjects who kept phenylalanine in the oral cavity without betel quid, which ranged from 14 to 70 nM for o-tyrosine and from 10 to 35 nM for m-tyrosine. These studies clearly demonstrate that the HO. radical is formed in the human oral cavity during betel quid chewing and is probably implicated in the genetic damage that has been observed in oral epithelial cells of chewers. PMID:7767985

  6. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ and areca nut (AN (major BQ ingredient are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  7. Anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the traditional herbal formula Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san via enhancement of heme oxygenase‑1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san (GHJGS) is a mixture of herbal plants, including Agastache rugosa, Perilla frutescens, Angelica dahurica, Areca catechu, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Citrus reticulata, Pinellia ternata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Zingiber officinale. GHJGS has been used for treating diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GHJGS were investigated using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. GHJGS significantly reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6 and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages. GHJGS markedly suppressed LPS‑induced phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases, whereas it had no effect on nuclear factor‑κB activation. Furthermore, GHJGS enhanced expression of heme oxygenase‑1 and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that GHJGS is a viable therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress‑associated disorders. PMID:27052497

  8. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma}-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Biomarkers of oral premalignant epithelial lesions for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajakishore

    2012-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer worldwide, and the majority of cases occur in India and Southeast Asia. Its major risk factors in the western world include smoking and drinking alcohol, whereas in Asia, it is primarily caused by tobacco/areca nut/betel leaf chewing and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Little is known about this type of cancer despite recent advances in cancer biology. The generally asymptomatic nature of the early oral lesions causes them to remain undetected in many cases. Thus, the disease progresses substantially before the patients seek treatment and is a major contributing factor to the severity of this disease. Therefore, there is a great need to create awareness for its prevention and early diagnosis. The application of advanced molecular biological and biochemical methodologies to elucidate its biomarkers may aid in early detection; however, much more work must be done for this information to be effectively applied in the clinical setting. This review focuses on the need for systematic diagnoses in the early detection of oral cancer using molecular and biochemical approaches, thereby reducing the number of advanced cases in the chewing tobacco-dominated oral cancer population. PMID:22342569

  10. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia. PMID:10728606

  11. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants. PMID:17288176

  12. Oral proliferative verrucous leucoplakia: are there particular features for such an ambiguous entity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentenero, M; Meleti, M; Vescovi, P; Gandolfo, S

    2014-05-01

    Proliferative verrucous leucoplakia (PVL) is a distinct, particularly aggressive form of oral leucoplakia. Given the low prevalence of PVL, data are sparse and are mostly from case reports, case series and only a few case-control studies, meaning that the literature is able to provide only weak evidence. The present systematic literature review aims to collate the available evidence on the following issues: patient demographics, aetiology, lesion location(s), malignant potential, location and histopathological features of transformed lesions, disease-specific survival rates and treatment response. Electronic databases were searched for studies in the English language reporting original data from at least 10 patients with PVL on the target issues of the present review. The retrieved data were merged and a descriptive analysis performed. The 20 studies selected indicated that PVL does not seem to be correlated with the major risk factors for oral carcinoma (tobacco, alcohol and/or areca nut/betel leaf chewing). The disorder affects mainly adult/elderly women and has a very high malignant transformation rate, particular site distribution and particular location and histopathological features of transformed lesions. The present results may be limited by some articles being unintentionally excluded as they were not found during the electronic search, a lack of worldwide accepted diagnostic criteria for PVL, and overlapping data from multiple studies performed in a limited number of centres. Despite these potential drawbacks, the present results demonstrate that PVL does have particular features. PMID:24471527

  13. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  14. Sustaining biodiversity in ancient tropical countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Jai; Daniels, R J Ranjit; Chandran, M D Subash; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-11-18

    With intensifying demands for food and biofuels, a critical threat to biodiversity is agricultural expansion into native tropical ecosystems. Tropical agriculture, particularly intensive agriculture, often supports few native organisms, and consequently has been largely overlooked in conservation planning; yet, recent work in the Neotropics demonstrates that tropical agriculture with certain features can support significant biodiversity, decades after conversion to farmland. It remains unknown whether this conservation value can be sustained for centuries to millennia. Here, we quantify the bird diversity affiliated with agricultural systems in southwest India, a region continuously cultivated for >2,000 years. We show that arecanut palm (Areca catechu) production systems retain 90% of the bird species associated with regional native forest. Two factors promote this high conservation value. First, the system involves intercropping with multiple, usually woody, understory species and, thus, has high vertical structural complexity that is positively correlated with bird species richness. Second, the system encompasses nearby forests, where large quantities of leaf litter are extracted for mulch. The preservation of these forests on productive land traces back to their value in supplying inputs to arecanut cultivation. The long-term biodiversity value of an agricultural ecosystem has not been documented in South and Southeast Asia. Our findings open a new conservation opportunity for this imperiled region that may well extend to other crops. Some of these working lands may be able to sustain native species over long-time scales, indicating that conservation investments in agriculture today could pay off for people and for nature. PMID:18981411

  15. Changes in buccal micronucleus cytome parameters associated with smokeless tobacco and pesticide exposure among female tea garden workers of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Roy, Prasenjit; Giri, Anirudha

    2014-03-01

    Assam is the highest tea producing state in India. A large number of workers are engaged in various units of tea industry. There are few reports on the health status of the tea garden workers. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effect associated with workers in tea industries in southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco chewing along with betel nut is very common practice among the workers. Workers also get exposed periodically to mixture of pesticides. Employing buccal micronucleus cytome assay, exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed in 90 female tea garden and compared to 90 age and sex matched non-chewer control as well as 70 chewers who are not tea garden workers. Statistically significant (ptea garden workers compared to both the control groups. The frequency of cell proliferation biomarkers was highest in the chewer controls whereas genotoxic and cell death parameters were highest in tea garden workers. Linear correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlation between the duration of occupation and the frequency of micronucleus (r=0.597; ptea garden workers was relatively lower compared to the control group. Pesticide exposure and chewing areca nut along with smokeless tobacco use may be responsible for changes in cytome parameters in exfoliated buccal cells.

  16. Cyclin D1 overexpression and poor clinical outcomes in Taiwanese oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shiang-Fu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin D1 gene regulates cell cycle and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of human cancers. The association between cyclin D1, clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is inconclusive. Methods A total of 264 male OSCCs were examined for cyclin D1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The expression levels of cyclin D1 were defined as overexpression when more than 10% of tumor cells displayed nuclear staining with moderate to strong intensity. Results Overexpression of cyclin D1 was found in 97 (36.7% OSCCs. Cyclin D1 protein overexpression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002, tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.031 and tumor stage (P = 0.051, but not associated with age onset, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, or areca quid chewing. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was also significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes in terms of disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.002 and overall survival (OS, P Conclusion Cyclin D1 protein worked as an independent prognostic factor and can be as a biomarker for the aggressiveness of OSCC.

  17. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  18. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after γ-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Arecoline inhibits the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activation in human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eddy Essen [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Miao Zhifeng [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.-J. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]|[Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chao, H.-R. [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung Univ. of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Li, Lih-Ann [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-F. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Ko, Y.-C. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)]|[Dept. of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Tsai, F.-Y. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Yeh, S.C. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Tsou, T.-C. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw

    2007-07-19

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in a human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. We treated Huh-7 cells with 10 nM TCDD in the presence of different concentrations of arecoline (50-300 {mu}M). Our results indicated that arecoline attenuated the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activation with an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibited the TCDD-induced activations of CYP1A1 and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA expression in a similar pattern. Our results revealed that arecoline inhibited AhR mRNA expression with no direct effect on CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Therefore, in our present study, the observed inhibitory effect of arecoline on CYP1A1 activation was not due to the up-regulation of AhRR or direct inhibitory effect on CYP1A1. Taken together, here we have demonstrated that arecoline attenuates the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation mainly via down-regulation of AhR expression in human hepatoma cells, suggesting the possible involvement of arecoline in the AhR-mediated metabolism of environmental toxicants in liver.

  20. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after γ -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs

  1. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  2. 木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究进展%Research progress of yellow leaf disease of woody plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万泰; 郭伟红; 秦飞; 马占元; 周素侠

    2011-01-01

    The iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant in our country have covered Ginkgo biloba,Malus pumila,Pyrus bretschneideri,Prunus persica,Vitis vinifera.,Prunus armeniaca,Prunus salicina,Citrus reticulata,Actinidia chinensis,Cinnamomum camphora),Magnolia denudate,Gardenia jasminoides,Areca catechu,Populus tomentosa,Ziziphus jujube,Morus alba and so on.The research on yellow leaf disease of woody plant is mainly concentrated on the performance symptoms,the pathogenesis,controlling techniques and so on.This article reviewed the main achievements of researches on iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant,and the forecast the research prospect.%我国木本植物缺铁性黄化病的研究主要集中于银杏、苹果、梨、桃、葡萄、杏、李、桔、猕猴桃、香樟、白玉兰、栀子、槟榔、毛白杨、枣树、桑树等,研究内容包括表现症状、发病机理、防治技术等。该文综述了木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究的主要成果,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  3. 深圳地区椰心叶甲寄主和天敌种类调查%Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃

    2006-01-01

    调查结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima(Gestro)的寄主植物有26属36种,危害比较严重的寄主有椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)、大王椰子(Roystonea regia O.F.Cook)、假槟榔(Archontophoenix alexandrae(F.V.Mueller))、鱼尾葵(Caryota ochlandra Hance)、三药槟榔(Areca triandra Roxburgh ex Buchanan)、金山葵(Syagrus romanzoffiana(Chamisso)Glassman)、菲岛鱼尾葵(Caryota cumingii Loddiges ex Martius)、刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)、国王椰子(Ravenea rivularis L.)等.野外观察和采集标本鉴定结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲捕食性天敌有11种,主要种类为蚂蚁Formica sp.、毛蠼螋Cheatospania sp.、中华大螳螂Parattenodera sinensis Saussure;致病微生物有3种,主要是绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae.

  4. Oral Leukoplakia as It Relates to HPV Infection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Feller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity and can be categorised according to its clinical appearance as homogeneous or nonhomogenous. Tobacco and areca nut use, either alone or in combination are the most common risk factors for oral leukoplakia, but some oral leukoplakias are idiopathic. Some leukoplakias arise within fields of precancerized oral epithelium in which the keratinocytes may be at different stages of cytogenetic transformation. Leukoplakias may unpredictably regress, may remain stable, or may progress to carcinoma. There is a greater risk of carcinomatous transformation of idiopathic leukoplakia, of non-homogenous leukoplakia, of leukoplakia affecting the floor of the mouth; the ventrolateral surface of the tongue and the maxillary retromolar and adjoining soft palate (collectively called high-risk sites, of leukoplakia with high-grade epithelial dysplasia, and of leukoplakia in which the keratinocytes carry cytogenetic alterations associated with carcinomatous transformation. Although there appears to be some link between human papillomavirus (HPV and oral leukoplakia, there is little evidence to support a causal relationship either between HPV infection and oral leukoplakia or between HPV-infected leukoplakic keratinocytes and their carcinomatous transformation.

  5. 2株鱼类致病菌对6种中草药敏感性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔露文; 李秀梅; 王菁

    2012-01-01

    为研究常用中草药对致病菌的作用,选择蒲公英(Taraxacum mongolicum HandMazz)、连翘(Forsyrhia suspense V.)、石榴皮(Punica granatum L)、黄芩(Scutellaria baicalensis G.)、槟榔(Areca catechu L)、鱼腥草(Houttugnia Cordata T.)6种中草药对温和气单胞菌(Amgeromomas sobria)和嗜水气单胞菌(Amgeromomas hydropHila)进行体外抑菌效果试验。试验采用沟槽法进行。结果表明:综合6种中草药沟槽法对温和气单胞菌和嗜水气单胞菌的抑制作用最强的药物是黄芩。沟槽法对温和气单胞菌的6种药抑菌效果由高到低的顺序为:黄芩>鱼腥草>槟榔>连翘>蒲公英>石榴皮;对嗜水气单胞菌的6种药抑菌效果由高到低的顺序为:黄芩>鱼腥草>连翘>蒲公英>槟榔>石榴皮。

  6. Smokeless tobacco: A major public health problem in the SEA region: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand′s successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  7. HPLC Fingerprint with Multi-components Analysis for Quality Consistency Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Si-Mo-Tang Oral Liquid Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Yue-neng; CHENG Xue-mei; LIU Ling-an; HU Gao-yun; CAI Guang-xian; DENG Yi-de; HUANG Ke-long; WANG Chang-hong

    2011-01-01

    Si-Mo-Tang(SMT) oral liquid preparation,a traditional Chinese medicine,was prepared from four crude herbal drugs,Fructus Aurantii Submaturus,Radix Aucklandiae,Semen Arecae and Radix Linderae Aggregatae.A combinative method using HPLC fingerprint and quantitative analysis was developed and validated for quality consistency evaluation of SMT.Individual HPLC chromatograms were evaluated against the mean chromatogram generated via a similarity evaluation computer program.Data from chromatographic fingerprints were also processed with principal component analysis(PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA).Additionally,six components (naringin,isonaringin,hesperidin,neohesperidin,norisoboldine and potassium sorbate) in SMT were simultaneously determined to interpret the quality consistency.For fingerprint analysis,20 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 26 SMT collected from different manufacturers.Among the 20 characteristic peaks,10 peaks were assigned to be naringin,hesperidin,neohesperidin,isonaringin,neoeriocitrin,tangeretin,nobiletin,norisoboldine,5-(ethoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde and potassium sorbate,respectively.The results of similarity analysis,PCA and HCA,indicate that the samples from different manufacturers were consistent with each other in composition.The results from the quantitative data show that the contents of six compounds were significantly different in SMT oral liquid preparations from different manufacturers.The combinative method of chromatographic fingerprint with quantitative analysis developed here offered an efficient way for the quality consistency evaluation of the traditional Chinese medicine SMT.

  8. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on invitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e.Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis,Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimentaltreatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plantextracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stagetechnique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract rangedfrom 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane productionwas significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensisand C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability(r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensisand C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production inruminants.

  9. Arecoline inhibits the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activation in human hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in a human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. We treated Huh-7 cells with 10 nM TCDD in the presence of different concentrations of arecoline (50-300 μM). Our results indicated that arecoline attenuated the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activation with an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibited the TCDD-induced activations of CYP1A1 and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA expression in a similar pattern. Our results revealed that arecoline inhibited AhR mRNA expression with no direct effect on CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Therefore, in our present study, the observed inhibitory effect of arecoline on CYP1A1 activation was not due to the up-regulation of AhRR or direct inhibitory effect on CYP1A1. Taken together, here we have demonstrated that arecoline attenuates the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation mainly via down-regulation of AhR expression in human hepatoma cells, suggesting the possible involvement of arecoline in the AhR-mediated metabolism of environmental toxicants in liver

  10. Immobilized nickel hexacyanoferrate on activated carbons for efficient attenuation of radio toxic Cs(I) from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalhmunsiama; Lalhriatpuia, C.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to immobilize nickel hexacyanoferrate onto the large surface of activated carbons (ACs) precursor to rice hulls and areca nut waste materials. These nickel hexacyanoferrate immobilized materials are then assessed in the effective attenuation of radio logically important cesium ions from aqueous solutions. The solid samples are characterized by the XRD analytical method and surface morphology is obtained from the SEM images. The batch reactor experiments show that an increase in sorptive pH (2.0-10.0) apparently not affecting the high percent uptake of Cs(I). Equilibrium modeling studies suggest that the data are reasonably and relatively fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic studies show that sorption process is fairly rapid and the kinetic data are fitted well to the pseudo-second order rate model. Increasing the background electrolyte concentration from 0.001 to 0.1 mol/L NaCl causes insignificant decrease in Cs(I) removal which infers the higher selectivity of these materials for Cs(I) from aqueous solutions. Further, the column reactor operations enable to obtain the breakthrough data which are then fitted to the Thomas non-linear equation as to obtain the loading capacity of column for Cs(I). The results show that the modified materials show potential applicability in the attenuation of radio toxic cesium from aqueous solution.

  11. Profiling of antioxidant superoxide dismutase in saliva of oral submucous fibrosis patients to categorize its diagnosis in varying stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is a pre malignant condition in Indian and South-East Asia. Role of oxidant-antioxidant in causation and progression of cancer and pre cancers is known. Reactive oxygen species are generated in the oral cavity during chewing areca nut, the major etiological agent in oral submucous fibrosis. Objectives: To see the alterations in the salivary superoxide dismutase levels in various clinical and histopathological grades of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated saliva was collected from 25 oral submucous fibrosis patients and age and gender matched controls. The saliva was assessed for superoxide dismutase value by spectrophotometric method using assay kit (Bio Vision Catalog number K335-100). The oral submucous fibrosis cases were grouped into clinical stages and histopathological grades and superoxide dismutase values were compared in different clinical stages and histopathological grades. Results: The superoxide dismutase levels were reduced in oral submucous fibrosis as compared to controls. A steady decline in the levels was seen as the clinical stage and histopathological grade of oral submucous fibrosis advanced. Conclusions: Salivary superoxide dismutase levels can be alternatively used as a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis. Policy message: Oral physicians should advise the pan chewers to regularly check their salivary superoxide dismutase levels so as to ease the early diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis. (author)

  12. Salivary estimation of copper, iron, zinc and manganese in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshata Raghavendra Okade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trace elements (TEs are required for physiological functioning and alterations are noted in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. These TEs are used in early diagnosis, treatment and also as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis. Aims: To estimate the TEs such as copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and Cu/Zn ratio in the saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients and controls. Settings and Design: The hospital-based study was conducted to estimate salivary TEs using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 individuals. Methods and Material: 5 ml saliva was collected from OSF cases (n=30 and controls (n=30 and was centrifuged and prepared by using the Wet Ashing method. The TEs were estimated in parts per million (ppm by using AAS. Statistical Analysis Used: The data obtained was statistically analyzed using non parametric tests such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Significant difference in the mean salivary Zn, Mn and Fe levels in OSF when compared to that of controls. Mean salivary Cu levels were increased and Cu/ Zn ratio was decreased in OSF when compared to the controls. Conclusions: To conclude TEs play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of OSF. Betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are frequently associated with OSF and alters the salivary TE levels. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

  13. Association of Smokeless Tobacco with Oral Cancer - Evidence From the South Asian Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-09-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with many heath hazards including oral cancer. Its use is more common in South Asian countries. The current paper aims to systematically review the South Asian studies to assess the association of SLT and oral cancer. Detailed automated literature searches of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science from January 1980 to July 2015 were conducted using the key words "oral cancer", "oral precancer", "oral premalignant lesions", "oral squamous cell carcinoma", "smokeless tobacco", "betel quid", "areca nut", "Gutkha" in various combinations. Letters to the editor, review articles, and case-reports were excluded. Atotal of 21 studies were included. Three studies were of cohort design while the remaining were of case-control design. Nine studies reported betel quid as a risk factor for oral cancer, while fifteen studies reported data on other types of chewing tobacco. The odds ratio (OR) for betel quid and risk of oral cancer varied from 3.1 to 15.7 (11.0-22.1); and for chewable tobacco and risk of oral cancer varied from 1.2 (1.0-1.4) to 12.9 (7.5-22.3). Astrong association between different types of SLTand oral cancer was observed. Well-structured programmes should be employed in South Asian region, both in terms of educating the general public about the health hazards of SLTas well as providing cessation assistance. PMID:27671184

  14. Expression of a Splice Variant of CYP26B1 in Betel Quid-Related Oral Cancer

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    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cytotoxicity assays were used to measure the effects of arecoline on cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant. The CYP26B1 splice variant exhibited lower expression than did full-length CYP26B1 in the human gingival fibroblast-1 and Ca9-22 cell models. Increased expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant was observed in human oral cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and increased expression was observed in patients at a late tumor stage. Our results suggested that the CYP26B1 splice variant is associated with the occurrence of BQ-related oral cancer.

  15. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma} -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs.

  16. MENGETAHUI KEAMANAN JAMU MADURA "SARI RAPAT" MELALUI UJI MIKROSKOPIS DAN TOKSISITAS SUB AKUT PADA BINATANG COBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Handayani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ''Jamu Sari Rapat" made in Madura is a famous traditional medicine especially after promoted at television cable. A cut utilition of the "jamu" was safe, it was provided by no complain from consumers. The problem is how the effect of "jamu" in the longterm consumption. A chosen famous "jamu Sari Rapat'' was taken to be examined. Microscopic examinations were done to know the herbs composition and contamination to patogen bacteries. A sub a cut toxicity exami­nation was done  to find out the safety of "jamu'' to the consumer because of the longterm consumption. The result showed that the ''jamu" was consisted of 9 herbs those were Caryophylli Flos, Kaemferiae rotundae Rhizoma, Curcuma domesticae Rhizoma, Paramcriae Cort ex, Theae Folium, Guazumae Folium, Arecae Semen, Glycyrrhi­ zae Radix and Psidii Folium. A herb (Gallae was written in the label but actually it did not find in microcopic test. It was found that Most Probable Number colliform were contaminated the "jamu" and the Total Plate Count Bacterial number was bigger than standard. Toxicity test showed that there was no toxic effect after 3 month intervention to 54 mice. The conclusion of this study: the "jamu" was safe to be consume in the longterm (more or less 3 months but it might cause illness to the consumers because of patogen bacteries. The production process should be improved to solve those problem.

  17. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  18. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  19. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  20. Briófitas do Município de Poconé, Pantanal de Mato Grosso, MT, Brasil Bryophytes from Pocone county, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sofrendo influências de outros ecossistemas, tais como o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica, o Pantanal de Mato Grosso constitui um ecossistema único. Embora sua flora fanerogâmica seja relativamente bem conhecida, a brioflora ainda necessita ser estudada mais profundamente. Fazendo parte da bacia do bio Paraguai e localizado a 94,8km de Cuiabá nas coordenadas 16º15'24"S e 56º36'24"W, o Município de Poconé possui uma população de cerca de 30.000 habitantes. Foram realizadas coletas briológicas nos anos de 1984, 1999 e 2000, tendo sido encontradas 12 espécies pertencentes a 12 famílias de Bryophyta e 10 espécies distribuídas em duas famílias de Marchantiophyta, sendo Lejeuneaceae a melhor representada, com oito espécies. Foram encontradas cinco novas ocorrências para o região Centro-Oeste: Trichosteleum fluviale (Mitt. Jaeg., Frullania tetraptera Nees & Mont., Lejeunea glauscescens Gottsche, Lejeunea calcicola Schuster, Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb. São ainda citadas nove novas ocorrências para o Estado do Mato Grosso: Hyophila involuta (Hook. A. Jaeg., Groutiella apiculata (Hook. Crum & Steere, Fabronia macroblepharis Schwaegr., Trichosteleum fluviale (Mitt. Jaeg., Frullania arecae (Spreng. Gottsche, Frullania tetraptera Nees & Mont., Lejeunea glauscencens Gottshe, Lejeunea calcicola Schuster e Lejeunea caespitosa Lindenb. Lejeunea calcicola Schuster é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil.Under the influence of outer ecosystems, such as the Cerrado and Amazon rain forest, the Pantanal of Mato Grosso is a unique ecosystem. Otherwise his fanerogamic flora is well known, the bryoflora is yet to be properly discovered. As part of Paraguai river basin and located at 94.8km from Cuiabá at 16º15'24"S and 56º36'24"W, the county of Poconé has a population around 30,000 hab. Colects were taken in 1984, 1999 and 2000. Among the Division Bryophyte 12 species in 12 familie were founs. In the Division Marchantiophyta 10 species in two

  1. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriyah Firdausi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  three stages,  1  identification  of  potential  plants  producing  tannin,  2  isolation  of tannin-protein  complexes,  and  3  in  vitro  test  of  tannin-protein  complexes effect  of  the  -amylase activity.  Some  of  the observed  plants  were  sidaguri  leaf (Sida rhombifolia, melinjo leaf (Gnetum gnemon, gamal leaf (Gliricidia sepium,lamtoro  leaf  (Leucaena  leucocephala ,  betel  nut  (Areca  catechu ,  and  crude gambier  (Uncaria  gambir a s  a  source of  tannins  and  melinjo  seed was  used  asprotein  source.  Betel  nut  and  melinjo  seed  were  the  best  source  of  tannin-protein  complex,  tannin  content  1.77  mg  TAE/mL  with  antioxidant  activity  of  90%,the  ability  to  inhibit  the  activity  of  -amylase by  95%  with  IC 50  values  of 10 mg/mL.Key words: Tannin, protein, -amylase, botanical pesticides,Areca catechu, Gnetum gnemon.

  2. Arecoline induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Chang, Mei-Chi; Su, Cheng-Yao; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is a common oral habit in South Asia and Taiwan. BQ consumption may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), and periodontitis as well as systemic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.). However, little is known about the toxic effect of BQ components on endothelial cells that play important roles for angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, tissue fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases. EAhy 926 (EAHY) endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline, a major BQ alkaloid, for various time periods. Cytotoxicity was estimated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle distribution of EAHY cells residing in sub-G0/G1, G0/G1, S-, and G2/M phases was analyzed by propidium iodide staining of cellular DNA content and flow cytometry. Some EAHY cells retracted, became round-shaped in appearance, and even detached from the culture plate after exposure to higher concentrations of arecoline (> 0.4 mM). At concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, arecoline induced significant cytotoxicity to EAHY cells. At similar concentrations, arecoline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to arecoline (0.1 mM) for 12 and 21 days significantly suppressed the proliferation of EAHY cells, whereas EAHY cells showed adaptation and survived when exposed to 0.05 mM arecoline. These results suggest that BQ components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and BQ chewing-related cardiovascular diseases via toxicity to oral or systemic endothelial cells, leading to impairment of vascular function. During BQ chewing, endothelial damage may be induced by areca nut components and associate with the pathogenesis of OSF, periodontitis, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21847594

  3. Reactive oxygen species are crucial for hydroxychavicol toxicity toward KB epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, J H; Wang, Y J; Chang, W H; Wu, H L; Li, C H; Uang, B J; Kang, J J; Lee, J J; Hahn, L J; Lin, B R; Chang, M C

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing shows a strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), leukoplakia and oral cancer. BQ contains mainly areca nut, lime, Piper betle leaf (PBL) and the inflorescence of P. betle (IPB). Hydroxychavicol (4-allyl-catechol, HC), as a major phenolic compound in PBL and IPB, is shown to induce oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH) depletion and cell cycle deregulation. Using bivariate BrdU/PI flow cytometry, KB cells in DNA synthesis (S phase) are shown to be sensitive to the toxic effect of HC and show cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following exposure to 0.1 and 0.3 mM HC. HC-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are associated with mitochondrial membrane potential (delta Psim) depolarization as revealed by a decrease in rhodamine fluorescence. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1 mM), superoxide dismutase (100 U/ml) and catalase (1000 U/ml) were effective in prevention of HC-induced GSH depletion (as indicated by chloromethylfluorescein fluorescence), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, dimethylthiourea (2 mM), neocuproine (1 mM), 1,10-phenanthroline (200 microM) and desferrioxamine (0.5 mM) showed little effect on HC-induced cell changes. HC elevated the cellular and mitochondrial GSH levels at moderate concentrations (0.05-0.1 mM), whereas at a concentration of 0.3 mM, inhibitory effects were noted. These results indicate that HC consumption may be associated with BQ-chewing-related oral mucosal diseases via GSH depletion, ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle disturbance and the induction of apoptosis. These events are related to the production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:14704856

  4. Effects of aqueous extracts of "Betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Kaphle, Krishna; Wang, Pei-Hwa; Jong, De-Shien; Wu, Leang-Shin; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of Asia where it is popular by different names. BQ is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the Areca catechu Linn. (AN) tree, leaf from the Piper betle Linn. (BL) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the Acacia catechu tree and other spices. AN has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. Initially condemned by the medical communities for its health hazards, identification and application of potent pharmacologically bioactive compounds from different constituents of BQ have rekindled growing interest in related investigations. Curious about the stimulating role of BQ, we investigated the potential steroidogenic activity of hot water extract from BQ and its constituents and arecoline on testosterone producing ability in an in vitro experiment. Enzyme dissociated interstitial cells from adult mouse testes (ICR strain) were cultured with/without different doses of the extracts and the level of testosterone produced was assayed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. It was found that at lower doses of arecoline, AN and BL extracts had significantly stimulated testosterone production over the basal level (p < 0.05). BQ extract, on the other hand, did not show any significant effect on testosterone production. Combinations of arecoline at low doses with 10 ng/ml ovine leutinizing hormone (oLH) showed increases in testosterone produced, while cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) co-culture showed dose-related inhibition. Our current finding hints at the possible dose-dependent dualistic role of AN and BL extracts and arecoline for testosterone production employing possible non-cAMP-dependent pathway of steroidogenesis. However, the identity of the active compounds besides arecoline and the exact mechanism involved remains to be further investigated. PMID:15633806

  5. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  6. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  7. Role of dermatoglyphics as an indicator of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is one name that causes panic and holds an undeserved high ranking as a killer. Another important condition which has become a major public health issue in South East Asia is oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Not all the people using tobacco suffer from these diseases. Genetic predisposition might explain such an individual variability that can be predicted by using various cytogenetic markers. However, these studies are far more costly and complicated. So, dermatoglyphics may be of immense clinical significance to segregate those individuals who are at an increased risk for developing these diseases. Aim: The present study was conducted to analyze the palmar dermatoglyphics in SCC and OSF and find a "dermatoglyphic marker", if any. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: 120 individuals were divided into four groups based upon their habits of tobacco/areca nut usage and presence of OSF/SCC. Dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded using standard ink method. Various patterns were analysed statistically in the four groups. Results and Conclusion: In SCC, there was an increase in frequency of arch and ulnar loop patterns on fingertips, decrease in frequency of simple whorl patterns on fingertips, decrease in frequency of palmar accessory triradii on right and left hands. Significant findings in OSF included an increase in frequency of arch and ulnar loop pattern, decrease in frequency of simple whorl patterns on fingertips, decrease in atd angle on right hand, decrease in frequency of palmar accessory triradii on right hand. The results revealed that the field of dermatoglyphics holds promising results for determining the genetic susceptibility of individuals to develop SCC and OSF.

  8. Holocene climatic fluctuations from Lower Brahmaputra flood plain of Assam, northeast India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swati Dixit; S K Bera

    2012-02-01

    Pollen analysis of a 3.2-m deep sedimentary profile cored from the Dabaka Swamp, Nagaon District, Lower Brahmaputra flood plain, Assam has revealed persistent fluvial activity during 14,120–12,700 cal years BP which may be attributed to the paucity of pollen and spores with encounterance of fluvial marker taxa like Ludwigia octavalvis and Botryococcus. Later, fluvial activity was succeeded by the tropical tree savanna under cool and dry climate between 12,700 and 11,600 cal years BP corresponding to that of global Younger Dryas. Between 11,600 and 8310 cal years BP, relatively less cool and dry climate prevailed with inception of tropical mixed deciduous taxa like Shorea robusta and Lagerstroemia parviflora. This phase is further followed by a fluvial activity between 8310 and 7100 cal years BP as evidenced by trace values of pollen and spores. Fluvial activity was further succeeded by enrichment of tropical mixed deciduous forest under warm and humid climatic regime between 7100 and 1550 cal years BP which is well-matched with the peak period of the Holocene climatic optimum. However, during 1550–768 cal years BP, final settlement of tropical mixed deciduous forest occurred under increased warm and humid climate followed by deterioration in tropical mixed deciduous forest under warm and relatively dry climatic regime since 768 cal years BP onwards due to acceleration in human settlement as evidenced by Cerealia. Increase in Melastoma, Ziziphus and Areca catechu imply forest clearance at this phase. The occurrence of degraded pollen-spore along with adequate fungal elements especially, Xylaria, Nigrospora and Microthyriaceous fruiting body is suggestive of aerobic microbial digenesis of rich organic debris during sedimentation.

  9. Senescent mesenchymal cells accumulate in human fibrosis by a telomere-independent mechanism and ameliorate fibrosis through matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiyage, Gayani Nadika; Slijepcevic, Predrag; Gabrani, Aliya; Chianea, Yaghoub Gozaly; Lim, Kue Peng; Prime, Stephen Stewart; Tilakaratne, Wanninayake Mudiyanselage; Fortune, Farida; Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

    2011-04-01

    Fibrosis can occur in many organs, where it is a debilitating and preneoplastic condition. The senescence of activated fibroblasts has been proposed to ameliorate fibrosis via the innate immune system but its role in humans has not been investigated. The availability of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) biopsies at different stages of disease progression allowed us to test the hypothesis that senescent fibroblasts accumulate with the progression of human fibrosis in vivo, and also to examine the mechanism of senescence. We tested the hypothesis that senescent cells may ameliorate fibrosis by increasing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We have used a combination of in situ immunodetection techniques, drug treatments, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and enzyme-linked absorbance assays on tissue samples and fibroblast cultures. We report a novel panning technique, based on fibronectin adhesion rates, to enrich and deplete senescent cells from fibroblast populations. Senescent fibroblasts, as determined by the presence of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci, accumulated with OSMF progression (R(2) = 0.98) and possessed a reduced replicative lifespan in vitro. Unlike wounds, however, OSMF fibroblasts were quiescent in vivo and consistent with this observation, possessed functional telomeres of normal length. Senescence was associated in vivo and in vitro with oxidative damage, DNA damage foci and p16(INK4A) accumulation and required the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), perhaps from damaged mitochondria, but not the continuous presence of the disease stimulus (areca nut and tobacco), the tissue environment or other cell types. Depletion of OSMF fibroblasts of senescent cells showed that these cells accounted for 25-83 times more MMP-1 and -2 than their pre-senescent counterparts. The results show that the accumulation of senescent fibroblasts in human fibrosis occurs by a telomere-independent mechanism involving ROS and may locally

  10. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India- ARIA Asia Pacific Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Shahi, Shipra

    2008-12-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30% of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken by us to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centers in the country. Allergenically important airborne pollen identified by clinico-immunologic evaluation are Alnus, Amaranthus, Argemone, Brassica, Cannabis, Cassia, Cedrus, Chenopodium, Cocos, Holoptelia, Mallotus, Morus, Parthenium, Prosopis juliflora, Quercus, Ricinus communis, and grasses such as Cenchrus, Cynodon, Imperata, Pennisetum etc. Cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen a commonly growing weed/shrub in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis--all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae but geographically distantly located. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer while pollen of Holoptelia integrifolia from India cross reacts with pollen of Parietaria judaica from Mediterranean Europe, both of which are members of family Urticaceae. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO2 and SO2) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes its allergenic potency.

  11. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Kumar, Pawan

    2003-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centres in the country. Predominant airborne pollen are Holoptelea, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Putanjiva, Cassia, Quercus, Cocos, Pinus, Cedrus, Ailanthus, Cheno/Amaranth, Cyperus, Argemone, Xanthium, Parthenium and others. Clinical and immunological evaluations have revealed allergenically important texa - some of them for the first time. Allergenically important pollen are Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Morus, Mallotus, Alnus, Querecus, Cedrus, Argemone, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Holoptelea, Brassica, Cocos, Cannabis, Parthenium, Cassia and grasses. Further cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen from commonly growing weeds in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis - all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO(2) and SO(2)) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes their allergenic potency. Immunotherapy with recombinant proteins

  12. Current glimpse of airborne allergenic pollen in Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, atopic dermatitis have been steadily increasing all over the world, including India. Owing to its alarming trend, several aerobiological surveys have been undertaken in different parts of India to delineate the variety of pollen and spore load. In this review, we have reported the current state of aerobiological knowladge in India with particular reference to allergenic airborn pollen occurence in 2001–2015. Pollen have been found to contribute a significant proportion in the air and caused allergy symptoms in the local inhabitants. Aerobiological records, a questionnaire survey and hospitalization records have been employed for the analysis. Holoptelea integrifolia, Amaranthus spinosus in northern region, Sorghum vulgare, Pennisetum, Gynandropsis gynandra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Dolichandrone platycalyx in southern regions, and Parthenium hysterophorus from the western region; Cynodon dactylon, Cenchrus ciliaris in the central area; Acacia auriculiformis, Cleome gynandra, Catharanthus roseus, Phoenix sylvestris, Areca catechu, and Lantana camara in the eastern regions as potential aeroallergens in India. The statistical approach confirmed the correlation between hospitalization rate associated with allergy-related health troubles and the prevalent allergenic pollen in the air. The Poaceae group has been found to be dominant throughout India. Immuno-biochemical studies identified various protein with allergenic potential found in the pollen recorded. Epitope identification and homology of the major allergenic protein Cat r1 of Catharanthus sp and Par j 1 of Parietaria judaica have been found. Identification of allergenic pollen grains and the modern approach concerning cross-reactivity and epitope revelation of dominant airborne pollen have important clinical implications for the prevention, diagnosis and treatments of allergic diseases in India.

  13. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  14. A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Urbanization and Population Pressure on Garo Hills Landscape of North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar YADAV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum, which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years’ time (Jhum cycle. But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya.

  15. The Factors Effecting the Formation of Golden Flower Fungus of Liupao Tea%影响六堡茶金花形成的因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农艳芳; 韦全辉; 何志强; 冯文珍

    2011-01-01

    六堡茶属于篓装后发酵黑茶,具有红、浓、陈、醇品质四绝,优者有槟榔香味,间有"金花"。渥堆是形成"六堡茶"独特品质的关键工序,湿热条件及微生物的作用,共同促进了六堡茶独特的品质。一般蒸压成较大规格的篓装,蒸压紧密,蒸压前茶叶含水量控制在16%~18%,蒸压形成后存放环境温度控制在25±2℃,湿度78%~82%,茶叶含水量控制在16%~20%,茶叶温度30±2℃,较易发花。%Liupao tea is post-fermentation dark-tea in basket.,It is characterized by red,concentrated,aged and mellow.There has fragrant of areca and golden flower in the better tea,the key step in traditional processing is post-fermentation which can form the quality of Liupao tea.The hygrothermal conditions and microorganism in post-fermentation make the Liupao tea have special quality.It is boiled tightly in an autoclave,water content in the tea control 16 to 18 percent before autoclave,it deposited at the ambient temperature(25±2) degree,moisture content at 78~82 percent,we control the water content at 16 to 20 percent and temperature(30±2) degree of the tea which is easy to be Formed golden flower Fungus.

  16. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou′s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under Χ100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients

  17. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001. Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9, of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0 and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4, and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7 and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8 indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes, bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner are independent risk for oral cancer.

  18. A case-control study of lung cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhurgri, Y.; Decullier, E.; Bhurgri, A.; Sheikh Nassar; Ahmed Usman; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Karachi Cancer Registry, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the causes of lung cancer in Pakistan. 320 patients (282 men and 38 women) with lung cancer treated at the Liaquat National Post Graduate Medical Centre, the Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center and the Civil Hospital, all in Karachi, and 640 controls (561 men and 79 women) were enrolled. A total of 275 patients and 222 controls reported having a history of smoking (57% of men and 14% of women). An increased risk of developing lung cancer was observed among individuals with a history of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 22.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-37.3) and among current smokers (OR 30.2; 95% CI 17.8-51.3). The risk decreased with the number of years since quitting (most apparent 10 years after smoking cessation). Chewing betel quid (containing betel leaf, lime, areca nut and tobacco) was only marginally associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, heavy exposure to this habit resulted in a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). The OR for snuff use was significantly increased (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.7), with a significant trend with years of exposure and average level of consumption. Having ever lived in a flat with a heating system (coal, wood, electricity and kerosene) was associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Using gas, electricity or kerosene for cooking was associated with a reduced OR compared with the use of wood, whereas the OR for the use of coal was 2.7 (95& CI 0.9-8.7). The primary role of tobacco smoking as the cause of lung cancer in Pakistan was confirmed. 13 refs.

  19. Gene expression profile of esophageal cancer in North East India by cDNA microarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indranil Chattopadhyay; Sujala Kapur; Joydeep Purkayastha; Rupkumar Phukan; Amal Kataki; Jagadish Mahanta; Sunita Saxena

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify alterations in genes and molecular functional pathways in esophageal cancer in a high incidence region of India where there is a widespread use of tobacco and betel quid with fermented areca nuts.METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from tumor and matched normal tissue of 16 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Pooled tumor tissue RNA was labeled with Cy3-dUTP and pooled normal tissue RNA was labeled with Cy5-dUTP by direct labeling method.The labeled probes were hybridized with human 10K cDNA chip and expression profiles were analyzed by Genespring GX V 7.3 (Silicon Genetics).RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty three genes were differentially expressed. Of these, 611 genes were upregulated and 312 genes were downregulated. Using stringent criteria (P ≤ 0.05 and ≥ 1.5 fold change),127 differentially expressed genes (87 upregulated and 40 downregulated) were identified in tumor tissue. On the basis of Gene Ontology, four different molecular functional pathways (MAPK pathway,G-protein coupled receptor family, ion transport activity,and serine or threonine kinase activity) were most significantly upregulated and six different molecular functional pathways (structural constituent of ribosome,endopeptidase inhibitor activity, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, antioxidant activity, acyl group transferase activity, eukaryotic translation elongation factor activity)were most significantly downregulated.CONCLUSION: Several genes that showed alterations in our study have also been reported from a high incidence area of esophageal cancer in China. This indicates that molecular profiles of esophageal cancer in these two different geographic locations are highly consistent.

  20. Adolescent lifestyle and behaviour: a survey from a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Qidwai

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. METHODS: A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12-19 years of age. RESULTS: Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16-18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8% and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9% of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5% of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8% of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut. Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1% to start smoking. CONCLUSION: Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population.

  1. Occurrence of aflatoxin in some of the food and feed in Nepal

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    Koirala P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many contaminants like aflatoxin present in food products. Aflatoxin in comparison to many other contaminants is very toxic and also carcinogenic. There are reports of outbreak of aflatoxin toxicity in many parts of the world. AIM: To find out the level of aflatoxin in common food and feed. SETTING: The study was conducted in 16 districts of the Eastern region of Nepal. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Samples were collected from retailers and whole sellers from 1995 to 2003. Common food items that had high chances of infestation were collected. Food sample were taken to the laboratory to estimate the level of aflatoxin. The thin layer chromatography method was used to detect aflatoxin in the samples and comparison of fluorescence of sample spot with fluorescence of standard for estimation. RESULT: There were 832 samples for aflatoxin detection and estimation. One-third samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. The highest percentage of contamination was found in peanut butter/vegetable oil (42.5% and the lowest in areca nut (25%. Highest proportion of cornflakes samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin by more than the recommended value (30 ppb and contamination in peanut was the lowest. CONCLUSION: People consume many common food items that contain aflatoxin. It is of high importance for the concerned department to give attention to this important public health issue. Even in small doses, continuous consumption can lead to many health problems. So it is of paramount importance to detect and control these contaminants in food items.

  2. Arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yoon LIM; Il-sik KIM

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of arecoline, an alkaloid isolated from Areca catechu, on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by cholinergic agonists and the membrane depolarizer from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Methods: Adrenal glands were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs bicarbonate solution by means of a peristaltic pump. The CA content of the perfusate was measured directly using the fluorometric method.Results: Arecoline (0.1-1.0 mmol/L) perfused into an adrenal vein for 60 min produced dose- and time-dependent inhibition in CA secretory responses evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) (5.32 mmol/L), 1.1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium iodide (DMPP) (100 μmol/L for 2 min) and 3-(m-choloro-phenyl-carbamoyl-oxy)-2-butynyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (McN-A-343) (100 μmol/L for 2 min). However, lower doses of arecoline did not affect CA secretion of high K+ (56 mmol/L); higher doses greatly reduced CA secretion of high K+. Arecoline also failed to affect basal catecholamine output. Furthermore, in adrenal glands loaded with arecoline (0.3 mmol/L), CA secretory response evoked by Bay-K-8644 (10 μmol/L), an activator of L-type Ca2+ channels, was markedly inhibited, whereas CA secretion by cyclopiazonic acid (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase, was not affected. Nicotine (30 μmol/L), which was peffused into the adrenal gland for 60min, however, initially enhanced ACh-evoked CA secretory responses. As time elapsed, these responses became more inhibited, whereas the initially enhanced high K+-evoked CA release diminished. CA secretion evoked by DMPP and McNA-343 was significantly depressed in the presence of nicotine. Conclusion:Arecoline dose-dependently inhibits CA secretion from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland evoked by activation of cholinergic receptors. At lower doses arecoline does not inhibit CA secretion through membrane depolarization, but at larger doses it does. This inhibitory

  3. Arecoline decreases interleukin-6 production and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human basal cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arecoline, the most abundant areca alkaloid, has been reported to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in epithelial cancer cells. Since IL-6 overexpression contributes to the tumorigenic potency of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), this study was designed to investigate whether arecoline altered IL-6 expression and its downstream regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cultured BCC-1/KMC cells. BCC-1/KMC cells and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were treated with arecoline at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg/ml, then IL-6 production and expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle progress-related factors were examined. After 24 h exposure, arecoline inhibited BCC-1/KMC cell growth and decreased IL-6 production in terms of mRNA expression and protein secretion, but had no effect on HaCaT cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation showed that arecoline induced apoptosis of BCC-1/KMC cells in a dose-dependent manner, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, arecoline induced progressive and sustained accumulation of BCC-1/KMC cells in G2/M phase as a result of reducing checkpoint Cdc2 activity by decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase levels and increasing p53 levels. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of arecoline led to decreased BCC-1/KMC tumor growth in BALB/c mice by inducing apoptosis. This study demonstrates that arecoline has potential for preventing BCC tumorigenesis by reducing levels of the tumor cell survival factor IL-6, increasing levels of the tumor suppressor factor p53, and eliciting cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. Highlights: ► Arecoline has potential to prevent against basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis. ► It has more effectiveness on BCC as compared with a human keratinocyte cell line. ► Mechanisms involved including reducing tumor cells’ survival factor IL-6, ► Decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase, enhancing tumor suppressor factor p53, ► Eliciting G2/M

  4. Arecoline decreases interleukin-6 production and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human basal cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hu, Yu-Chen [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Tsan [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Division of Hepatobiliarypancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kee-Lung, E-mail: Chang.KeeLung@msa.hinet.net [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Arecoline, the most abundant areca alkaloid, has been reported to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in epithelial cancer cells. Since IL-6 overexpression contributes to the tumorigenic potency of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), this study was designed to investigate whether arecoline altered IL-6 expression and its downstream regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cultured BCC-1/KMC cells. BCC-1/KMC cells and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were treated with arecoline at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg/ml, then IL-6 production and expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle progress-related factors were examined. After 24 h exposure, arecoline inhibited BCC-1/KMC cell growth and decreased IL-6 production in terms of mRNA expression and protein secretion, but had no effect on HaCaT cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation showed that arecoline induced apoptosis of BCC-1/KMC cells in a dose-dependent manner, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, arecoline induced progressive and sustained accumulation of BCC-1/KMC cells in G2/M phase as a result of reducing checkpoint Cdc2 activity by decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase levels and increasing p53 levels. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of arecoline led to decreased BCC-1/KMC tumor growth in BALB/c mice by inducing apoptosis. This study demonstrates that arecoline has potential for preventing BCC tumorigenesis by reducing levels of the tumor cell survival factor IL-6, increasing levels of the tumor suppressor factor p53, and eliciting cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. Highlights: ► Arecoline has potential to prevent against basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis. ► It has more effectiveness on BCC as compared with a human keratinocyte cell line. ► Mechanisms involved including reducing tumor cells’ survival factor IL-6, ► Decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase, enhancing tumor suppressor factor p53, ► Eliciting G2/M

  5. Association between betel nut consumption and folate deficiency among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Kader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel nut (BN or areca nut (AN chewing habits on its own or with other ingredients including chewing tobacco are highly prevalent in many South East Asian countries as well as among the migrants from these countries residing around the world. The major alkaloid arecoline in the BN has been found to carcinogenic and to be associated with a range of health risks, including negative effects on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy imposes stress on folate stores because of increased requirements for growth of maternal tissues, fetus, and placenta. Folate defi ciency during pregnancy is a major public health concern as is associated with many adverse health outcomes including neural tube defects, low birth weight, preterm birth, and delayed maturation of the nervous system, growth retardation, and megaloblastic anemia. Objective: To investigate any association between BN consumption and folate status among pregn ant women in rural Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data of 730 pregnant women aged 14-50 years from the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat trial in Bangladesh were included in this study. Logistic regression analysis and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used. Results were adjusted for potential confounders. Results and Interpretation: Two-third (63% of the women consumed BN and 17% had folate defi ciency. The women who consumed BN combined with chewing tobacco were 2.57 times more likely to have folate defi ciency (OR2.57; 95% CI1.23-5.36; P0.012; and the women who consumed BN 2-3 times/day were 2.51 times more likely to develop folate defi ciency among users (OR 2.51; 95% CI1.07-5.92; P0.035. Mean serum folate levels were signifi cantly lower among BN users as compared to nonusers. Conclusion: The results suggest that betel nut consumption combined with chewing tobacco is associated with lower serum folate level and folate defi ciency among pregnant

  6. 国医大师颜正华诊疗水肿辨证思路与典型医案探析%Experience of TCM master YAN Zheng-hua in treating edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉瑞; 张冰

    2012-01-01

    国医大师颜正华教授治验甚众,尤擅长消化系统、呼吸系统等内科杂病的诊疗.水肿是因体内水液潴留,泛滥肌肤,而表现为以头面、眼睑、四肢、腹背,甚至全身浮肿为特征的一类病证.颜教授论治水肿一病,辨证严谨,认为其乃全身气化功能障碍之表现,发病与肺、脾、肾三脏关系尤为密切,其中以肾为本,以肺为标.多从风水相搏、湿热蕴结、水湿浸淫型、脾阳虚衰和肾阳虚衰等方面论治,常用药物包括白术、茯苓、赤小豆、怀牛膝、益母草、大腹皮、冬瓜皮、生薏苡仁等,收效甚佳.%Professor YAN Zheng-hua is a TCM Master. He is good at and skilled in digestive and respiratory system diseases. Edema is a syndrome characterized by edema of the performance on the head, limbs, eyelid, front and back which is due to water retention. Professor YAN Zheng-hua thinks edema is the manifestation of dysfunction of qi transformation, and the incidence of edema is particularly close related with lung, spleen and kidney. He believes that righting of wind with water, Heat-Damp accumulation, spreading water-dampness, deficiency of spleen-yang and deficiency of kidney-yang are the basic syndromes of edema. Commonly used drugs include Atractylodes, Tuckahoe, Red bean, Achyranthes bidentata Blume, Motherwort, Pericarpium Arecae, Wax gourdpeel, Coix seed,et al.

  7. [Mining analysis and experience summary for chronic atrophic gastritis cases treated by Professor LIU Feng-bin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Li, Pei-wu; Zhuang, Kun-hai

    2015-06-01

    , moodiness and weak constitution; the pathogenesis of CAG was spleen deficiency with qi stagnation, heat depression and blood stasis in the stomach meridian. The above six syndrome types and 12 herbs were determined, including Pseudostellariae Radix, Poria, Atractylodismacrocephalae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus, Sepiae Endoconcha, Arecae Pericarpium, Aurantii Fructus, Perillae Caulis, Herba Hedyotis Diffusae, Scutellariae Barbatae Herba, Curcumae Rhizoma. This study summarized Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and theoretical thoughts of chronic atrophic gastritis based on clinical practice data and expert interview, with a rigorous design and good scientificity and practicability. PMID:26552186

  8. Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers in Oral Submucous Fibrosis using Picrosirius Red Stain and Polarising Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Preethi; Narasimhan, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is an oral potentially malignant condition caused predominantly by areca nut chewing. Early recognition with accurate staging of the disease and appropriate treatment planning is of utmost importance to prevent the malignant transformation and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Picrosirius red stain is specific for collagen and enhances its birefringence under polarising light producing different colours in different stages of the disease. Aim To compare the clinical and functional staging with histopathologic staging methods used to assess the severity of OSMF and to perform a qualitative analysis of the collagen fibres in various histopathologic stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain and polarising microscope. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective study done on archival samples. The study sample included a total of 30 cases which was divided into two groups. Group I comprised of 20 OSMF samples and Group II comprised of 10 normal tissue samples. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging was performed for all OSMF samples. Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging was done using chi square test. Picrosirius red- stained sections of OSMF were analysed using polarising microscopy to evaluate the qualitative changes in the collagen fibers. Statistical Analysis Used Descriptive data which includes frequency and percentages were calculated for each group. Categorical data were analysed by chi-square test. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the functional and histopathological stage. Enhanced birefringence of the collagen fibers due to picrosirius red stain yielded characteristic prominent polarising colours in different stages of OSMF. Conclusion Comparison

  9. 香蕉枯萎病拮抗内生菌的分离、筛选及盆栽防效试验%Isolation, screen and potted test of an endophytic bacterial against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢颖; 张孝峰; 王瑀莹; 张俊威; 骆焱平

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from Codiaeum variegatum, Alpinia oxyphylla, Cinnamomum burmannii, Areca catechu, Cocos nucifera, Artocarpus heterophyllus through surface disinfection method. 91 endophytes were isolated, which included 38 endophytic fungi, 45 endophytic bacteria and 8 endophytic actinomycetes. Antagonistic activity tried against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cabense. The results showed that: the inhibitory effect is not satisfactory about endophytic fungi and endophytic actinomycetes, the antagonistic bacteria YXG2 -3 was the best, inhibition zone reached up to 20 ram; followed by BYG2 -5,BYJ5 -1 ,YXJ2 -2. the potted plant was test about 4 strains of endophytic bacteria, control effect of YXG2 -3 were 63.8%, which were highly signif- icant compared with other bacteria.%采用组织表面消毒法分离变叶木、益智、阴香、槟榔、椰子和菠萝蜜6种植物的内生菌,获得91株内生菌,其中内生细菌45株,内生真菌38株,内生放线菌8株。以香蕉枯萎病菌(Fusarium oxysporumf.sp.cubense)为靶标菌,对分离的内生菌株进行皿内拮抗活性筛选,发现内生真菌、内生放线菌抑菌效果不理想,内生细菌YXG2—3拮抗效果最好,抑菌带达20mm,其次是BYG2—5、BYJ5—1、YXJ2—2。对4株内生细菌进行盆栽试验,发现菌株YXG2—3防效最好,达到63.8%,与其他处理达极显著水平。

  10. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    the building. The plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations

  11. Epidemiological survey of oral submucous fibrosis in Xiangtan City, Hunan province, China%中国湖南湘潭口腔黏膜下纤维性变的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐杰清; 翦象福; 高明亮; 凌天牖; 章魁华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand oral submucous fibrous (OSF) because the hair cause of disease and the quantitative corresponding measures,do a good job in OSF prevention and control work.Methods The quantitative cluster sampling,according to the diagnostic criteria of the development of the Pindborg,yuhu in Xiangtan city of different types of 57 units of 11 046 people to chew areca cause OSF epidemiological investigation.Results OSF 335 diagnosis example,the prevalence rate of 30.33‰,4 cases were oral cancer,oral cancer coexist rate was 11.94‰; All OSF patients had a history of betel nut,no chewing betel nut (containing the cigarette,wine,and spicy aficionados) were not found in patients with OSF; Of OSF prevalence in the chewing hobby was no differences in sex and age in the crowd; OSF prevalence of high and low with length of fixed number of year of average chewing betel nut dose and chewing betel nuts were closely related(r =0.28828,P < 0.01) ; OSF prevalence was different from eating betel nut additive that had a very significant difference.Different hobbies compatibility with standardized test,7 incidence group had 6 group without significant difference,but people only eat chili can (in the control group,1 329) and outsiders no OSF patients (control group,698).Conclusions Survey results confirm that chewing betel nut is the main factor of Xiangtan people of OSF,and OSF carcinoma prevalence is lower than abroad.%目的 了解口腔黏膜下纤维性变的发病原因,采取相应的应对措施,做好口腔黏膜下纤维性变防治工作.方法 采取整群抽样,按Pindborg制定的诊断标准,对湘潭市雨湖区不同类型57个单位的11 046例进行了咀嚼槟榔致口腔黏膜下纤维性变(OSF)的流行病学调查.结果 确诊OSF 335例,患病率30.33‰,并存口腔癌4例,口腔癌并存率11.94‰;全部OSF患者均有嚼槟榔史,不嚼槟榔者(含有烟、酒、辣嗜好者)未发现OSF患者;OSF患病率在嚼槟榔嗜好的人群中无

  12. Acute Toxicity Test of Betel Nut Seed on KM Mice%槟榔仁对KM小鼠的急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书伟; 王燕; 胡劲召; 赵牧秋; 史云峰

    2015-01-01

    The acute oxicity was tested in mice in order to study the oral toxicity of the juice of betel nut seeds.According to preliminary experiments to determine the range of the official test administered dose,KM mice were selected and administered drug by intragastric infusion at single dose,the toxic effect and death condition of the mice were observed for 7 days after being administered, and the method of korbor was used to determine LD50 and 95% confidence level.The results showed that the high dose of betel nut juice to mice appeared toxic reactions and death, and the main reason was gastrointestinal and lung disease after autopsy;low dose group was no pathological change in viscera in mice.The LD50 of betel nut juice in mice was 12.425 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 10.610~14.551 g/kg,which indicated that the betel nut juice was actual non-toxic substances.The LD50 of dry matter of betel nut juice was 1.349 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 1.152~1.580 g/kg and it was considered the drug of low toxicity.%为研究口服槟榔(Areca catechu Linnaeus)仁汁液的毒性,进行了小鼠的经口急性毒性试验. 根据预试验确定正式试验给药剂量的范围,选用KM小鼠经口灌胃,一次给药,给药后连续观察7 d,记录小白鼠的中毒反应及死亡情况,采用寇氏法计算 LD50及LD50的95%可信限.结果表明,高剂量给药组小白鼠出现中毒反应并死亡,解剖后检查发现主要原因是胃肠和肺部的病变,测得槟榔仁汁液的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为12.425 g/(kg.bw)﹑10.610~14.551 g/(kg.bw), 表明槟榔仁汁液可以被认为是实际无毒物质. 槟榔仁原液干物质的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为1.349 g/(kg.bw)﹑1.152~1.580 g/(kg.bw),属于低毒物质.

  13. 马来西亚未尽利用热带水果概况%A review on underutilized tropical fruits in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱福荣; K. Nagendra PRASAD; 邝建荣; 赵丽仪; Azrina AZLAN; 孙健; Amin ISMAIL; Salma IDRIS

    2010-01-01

    未尽利用热带水果,即在当地消费和医用的非贸易热带水果,未普及化,生长于野外,季节性强,但富含多酚类化合物、类胡萝卜素、花青素、脂肪酸、矿物质和氨基酸,因而具有一定的开发潜力.在马来西亚,热带水果丰富多样,主要有普通水果、观赏水果、特有水果、野生水果和高地水果,但大部分水果都未能充分利用,其中,典型的有罗望子、巴杖果、砂拉越芒果、钮扣山竹、榴莲、莲雾、挂尼芒果、野红毛丹和蛇皮果.这些水果可以分为3个类型:具有贸易开发潜力的主要包括无花果(Ficus sp.)、罗望子(Garcinia atroviridis)、尖必达(Artocarpus integer)、鲜花木果(Lepisanthes alata)、野榴莲(Durio sp.)、橄榄木(Spondias cytherea)、菠萝蜜(Artocarpus heterophullus)、槟榔(Areca catechu)、野红毛丹(Nephelium ramboutan-ake)、蛇皮果(Salacca zalacca)和面包果(Artocarpus altilis);具有适于当地人们利用潜力的水果种类包括木胡瓜(Averrhoe bilimbi)、榔拜果(Baccaurea motteyana)、单贝果Baccaurea macrocarpa)、喃喃果属(Cynometra cauliflora)、西柚(Dialum indum)、黄肉榴莲(Durio kutejensis)、野生山竹(Garcinia hombroiniana)、野檬果(Garcinia parvifolia)、巴杖果(Mangifera feotida)、醋栗(Phyllanthus emblica)、蒲桃(Syzygium jambos);不具有经济利用开发潜力的水果种类包括哥露比(Salacca conferta)、青枣(Zizyphus mauritiana)、木奶果属(Baccaurea polyneura)、野檬果(Garcinia parvifolia)、番龙眼(Pometia sp.)、赤才果(Leppisanthes rubiginosa)、波漆果(Bouea microphylla)、蛋黄果(Pouteria campechiana)和仙都果(Sandoricum koetjape).目前,有关未尽利用水果研究仍处于初期阶段,有必要使这些水果更为普及并得到有效利用,因此,政府和私人组织须采取一些措施以促进这些水果的消费.今后需对这些水果的营养成分、抗氧化作用以及疗效进行深入研究.

  14. 云南弥渡县带绦虫感染状况调查%Investigation on Taenia sp.Infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 李素梅; 刘宏坤; 李科荣; 罗华; 徐新; 陈凤; 李荣; 刘继兵; 黄明皓

    2012-01-01

    The current status and species of Taenia sp. Were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. In stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. Was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24%(21/85) and 26%(15/57) , respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. Asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. Eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. Defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. By untreated feces).%2010年10~12月采用自然沉淀法查粪便中带绦虫卵,结合询检、问卷调查和槟榔南瓜子驱虫治疗法,对大理州弥渡县格者村进行带绦虫流行状况及虫种调查.结果显示,人群带绦虫感染率为15.7%(65/414),其中40~岁组和50~岁组的阳性率分别高达24.7%(21/85)和26.3%(15/57).对26例粪检阳性者和47例有排节片史者进行驱虫治疗,前者全部有虫体驱出,后者23例有虫体驱出;驱虫最多的1例共排出11条,另有1例排出2条,其余均为1条.共收集到15条有头节和成熟孕节的虫体,经形态学鉴定为亚洲带绦虫.该地区居民的亚洲带绦虫感染率较高可能与村民的饮食习惯(喜食生猪肉和生猪肝)、生活习惯(野外大小便)和环境污染(粪便未经无害化处理外排)有关.

  15. 运用复杂网络分析中医药治疗肝炎肝硬化的用药规律%Regularity of Chinese medicine application for hepatitis cirrhosis based on the analysis of effective case reports with complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 王天芳; 薛晓琳; 吴秀艳; 张琳; 李宁; 王思颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the regularity of Chinese medicine application for the treatment of hepatitis cirrhosis based on the analysis of effective case reports with complex networks. Methods: Effective cases of hepatitis cirrhosis were selected according to the inclusion criteria on the basis of review of literatures published between 1991 and 2010 in the databases of Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Technical Journals (VIP) and Chinese Biology Medicine disc (CBM). The descriptors used for the retrieval were 'cirrhosis', 'traditional Chinese medicine' and 'TCM syndrome'. The herbs used in the treatment of effective cases were collected in the database established with SPSS and the data were analyzed with SAS, meanwhile, data noise was removed with artificial means. The results were presented visually with complex networks. Results: There were 407 effective cases of hepatitis cirrhosis treated with Chinese medicines in the 326 articles, in which 80 cases were diagnosed as compensated cirrhosis and 327 cases as decompensated cirrhosis accompanied with ascites. There were totally 299 herbs used in the treatment of effective cases, in which 195 herbs used for compensated cirrhosis and 275 herbs for decompensated cirrhosis. Taking the common occurrence frequency of equal to or greater than 20% as the inclusion criteria, the main components of Chinese herb compound for compensated hepatitis cirrhosis were Baizhu (rhizome), Danshen (salvia), Baishao (radix paeoniae alba), Danggui (angelica), Chaihu (radix bupleuri), Yujin (turmeric), Biejia (turtle shell), Dangshen (codonopsis pilosula), Fuling (poria cocos) and Taoren (peach kernel), and for decompensated hepatitis cirrhosis were Baizhu (rhizome), Fuling (poria cocos), Dafupi (areca peel), Danshen (salvia), Zexie (rhizome alismatis), Huangqi (bupleurum), Zhuling (agaric), Biejia (turtle shell), Danggui (angelica) and Dangshen (codonopsis pilosula). Conclusion: The main treatment methods embodied

  16. Study of Xiaozhang Recipe Combined with Lamivudine in Treatment of 84 Chronic Viral Hepatitis B Patients with Compensated Liver Cirrhosis%消胀方联合拉米夫定治疗84例乙型肝炎肝硬化代偿期的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振华; 李曼; 黄凌鹰; 周碧霞; 孙学华; 高月求

    2011-01-01

    cirrhosis were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Patients in the treatment group were treated with XR (consisting of heterophylla fals-estarwort root, large head atractylodes rhizome, tangerine peel, green tangerine peel, water-plantain tuber, bu-gleweed herb, turtle shell, oyster shell, chicken's gizzard-skin endothelium, areca peel, decocted, one dose daily, twice daily). Patients in the control group took Fuzheng Huayu Capsule (consisting of red sage root, walnut seed, gynostemma pentaphyllum, aweto, magnoliavine fruit; five pills each time, three times daily, 30 min before meals). The therapeutic course for all was 12 months. The changes of the Chinese medicine symptom scores, chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ), the liver function, hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) were compared between before and after treatment in the two groups. Meanwhile, B ultrasound was performed on all patients. Changes of the inner diameter of the portal vein and the splenic vein, the length and the thickness of the spleen were recorded. Results After treatment the Chinese medicine symptom scores and CLDQ obviously decreased in the two groups (P0. 05). The liver function of of the two groups were improved when compared with before treatment (P<0. 01), and the treatment group was superior to the control group ( P<0. 01). The B ultrasound results showed MPV, SPV, the length and the thickness of the spleen obviously decreased in the treatment group (P< 0. 01). Only the thickness of the spleen obviously decreased in the control group (P <0. 01). The HBV DNA obviously decreased in the two groups (P<0.01), more obviously shown in the treatment group (P<0. 01). Conclusions XR in combination of lamivudine could improve the liver function of chronic viral hepatitis B patients with compensated liver cirrhosis and HBV DNA, lower their Chinese medicine symptom scores and CLDQ scores, improve their Child-Pugh classification to some extent. It showed

  17. Clinical Study on the Treatment of Ascites Due to Cirrhosis by Yiqi Xiaoshui Decoction%益气散结消水汤治疗肝硬变腹水临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富志

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨益气散结消水汤治疗肝硬变腹水临床疗效.方法:选择100例患者随机分为两组,治疗组60例,对照组40例.两组均予西药保肝、支持疗法,治疗组在此基础上加服中药益气散结消水汤(药物组成:人参12 g,黄芪30 g,白茯苓30 g,炒白术30 g,丹参30 g,郁金12 g,川芎12 g,赤芍15 g,云苓皮30 g,猪苓30 g,泽泻30 g,车前子30 g,白茅根30 g,大腹皮30 g,炙鳖甲30 g,炮穿山甲9 g,厚朴15 g,枳实15 g,细辛3 g,沉香(冲)3 g,炒麦芽30 g,茵陈40 g)治疗.结果:治疗组有效率为83.3%,对照组有效率为60.0%,两组比较,差异统有计学意义(P<0.01).两组腹水消退时间、肝脏功能(Tbil、ALT、Alb)、腹水消退后疗效巩固比较及两组治疗前后腹围、体质量变化比较,治疗组均显著优于对照组(P<0.01,P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:益气散结消水汤结合西药治疗肝硬变腹水在保护肝脏功能,促进腹水消退,降低腹水复发,提高生活质量等方面效果较单用西药为佳.%Objective:To observe the clinical curative effects of Yiqi Sanjie Xiaoshui Decoction on the treatment of 60 Cases of ascites due to cirrhosis. Methods: 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups,the treatment group of 60 cases and the control group of 40 cases. Both groups were given western medicine of hepatoprotective treatment and supportive therapy. Based on the above treatment, the treatment group was added traditional Chinese medicine Yiqi Sanjie Xiaoshui Decoction(drug composition:white ginseng 12 g,Salvi-a Astragalus 30 g.Poria Cocos 30 g,fried Atractylodes 30 g,radix salviae miltiorrhizae 30 g,turmericl2 g,hemlock parsley 12 g,red pe-ony root 15 g.Poria from Yunnan of China 30 g,Polyporus 30 g,cloud Ling skin Alisma 30g Plantago 30 g,Rhizoma Imperatae 30 g, shell of areca nut 30 g,Sunburn turtle 30 g,cannon Shanjia 9 g,Magnolia 15 g,fried malt Citrus aurantium 15 g,asarum 3 g,agilawood 3 g,fried germinated barley 30 g.Herba Artemisiae

  18. 2000年总目次

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    )Application of Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis to Extracting Areca Thematic Information from SPOT Image XU Jun, LI Ce, HUANG Xuan ( 59 )Study on the Preprocessing Techniques of Multi-temporal ERS-2 SAR Images Being Used in Crops Classification ZAHNG Rong-qun, ZHANG Wei, YUAN Zhi-long ( 62 ) Application of GIS to Controlling Total Mass for the Land-based Pollutants Discharged into Bay ZHAO Dong-zhi, ZHAO Ling, ZHANG Feng-shou ( 67 ) Discussion of Several Problems on GPS Researches WANG Rang-hui, ZHANG Hui-zhi ( 70 )

  19. COMENTARIU LA ARTICOLUL FISTULE CHOLÉCYSTO - DUODÉNALE E. Christide - Revista de Chirurgie 1938; 7 - 8/41: 579 - 585

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae M. Constantinescu

    2012-11-01

    dispoziţie: avivareamarginilor cu sutură transversală în 2planuri, patch cu seroasă de jejun,anastomoză duodeno-jejunală latero-terminală pe ansă în Y Roux. În cazul unuiduoden II strâmtorat se poate executa ogastroentero-anastomoză.Articolul pe care îl comentez şidiscuţiile pe care le-a suscitat la Societateade Chirurgie din Bucureşti în urmă cu treisferturi de secol ne aduc în memorie 4 dinmarii chirurgi ai primei jumătăţi a sec XX.Astfel în spatele lui Christide îlvedem peingeniosul Ernest Juvara, chiar dacă la oraaceea nu mai era în viaţă, bolnavul prezentatde St.Jianu a fost rezolvat de IacobIacobovici, cazul prezentat de Blassian a fostoperat de Traian Nasta iar cel comentat deGh. Gatoschi a fost operat deVladimirBuţureanu la Iaşi.Observaţia clinică a lui Christide areca particularităţi istoricul care precizeazăeliminarea de calculi prin fecale, semn carenu este patognomonic pentru fistulă-şi apoimaniera în care a folosit perete din colecistpentru aacoperi defectul duodenal. Pentrupolul biliar nu a făcut nici o manevră deidentificare şi ligatură a canalului cistic,motiv care explică biliragia postoperatorie,care a durat cu intermitenţă patru luni şiAdresa de corespondenţă: Prof.Dr.N.M. ConstantinescuUniversitatea de Medicină şi Farmacie „Carol Davila” Bucureştie-mail: nae_constantinescu@yahoo.com412Jurnalulde Chirurgie (Iaşi, 2012, Vol. 8, Nr. 4jumătate. Actualmente cazul ar fi beneficiatmult mai devreme de o papilo-sfincterotomieendoscopică.În cazul prezentat de Ştefan Jianu eravorba de o fistulă ulceroasă colecisto-duodenală între fundul colecistului şigenunchiul superior duodenal, la caregastrectomia cu anastomoză gastro-jejunalăapus în repaus fistula de contactul cualimente, lucru pe care nu-l reuşise GEAefectuată anterior şi care se dovedisenefuncţională.Bolnavul prezentat de Blassian şi carea fost operat de Traian Nasta este un caztipic de fistulă colecisto-duodenală deorigine

  20. Effects of Tiantai Ⅰ on the activity of central cholinergic system in mice with spontaneous Alzheimer disease%天泰1号对自发老年性痴呆模型中枢胆碱能系统活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正治; 李明; 李耀芳; 贾秀琴; 张永锋

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tiantai I consists of gastrodia, Chinese angelica root, areca seed. It has been considered as the roles of invigorating the liver, nourishing marrow, heightening the intelligence and causing resuscitation. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Tiantai Ⅰ on the abilities of learn ing and memory and the activity of central cholinergic system in mice with spontaneous Alzheimer disease. DESIGN: A randomized control observation. SETTING: Shenzhen Institute of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine. MATERIALS: Male Kunming mice of 13 months old were raised to 21 months old, of which 52 with spontaneous Alzheimer disease were screened. They were randomly divided into blank control group, western drug control group, Tiantai Ⅰ 6.80 and 20.41 g/kg groups, 13 mice in each group. Another 13 aged mice with normal learning and memory abilities were selected as the normal control group at the same time. METHODS: Mice in the western drug control group were treated with 0.6 mg/Kg Hydergine, those in the Tiantai Ⅰ 6.80 and 20.41 g/kg groups were given intragastric administration of Tiantai Ⅰ of 6.80 and 20.41 g/kg, respectively, and those in the normal control group and blank control group were given double distilled water of the same volume. The learning and memory results were examined by the step-down test. Freezing sections of brain tissue were prepared, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) fiber was showed according to the Hedreen method, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was detected with Burt and Silver methods, the automatic image analysis system for biomedical application was applied in the quantitative analysis of AChE fiber and ChAT activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Effect of Tiantai Ⅰ on the abilities of learning and memory in mice with Alzheimer disease; ② AChE fiber area density in temporal cortex and hippocampal CA1 region; ③ ChAT ac tivity in Meynert nuclei of basal forebrain. RESULTS: ① Tiantai Ⅰ in ameliorating the abilities of learning