WorldWideScience

Sample records for areas and regions

  1. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  2. Natural conditions and cropping regionalization of rice area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXianzhang

    1994-01-01

    The formation of rice distribution is based on certain natural ecological conditions and social economic environments. In China, rice cropping is distributed in a vast area extending across 5 temperature belts, the northernmost of rice growing area in the world being in China. Distribution of rice cropping is characterized by a gradual decrease from south to north, from large and concentrated regions in Southeast to small and separated areasin Northwest.

  3. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Pacific Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas within the BOEM Pacific Region currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the...

  4. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Atlantic Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas within the BOEM Atllantic Region currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the...

  5. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  6. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Alaska Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the US Outer Continental Shelf. The...

  7. Groundwater contributing areas for Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver Regions of Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer contains groundwater contributing areas for streams, ponds and estuaries in the Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver region. Contributing areas were...

  8. Station Calibration and Regionalization in China and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    McQuarrie and Tsai, 1998). It also has several cousins such as the corrected-AIC (AICc), Bayesian Information Criteria, Mallows Cp- criteria, and the Swartz...the squared residuals of the inversion, n is the total number of data, and k is the effective number of parameters of the inversion ( McQuarrie and Tsai...UNCLASSIFIED) McQuarrie , A., and C-L Tsai, Regression and Time Series Model Selection, World Scientific, 1998. (UNCLASSIFIED) Michel, G., M. Becker

  9. Urban Dynamism within the Vienna-Bratislava Metropolitan Area: Improving Regional Competitiveness and the Constructed Regional Advantage Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Brzica

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Bratislava metropolitan area (BMA and its strategic positioning within the broader cross-border metropolitan area (VBMA. It provides a review of the internal/external urban dynamism of bma and other processes ongoing within VBMA. We introduce the constructed regional advantage (CRA concept and indicate factors which contribute to the higher socio-economic dynamics of Bratislava and VBMA. Our focus is on two inter-related areas: industrial sector development and urban dynamics. The idea is that only a sufficient level of urban dynamics allows VBMA to generate an adequate complexity of activities, which can promote regional competitiveness. The CRA concept is used here for better understanding of existing developmental factors in territorial cooperation. It allows one to look at various knowledge bases existing in vbma and to show that regional similarities/ complementarities can contribute to dynamic changes within this area.

  10. Amphibians in the Region of Murcia (SE Iberian peninsula: conservation status and priority areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea-Serrano, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation status of amphibian species was studied in the Region of Murcia, taking into consideration 10 variables concerning their biology and distribution. The results obtained show that the amphibian species exposed to the highest risk of extinction in the study area are those with long larval development and a restricted distribution range. According to this species classification, an index is proposed for assessing areas whose conservation is of the highest priority. In the Region of Murcia, most of these areas are located in the main mountain systems, primarily confined to the northwest. Regional Parks and proposed priority conservation areas overlap by only about 12%. The current isolation of these areas makes it necessary to undertake habitat restoration programmes to ensure their interconnection.

  11. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and m

  12. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-01-01

    and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis...

  13. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  14. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  15. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  16. Regional differences and determinants of built-up area expansion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on remote sensing data on land use provided by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and socioeconomic data collected by the authors, this paper analyzes the trends and regional differences in built-up area (BUA) expansion in China from the late 1980s to 2000, and empirically estimates the major determinants of BUA expansion in different regions in 1996-2000. In 1989-2000, although China's overall BUA expansion accelerated, the trends differed significantly among regions. BUA expansion in the central and western regions accelerated significantly, but it slowed down considerably in the eastern region. The estimation results from our econometric analysis reveal that BUA expansion in the eastern region reached a period when economic growth had no further significant impact on per capita BUA, the land utilization in this region has become more intensive with further expansion of the economy. In the central and western regions, the BUA has expanded remarkably due to the relatively more flexible land development policies and the relatively cheap land prices. Therefore, as the economy continues to grow rapidly, policies relating to BUA expansion and cultivated land reductions may face more serious challenges in the central and western regions.

  17. Results of seismological observations in the western Kaliningrad region and in the Baltic Sea water area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    In 2006 2007, researchers of the IO RAS conducted seismological observations in the Baltic Sea and western Kaliningrad region with the use of ocean-bottom and land-based autonomous seismic stations. According to maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia, the Kaliningrad region is aseismic. However, a series of seismic phenomena with magnitudes of about 5 and sources located near the Bay of Gdansk coast occurred here in September 2004. The total duration of the IO RAS seismological observations in five areas of the region under investigation was more than 200 days. The analysis of seismic records of the IO RAS network located sources of two local weak earthquakes with magnitudes M L = 3.4 3.5, which indicates that the seismic process in the western part of the Kaliningrad region continues and the region is far from being seismically stable.

  18. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  19. Characteristics of leaf areas of plantations in semiarid hills and gully loess regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing YIN; Fan HE; Guoyu QIU; Kangning HE; Jinghui TIAN; Weiqiang ZHANG; Yujiu XIONG; Shaohua ZHAO; Jianxin LIU

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to explore the relationship of leaf area and stand density and to find a convenient way to measure stand leaf areas. During the 2004 growing season, from May to October, we used direct and indirect methods to measure the seasonal variation of the leaf areas of tree and shrub species. The trees were from Robinia pseudoacacia stands of four densities (3333 plants/hm2, 1666 plants/hm2, 1111 plants/hm2, and 833 plants/hm2) and Platycladus orientalis stands of three densities (3333 plants/hm2, 1666 plants/hm2, and 1111 plants/hm2). The shrub species were Caragana korshinskii, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Amorpha fruticosa. Based on our survey data, empirical formulas for calculating leaf area were obtained by correlating leaf fresh weight, diameter of base branches, and leaf areas. Our results show the following: 1) in September, the leaf area and leaf area index (LAI) of trees (R. pseudoacacia and P orientalis) reached their maximum values, with LAI peak values of 10.5 and 3.2, respectively. In August, the leaf area and LAI of shrubs (C. korshinskii, H. rhamnoides, and A. fruticosa) reached their maximum values, with LAI peak values of 1.195, 1.123, and 1.882, respectively. 2) There is a statistically significant power relation between leaf area and leaf fresh weight for R. pseudoacacia. There are significant linear relationships between leaf area and leaf fresh weight for P. orientalis, C. korshinskii, H. rhamnoides, and A. fruticosa. Moreover, there is also a significant power relation between leaf area and diameter of base branches for C. korshinskii. There are significant linear relations between leaf area and diameter of base branches of H. rhamnoides and A. fruticosa. 3) In the hills and gully regions of the Loess Plateau, the LAIs of R. pseudoacacia stand at different densities converged after the planted stands entered their fast growth stage. Their LAI do not seem to be affected by its initial and current density. The same is true

  20. How habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant assemblages in isolated closed depressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herault, Bruno; Thoen, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Classifying species by shared life-history traits is important if common ecological response groups are to be identified among different species. We investigated how habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant communities in small isolated closed depressions, and how the species richness is related to the interplay between environmental factors and specific life-history trait combinations. In Central-Western Europe, 169 closed depressions were completely surveyed for plant presence in two highly contrasted landscapes (forested and open landscapes). All species were clustered into 9 Emergent Groups based on 10 life-history traits related to plant dispersal, establishment and persistence. Habitat areas were related to species presence using logistic regressions. Most Emergent Groups were more area-dependent in open than in forested landscapes, owing to heterogeneous light levels in forest weakening the species-area relationship. In open landscapes, Floating Hydrophytes were severely underrepresented in very small depressions, owing to the absence of waterfowl population. Local environmental and regional factors were related to species richness using Generalized Linear Models. In open landscapes, local environmental factors such as water conductivity or soil productivity are respectively the main predictors. In forested landscapes, the abundance of most Emergent Groups was better predicted by regional factors, i.e., habitat connectivity and distance to the forest edge. Forested landscapes strongly impeded the closed depressions' colonization by the less mobile Emergent Groups such as Large-seeded Perennials.

  1. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  2. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  3. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  4. Integration of Optical and SAR Data for Burned Area Mapping in Mediterranean Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Stroppiana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be combined in an integrated multi-source framework to identify burned areas at the regional scale. The proposed approach is based on the use of fuzzy sets theory and a region-growing algorithm. Landsat TM and (C-band ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR images acquired for the year 2003 have been processed to extract burned area maps over Portugal. Pre-post fire SAR backscatter temporal difference has been integrated with optical spectral indices to the aim of reducing confusion between burned areas and low-albedo surfaces. The output fuzzy score maps have been compared with reference fire perimeters provided by the Fire Atlas of Portugal. Results show that commission and omission errors in the output burned area maps are a function of the threshold applied to the fuzzy score maps; between the two extremes of the greatest producer’s accuracy (omission error < 10% and user’s accuracy (commission error < 5%, an intermediate threshold value provides errors of about 20% over the study area. The integration of SAR backscatter allowed reducing local commission errors from 65.4% (using optical data, only to 11.4%, showing to significantly mitigate local errors due to the presence of cloud shadows and wetland areas. Overall, the proposed method is flexible and open to further developments; also in the perspective of the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel missions operationally providing SAR and optical datasets.

  5. Identification of the sensory/motor area and pathologic regions using ECoG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, V L; Syed, I; Berger, C; Grzesczcuk, R; Milton, J; Erickson, R K; Cogen, P; Berkson, E; Spire, J P

    1998-01-01

    An electrophysiologic mapping technique which enables identification of the central sulcus and pathologic cortical regions is described. Electrocorticographic recordings of 1 min duration were recorded from 25 patients who were undergoing resection of tumors in the sensory-motor region or being evaluated for temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Analysis of the patterns of subdural inter-electrode coherence revealed low coherence across the central sulcus for 11/12 cases where its location could be verified with direct cortical stimulation and/or somatosensory evoked potential mapping. Regions of high coherence identified the location of tumors in the sensory-motor region for 10/10 cases. Over the temporal lobe, localized areas of high coherence were evident in 8/9 epilepsy patients, but were not indicative of the location of mesial temporal lobe tumors or inter-ictal spiking, when present. We conclude that analysis of cortical coherence patterns may be helpful for revealing the location of pathologic processes relative to critical cortical areas.

  6. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Community Growth Options: Vacant, Developed, and Constrained Areas; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2007); [developable

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS raster data set illustrates vacant, developed, and constrained areas for the 35 parishes in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan South Louisiana study area....

  7. Modelling the landslide area and sediment discharge in landslide-dominated region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tse-Yang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chin; Jan, Ming-Young; Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have indicated the magnified increase of rainfall intensification, landsliding and subsequent sediment discharge due to the global warming effect. However, a few works synthesized the "chain reaction" from rainfall, landsliding to sediment discharge at the same time because of the limited observations of landslide area and sediment discharge during episodes. Besides, the sediment transport strongly depends on the sediment supply and stream power which interact conditionally. In this study, our goal is to build a model that can simulate time-series landslide area and subsequent sediment discharge. The synthesized model would be applied onto Tsengwen Reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan, where lots of landslides occur every year. Unlike other studies, our landslide model considers not only rainfall effect but also previous landslide status, which may be applied to landslide-dominated regions and explains the irrelevant relationship between typhoon rainfall and landslide area. Furthermore, our sediment transport model considers the sediment budget which couples transport- and supply-limited of sediment. The result shows that the simulated time-series landslide area and the sediment transport agree with the observation and the R2 are 0.88 and 0.56, respectively. Reactivated ratio of previous landslide area is 72.7% which indicates the high reoccurrence of historical landslide in landslide-dominated regions. We divided nine historical typhoons into three periods to demonstrate the effect of sediment supply/supply-limited condition upon sediment transport. For instance, the rainfall is smaller in period 3 than in period 1 but the sediment transport is higher in period 3 due to the catastrophic landslide (typhoon Morakot) during period 2. We argue that quantifying sediment transport should couple not only with water discharge but sediment budget, which is rarely considered in calculating sediment transport. Moreover, the parameterization of the controlling

  8. CanWEA regional issues and wind energy project siting : mountainous areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and permitting considerations for wind energy project siting in mountainous areas were discussed. Mountainous regions have a specific set of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Potential disruptions to wildlife, noise, and visual impacts are a primary concern in the assessment of potential wind farm projects. Alpine habitats are unique and often contain fragile and endangered species. Reclamation techniques for mountainous habitats have not been extensively tested, and the sites are not as resilient as sites located in other ecosystems. In addition, alpine habitats are often migratory corridors and breeding grounds for threatened or endangered birds. In the winter months, alpine habitats are used by caribou, grizzly bears, and wolverine dens. Bats are also present at high elevations. It is often difficult to conduct baseline and monitoring studies in mountainous areas since alpine habitat is subject to rapid weather changes, and has a very short construction period. tabs., figs.

  9. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  10. Area and Flux Distributions of Active Regions, Sunspot Groups, and Sunspots: A Multi-Database Study

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C; Amouzou, Ernest C; Longcope, Dana W; Tlatov, Andrey G; Nagovitsyn, Yury A; Pevtsov, Alexei A; Chapman, Gary A; Cookson, Angela M; Yeates, Anthony R; Watson, Fraser T; Balmaceda, Laura A; DeLuca, Edward E; Martens, Petrus C H

    2014-01-01

    In this work we take advantage of eleven different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions -- where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) $10^{21}$Mx ($10^{22}$Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behaviour of a power-law distribution (when extended into smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al.\\ (200...

  11. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  12. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  13. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  14. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  15. Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the

  16. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  17. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  18. Dynamic Development of Regional Cortical Thickness and Surface Area in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Amanda E; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Hamer, Robert M; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders and are correlated with cognitive functioning. Little is known about how these components of cortical gray matter develop in the first years of life. We studied the longitudinal development of regional CT and SA expansion in healthy infants from birth to 2 years. CT and SA have distinct and heterogeneous patterns of development that are exceptionally dynamic; overall CT increases by an average of 36.1%, while cortical SA increases 114.6%. By age 2, CT is on average 97% of adult values, compared with SA, which is 69%. This suggests that early identification, prevention, and intervention strategies for neuropsychiatric illness need to be targeted to this period of rapid postnatal brain development, and that SA expansion is the principal driving factor in cortical volume after 2 years of age.

  19. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Martire

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  20. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martire, D.; De Rosa, M.; Pesce, V.; Santangelo, M. A.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  1. GROUNDWATER OF OREL REGION AND FORECAST OF THEIR POLLUTION IN AREAS OF LIVESTOCK COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seleznev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In areas with intense economic activity showed a significant variety of forms of man-made ecological imbalance in the geological environment, as well as a manifestation of the natural geological environment of negative processes caused by groundwater. They give rise to environmental changes, both global and local scales. The degree of risk is determined to a large extent the processes taking place en masse in the geological environment, as a rule, have an inertial character and hidden from direct observation. For the first time for groundwater of Orel region is set by a previously unknown contaminant natural character due to the advancement of strontium in the groundwater complex, and is composed geofiltration model that allows to carry out prediction of the front of strontium in 27 years. Developed a model of the radial pull of nitrate intake group to establish the pathways of contaminant in water wells.

  2. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  3. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  4. Investigation and analysis of hazardous waste in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; LIU Xi-rong; WANG Li-ao; ZHOU Zai-jiang

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the investigation of hazardous waste (HW) in the Three Gorges Area of Chongqing region, which indicates that by May 2002, the dumped HW therein amounted to 14 600 t and was mainly distributed in five districts and counties with 11 000 t in Fuling, 1 650 t in Fengdu, 950 t in Wanzhou; 630 t in Wushan and 430 t in Yunyang. The total amount was composed of 9 670 t chromic residue, 2 310 t waste oil and residue, 410 t waste (false) fertilizer, 28 t waste chemical medicine, 26 t waste materials and 2 200 t other things including acid residue, waste asbestos, fluorine silicate,pigment, additive, waste acid, alkali, nitric acid, vitriol, lead mud, storage battery, calcium carbide, potassium cyanide, polluted soil, discard dynamite, waste packing barrel of cyanides, etc. In all of the HW, 578 t can be treated by chemical neutralization and stabilization technology such as redox, chemical precipitation, acid and alkali neutralization, etc., and the rest is temporarily untreatble and should be removed and piled at a temporary storage site above the 177 m water level of the dam with an aim to be transported to a future disposal site for innocuous treatment.

  5. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Bay Hills). In general, this coincides directly with relative precipitation totals in each region (i.e., Marin county typically receives more rainfall over a longer period of time than the East Bay). In those areas that are saturated for longer periods, the shallow landslide hazard is prolonged because these conditions are first needed for storm-related precipitation to subsequently generate positive pore pressure on the failure plane. Both piezometric field measurements and limit equilibrium slope stability analyses indicate that positive pore pressure is required for most shallow landslide failures to occur in the study regions. Based on measurements from two of the sites, our analyses further indicate that at least 2 kPa of pressure is required to trigger shallow landsliding. We measured this pressure at one of our sites in 2011, where more than 30 landslides, including several that mobilized into debris flows, occurred. Additional monitoring at these sites will be used to further constrain and refine antecedent moisture-based thresholds for shallow landslide initiation.

  6. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Docherty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT and surface area (SA within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function.

  7. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Anna R.; Sawyers, Chelsea K.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda K.; Verhulst, Brad; Tsuang, Ming T.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function. PMID:26347632

  8. Reclamation by tubewell drainage in Rechna Doab and adjacent areas, Punjab region, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1975-01-01

    Around the turn of the century, a network of more than 40,000 miles of canals was constructed to divert water from the Indus River and its tributaries to about 23 million acres of largely unused desert in the Punjab region of Pakistan. The favorable climate and the perennial supply of irrigation water made available through the canals instituted the beginning of intensive farming. However, because of generally poor drainage and the high rate of canal leakage, the water table began to rise. As the population increased and agriculture expanded, the demand for irrigation water soon exceeded the available supply. Spreading of the canal supply to meet the expanded needs locally created shortages that prevented adequate leaching. Increased evaporation from the rising water table further contributed to the progressive accumulation of soluble salts in the soil. By the late 1930's the combined effect of waterlogging and salinity had reduced the agricultural productivity of the region to one of the lowest in the world. In 1954, after several unsuccessful projects were undertaken to reclaim affected areas and to stop the progressive encroachment of waterlogging and salinization, the Government of Pakistan in cooperation with the U.S. International Cooperation Administration undertook a study of the geology and hydrology of the Indus Plain that ultimately resulted in the formulation of a ground-water reclamation program. The principal feature of the program is the utilization of a network of deep wells spaced about a mile apart for the dual purpose of lowering the water table and for providing supplemental irrigation water. Through financial assistance and technical and engineering support principally from the United States, construction began in 1960 on the first of 18 proposed reclamation projects that eventually will include 21 million acres and more than 28,000 wells having an installed capacity of more than 100,000 cubic feet per second. An area of about 1.3 million acres

  9. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative...

  10. Leadership for Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Areas: Bridging Personal and Institutional Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Padt, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid transformations offer new challenges for rural regions to invent new pathways for development. For many, an obvious choice is to set out on the path towards economic growth and to compete with other regions for global, mobile capital and labor. There is however an increasing awareness that in

  11. THOUGHTS ON CONSTRUCTING THE DEMONSTRATING AREAS OF THE ECOLOGICAL REBUILDING AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN HEXI REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the field investigations, this paper analyzes systematically the achievements and problems of construct-ing the demonstrating areas of the ecological rebuilding and economic sustainable development in Hexi, Gansu Province,and then the thoughts on constructing the demonstrating areas are brought forward. It is considered that all kinds of ecologi-cal demonstrating areas should be merged in order to construct large-scale characterized demonstrating areas which go be-yond the district. In other words, in Hexi Region, Zhangye District should be constructed as the largest ecoagriculture demon-strating area of high technology; Wuwei District should be constructed as the largest ecological demonstrating area of agricultur-al comprehensive exploitation; JiuJia District, which is the shortened form of Jiuquan and Jiayuguan, should be construct-ed as the largest ecotourism demonstrating area; and Jinchang City should be constructed as the largest ecoindustry demonstrat-ing area. At the same time, the constructing pattern should be selected according to the actual circumstances; scienceand technology should be applied to construct the demonstrating areas and accelerate the industrialization in the big mar-ket. Additionally, it is important to smooth the constructing system and implement the flexible and efficacious running mecha-nism, and it is suggested that the committee should be organized to administer the ecological demonstrating areas in HexiRegion.

  12. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  13. Costs and benefits of developing nature areas: regional versus national impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.; Vleugel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Developing nature areas generates various benefits for the economy. The main benefits concern growing incomes for the recreation sector (hotels, camping, restaurants, etc.), higher prices of houses, etc. In this study the costs and benefits of developing nature in a rural area in the south-east of t

  14. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    area within the lateral hypothalamic region that consistently innervated magnocellular perikarya of the PVN. Finally, all areas of the lateral hypothalamic region contributed substantially to fibres terminating in the perinuclear shell of the PVN. These results demonstrate that anatomically distinct...

  15. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  16. Quantification of the areas of saline and solonetzic soils in the Ural Federal Region of the Russian federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Kalinina, N. V.; Khitrov, N. B.; Pankova, E. I.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Yamnova, I. A.; Novikova, A. F.

    2011-04-01

    Soil Salinization Map of Russia on a scale of 1: 2500000 (the paper version) has been used for compiling an electronic map of the Ural Federal Region and an attribute database containing twelve characteristics of soil salinization. The areas of saline soils have been quantified for the entire region and its administrative districts. The total area of saline soils in the 0- to 200-cm layer averages up to 6.85 million ha or 5.53% of the plains in the region. The area of soilssaline in the 0- to 100-cm layer averages up to 4.91 million ha, including 4.13 million ha of weakly solonchakous soils (84%) and 0.78 million ha of solonchakous ones (16%). More than half of them (58.3%) are assigned to the moderately and strongly saline soils. The soils saline in the 0- to 100-cm layer are characterized by the neutral salinization type (45%) or the types of soda salinization and neutral salinization with soda (55%). The areas of the region with saline soils are dominated by solonetzic microassociations. The average area of the solonetzes is about 3 million ha. The area of solonchaks is about 0.09 million ha. The area of saline soils is the greatest in Kurgan oblast and the lowest in Sverdlovsk oblast and the Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrug. The formation of saline soils in the Ural Federal Region is related to the climatic conditions of the steppe zone with insufficient moistening and lithologicgeomorphologic conditions (saline Paleogene-Neogene deposits and poor drainage of the area).

  17. Hydrology of Area 30, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois and Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report on hydrologic conditions and identification of sources of hydrologic informaton is designed particularly for use by mine owners, mine operators, and consulting engineers. The report format consists of brief texts and supporting illustrations or tables on a series of hydrologic topics that describe the hydrology of Area 30. The physiography is characterized by lowland plains, except for small upland areas in the south and the east. Average elevation ranges from 400 feet in the south to 800 feet in the north. The major rivers draining Area 30 are the Vermilion, Embarras, and Wabash. Records of stream and river discharges indicate that the dominant factor affecting average annual flow is size of drainage area. Low flow is highly variable, depending upon the physiography and the extent of the surficial aquifer. In the absence of surficial aquifers, low flow is minimal. Yields from sand and gravel aquifers range from 5 to 3000 gallons per minute and generally exceed those from bedrock aquifers. The aquifers discharge by seepage into streams, evapotranspiration, springs, and pumping. The annual seepage rate during periods of normal precipitation is about 0.40 cubic foot per second per square mile of drainage area or less.

  18. Commuter networks and community detection: a method for planning sub regional areas

    CERN Document Server

    De Montis, Andrea; Chessa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    A major issue for policy makers and planners is the definition of the "ideal" regional partition, i.e. the delimitation of sub-regional domains showing a sufficient level of homogeneity with respect to some specific territorial features. In Sardinia, the second major island in the Mediterranean sea, politicians and analysts have been involved in a 50 year process of identification of the correct pattern for the province, an intermediate administrative body in between the Regional and the municipal administration. In this paper, we compare some intermediate body partitions of Sardinia with the patterns of the communities of workers and students, by applying grouping methodologies based on the characterization of Sardinian commuters' system as a complex weighted network. We adopt an algorithm based on the maximization of the weighted modularity of this network to detect productive basins composed by municipalities showing a certain degree of cohesiveness in terms of commuter flows. The results obtained lead to ...

  19. The concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and poloychlorinated biphenyls in field mice collected from regional background areas. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-01-21

    Field mice are effective indicators of contaminant presence. This paper reports the concentrations of various radionuclides, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, perchlorate, and dioxin/furans in field mice (mostly deer mice) collected from regional background areas in northern New Mexico. These data, represented as the regional statistical reference level (the mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level), are used to compare with data from field mice collected from areas potentially impacted by Laboratory operations, as per the Environmental Surveillance Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22° (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean region. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the observed data fields (E-OBS data set, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best-performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of four RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the 21st century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, in some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and advice for researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more generally, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean region.

  1. The Structure and Properties of Solar Active Regions and Quiet Sun Areas Observed With SERTS and YOHKOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Davila, J. M.; Thomas, R. J.; Hara, H.

    1996-05-01

    We observed solar active regions, quiet sun areas, and a coronal hole simultaneously with Goddard Space Flight Center's Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), and with the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) on 1993 August 17. SERTS provided spatially resolved active region and quiet sun spectra in the 280 to 420 Angstroms wavelength range, and images in the lines of He II 304 Angstroms, Mg IX 368 Angstroms, Fe XV 284 Angstroms, and Fe XVI 335 Angstroms and 360 Angstroms. The SERTS waveband is accessible to CDS, SUMER, and EIT on SOHO. SXT provided images through multiple broadband filters. The SERTS images in Fe XV (T=2 MK) and XVI (T=2.5 MK) exhibit remarkable morphological similarity to the SXT images. Whereas the Fe XV and XVI images outline the loop structures seen with SXT, the cooler He II (T=0.1 MK) and Mg IX (T=1 MK) images seem to outline loop footpoints. From the spatially resolved spectra, we obtained emission line profiles for lines of Fe X (1 MK) through Fe XVI, and Mg IX and Ni XVIII (3.2 MK) for each spatial position. Based upon the spatial variations of the line intensities, the active region systematically narrows as it is viewed with successively hotter lines. The active region appears narrowest in the X-ray emission, which is consistent with our understanding that Yohkoh is most sensitive to the hottest plasma in its line of sight. EUV emission from Fe XVII (T=5 MK) is weak but detectable in the active region core. The most intense, central core straddles the magnetic neutral line. Temperature maps obtained with SERTS image ratios and with SXT filter ratios are compared. Line intensity ratios indicate that the active region temperature is greatest in the central core, but that the density varies very little across the region. Significant Doppler shifts are not detected in the EUV lines.

  2. Discrimination of Settlement and Industrial Area Using Landscape Metrics in Rural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and precise information of land-use and land-cover (LULC in rural area is essential for land-use planning, environment and energy management. The confusion in mapping residential and industrial areas brings problems in energy management, environmental management and sustainable land use development. However, they remain ambiguous in the former rural LULC mapping, and this insufficient supervision leads to inefficient land exploitation and a great waste of land resources. Hence, the extent and area of residential and industrial cover need to be revealed urgently. However, spectral and textural information is not sufficient for classification heterogeneity due to the similarity between different LULC types. Meanwhile, the contextual information about the relationship between a LULC feature and its surroundings still has potential in classification application. This paper attempts to discriminate settlement and industry area using landscape metrics. A feasible classification scheme integrating landscape metrics, chessboard segmentation and object-based image analysis (OBIA is proposed. First LULC map is generated from GeoEye-1 image, which delineated distribution of different land-cover materials using traditional OBIA method with spectrum and texture information. Then, a chessboard segmentation of the whole LULC map is conducted to create landscape units in a uniform spatial area. Landscape characteristics in each square of chessboard are adopted in the classification algorithm subsequently. To analyze landscape unit scale effect, a variety of chessboard scales are tested, with overall accuracy ranging from 75% to 88%, and Kappa coefficient from 0.51 to 0.76. Optimal chessboard scale is obtained through accuracy assessment comparison. This classification scheme is then compared to two other approaches: a top-down hierarchical classification network using only spectral, textural and shape properties, and lacunarity based hierarchical

  3. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  4. Effects of crop growth and development on regional climate: a case study over East Asian monsoon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Feng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Zhejiang Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Xie, Zhenghui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, the CERES phenological growth and development functions were implemented into the regional climate model, RegCM3 to give a model denoted as RegCM3{sub C}ERES. This model was used to represent interactions between regional climate and crop growth processes. The effects of crop growth and development processes on regional climate were then studied based on two 20-year simulations over the East Asian monsoon area conducted using the original regional climate model RegCM3, and the coupled RegCM3{sub C}ERES model. The numerical experiments revealed that incorporating the crop growth and development processes into the regional climate model reduced the root mean squared error of the simulated precipitation by 2.2-10.7% over north China, and the simulated temperature by 5.5-30.9% over the monsoon region in eastern China. Comparison of the simulated results obtained using RegCM3{sub C}ERES and RegCM3 showed that the most significant changes associated with crop modeling were the changes in leaf area index which in turn modify the aspects of surface energy and water partitions and lead to moderate changes in surface temperature and, to some extent, rainfall. Further analysis revealed that a robust representation of seasonal changes in plant growth and developmental processes in the regional climate model changed the surface heat and moisture fluxes by modifying the vegetation characteristics, and that these differences in simulated surface fluxes resulted in different structures of the boundary layer and ultimately affected the convection. The variations in leaf area index and fractional vegetation cover changed the distribution of evapotranspiration and heat fluxes, which could potentially lead to anomalies in geopotential height, and consequently influenced the overlying atmospheric circulation. These changes would result in redistribution of the water and energy through advection. Nevertheless, there are significant uncertainties in modeling how monsoon

  5. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  6. Flood evolution assessment and monitoring using hydrological modelling techniques: analysis of the inundation areas at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhoranyi, M.; Kuchar, S.; Portero, A.

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to present techniques that cover usage of a hydrodynamic model as the main tool for monitoring and assessment of flood events while focusing on modelling of inundation areas. We analyzed the 2010 flood event (14th May - 20th May) that occurred in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic). Under investigation were four main catchments: Opava, Odra, Olše and Ostravice. Four hydrodynamic models were created and implemented into the Floreon+ platform in order to map inundation areas that arose during the flood event. In order to study the dynamics of the water, we applied an unsteady flow simulation for the entire area (HEC-RAS 4.1). The inundation areas were monitored, evaluated and recorded semi-automatically by means of the Floreon+ platform. We focused on information about the extent and presence of the flood areas. The modeled flooded areas were verified by comparing them with real data from different sources (official reports, aerial photos and hydrological networks). The study confirmed that hydrodynamic modeling is a very useful tool for mapping and monitoring of inundation areas. Overall, our models detected 48 inundation areas during the 2010 flood event.

  7. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rogelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  8. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  9. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  10. Hazard and risk assessment in a complex multi-source volcanic area: the example of the Campania Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.; Alberico, I.

    2010-05-01

    In order to zone the territory of Campania Region (southern Italy) with regard to the hazard related to future explosive activity of Somma-Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, and Ischia Island, we drew a multi-source hazard map for tephra and pyroclastic flows. This map, which merges the areas possibly endangered by the three volcanic sources, takes into account a large set of tephra fall and pyroclastic flow events that have occurred in the last 10 ka. In detail, for fall products at Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvio we used the dispersal of past eruption products as deduced by field surveys and their recurrence over the whole area. For pyroclastic flows, the field data were integrated with VEI = 4 simulated events; about 100 simulations sourcing from different points of the area were performed, considering the different probability of vent opening. The spatial recurrence of products of both past eruptions and simulated events was used to assign a weight to the area endangered by the single volcanic sources. The sum of these weights in the areas exposed to the activity of two sources and/or to different kinds of products was used to draw a hazard map, which highlights the spatial trend and the extent of the single equivalent classes at a regional scale. A multi-source risk map was developed for the same areas as the graphic result of the product of volcanic hazard and exposure, assessed in detail from a dasymetric map. The resulting multi-source hazard and risk maps are essential tools for communication among scientists, local authorities, and the public, and may prove highly practical for long-term regional-scale mitigation planning.

  11. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan.

  12. Feminization of Migration Routes and Integration Aspects in Trieste Area and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Richter Malabotta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian society is going through deep structural demographic and cultural changes whereby its emigration pattern has been reversed to the extent that the country is now experiencing intensive immigration. Pre-supposing the two basic characteristics of the migration routes which have become visible in the last decade – namely feminization and internal diversification of universal migrant, this article has tried to show the market typology (a characteristic not only of Italy but other Mediterranean countries of the EU which contributes to the gender differentiation of the foreigners' work, paying special attention to the position of an immigrant woman in the integration process into the native community. In that context, the analysis is directed towards the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region and the town of Trieste which have proved themselves to be unique in their acceptance of newcomers, among whom the most numerous being the ex-Yugoslavian (mainly Serbian population. Issues which have been touched include the recent history of dynamic Italian-Yugoslav relationships, the importance of the border, the daily cross-border migration mostly performed by the female workforce and the multiculturalism of Trieste as a border town. The so-called stable migration going through “family unification” has also been observed, a process responsible for the constant rise in the numbers of immigrant women and their underage children. In the way of their harmonic integration into the new society stand numerous obstacles: the language barrier, prejudice, the social invisibility of foreign women, their domestication, professional disqualification and coerced collective identity enforced by national or monoethnic associations. In school – an institution that forms a relationship with the foreign students’ mothers – attempts are being made to break free from this state of social invisibility. Similarly, in multicultural associations and societies, immigrant women

  13. Outer boundary of major discharge areas of Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digital data set delineates the outer boundary of each major discharge area evaluated as part of the study. These areas were used to refine estimates of...

  14. EPA Region 9 designated areas and 2012-2014 design values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas - as of October 1, 2015. A designation is the term EPA uses to describe the air quality in a given area for any of six common air pollutants known...

  15. Sound Transmission in a Duct with Sudden Area Expansion, Extended Inlet, and Lined Walls in Overlapping Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sound in a duct with sudden area expansion and extended inlet is investigated in the case where the walls of the duct lie in the finite overlapping region lined with acoustically absorbent materials. By using the series expansion in the overlap region and using the Fourier transform technique elsewhere we obtain a Wiener-Hopf equation whose solution involves a set of infinitely many unknown expansion coefficients satisfying a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical solution of this system is obtained for various values of the problem parameters, whereby the effects of these parameters on the sound transmission are studied.

  16. Systematic differentiation of contaminated and non-contaminated areas in the Korma region

    CERN Document Server

    Dederichs, H; Hille, R; Konoplya, E

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of body counts and environmental measurements taken from June 1998 till June 2001 in two communities in the district of Korma, Belarus. The measurements were carried out together with the Radiobiological Institute of the National Academy of Science within the framework of a projekt supported by the BMU/BfS. The results are listed in the table. The results show that the population dose in the highly contaminated areas following the Tschernobyl catastrophe does not decrease at the rate predicted. The external load decreases due to the physical decay and the continual migration into deeper soil layers. However, due to an internal accumulation of cesium in the population in many cases, the total dose load has either hardly decreased, remained constant or even increased in some areas. The aim of this work is, together with continuing body counts, to give individual advice which helps change the habits of the population and consequently the internal load. These measures appear to be...

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    structure varies due to gap-phase regeneration dynamics and microsite variability. Such variability includes the interspersion of low ridges...are of considerable significance to animal populations in forested wetlands. Litter provides ideal habitat for small animals such as salamanders ...without predatory fish populations are very important for some species of salamanders and frogs (Johnson 1987). While wetlands with temporary ponding

  18. Correlation of diseased region and area with neglect and other neuropsychological dysfunctions in patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Niu; Hongyu Zhang; Bo Liu; Yiwen Zhang; Yehua Song; Lihong Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that frontal-temporal-parietal-occipital pathological changes and diseased range in the right cerbral hemisphere were correlated with neglect.But studies on the correlation of neglect with diseased region and area in patients who suffer from initial attack of single focus of cerebral infarction(CI) in left and right cerebral hemispheres are few.OBJECTIVE: To observe the status of neglect in patients who suffer from single focus of CI in cerebral hemisphere and analyze the correlation of neglect with diseased region and area of CI.DESIGN: Case analysis SETTING: Treatment Center for Cardiocerebrovascular Disease,Second Hospital of Xiamen city;Department of Neurology,First Hospital Affiliated to Baotou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: All the CI patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurology.First Hospital Affiliated to Baotou Medical College from June 1998 to May 2001 were retrieved.Inclusive criteria:①Patients who suffered from initial attack of CI.which was confirmed by skull CT or MRI within 24 hours after onset and presented single focus in cerebral hemisphere. ②be conscious and could cooperate in the examination. ③did not receive formal education, but could do accounts and some simple writing and reading. ④Patients with homonymous hemianopia were excluded through the examination of perimeter.⑤Informed consents were obtained from all the patients.Among 67 patients who met the inclusive criteria.33 suffered from CI in the left cerebral hemisphere and 34 in the right cerebral hemisphere.METHODS:①Patients received neglect supplement examination and Chinese aphasia examination within 2.5 to 3 months after the attack of CI.The diagnostic criteria of neglect in the tests of line cancellation. 1ine bisection and copying the figures were as follows:In the line cancellation test based on the method of Albert.patients who could not cancel one or more lines were regarded as abnormal.In the line bisection test based on the

  19. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  20. Isotopic and chemical assessment of geothermal potential of the Colli Albani area, Latium region, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giggenbach, W.F.; Minissale, A.A.; Scandiffio, G.

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of low-temperature mineral waters discharged over the Colli Albani region (south of Rome, Italy) are those of highly immature waters of essentially meteoric origin formed through absorption of gases emanating from greater depth, followed by cation leaching of country rock at shallow levels. The composition of the gases discharged points to the presence, at depth, of a CO/sub 2/-producing high temperature system in its waning stage. Low H/sub 2/ and unsaturated hydrocarbon contents, as well as relative He, Ar and N/sub 2/ contents indicate long residence time for the rising gas phase of the order of 1 Ma. On the basis of these findings, temperatures higher than 120/sup 0/C appear unlikely to exist at shallow depth.

  1. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities.

  2. Pika (Ochotona princeps) losses from two isolated regions reflect temperature and water balance, but reflect habitat area in a mainland region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Perrine, John D.; Rickman, Tom; Flores, Mary; Clark, John P.; Waters, Cassie; Weber, Shana S.; Yardley, Braden; Thoma, David P.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Goehring, Kenneth E.; Magnuson, Michael; Nordensten, Nancy; Nelson, Melissa; Collins, Gail H.

    2016-01-01

    Although biotic responses to contemporary climate change are spatially pervasive and often reflect synergies between climate and other ecological disturbances, the relative importance of climatic factors versus habitat extent for species persistence remains poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we performed surveys for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) at > 910 locations in 3 geographic regions of western North America during 2014 and 2015, complementing earlier modern (1994–2013) and historical (1898–1990) surveys. We sought to compare extirpation rates and the relative importance of climatic factors versus habitat area for pikas in a mainland-versus-islands framework. In each region, we found widespread evidence of distributional loss—local extirpations, upslope retractions, and encounter of only old sign. Locally comprehensive surveys suggest extirpation of O. princeps from 5 of 9 new sites from the hydrographic Great Basin and from 11 of 29 sites in northeastern California. Although American pikas were recorded as recently as 2011 in Zion National Park and in 2012 from Cedar Breaks National Monument in Utah, O. princeps now appears extirpated from all reported localities in both park units. Multiple logistic regressions for each region suggested that both temperature-related and water-balance-related variables estimated from DAYMET strongly explained pika persistence at sites in the Great Basin and in Utah but not in the Sierra-Cascade “mainland” portion of northeastern California. Conversely, talus-habitat area did not predict American pika persistence in the Great Basin or Utah but strongly predicted persistence in the Sierra-Cascade mainland. These results not only add new areas to our understanding of long-term trend of the American pika’s distribution, but also can inform decisions regarding allocation of conservation effort and management actions. Burgeoning research on species such as O. princeps has collectively demonstrated the

  3. Regional ejection fraction and regional area strain for left ventricular function assessment in male patients after first-time myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Soo-Kng; Vos, F J A; Tan, Ru-San; Zhong, Liang; Su, Yi

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we present a method to assess left ventricle (LV) regional function from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging based on the regional ejection fraction (REF) and regional area strain (RAS). CMR scans were performed for 30 patients after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) and nine age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The CMR images were processed to reconstruct three-dimensional LV geometry, and the REF and RAS in a 16-segment model were computed using our proposed methodology. The method of computing the REF was tested and shown to be robust against variation in user input. Furthermore, analysis of data was feasible in all patients and healthy volunteers without any exclusions. The REF correlated well with the RAS in a nonlinear manner (quadratic fit-R(2) = 0.88). In patients after first-time MI, the REF and RAS were significantly reduced across all 16 segments (REF: p function in the patients with preserved global ejection fraction with reasonable accuracy (more than 78%). These preliminary results confirmed the validity of our approach for accurate analysis of LV regional function. Our approach potentially offers physicians new insights into the local characteristics of the myocardial mechanics after a MI.

  4. Study on Investing and Financing Development in Rural Area:A Case Study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong; HUANG; Bin; YAO

    2013-01-01

    "Surplus income" of farmers has been increasing steadily with the marked improvement of rural economy. However,development of rural financing market in China is rather backward. To satisfy the financing requirement of farmers and meet the demand of the construction of new countryside as well as harmonious society,development of financing market in rural area is eager to be quickened. Taking Guangxi Autonomous Region as an example,there are problems in rural investing and financing development. Firstly,farmers are in lacking of accurate understanding of investing and financing. Secondly,investors in rural area lack professional knowledge about financing generally. Thirdly,rural area has underdeveloped information degree as well as imperfect investing and financing environment. Fourthly,there are no financial products developed for rural area. Fifthly,economic development is unbalanced and relatively underdeveloped in rural area. Lastly,rural financial market has long been neglected by financial intermediaries. In order to cope with these problems,firstly,farmers should be assisted to establish accurate financial awareness and master necessary financial knowledge. Secondly,local intermediaries like securities firms and banks should be encouraged to exert impact on rural financial market. Thirdly,financial products suitable for Guangxi rural area are to be developed. Fourthly, construction and perfection of rural financial market should be quickened. Lastly,rural economic development should be quickened to enlarge capital source of financing.

  5. Mine dewatering and impact assessment in an arid area: Case of Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Drury, Len

    2016-11-01

    Analytical and empirical solution coupled with water balance method were used to predict the ground water inflow to a mine pit excavated below the water table, final pit lake level/recovery and radius of influence, through long-term and time variant simulations. The solution considers the effect of decreased saturated thickness near the pit walls, distributed recharge to the water table and upward flow through the pit bottom. The approach is flexible to accommodate the anisotropy/heterogeneity of the real world. Final pit void water level was assessed through scenarios to know whether it will be consumed by evaporation and a shallow lake will form or not. The optimised radius of influence was estimated which is considered as crucial information in relation to the engineering aspects of mine planning and sustainable development of the mine area. Time-transient inflow over a period of time was estimated using solutions, including analytical element method (AEM). Their primary value is in providing estimates of pit inflow rates to be used in the mine dewatering. Inflow estimation and recovery helps whether there is water to supplement the demand and if there is any recovery issue to be dealt with in relation to surface and groundwater quality/eco-system, environmental evaluations and mitigation. Therefore, this method is good at informing decision makers in assessing the effects of mining operations and developing an appropriate water management strategy.

  6. Radon measurement studies in workplace buildings of the Rawalpindi region and Islamabad Capital area, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.U.; Anwar, J. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan); Matiullah [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-02-15

    A survey concerning measurement of the indoor radon levels has been carried out in 105 workplaces of the Rawalpindi region and Islamabad Capital Territory using CR-39 based radon detectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the health hazard due to the indoor radon. CR-39 based NRPB type detectors were installed in offices/rooms located on first floors, ground floors and basements and were exposed to indoor radon for six months. The measured indoor radon concentration in the buildings surveyed ranged from 12 {+-} 5 to 293 {+-} 19 Bq m{sup -3} with an overall mean value of 64 {+-} 32 Bq m{sup -3}. The highest mean radon concentration (113 {+-} 48 Bq m{sup -3}) was observed in the offices located in basements of the Rawalpindi city. The overall average annual effective dose in the studied workplaces was estimated to be 0.61 {+-} 0.30 mSv. The mean annual effective doses in basements, ground floor and first floor were found to be 0.87 {+-} 0.34 mSv, 0.55 {+-} 0.28 mSv, and 0.47 {+-} 0.29 mSv, respectively. These values are less than the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  7. Impact of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area on China's International Agricultural Trade and Its Regional Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanguang Qiu; Jun Yang; Jikun Huang; Ruijian Chen

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) on China's international agricultural trade and its regional agricultural development, using the Global Trade Analysis Project model and the China Agricultural Decision Support System. Our analysis showed that: (i) CAFTA will improve resource allocation efficiencies for both China and ASEAN and will promote bilateral agricultural trade and, hence, will have positive effects on the economic development of both sides; (ii) CAFTA will accelerate China's export of the agricultural commodities in which it has comparative advantages,such as vegetables, wheat and horticultural products, but at the same time bring about a large increase in imports of commodities such as vegetable oil and sugar; and (iii) CAFTA will have significantly varying impacts on China's regional agricultural development because of large differences in the agricultural production structure in each region. Our results indicate that agriculture in the northern, northeastern and eastern regions of China will benefit from CAFTA, whereas agriculture development in southern China will suffer Those regional specific impacts are quite different from the effects brought by multilateral free trade treaties, such as those of the WTO, which usually have positive effects on south China but negative impacts on the northern and western parts of China.

  8. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Gulf of Mexico Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the US Outer Continental Shelf. The...

  9. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  10. The Commercial Districts by Lombardia Region and Municipality of Milan to sustain commercial services in the conservation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tamini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Commerce plays a social protection role and can give quality to a city and a community or subtract from it and attribute meaning and character to places or render them banal in a standardised landscape. Intervention to improve shops and businesses open to the public can support more general urban regeneration processes and may be implemented through public policies. The Lombardy Region has recently organised a competition for funding of projects which improve commercial activities and public establishments in geographical areas identified as business districts (urban or more regional. The organiser of the project which involves businesses and the local context they are set in is the municipality, which, however, is obliged to apply in partnership with at least that association which represents most of the businesses operating in commerce. The mix of commerce, crafts and innovative service industries is a specific trait of the Milan metropolitan area which is described as a possible area in which to activate urban regeneration processes.

  11. Heatwaves in Europe: areas of homogeneous variability and links with the regional to large-scale atmospheric and SSTs anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, Andrea F.; Gualdi, Silvio; Cherchi, Annalisa; Navarra, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGV, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, CMCC, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    This work presents a methodology to study the interannual variability associated with summertime months in which extremely hot temperatures are frequent. Daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature fields (T{sub max} and T{sub min}, respectively) are used to define indexes of extreme months based on the number of days crossing thresholds. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to the monthly indexes. EOF loadings give information about the geographical areas where the number of days per month with extreme temperatures has the largest variability. Correlations between the EOF principal components and the time series of other fields allow plotting maps highlighting the anomalies in the large scale circulation and in the SSTs that are associated with the occurrence of extreme events. The methodology is used to construct the ''climatology'' of the extremely hot summertime months over Europe. In terms of both interannual and intraseasonal variability, there are three regions in which the frequency of the extremely hot days per month homogeneously varies: north-west Europe, Euro-Mediterranean and Eurasia region. Although extremes over those regions occur during the whole summer (June to August), the anomalous climatic conditions associated with frequent heatwaves present some intraseasonal variability. Extreme climate events over the north-west Europe and Eurasia are typically related to the occurrence of blocking situations. The intraseasonal variability of those patterns is related to the amplitude of the blocking, the relative location of the action centre and the wavetrain of anomalies downstream or upstream of the blocking. During June and July, blocking situations which give extremely hot climate conditions over north-west Europe are also associated with cold conditions over the eastern Mediterranean sector. The Euro-Mediterranean region is a transition area in which extratropical and tropical systems compete

  12. Comparative Demographics And Studies Of The Labor Market In The Rural Area Of The Region Of Gjirokastra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Sinani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of engagements in different jobs of active population in 2001 provoked a high level of unemployment up to 21.0%, 16.4% in rural area and 27.2% in urban ones, higher in number for females in city. Gjirokastra has a high level of hidden agrarian unemployment (20.9%, meanwhile Përmeti has the lowest level in the region (10.7% in villages. Commune of Frashër has the lowest level in whole country (22.7%, and in the region and city level with 0.7%. High level of agrarian unemployment has increased the level of poverty up to 56.3% in villages and 30.3% city, has decreased the trade balance of regional economy, with deformations in socio economic strata of population. According to the education level, are dominant unemployed people that have fulfilled only 8 year of obligatory education 58.3% and those with high level of education 35.6%, meanwhile those with a university degree consist in 4.3% of the total number.  Are dominant the unemployed people of group age 15-29 years old with 54.2% and 30-44 years old with 36.1%. During period of time 1999-2004, registered unemployed people who were looking for a job were decreased up to 54.1%, 37.7% for females, especially in Gjirokastra district with 61.7%. According to the registration of agricultural economic units, are noticed very big differences. The district of Gjirokastra has the biggest number of hidden agrarian unemployment (63.2%. Among 26 communes of Gjirokastra region the highest level of hidden agrarian unemployment it belong to communes of Pogon (74.6%, Dropull i Poshtëm (70.9%, Dropull i Sipërm (70.8%, Lunxhëri (69.6%, Odrie (66.5% and Luftinjë (60.7 %. According to INSTAT, in the rural area during period of time 2001-2004 the index of population able to work is decreased with 6.7%,level of activity is increased with  23.0%,  level of employment is increased with 19.9%  and the level of unemployment is decreased with 0.8%, where positive figures belong to district of Tepelena

  13. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  14. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-10-01

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the

  15. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Samaan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a public health priority, (b disease burden, (c efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d other inventions, (e economic and financial issues, (f vaccine presentation, (g supply availability and (h programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90% coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34, vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27 and public health priority (n = 27 were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%, in the elderly (24% and in children (17%. Few studies (2% addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should

  16. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  17. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain....

  18. Cultural Industries In The Development Policies Of Cities And Regions: A New Area Of Educationin Spatial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churski Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to present organisational and programme assumptions of a new field of postgraduate studies called Cultural industries in the development policies of cities and regions, prepared by a team of workers of the Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań as a didactic innovation based on a modular system of education that meets contemporary changes in the labour market. The analysis will also embrace experiences following from the educational process implemented under the Human Capital Operational Programme in the years 2013–2015 (Priority IV: Tertiary Education and Science, Measure 4.3: Enhancing the didactic potential of universities in areas of key importance for the Europe 2020 Strategy. They provide a basis for conclusions and recommendations for higher schools interested in the development of this area of education.

  19. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  20. Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Janik, C.J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Isotope tracer methods were used to determine flow paths, recharge areas, and relative age for groundwater in the Kilauea volcano area of the Island of Hawaii. A network of up to 66 precipitation collectors was emplaced in the study area and sampled twice yearly for a 3-year period. Stable isotopes in rainfall show three distinct isotopic gradients with elevation, which are correlated with trade wind, rain shadow, and high- elevation climatological patterns. Temporal variations in precipitation isotopes are controlled more by the frequency of storms than by seasonal temperature fluctuations. Results from this study suggest that (1) sampling network design must take into account areal variations in rainfall patterns on islands and in continental coastal areas and (2) isotope/elevation gradients on other tropical islands may be predictable on the basis of similar climatology. Groundwater was sampled yearly in coastal springs, wells, and a few high-elevation springs. Areal contrasts in groundwater stable isotopes and tritium indicate that the volcanic rift zones compartmentalize the regional groundwater system, isolating the groundwater south of Kilauea's summit and rift zones. Part of the Southwest Rift gone appears to act as a conduit for water from higher elevation, but there is no evidence for downrift flow in the springs and shallow wells sampled in the lower East Rift Zone.

  1. Area Estimation and Distribution Analysis of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Regional Scale--Take Guangzhou City for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Tang, G. L.; Xiong, H. X.; Chen, J.; Yin, X. L.; Huang, G. Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Area of Constructed Wetlands (CWs) required for treatment of domestic sewage generated by 13 million people was calculated in accordance with the distribution of existing population in Guangzhou City and mathematical model of CWs. By comparing this with land use data, the distribution of constructed wetlands at construction regional scale was simulated with GIS. The results show that, Guangzhou generate about 3.88 million m3 domestic sewage per day, which shall be treated with 59.37 km2 CWs. Assuming that a single wetland bed is 300 m2, total 197,905 wetland beds shall be required in the city. Based on the analysis and statistics on data of second national land survey of Guangzhou City with GIS, there are enough ponds, bare lands, other grasslands and other garden plots in Guangzhou that can be used for construction of regional scale CWs, but the distribution of available lands in different regions is uneven. Constructed wetlands at regional scale are mainly distributed around Baini Channel, Tianma River, Xinjie River, Liuxi River Valley, Zengjiang River Valley and on both sides of the Pearl River through Panyu and Nansha.

  2. Ductile and brittle structural evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area: an independent analysis based on local and regional constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, Giulio (Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway))

    2008-10-15

    This report discusses the main aspects of the ductile and brittle deformational evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Based on the interpretation of existing potential field geophysical data, it is suggested that the structural ductile grain of the region is controlled by large, c. EW trending shear zones with an overall sinistral strike-slip kinematics. The Oskarshamn Shear Zone (OSZ) and the Mederhult lineament are two examples of these shear zones and it is proposed that the ductile lineaments mapped in Laxemar-Simpevarp are genetically linked to shearing accommodated by these shear zones. The structural interpretation of the geophysical imagery of the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area and the available meso-scale structural information indicate that the Laxemar-Simpevarp study area can be interpreted as the analogue of a large-scale S/C' structural pattern. In detail, the Aespoe shear zone and other similarly oriented ductile shears represent C' shear bands that deform sinistrally the intervening EW lineaments (the S surfaces), which locally are significantly crenulated/folded in response to their asymptotic bending into the C' shears. This geometric and kinematic interpretation implies that, in contrast to existing reconstructions and models, EW- and not NE-trending shear zones become the main structural ductile feature of the region. Shear forces acting parallel to these main zones can successfully explain all the ductile structures described and reported from the area. The greatest compressive stress at the time of ductile shearing would trend NE-SW. The brittle deformation history of the region is complex and results from the multiple reactivation of fracture- and fault sets caused by the many orogenic episodes that affected the area during 1.5 Gyr of geological brittle evolution. Fault-slip data from outcrops and oriented drill cores were used to compute paleo-stress states. In the general absence of time markers that help constrain

  3. Ductile and brittle structural evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area: an independent analysis based on local and regional constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, Giulio (Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway))

    2008-10-15

    This report discusses the main aspects of the ductile and brittle deformational evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Based on the interpretation of existing potential field geophysical data, it is suggested that the structural ductile grain of the region is controlled by large, c. EW trending shear zones with an overall sinistral strike-slip kinematics. The Oskarshamn Shear Zone (OSZ) and the Mederhult lineament are two examples of these shear zones and it is proposed that the ductile lineaments mapped in Laxemar-Simpevarp are genetically linked to shearing accommodated by these shear zones. The structural interpretation of the geophysical imagery of the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area and the available meso-scale structural information indicate that the Laxemar-Simpevarp study area can be interpreted as the analogue of a large-scale S/C' structural pattern. In detail, the Aespoe shear zone and other similarly oriented ductile shears represent C' shear bands that deform sinistrally the intervening EW lineaments (the S surfaces), which locally are significantly crenulated/folded in response to their asymptotic bending into the C' shears. This geometric and kinematic interpretation implies that, in contrast to existing reconstructions and models, EW- and not NE-trending shear zones become the main structural ductile feature of the region. Shear forces acting parallel to these main zones can successfully explain all the ductile structures described and reported from the area. The greatest compressive stress at the time of ductile shearing would trend NE-SW. The brittle deformation history of the region is complex and results from the multiple reactivation of fracture- and fault sets caused by the many orogenic episodes that affected the area during 1.5 Gyr of geological brittle evolution. Fault-slip data from outcrops and oriented drill cores were used to compute paleo-stress states. In the general absence of time markers that help constrain

  4. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  5. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  6. Crustal thickening and attenuation as revealed by regional fold interference patterns: Ciudad Rodrigo basement area (Salamanca, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gómez Barreiro, Juan; Martínez Catalán, José R.; Ayarza, Puy

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the Ciudad Rodrigo area (Iberian Massif, Central Iberian Zone) has been revisited in order to integrate new geological data with recent models of the evolution of the Iberian Massif. Detailed mapping of fold structures along with a compilation of field data have been used to constrain the geometry and relative timing of ductile deformation events in this section of the hinterland of the Variscan belt. The structural evolution shows, in the first place, the development of a regional train of overturned folds with associated axial planar foliation (D1). Towards the lower structural levels, the deflection of the fold limbs and a subhorizontal crenulation cleavage depict the upper structural boundary of a superimposed low angle shear zone (D2), which extends at least to the deepest parts of the basement exposed in the study area. The amplification and rotation of D1 folds about a horizontal axis also occurred within this shear zone. The flat-lying character of the D2 structures accounts for the attenuation of the previously thickened crust, which developed following gravity gradients during thermal re-equilibration. Subsequent deformation led to the formation of two orthogonal sets of upright folds (D3), representing a new shift between crustal thinning and crustal thickening in the region.

  7. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Tran Thi Ngoc; Goto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Murata, Ryo; Sudo, Kengo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-03-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. The spatial distribution of the air pollution has been estimated by chemical transport models, but still there are large uncertainties depending on detailed condition of the region. In this study, we extended Goto et al. (2015a) for implementing a chemical transport model to simulate short-lived gases such as ozone over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for August 2010. Comparison of simulation results with observed data indicated that the model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69-0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of meteorological conditions in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and biases were lower (ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. This study helped achieve a better understanding of the chemistry transport model performance under unstable meteorological conditions in the Kanto area. Maximal association between meteorological factors and surface ozone distribution was revealed. In addition, uncertainty of emission inventories of ozone precursors especially the underestimate NOx level certainly contributed to high level surface ozone during nighttime in this study.

  8. Hunting at the Abun Regional Marine Protected Areas: A Link Between Wildmeat and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Papuans are relied on hunting for subsistence purposes and significantly contributed to traditional cultures. However, in Papua information on hunting is limited and largely restricted to anthropological setting with most observations were done on the forest sites in lowland and highland landscapes. This study focuses on the contribution of hunting on food security along the coastal forests at the Bird’s Head Peninsula. Do people live near coastal sites mostly rely on marine resources as protein source? We gathered data on hunting by the majority of Karon ethnic group in the Abun district of Tambrauw Regency at the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia. We used information from in-depth interviews with hunters and households meal survey at four villages of Abun: Waibem, Wau, Warmandi and Saubeba. Reasons for hunting were varies among respondents but mostly conducted for trade. Six species of mammals and three birds were commonly hunted by using six different hunting techniques. Wild pig and rusa deer were the major targets in hunting to meet the demand of meat for both trading and household consumption. Meals containing wildmeat was the most consumed meal, greater than meals containing fish, animal products and vegetables, and noodles.

  9. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  10. Root caries in areas with and without fluoridated water at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate root caries prevalence in areas with and without water fluoridation at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, in the adult population, employees of public and private schools, and elderly population. Epidemiological surveys were conducted according to the World Health Organization guidelines (1997, including 1,475 dentate individuals aged 35 to 44 years and 65 to 74 years, living in cities representing the southeast of São Paulo State, with (n=872 or without (n=603 fluoridated water supply. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of root caries was 15.6% for the 35-44-year-old age group and 31.8% for the 65-74-year-old age group . There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the occurrence of root caries according to water fluoridation, although individuals living at non-fluoridated areas presented higher percentage of missing teeth; also, there was higher mean number of intact roots at fluoridated areas (p<0.05. Most individuals with gingival recession, both adults and elderly, did not have root caries experience. In this study, root caries prevalence was lower in areas with fluoridated water. Due to the reduced prevalence of edentulism and increased number of people keeping their natural teeth for a longer period, a future increase in root caries is expected, highlighting the importance of studies related to water fluoridation and its relationship with the oral health of adults and elderly, especially referring to tooth root.

  11. Ecology and spatiotemporal dynamics of sandflies in the Mediterranean Languedoc region (Roquedur area, Gard, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Prudhomme, Jorian; Rahola, Nil; Toty, Céline; Cassan, Cécile; Roiz, David; Vergnes, Baptiste; Thierry, Magali; Rioux, Jean-Antoine; Alten, Bulent; Sereno, Denis; Bañuls, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phlebotomine sandflies are hematophagous insects widely present in Western Mediterranean countries and known for their role as Leishmania vectors. During the last ten years, the risk of leishmaniasis re-emergence has increased in France. However, sandfly biology and ecology in the South of France remain poorly known because the last detailed study on their spatiotemporal dynamics was performed over 30 years ago. The aim of the present study was to update our knowledge on sandfly e...

  12. Fairness and resource allocation in device-to-device wireless regional area network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, H.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development in wireless devices, applications and networks, radio frequencies have become scarce resources. Therefore, it is critical to make efficient use of the radio frequencies. A promising way to solve this problem is the use of cognitive radio (CR). In CR, radio frequencies are

  13. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-10-01

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the

  14. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  15. The Heterogeneity and Its Influencing Factors of Soil Nutrients in Peak-Cluster Depression Areas of Karst Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; CHEN Hong-song; WANG Ke-lin; SU Yi-rong; ZHANG Ji-guang; YI Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    By selecting a typical peak-cluster depression area of karst region in Southwest China, we evaluated the effect of land use types and topographic factors on soil nutrients. Grid and line sampling methods were used to sample soil in depression and slope lands respectively, and classical statistical tools were applied to analyze the spatial variability character of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), pH, and C/N. It was found that land use type was the dominant factor that effected the spatial heterogeneity of SOC, TN, TP, TK, AN, and AP. The content of SOC, TN, and AN decreased with the increase of land use intensity. Due to high fertilizer input, TP and AP in tillage fields were higher than those in the other land use types. TK had no obvious change trend among various land use types. Topographic factors had a significant effect on SOC, TN, TP, AN, AP, AK, and pH. Habitat factor was the dominant factor that effected AK. Altitude factor was the dominant factor for pH. However, all of these factors had no significant effect on C/N. Tillage practice had important effect on soil nutrients loss and soil degradation in the fragile karst ecosystem, and the input of organic manure should be increased in this region.

  16. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, S.; Saaroni, H.; Izsak, T.; Yair, Y.; Ziv, B.

    2011-08-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E). The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004-2010. The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA) due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF), only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST), which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs) arriving from the west. Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found, including the maritime pattern. It is

  17. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  18. Biological spectrum and dispersal syndromes in an area of the semi-arid region of north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elimar Alves de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological spectrum and diaspores dispersal syndromes of the species recorded in a stretch of vegetation in a semi-arid region within the Cariri Environment Protection Area, Boa Vista, Paraíba State (northeast Brazil, are described. Collections were made from fertile specimens, preferentially bearing fruit, over a 15-month period. Life forms and syndromes were determined by field observations using specialized literature. One hundred and sixty-six species, distributed into 123 genera and 41 families, were reported. Abiotic syndromes (autochory and anemochory represented 69.7% of all syndromes identified, whilst 30.3% of the species were classified as zoochory. In the life form spectrum therophytes represented 27.7% of species, followed by small- and medium-sized phanerophytes (23.5% and chamaephytes (22.3%. The occurrence of hemicryptophytes (9%, cryptophytes (0.6% and species that could not be classified according to their life forms was also recorded (16.9%. Results showed that the biological spectrum and the dispersal syndromes are highly relevant to understand the structure and function of this phytocenose, with subsidies for the development of other studies in the semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil.

  19. Impacts of aerosols on weather and regional climate over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Seven-year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, with a focus on the Guangzhou megacity area. Statistical analysis shows that the occurrence of heavy rainfall (>25 mm per day and frequency of lightning strikes are reversely correlated to visibility during this period. To elucidate the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, and lightning activity, a cloud resolving – Weather Research and Forecasting (CR-WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system occurring on 28 Match 2009 in the Guangzhou megacity area. The model predicted evolutions of composite radar reflectivity and accumulated precipitation are in agreement with measurements from S-band weather radars and automatic gauge stations. The calculated lightning potential index (LPI exhibits temporal and spatial consistence with lightning flashes recorded by a local lightning detection network. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions representative of polluted and clean cases. The simulations suggest that precipitation and LPI are enhanced by about 16 % and 50 %, respectively, under the polluted aerosol condition. Our results suggest that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation (less than 25 mm per day, but enhances heavy precipitation. The responses of hydrometeors and latent heat release to different aerosol loadings reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition.

  20. Identification of nitrogen dioxide and ozone source regions for an urban area in Korea using back trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Lee, Jin-Hong; Ma, Chang-Jin; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Kumar, Pawan; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The NO2 and O3 in an urban background site of Seoul, Korea (Yongsan), were analyzed using hourly data collected from 2005 to 2013. The potential role of meteorological parameters in controlling air quality at the receptor site was analyzed using a conditional probability function. In addition, the relative contributions of such variables were examined for special cases (i.e., more than 60 ppb of NO2 and O3) with the help of trajectory. A potential source contribution function with a grid size resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° was used to determine the potential exogenous sources of NO2 and O3 for the study area. The results of both the trajectory and potential source contribution function analyses suggest that both the northern China region and local emission sources are the most influential source pathways contributing to the recent increase in NO2 concentration at the study site. In the case of O3, this role was shared by both oceanic and mountainous regions of China and Japan.

  1. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  2. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  3. Regional carrying capacity: case studies of Bohai Rim area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying capacity research has been carried out for a long time. However, synthesized carrying capacity researches based on systematic views began only in the 1970s. There is even less work done in China. This paper tries to address both synthesized carrying capacity research and its utilization in China. State spaces method from the systematic science was borrowed to construct the conceptual model of regional carrying capacity. Based on the conceptual model and the surveys in the Bohai Rim area, we construct a representative indicators system for quantifying regional carrying capacity in the Bohai Rim. While employing system dynamic models we simulated the evolving trend of both the regional carrying states and regional carrying capacity from 1999 to 2015. The results proved the statement that Bohai Rim is overall over-capacity for a long time and will be over-capacity in the foreseeable future. Among all the restriction factors, water shortage and environmental pollution stand out to be the two primary obstacles for Bohai Rim's sustainable development.Regional differentiation analysis further indicates that coastal areas of the Bohai Rim burden more than its overall level. However, Shandong province shows some good signs in addressing the regional carrying capacity issues. The research is successful in addressing the quantification of regional carrying capacity issues, but nonetheless it needs further refinery and more information.

  4. Floristic diversity, regeneration status, and vegetation structure of woodlands in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia Our objective was to describe plant species composition,diversity,regeneration status,and population structure by a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats (each for 25 m × 25 m,spaced at intervals of 150-200 m) were sampled along established transect lines following the homogeneity of the vegetation.Vegetation data including cover-abundance,height,diameter at breast height (DBH),and numbers of seedlings and saplings of woody species were analyzed using Excel spreadsheet,Shannon Weiner diversity index,and PAST version 1.62.A total of 87 vascular plant species of 74 genera and 36 families were recorded.The dominant family was Fabaceae represented by 16 (18.39 %) species of 13 genera.Shannon Weiner diversity and evenness were 3.67 and 0.82,respectively,which showed that the area was endowed with rich floral diversity evenly distributed.The vegetation structure,as quantified by cumulative diameter class frequency distribution,plotted as an interrupted inverted-J- shape pattern with a sharp decrease in the 2nd diameter class.This indicated poor vegetation structure.The diameter classes frequency distributions of selected species plotted in four general patterns i.e.,interrupted Inverted-J-shape,J-shape,Bell-shape and Irregular-shape.In conclusion,although the area showel high floral diversity and evenness,woody species including Sterculea setigera,Boswellia papyrifera,and Pterocarpus lucens showed lowest recruitment of seedlings and saplings.

  5. Soil thermal regime on ice-free areas in Livingston Island and James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Oliva, Marc; Láska, Kamil; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Ángel de Pablo, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Ramos, Miguel; Nývlt, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost and active layer are considered prominent components of the Cryosphere, which react very sensitively to small climate variations. The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region is considered as one of the fastest warming regions on Earth, where mean annual air temperature locally increased more than 2.5°C over the last 60 years. Significant climate differences are found between the eastern and western sides of the AP. While mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) oscillate around -1 to -2 °C and precipitation reach 800 mm w.e. year-1 in the western AP, the MAAT in the eastern AP are below -6 °C and precipitation does not exceed 500 mm. These differences determine different permafrost thickness and spatial distribution in these two regions, as well as diverse patterns of active layer dynamics. With the purpose to better understand the factors controlling the soil thermal regime in maritime permafrost environments, we examine data from 2014 acquired from several sites in Livingston Island (western AP) and James Ross Island (eastern AP). The study sites show similar characteristics in terms of topography (slope Ross Island ranged from -7.0 to -7.9 °C. Mean soil temperature at 5 cm depth was slightly higher than air temperature in both areas: -0.7 to -1.3 °C in Livingston Island and -6.2 to -6.3 °C in James Ross Island; the same occurred for soil temperature at 75 cm: -0.4 to -0.7 °C in Livingston Island and -6.0 to -6.6 °C James Ross Island. Significantly lower values of mean daily amplitude of soil temperature at 5 cm depth and the freezing n-factor values observed during the freezing season on Livingston Island suggest a pronounced insulating effect of snow cover in this area in comparison to James Ross Island. The mean daily amplitude of soil temperature at 5 cm ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 °C in Livingston Island, while it reached 3.0 to 4.0 °C in James Ross Island. The freezing n-factor reached 0.33 and 0.63 on Livingston Island, while 0.88 and 0.98 were

  6. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shalev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC. The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E. The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004–2010.

    The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF, only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST, which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs arriving from the west.

    Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found

  7. SUSTAINABLE USE OF LAND RESOURCE AND ITS EVALUATION IN COUNTY AREA--A Case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable use of natural resources is different from sustainable development. As the most important natu-ral resource, sustainable use of land resource is the essential guarantee of sustainable development. The nature of sustain-able use of land resource is to retain the quantity and productivity of land resource from generation to generation. The evalua-tion of sustainable use of land resource is an important method to ensure land-use to get onto the sustainable track. Further-more, building index system is the key of the evaluation. In view of tendency of the evaluation indexes chosen so widely,the evaluation indexes should include only three kinds in the researches on the evaluation of sustainable use of land re-source. The first is the stock and structure index of land resource, viz. Areas quantity structure of land resources. In Chi-na, it is especially paid attention to the per person index of land quantity and rate between cultivated land and farmland.The second is the productive index of land, which includes the productivity, potentiality, stability and renewal situationof land. The third is the sustained index of land environment. On the evaluation research of area level, we should layparticular emphasis on statistic indexes. With a case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, the evaluationindex system of sustainable land-use in county area has been built in this thesis. Using the weighted average method tocalculate the means of sustainable land-use in each county, according to the land-using situation, all counties in the au-tonomous region have been divided into three types. (1) Sustainable Pattern contains 18 counties, which have higherland resource productivity, stronger sustained abilities of land environment. The economic benefits of land-using in thesecounties are obviously higher. These counties have gotten highly intensive farming, and they are all in the good circum-stance. (2) Basically Sustained Pattern contains 48 counties, which

  8. Karyotype characterization and nucleolar organizer regions of marsupial species (Didelphidae from areas of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia P. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively

  9. Evaluating Vulnerability and Resilience between Urban and Rural Area in a Regional Water Resources System under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.; Tsao, J. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To the threat of climate change, the risk of water resources vary in different area but the same system because of the structure of water supply system and the different sensitivity and exposure to climate for different urbanization area. For example, the urban area with high population density is sensitive to any disturbance from drought and the rural area with unpopular tap water system is insensitive to disturbance of drought but highly risk to water shortage. The resilience of water supply relies on water storage from reservoirs or lakes and water management in urban area but relies on intake from groundwater in rural area. The strategies to water resources should be considered with the water mass flow between urban and rural area. To strengthen the whole water resources system, also, it is important to find where the vulnerability from, how to reduce it and how to build up the resilience for both urban and rural area. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of water resources in different township and city but in the same system. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate risk of each township and city in a water supply system. The cause of vulnerability will be identified and discussed in both urban and rural. The strategies to reduce vulnerability of water resources for urban and rural will be proposed and discussed in this study.

  10. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  11. Structural asymmetry of the human cerebral cortex: Regional and between-subject variability of surface area, cortical thickness, and local gyrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Christine; Vazquez, David; Felton, Adam; McDowell, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    Structural asymmetry varies across individuals, brain regions, and metrics of cortical organization. The current study investigated regional differences in asymmetry of cortical surface area, thickness, and local gyrification, and the extent of between-subject variability in these metrics, in a sample of healthy young adults (N=200). Between-subject variability in cortical structure may provide a means to assess the extent of biological flexibility or constraint of brain regions, and we explored the potential influence of this variability on the phenotypic expression of structural asymmetry. The findings demonstrate that structural asymmetries are nearly ubiquitous across the cortex, with differing regional organization for the three cortical metrics. This implies that there are multiple, only partially overlapping, maps of structural asymmetry. The results further indicate that the degree of asymmetry of a brain region can be predicted by the extent of the region's between-subject variability. These findings provide evidence that reduced biological constraint promotes the expression of strong structural asymmetry.

  12. Region 7 Significant Ecological Resource Areas (ECO_RES.SIG_REGIONS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SIG_REGIONS is a boundary layer that displays Region 7's Significant Ecological Resource Areas. This layer represents large areas within which different ecosystem...

  13. ECOLOGICAL REGIONALIZATION METHODS OF OIL PRODUCING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Ivanovna Pivovarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses territory zoning methods with varying degrees of anthropogenic pollution risk. The summarized results of spatial analysis of oil pollution of surface water in the most developed oil-producing region of Russia. An example of GIS-zoning according to the degree of environmental hazard is presented. All possible algorithms of cluster analysis are considered for isolation of homogeneous data structures. The conclusion is made on the benefits of using combined methods of analysis for assessing the homogeneity of specific environmental characteristics in selected territories.

  14. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  15. A decision support system-based procedure for evaluation and monitoring of protected areas sustainability for the Mediterranean region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pediaditi; F Buono; F Pompigna; C Bogliotti; E Nurlu; G Ladisa; G P Petropoulos

    2011-10-01

    Despite common acknowledgement of the value of protected areas as instruments in ensuring sustainability, and their promotion for the achievement of policies on halting the loss of biodiversity, there is no common approach today for monitoring and evaluating them. This paper presents a novel integrated nature conservation management procedure developed to monitor and evaluate the sustainability of Mediterranean protected areas. This procedure was successfully implemented and formally evaluated by protected area managers in six Mediterranean countries, results of which are presented here together with an overview of the web-based Decision Support System (DSS) developed to facilitate its wide adoption. The DSS and procedure has been designed and evaluated by managers as a useful tool, which facilitates and provides needed procedural guidance for protected area monitoring whilst minimizing input requirements to do so. The procedure and DSS were developed following a review of existing protected area assessment tools and a detailed primary investigation of the needs and capacity of its intended users. Essentially, the procedure and DSS guides provide the facilities for protected area managers, in following a participatory approach to develop a context-specific sustainability monitoring strategy, for their protected area. Consequently, the procedure is, by design, participatory, context specific, holistic and relevant to protected area management and institutional procedures. The procedure was piloted and formally evaluated in Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Malta and Cyprus. Feedback collected from the pilot evaluations is also summarised herein.

  16. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Sale 244 in 2013 in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, whether focused on a few blocks or prospects, or on a... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 244 for OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau... Proposed OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (Proposed Program) identifies Sale 244 as...

  17. A Variable-Resolution Stretched-Grid General Circulation Model and Data Assimilation System with Multiple Areas of Interest: Studying the Anomalous Regional Climate Events of 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.; Takacs, Lawrence; Govindaraju, Ravi C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The new stretched-grid design with multiple (four) areas of interest, one at each global quadrant, is implemented into both a stretched-grid GCM (general circulation model) and a stretched-grid data assimilation system (DAS). The four areas of interest include: the U.S./Northern Mexico, the El Nino area/Central South America, India/China, and the Eastern Indian Ocean/Australia. Both the stretched-grid GCM and DAS annual (November 1997 through December 1998) integrations are performed with 50 km regional resolution. The efficient regional down-scaling to mesoscales is obtained for each of the four areas of interest while the consistent interactions between regional and global scales and the high quality of global circulation, are preserved. This is the advantage of the stretched-grid approach. The global variable resolution DAS incorporating the stretched-grid GCM has been developed and tested as an efficient tool for producing regional analyses and diagnostics with enhanced mesoscale resolution. The anomalous regional climate events of 1998 that occurred over the U.S., Mexico, South America, China, India, African Sahel, and Australia are investigated in both simulation and data assimilation modes. Tree assimilated products are also used, along with gauge precipitation data, for validating the simulation results. The obtained results show that the stretched-grid GCM and DAS are capable of producing realistic high quality simulated and assimilated products at mesoscale resolution for regional climate studies and applications.

  18. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine N.; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Schwarzbach, Vinicius; Schlottag, Thalyta C., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  19. Interpretation of remote sensing of geological structures and prediction of gold mineralization in Mohe area and its adjacent region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The authors took the ETM+ multi-spectra data as the data information and correlation coefficient for each band and carried out their information volume statistics. According to certain criteria, the authors also determined the optimum band-combined image. The image clarity is improved by various enhancements and fusions method. Based on remote sensing geological interpretation in detail, the relationship between remote sensing geological characters and gold mine were analyzed systemically. Using all kinds of remote sensing structure information, combining other research data, the authors determined mainly ore-controlling ore structure. Several prospective areas of gold ores were determined and furthermore significant finding mine target areas was confirmed.

  20. Comparison of areas in shadow from imaging and altimetry in the north polar region of Mercury and implications for polar ice deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Mazarico, Erwan; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-12-01

    Earth-based radar observations and results from the MESSENGER mission have provided strong evidence that permanently shadowed regions near Mercury's poles host deposits of water ice. MESSENGER's complete orbital image and topographic datasets enable Mercury's surface to be observed and modeled under an extensive range of illumination conditions. The shadowed regions of Mercury's north polar region from 65°N to 90°N were mapped by analyzing Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) images and by modeling illumination with Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) topographic data. The two independent methods produced strong agreement in identifying shadowed areas. All large radar-bright deposits, those hosted within impact craters ≥6 km in diameter, collocate with regions of shadow identified by both methods. However, only ∼46% of the persistently shadowed areas determined from images and ∼43% of the permanently shadowed areas derived from altimetry host radar-bright materials. Some sizable regions of shadow that do not host radar-bright deposits experience thermal conditions similar to those that do. The shadowed craters that lack radar-bright materials show a relation with longitude that is not related to the thermal environment, suggesting that the Earth-based radar observations of these locations may have been limited by viewing geometry, but it is also possible that water ice in these locations is insulated by anomalously thick lag deposits or that these shadowed regions do not host water ice.

  1. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  2. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., Alaska 99503-5823. Requests for proposed exclusion areas or general proposed inclusion areas (absent a... inclusion or exclusion of acreage, temporal deferrals, and/or mitigation from the Five Year Program stage... inclusion in the sale must provide a detailed explanation of the basis for classifying each nominated...

  3. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE-LEVEL MANAGERS IN VARIOUS LIVING CONDITIONS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE REGIONAL CENTER AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Soldatov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discovers the influence of middle-level manager’s place of living namely, the regional center and rural areas on the organization of the personal and social-psychological characteristics involved in interaction process. The problem of social labor motives, reflexive processes, life aspirations, time perspective, relation to the management and satisfaction with work in the context of living features in the regional center and rural areas is analyzed. Empirical research with the use of a set of the psychodiagnostic techniques directed on studying of social-psychological and personal features of middle-level managers includes sample of large company staff which has branches in the regional center and rural areas. The obtained results have demonstrated the influence of living place on the organization of personal and social-psychological characteristics of middle-level managers. Less expressed motives of power and success, direction on successful result in activity, the reduced independence and unsociability, higher reflexivity, negative attitude to the past, and low orientation to the future are typical for middle managers in the regional centers. In contrast, middle-level managers in rural areas have more expressed motives of power and success, orientation on successful result and more expressed independence and unsociability.

  4. Public choice on coordinated development of border regions and its empirical research: a case study of Wuling mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Quanguang; Tu Shan

    2009-01-01

    the obvious strategic position at the junction of Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei provinces from the angle of regional pubhc management and pubhc chotce to present tssue awareness and academtc purpose.

  5. Present and Reference Concentrations and Yields of Suspended Sediment in Streams in the Great Lakes Region and Adjacent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    In-stream suspended sediment and siltation and downstream sedimentation are common problems in surface waters throughout the United States. The most effective way to improve surface waters impaired by sediments is to reduce the contributions from human activities rather than try to reduce loadings from natural sources. Total suspended sediment/solids (TSS) concentration data were obtained from 964 streams in the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River Basins from 1951 to 2002. These data were used to estimate median concentrations, loads, yields, and volumetrically (flow) weighted (VW) concentrations where streamflow data were available. SPAtial Regression-Tree Analysis (SPARTA) was applied to land-use-adjusted (residualized) TSS data and environmental-characteristic data to determine the natural factors that best described the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations and yields and to delineate zones with similar natural factors affecting TSS, enabling reference or natural concentrations and yields to be estimated. Soil properties (clay and organic-matter content, erodibility, and permeability), basin slope, and land use (percentage of agriculture) were the factors most strongly related to the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations. TSS yields were most strongly related to amount of precipitation and the resulting runoff, and secondarily to the factors related to high TSS concentrations. Reference median TSS concentrations ranged from 5 to 26 milligrams per liter (mg/L), reference median annual VW TSS concentrations ranged from 10 to 168 mg/L, and reference TSS yields ranged from about 980 to 90,000 kilograms per square kilometer per year. Independent streams (streams with no overlapping drainage areas) with TSS data were ranked by how much their water quality exceeded reference concentrations and yields. Most streams exceeding reference conditions were in the central part of the study area, where agricultural activities

  6. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region...) announces the availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  8. Soils and irrigation of three areas in the lower Tana Region, Kenya. A comparative study of soil conditions and irrigation suitability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchena, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    The soils and soil conditions of three areas situated in different physiographic positions in the Lower Tana Region of Kenya were investigated in respect of their suitability for irrigated agriculture. The soils vary widely in both physical and chemical properties. Most of the soils have an alkaline

  9. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  10. Forms of occurrence and genesis of toxic elements in host rocks of coal mining areas of tectonic structures Luhansk region

    OpenAIRE

    Udalov I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The state ofthe problem of accumulationof industrialwaste on the territoryof Ukraineand the Donbass. Indicated bythe presence of raremetalsin the wasteof coal mining.Identifiedforms of presenceof toxic elementsin the hostrocks of thetectonic structures ofcoalLugansk region.Definedgenesisof toxic elementsin the hostrocks of thetectonic structures ofcoalLugansk region.Described in detailthe genesisof mercury(Hg).Found thatarock-formingelementsofpotentiallytoxic elementsincludevanadium(V)and chr...

  11. Spatial disparities of regional forest land change based on ESDA and GIS at the county level in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualin XIE; Chih-Chun KUNG; Yuluan ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    Forest land is the essential and important natural resource that provides strong support for human survival and development.Research on forest land changes at the county level about its characteristics,rules,and spatial patterns is,therefore,important for regional resource protection and the sustainable development of the social economy.In this study we selected the GIS and Geoda software package to explore the spatial disparities of forest land changes at the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area county level,based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses of exploratory spatial data.The results show that:1) during 1985-2000,the global spatial autocorrelation of forest land change is significant in the study area.The global Moran's I value is 0.3122 for the entire time period and indicates significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05).Moran's I value of forest land change decreases from 0.3084 at the time stage Ⅰ to 0.3024 at the time stage Ⅱ; 2) the spatial clustering characteristics of forest land changes appear on the whole in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area.Moran's I value decreases from the time stage Ⅰ to time stage Ⅱ,which means that trend of spatial clustering of forest land change is weakened in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area; 3) the grid map of the local Moran's I for each county reflects local spatial homogeneity of forest land change,which means that spatial clustering about regions of high value and low value is especially significant.The regions with "High-High" correlation are mainly located in the north hilly area.However,the regions with "Low-Low" correlation were distributed in the middle of the study area.Therefore,protection strategies and concrete measures should be put in place for each regional cluster in the study area.

  12. Spatial disparities of regional forest land change based on ESDA and GIS at the county level in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hualin; Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhao, Yuluan

    2012-12-01

    Forest land is the essential and important natural resource that provides strong support for human survival and development. Research on forest land changes at the county level about its characteristics, rules, and spatial patterns is, therefore, important for regional resource protection and the sustainable development of the social economy. In this study we selected the GIS and Geoda software package to explore the spatial disparities of forest land changes at the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area county level, based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses of exploratory spatial data. The results show that: 1) during 1985-2000, the global spatial autocorrelation of forest land change is significant in the study area. The global Moran's I value is 0.3122 for the entire time period and indicates significant positive spatial correlation ( p < 0.05). Moran's I value of forest land change decreases from 0.3084 at the time stage I to 0.3024 at the time stage II; 2) the spatial clustering characteristics of forest land changes appear on the whole in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. Moran's I value decreases from the time stage I to time stage II, which means that trend of spatial clustering of forest land change is weakened in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area; 3) the grid map of the local Moran's I for each county reflects local spatial homogeneity of forest land change, which means that spatial clustering about regions of high value and low value is especially significant. The regions with "High-High" correlation are mainly located in the north hilly area. However, the regions with "Low-Low" correlation were distributed in the middle of the study area. Therefore, protection strategies and concrete measures should be put in place for each regional cluster in the study area.

  13. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  14. Circum-Arctic Magnetic Anomalies - Challenges of Compilation and the Value of Regional Interpretation in a Frontier Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Gaina, C.; Brown, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    Important societal issues are driving increased attention to polar regions. The arctic, in particular, is the focus of scientific studies relating to climate change as well as resource exploration and territorial claims. The news and entertainment media are picking up on polar themes and driving interest within popular culture. Part of the attraction and mystique of the ends of the Earth lies in their relative inaccessibility and harsh environment. These same attributes make it difficult to conduct even basic scientific investigation, and therefore, the arctic remains a scientific frontier in many respects. Delineation of a robust tectonic framework for the top of the world is an essential prerequisite to resource assessment. The difficulty of making direct geologic observations beneath ice and sea requires remote measurement. Regional magnetic anomaly mapping provides important constraining information for the development of tectonic models for this structurally complex region. In addition to the obvious logistical challenges to detailed magnetic field measurement in the high arctic, noise and instability in the magnetic field itself at high latitudes presents difficulties. Nevertheless, regional magnetic anomaly data have been collected over the past 50 years for much of the arctic. The available surveys are diverse in vintage and survey design; the amplitude and frequency content of measured anomalies are widely variable. Availability of metadata and other documentation are also inconsistent for these surveys. This leads to significant challenges in constructing accurate regional magnetic anomaly maps. Preliminary maps from a new international cooperation effort (CAMP-GM, under the direction of Carmen Gaina, Geological Survey of Norway) provide the most consistent view yet of magnetic anomalies for the tectonically complex arctic basins and surrounding continents. Careful attention to digital compilation details allows the new grids to be mathematically filtered

  15. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  16. Ranking of the Ecological Disaster Areas According to Coliform Contamination and the Incidence of Acute Enteric Infections of the Population in Kyzylorda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Mariya N.; Orakbay, Lyazzat Zh.; Shuratov, Idelbay H.; Kenjebayeva, Asiya T.; Zhumagalieva, Aizhan B.; Sarsenova, Ainur B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to monitoring the environmental coliform bacteria (CB) contamination (soil and water) in the environmental disaster areas in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral Sea Region and ranking districts by their level of contamination and the rate of gastrointestinal infections (GI). The research was done in environmental disaster areas…

  17. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Web site at http://www.boem.gov/Oil-and-Gas-Energy-Program/Mapping-and-Data/Alaska.aspx . 4... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior..., scheduled to be held in 2016, as included in the Proposed Final OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program...

  18. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S BORDER AREAS: CROATIA AS A REGIONAL MODEL FOR DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PULIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The newest member joined the European Union (EU with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Although not very successful in public diplomacy, a complex system of coordinated activities that Croatia implemented resulted in strengthening the perception and image of the overall destination brand. This research aims at exploring the Croatian destination branding strategy as a potential model for its closest neighboring country, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. Sharing a common history, borders and people, BIH and Croatia represent a unique comparative case study for regional spill-over development between the EU and non-EU countries. Therefore, this study takes into account what has been done so far on both sides regarding destination branding strategy, thus exploring what lessons could be learned from Croatia and what is the best future regional approach for creating a BIH’s destination brand.

  19. Epidemiology of canine distemper and canine parvovirus in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Surot, D; Cortés, M; Marambio, V; Valenzuela, C; Vallverdu, A; Ward, M P

    2015-08-05

    To assess whether the seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) in domestic dogs is higher in urban versus rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile and risk factors for exposure, a serosurvey and questionnaire survey at three, urban-rural paired sites was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Overall, 1161 households were interviewed of which 71% were located in urban areas. A total of 501 blood samples were analysed. The overall CDV and CPV seroprevalences were 61% (CI 90%: 58-70%) and 47% (CI 90%: 40-49%), and 89% (CI 90%: 85-92%) and 72% (CI 90%: 68-76%) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The higher seroprevalence in domestic dogs in urban areas suggests that urban domestic dogs might be a maintenance host for both CDV and CPV in this region. Due to the presence of endangered wild canids populations in areas close to these domestic populations, surveillance and control of these pathogens in urban dog populations is needed a priority.

  20. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Histology, Neurology and Embryology, Psychiatry

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm{sup 3} , 3515 mm{sup 3} , and 4517 mm{sup 3} , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm{sup 2} in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm{sup 2} in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency.

  1. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  2. Mitigation of Social Exclusion in Regions and Rural Areas – E-learning with Focus on Content Creation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stočes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study materials and learning in general is moving online nowadays. The paper deals with lifelong learning of socially disadvantaged people. Inhabitants of rural areas represent a substantial group there. The fundamental disproportion of digital divide emerges in combination with other factors, which impacts generally. The problem requires a solution then. The main target groups selected for the study are women on maternity leave, seniors and unemployed school graduates. One of the main focuses was on educational materials and their creation and sharing. Several researches such as semi-structured interviews and surveys have been made among the groups. The results show several requirements for e-learning systems and materials. Taking the everything into account, prototype e-learning applications have been developed (web and mobile.

  3. Designing, building, and testing a solar thermoelectric generation, STEG, for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    New alternatives and inventive renewable energy techniques which encompass both generation and power management solutions are fundamental for meeting remote residential energy supply and demand today, especially if the grid is quasi-inexistent. Solar thermoelectric generators can be a cost-effective alternative to photovoltaics for a remote residential household power supply. A complete solar thermoelectric energy harvesting system is presented for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions. To this end, the entire system was built, modeled, and then validated with LTspice simulator software via thermal-to-electrical analogy schemes. Valuable data in conjunction with two novel LTspice circuits were obtained, showing the achievability of analyzing transient heat transfer with the Spice simulator. Hence, the proposed study begins with a comprehensive method of extracting thermal parameters that appear in thermoelectric modules. A step-by-step procedure was developed and followed to succinctly extract parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal conductivity needed to model the system. Data extracted from datasheet, material properties, and geometries were successfully utilized to compute the thermal capacities and resistances necessary to perform the analogy. In addition, temperature variations of the intrinsic internal parameters were accounted for in this process for accuracy purposes. The steps that it takes to simulate any thermo-electrical system with the LTspice simulator are thoroughly explained in this work. As a consequence, an improved Spice model for a thermoelectric generator is proposed. Experimental results were compiled in the form of a lookup table and then fed into the Spice simulator using the piecewise linear (PWL) command in order to validate the model. Experimental results show that a temperature differential of 13.43°C was achievable whereas the simulation indicates

  4. Land And Forest Area Changes In The Vicinity Of The Mississippi River Gulf Outlet, Central Wetlands Region, 1935-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Area ( LCA ), Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Study. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003-334, available online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov...study: A user’s guide to the habitat maps. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS – 79/07. http

  5. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  6. Recreational Areas, Troup County, Georgia Parks and Recreation Areas Map, Published in 2005, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Recreational Areas dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as...

  7. Climatic regionalization mapping of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area,Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Demin Zhou; Shahbaz Khan; Akhtar Abbas; Tariq Rana; Haiying Zhang; Yun Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this study,spatial analysis techniques were used to generate climatic zoning maps of the East Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA),Australia.Long term climate data were used to analyze and assess regional climatic variation by cluster analysis in a GIS environment.Based on thermal and moisture factors,four variables were chosen to develop climate zones.These variables include annual average rainfalls,annual average ETc,annual average Growing Day Degree (GDD) and daily average temperature generated from daily climate data of 36 years (1971-2006) on 12 local weather stations as the fundamental elements of regional climate characteristics.GIS-based spatial analysis models are used to map climate sub-regions from sets of climatic parameters derived from regional climate data sources.Two climate zoning schemes are presented by integration of spatial interpolation,spatial cluster analysis and climate indices methods.One scheme comes with the two climate zones of the West and the East based on spatial cluster analysis according to selected climatic variables,and the other comes with the three comprehensive hydro-thermal zones and the six hydro-thermal balance zones.

  8. Geology and regional setting of the Al Masane ancient mine area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Clay M.

    1985-01-01

    Stratiform zinc-copper massive-sulfide deposits at Al Masane occur in thin dolomitic interbeds within Proterozoic felsic crystal tuff and mafic flows and volcaniclastics. These strata dip steeply westward and are underlain by shale and shaly graywacke to the east and overlain by lapilli crystal tuff to the west. This section is part of the Habawnah fold or mineral belt that extends from the Wadi Wassat area southward into Yemen. Western parts of the Habawnah fold belt, including the Al Masane area, are characterized by a bimodal assemblage of of phenocryst-poor basalts and sodic rhyolite crystal tuff, and by zinc-copper mineral deposits. Strata in the eastern part of the belt, mostly east of the Ashara fault zone, contain abundant phenocryst-rich mafic volcanic rocks, little felsic crystal tuff, and barren or locally nickeliferous massive pyrite deposits.

  9. Development of the business area construction and energy of EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Transfer from project management to a regional network; Entwicklung des Geschaeftsfeldes Bau und Energie der EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Umsetzung von Projektmanagement in einem regionalen Netzwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiverth, A.

    2006-07-01

    The association EnergieRegion Nuernberg is a regional authority network, which is employed with the promotion of sustainable handling of the factor energy in the region Nuernberg and with the proliferation of this region as internationally recognized location for energy engineering, energy industry and energy science. The intention is to use the important industrial, service-oriented and scientific potential optimally. For this reason a functional co-ordination and communication platform had to be created for the cross-linking of the appropriate participants from economics, research and public administration. Therefore, the author of the contribution under consideration accompanies the development process of the business field construction and energy of this association in the background of the current trends in the construction and energy sector in the region Nuernberg. Under this aspect, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Success factors of the project management in a regional network; (b) Operationalisation of the success of the project by means of a model; (c) Analysis of the different aspects of energetic measures; (d) Determination of chances and risks of the range building and energy in the region Nuernberg; (e) Comparison of the success of the model projects with the model for the determination of project success; (f) Determination of strengths and weaknesses of the project management in the business field construction and energy of the energy region Nuernberg.

  10. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  11. Seismic moment tensors and regional stress in the area of the December 2013-January 2014, Matese earthquake sequence (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Cammarata, Laura; Cangemi, Marianna; Cavallaro, Danilo; Di Martino, Roberto Maria; Firetto Carlino, Marco

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for small and moderate earthquakes of the Matese seismic sequence in southern Italy for the period of December 2013-January 2014. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 31 earthquakes with local magnitudes related to the Matese earthquake seismic sequence (December 2013-January 2014) in Southern-Central Italy which are recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in agreement with the local faults mapped out in the area. Comparisons with already published solutions and with seismological and geological information available allowed us to properly interpret the moment tensor solutions in the frame of the seismic sequence evolution and also to furnish additional information about less energetic seismic phases. Focal data were inverted to obtain the seismogenic stress in the study area. The results are compatible with the major tectonic domain of the area.

  12. Disturbance of Antioxidant Enzymes and Purine Metabolism in the Ejaculate of Men Living in Disadvantaged Areas of Kyzylorda Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentihna N. Kislitskaya

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of study, it was put the influence  of negative factors of the Aral Sea region in men’s sperm of reproductive  age gives to disability free-radical processes, that proves changing of ferments of ant oxidative protection Catalase and adenosine deaminase (ADA.  This disturbance in men’s sperm of reproductive age leading to increased level of oxidative stress and impaired activity of  antioxidant enzymes and purine metabolism, responsible for the abnormal transmembrane and intracellular processes, reflecting the degree of imbalance of enzymes.

  13. Variation of forest surface and carbon fixation in mountain areas of the Regione Veneto (Italy and the application of the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parties that have signed the Kyoto Protocol must reduce global emissions of Greenhouse Gasses (GHG during the First Commitment Period (2008 - 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. This share is 6.5% for Italy. The Kyoto Protocol lays down some measures for reducing GHG emissions, which include actions in agriculture and forestry. it will thus be possible to take emissions and absorptions resulting from land use changes into account in the National Balances. Given the widespread forests in Italy, it is very important to have an assessment of the aptitude of this sector to act as a carbon sink. In this study we analysed the variation of forestland cover in a mountain area of the Veneto Region (NE Italy. The analysis was done by comparing aerial photos taken in 1991 with orthophotos reported to 2003, by photointerpretation of points with casual distribution on sample areas, according to a stratified sampling. We estimated a statistically relevant increment of about 0.095% of forest land only up to 1500 m compared to the estimated forest cover for 1990 (about 42 ha, underlining how this low increase is mainly due to forest management. The second step was to estimate the fixed carbon in the areas where forests increased. This was achieved by collecting biometrical data in the field, and then using allometric functions. The annual carbon sink was estimated as 0.69 Mg ha-1 year-1. Comparing these results with previous studies done in the pre-alpine region we estimate the annual increment of the forest area in the whole Veneto region to be about 409.94 ha and that the total carbon sink is about 282.86 Mg C year-1. A method for estimating carbon sink in afforestation/reforestation areas is proposed that could also be applied to other sites in Italy.

  14. Hyporheic flow pattern based on the coupling of regional and stream scales: Case of Krycklan Catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarrad, Morteza; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2016-04-01

    Water resources intense development within the past century has had an enormous impact on hydrological systems especially on rivers and groundwater resources. A river basin is a flow system involving the interaction between surface water and groundwater. This interaction occurs in terrestrial and coastal zone and even in arid and semi-arid areas, where surface water overlie on a permeable sediment. A key zone for the interaction between surface water and groundwater is the hyporheic zone, which forms by stream water that in- and exfiltrating in the permeable sediments surrounding the river corridor. Groundwater and hyporheic flows arise due to different range of topographical scales and their relative importance is investigated in this study. Krycklan is a well-monitored research catchment in which the data collection for more than 90 years has comprised hydrology, biochemistry, and aquatic ecology. The catchment is located in a boreal area of northern Sweden. The head-water streams begin in mountainous area and fall to the Baltic Sea near the city of Umea. In this paper, COMSOL Multi-physics simulation software has been used to model the subsurface flow of the whole Krycklan catchment in order to reach a comprehensive understanding of large-scale groundwater circulation and its impact of the stream hyporheic flows. The model statement is based on the 3D Laplace equation, which has been applied independently on two ranges of topographical scales to obtain a superimposed solution. Steady state simulation has been done based on the simplified assumption of constant boundary conditions of the groundwater surface and otherwise non-flow boundaries. The hydraulic head of the groundwater surface was taken as the topography, which apply as an approximation in wet climate with shallow soil layers. The results demonstrated how the ratio of the topographical amplitudes on different scales affect the size (depth) and fragmentation of the hyporheic zone. "Fragmentation" was

  15. Hydrology of area 32, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Miller, R.L.; Bailey, Z.C.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality information from the coal region in parts of 11 counties in southwestern Indiana are summarized. Pennsylvanian and Mississippian bedrock are overlain by drift and till from the Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsinan glaciers that covered two-thirds of the area. Most of the coal is mined from Pennsylvanian coal units. As of 1978, more than 1-billion short tons of coal had been mined from the 11 counties. More than 12-billion short tons remained in reserve. During 1978, 17.8-million short tons were mined. Coal mining disturbs less than 1% of the land in the study area. Sixty-two percent of the land use is agricultural, and 29% is forested. More coal is mined in the southern and western parts of the study area than elsewhere. Surface water in these parts had lower pH and alkalinity than water in the north and east parts. Specific conductance and concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese in surface water were higher in the south and west than elsewhere. (USGS)

  16. Coexistence and geographical distribution of Leguminosae in an area of Atlantic forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacira R. LIMA; Vidal F. MANSANO; Francisca S. ARA(U)JO

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists.According to some authors,species occupy specific niches,but for others,species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random.Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil.Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity.The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope.Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest,whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil,such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests.The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism,which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors,such as temperature and precipitation.

  17. Echelon approach to areas of concern in synoptic regional monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Patil, Ganapati P.; Joly, Kyle

    1997-01-01

    Echelons provide an objective approach to prospecting for areas of potential concern in synoptic regional monitoring of a surface variable. Echelons can be regarded informally as stacked hill forms. The strategy is to identify regions of the surface which are elevated relative to surroundings (Relative ELEVATIONS or RELEVATIONS). These are areas which would continue to expand as islands with receding (virtual) floodwaters. Levels where islands would merge are critical elevations which delimit echelons in the vertical dimension. Families of echelons consist of surface sectors constituting separate islands for deeper waters that merge as water level declines. Pits which would hold water are disregarded in such a progression, but a complementary analysis of pits is obtained using the surface as a virtual mould to cast a counter-surface (bathymetric analysis). An echelon tree is a family tree of echelons with peaks as terminals and the lowest level as root. An echelon tree thus provides a dendrogram representation of surface topology which enables graph theoretic analysis and comparison of surface structures. Echelon top view maps show echelon cover sectors on the base plane. An echelon table summarizes characteristics of echelons as instances or cases of hill form surface structure. Determination of echelons requires only ordinal strength for the surface variable, and is thus appropriate for environmental indices as well as measurements. Since echelons are inherent in a surface rather than perceptual, they provide a basis for computer-intelligent understanding of surfaces. Echelons are given for broad-scale mammalian species richness in Pennsylvania.

  18. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  19. US EPA Region 9 designated areas for nitrogen dioxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of Attainment and Nonattainment Areas for Nitrogen Dioxide Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air...

  20. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses.

  1. Development of user applications for earth resources survey data in urban and regional planning in the Puget Sound area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, F. V.

    1975-01-01

    User applications of remote sensing in Washington State are described. The first project created a multi-temporal land use/land cover data base for the environs of the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, to serve planning and management operations of the Port of Seattle. The second is an on-going effort to develop a capability within the Puget Sound Governmental Conference, a council of governments (COG), to inventory and monitor land use within its four county jurisdiction. Developmental work has focused on refinement of land use/cover classification systems applicable at this regional scale and various levels of detail in relation to program requirements of the agency. Related research, refinement of manual methods, user training and approaches to technology transfer are discussed.

  2. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  3. Geomorphological analysis, monitoring and modeling of large rock avalanches in northern Chile (Iquique area) for regional hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Hermanns, R. L.; Crosta, G. B.; Dehls, J.; Sosio, R.; Sepúlveda, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Iquique is a city of about 215,000 inhabitants (Chilean national census 2002) settled on one of the seismic gaps in the South American subduction zone, where a M >8 earthquake with overdue return periods of ca. 100 yr is expected in the near future. The city has only two access roads coming from the east and south. The road to the east comes down along the escarpment that connects the Coastal Cordillera to the Coastal Plain. The road has been blocked by small magnitude earthquake-triggered landslides at least once in recent years. The second road, coming from the south, crosses along the Coastal Plain and connects the city to the airport where at least ten ancient debris deposits related to rock avalanches are found. These facts show the importance of determining the effects of a future high magnitude earthquake on the stability of the slopes in the area and the impact of possible slope failures on people, infrastructure and emergency management. The present work covers an area of approximately 130 km2 parallel to the coastline to the south of Iquique, divided into the two main morphological units briefly mentioned above. The eastern part corresponds to the Coastal Cordillera, a set of smoothed hills and shallow valleys that reaches up to 1200 m asl. This sector is limited to the west by a steep escarpment followed by the Coastal Plain and a narrow emerged marine plateau (1-3 km wide) locally overlaid by deposits of recent rock avalanches. Rock avalanche events have recurrently occurred at two sites to the north and center of the study area on the Coastal Cordillera escarpment. Another major single event has been mapped to the south. Marls, red and black shales, and shallow marine glauconitic deposits from Jurassic constitute the source rock for the rock avalanches in all sites. Clusters of deposits are found in the first two sites (retrogressive advance) with younger events running shorter distances and partially overlaying the older ones. Multiple lobes have been

  4. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, María Carolina; Werner, Micha; Obregón, Nelson; Wright, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a method is proposed to identify mountainous watersheds with the highest flood risk at the regional level. Through this, the watersheds to be subjected to more detailed risk studies can be prioritised in order to establish appropriate flood risk management strategies. The prioritisation is carried out through an index composed of a qualitative indicator of vulnerability and a qualitative flash flood/debris flow susceptibility indicator. At the regional level, vulnerability was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability, using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood extent analysis at the regional level, which provided a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of three constituent indicators: (i) socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; (ii) lack of resilience and coping capacity, which is composed of lack of education, lack of preparedness and response capacity, lack of rescue capacity, cohesiveness of the community; and (iii) physical exposure, which is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability.

  5. Eco Bio Cultural Protocols for Preservation of Endangered Agrobiodiversity Areas from the Adjacent Regions of Danube and Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudith Ipate

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Danube Strategy involves creating synergies between different sectors (tourism, environmental protection, agriculture and forestry, promoting solutions and contributing to the prosperity of social, economic and cultural sustainable development. It requires multiinterdisciplinary problem solving biodiversity conservation and environmental protection. Agrobiodiversity conservation and means must be assessed according to international risk categories, taking into account the culture, traditions and local lifestyle. Fundamental aspects of the protocols will be to assess species and breeds endangered and their influence on specific ecosystems of the Danube and Danube Delta to promote local tradition and cultural heritage. Our studies will have to reveal new interdependencies between socio- economic phenomena that occur in the context of regional sustainable development and identify viable solutions to ensure the conservation of agrobiodiversity as part of the natural and cultural heritage of the Danube Delta . Need of cooperation between Danube countries and between local authorities and research entities to conserve natural and cultural heritage that can be achieved based on eco-bio-diplomacy. Need of cooperation between Danube countries and between local authorities and research entities to conserve natural and cultural heritage that can be achieved based on eco-bio-diplomacy.

  6. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  7. Comparative Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Tangshan Region of the People�s Republic of China and Similar Areas in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Domagalski

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality with respect to nitrate, major inorganic constituents, stable isotopes, and tritium was assessed in the agricultural Tangshan region in the Hai He River Basin of the People’s Republic of China and compared with three regions in the U.S.: the Delmarva Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; the San Joaquin Valley of California; and the Sacramento Valley of California. The China and U.S. regions are similar in size and land use, but have different climatic conditions and patterns of water use for irrigation. The Tangshan region has been in agricultural production for a much longer time, probably several centuries, than the three U.S. regions; however, the widespread use of synthetic fertilizers and other soil amendments probably started at a similar time in all four regions. In all four regions, median nitrate concentrations were generally below the U.S. drinking water standard of 10 mg/l of nitrate as nitrogen. However, higher concentrations and a greater range were evident for the Tangshan region. In the water samples collected from a shallow aquifer in the Tangshan region (over 25% of all samples, nitrate concentrations exceeded the Chinese standard of 20 mg/l, whereas few comparative samples (2.6% collected in the U.S. exceeded 20 mg/l. In Tangshan, relatively low nitrate, which is indicative of uncontaminated background concentrations, was measured in older water of deeper wells. Recently recharged water was detected in wells drilled as deep as 150 m. Nitrate concentrations above background levels were also measured in water samples from these wells. In addition to nitrate, the agricultural area of the Tangshan region has been affected by elevated total dissolved solids and iron, the latter attributed to widespread application of animal wastes and sewage deposited on the land surface, which lead to oxygen depletion in the subsurface environment and dissolution of iron. The elevated total dissolved solids of the

  8. Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 based on 2000 Census [EPA.EJAREAS_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 . This dataset was derived from 2000 census data and based on the criteria setforth in the Region 2 Interim...

  9. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  10. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamhuri Siwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

  11. Region-wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central Tien Shan between ~ 1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczonka, Tino; Bolch, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The meltwater released by the glaciers in the Central Tien Shan feeds in particular the Tarim River which is the main artery for the oases at the northern margin of the Taklamakan desert. The correct assessment of the contribution of the glaciers' meltwater to the total runoff is hampered by the lack of long-term measurements of glacier mass budgets. Digital terrain models (DTMs) for the different regions in the Central Tien Shan were generated based on ~ 1975 KH-9 Hexagon imagery and compared to the SRTM3 DTM acquired in February 2000. Moreover, glacier area changes for the period ~ 1975-2008 have been measured by means of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery. The geodetic mass budget estimates for a glacierized area of 5000 km2 revealed increasing mass loss east to west and from the inner to the outer ranges. Highest mass loss accompanied by the most pronounced glacier retreat was found for the Ak-Shirak massif with a region-wide mass balance of - 0.51 ± 0.36 m w.e. a- 1 and a rate of area change of - 0.27 ± 0.15% a- 1, whilst moderate mass loss was observed for the Inylchek (0.20 ± 0.44 m w.e. a- 1) and Tomur area (0.33 ± 0.30 m w.e. a- 1) despite partly debris cover. These latter regions also revealed the lowest glacier shrinkage within the entire Central Tien Shan. The total glacier mass loss of 0.35 ± 0.34 m w.e. a- 1 is, however, within the global average whilst the glacier area shrinkage is comparatively low. On average, the investigated glacierized area of ~ 6600 km2 shrank by 0.11 ± 0.15% a- 1 only. We could also identify several surge-type glaciers. The results are consistent with in-situ mass balance measurements for Karabatkak Glacier and previously published results of the Ak-Shirak range proving the suitability of declassified imagery for glacier change investigations. The contribution to the runoff of Aksu River, the largest tributary of the Tarim River, due to glacier imbalance has been determined at ~ 20% for the 1975-2000 period.

  12. The seropositivity and risk factors for rickettsial infections in selected areas from Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicem Tekin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seropositivity of rickettsial infections (rickettsioses and to as-sess risky behaviors for rickettsioses in North Anatolia, which have dense tick population. Materials and methods: Blood samples of 409 voluntary participants were collected in a cross-sectional seropreva-lence research in Samsun-Tekkeköy and 171 from Samsun Regional Laboratory, KTÜ Medical Faculty/Clinic of Infec-tion Diseases and Tokat State Hospital to determine regional characteristics and risk factors of rickettsial infections. The total sample size was 580 persons. A standard questionnaire was performed by a face to face interview with par-ticipants. The 0-4 age group children were not included. The presence of anti-Rickettsia IgG antibodies was tested in blood samples with Indirect Immunoflourescein Antibody (IFA method.Results: Spotted fever group anti-Rickettsia IgG antibody seropositivity was detected in 68 (11.7% blood samples. Contrarily, typhus group anti-Rickettsia IgG antibody seropositivity was not found in any participant. With bivariate analyses following variables were found to be significantly correlated with rickettsia seropositivity: education status (p=0.015, age (p=0.001, working in farm (p=0.008, working in garden (p=0.022, agricultural activities (p=0.001, being interested in relaxation activity (p=0.009, animal breeding (p=0.007, milking (p=0.001 and exposure to wild animals (p=0.004. With logistic regression analysis; age [Risk Odds Ratio ‘ROR’=1.03 (95% GA=1.02-1.05] and ex-posure to wild animals [ROR=1.97 (95% GA=1.12-3.46] were found to be associated with increased seropositivity.Conclusions: Our results supported the existence of rickettsial diseases in Turkey. Further seroepidemiological in-vestigations are needed to detect incidence/prevalences of rickettsioses and related risky behaviors in our country.

  13. Cenozoic geology of the Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco area, Northwestern Oaxaca, Southeastern Mexico: Stratigraphy, structure and regional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Ruiz-González, José E.; Torres-Hernández, José Ramón; Anderson, Thomas H.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Martínez-Hernández, Enrique; García-Villegas, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    The Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco Area, lies in the rugged Sierra Madre del Sur (SMS) of northwestern Oaxaca (YOTLA), southeastern Mexico. Within the area Cenozoic units unconformably overlie metamorphic, clastic and carbonate rock units of Late Paleozoic to Cretaceous ages as well as the Mixteco/Oaxaca Terrane boundary. The Cenozoic sequence, emphasized herein, includes from botton to top: (1) basal, calcilithitic Early Tertiary Tamazulapam Conglomerate, (2) andesitic lava flows of Nduayaco "Group," (3-4) Epiclastic/pyroclastic strata composing Yolomécatl Formation (∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma), and Tayata Pyroepiclastics (5) Early Oligocene (∼32.9 Ma), felsic, pyroclastic Nundichi "Group," (6) Late Oligocene (∼27.7 ± 0.7 Ma) andesitic lava flows of Nicananduta "Group" containing intercalations of unit (7) ?Chilapa Formation (largely lacustrine). Quaternary deposits unconformably overlie the sequence. The structural record includes NNW-SSE folds in the Mesozoic units, and one in Tayata Pyroepiclastics, as well as numerous fractures/faults of diverse types, whose pattern seems to roughly define four geographic/structural domains, NW, SW, S, and E. The Tertiary sequence records four magmatic and six deformational events: Pre-Late Eocene Extension accommodated by the Tamazulapam fault, along which magma of the Nduayaco "Group" moved upward. The next episode is the earliest Late Eocene extension recorded by the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayata fault was followed by accumulation of Yolomécatl Formation, Tayata Pyroepiclastics, and synsedimentary emplacement of tuff sheets at ∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma. After this date, left lateral transpression emplaced a Teposcolula Limestone block over Nduayaco "Group" and ?Yolomécatl Formation, whereas the Tayata Pyroepiclastics was folded into an open anticline. Movement along the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayayata fault suite influenced accumulation of the Nundichi "Group" strata ca. ∼32.9 Ma. Subsequent ENE-WSW extension affected the Nundichi "Group," partly

  14. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  15. Climate change effects on extreme flows of water supply area in Istanbul: utility of regional climate models and downscaling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Fatih; Yucel, Ismail

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the climate change impact on the changes of mean and extreme flows under current and future climate conditions in the Omerli Basin of Istanbul, Turkey. The 15 regional climate model output from the EU-ENSEMBLES project and a downscaling method based on local implications from geophysical variables were used for the comparative analyses. Automated calibration algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdel-ning (HBV) model for the study catchment using observed daily temperature and precipitation. The calibrated HBV model was implemented to simulate daily flows using precipitation and temperature data from climate models with and without downscaling method for reference (1960-1990) and scenario (2071-2100) periods. Flood indices were derived from daily flows, and their changes throughout the four seasons and year were evaluated by comparing their values derived from simulations corresponding to the current and future climate. All climate models strongly underestimate precipitation while downscaling improves their underestimation feature particularly for extreme events. Depending on precipitation input from climate models with and without downscaling the HBV also significantly underestimates daily mean and extreme flows through all seasons. However, this underestimation feature is importantly improved for all seasons especially for spring and winter through the use of downscaled inputs. Changes in extreme flows from reference to future increased for the winter and spring and decreased for the fall and summer seasons. These changes were more significant with downscaling inputs. With respect to current time, higher flow magnitudes for given return periods will be experienced in the future and hence, in the planning of the Omerli reservoir, the effective storage and water use should be sustained.

  16. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  17. SMALL-SCALE AND GLOBAL DYNAMOS AND THE AREA AND FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGIONS, SUNSPOT GROUPS, AND SUNSPOTS: A MULTI-DATABASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Nagovitsyn, Yury A. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M. [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Watson, Fraser T. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)

  18. Measurements of volatile organic compounds in rural area of Yangtze River Delta region: Measurement comparison and source characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, S.; Saito, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Yamaji, K.; Xiaole, P.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in ambient air were measured by three different methods in a city of Rudong in May and June 2010. Intercomparison of VOCs measurements was made among in-situ measurements and canister analyses with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). For 18 VOCs measured by GC/FID/MS, canister analyses and in-situ measurements were in reasonably good agreement (R2 > 0.90). However, alkenes and aromatics in canister samples were found to be lower than in-situ measurements likely due to adsorption of low volatile compounds onto the wall surface inside canisters. For comparison of GC/MS with PTR-MS, the correlations for isoprene, benzene, C8 aromatics, and C9 aromatics were highly significant (R2 ≥ 0.93) with each other. However, there were quantitative differences between GC/MS and PTR-MS. For example, isoprene measured by PTR-MS indicates existence of interferences from C5 alcohols, C5 aldehydes, and furan. During the latter part of the field campaign, elevated concentrations of VOCs and CO were observed when intensive burning of crop residues took place near the sampling site. The concentrations of ethane, propane, ethane, isoprene, acetone, acetaldehyde, and aromatics varied in the range between 0 and 30 ppbv. The observed VOCs concentrations are compared to model results by a regional chemistry-transport model for Asia. The modeled concentrations underestimated the observed concentrations by a factor of 10 for NMHCs, 100 for aromatics, 10 for oxygenated VOCs, implying that current emissions inventories miss a number of sources for these VOCs.

  19. Semiosis of Humor in Oral Texts. Instances from a Coastal Area in Regions 8 and 9 of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Oyarzún, Constantino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes a set of short texts from the oral tradition collected in a peripheral area of Chile inhabited by Spanish-speaking people who live in contact with the Mapuche-speaking community. In general, it is a study of the internal relations of signs (co-text and of their connection with the socio-cultural environment (context. In particular, the author focuses the analysis on the linguistic resources employed for the expression of humor.

    Este artículo comprende el análisis de un conjunto de textos breves de tradición oral recogidos en una zona lateral de habla castellana y de contacto con el mapuche o araucano de Chile. En lo general, aborda el estudio de las relaciones internas de los signos (co-texto y sus vínculos con el entorno sociocultural (contexto. En lo particular, el análisis se detiene en los recursos lingüsticos utilizados para la expresión del humor.

  20. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  1. Reconnaissance of stream biota and physical and chemical water quality in areas of selected land use in the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, 1979-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    To help meet the goals of the Surface-Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the U.S. Geological Survey is assessing the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface water within the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana. This report discusses benthic-invertebrate and periphyticalgal communities in streams draining homogeneous-agricultural, forested, active/reclaimed-mine, reclaimed-mine, and unreclaimed-mine watersheds--and relates the biological communities to the physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Alkalinity and pH were lower and the concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc were higher in unreclaimed-mine watersheds than in the other land-use watersheds. Numbers and community diversity of benthic invertebrates were less at sites affected by mining than at agricultural or forested sites, owing to (1) synergistic effects of low pH, metals, and unsuitable habitat and (2) lack of colonizing drift organisms because of the small drainage area upstream from the mined area. Only a few organisms, such as the caddisflies Cheumatopsyche and Hydropsyche and the chironomids Chironomus and Cricotopus were found in streams draining mine areas.

  2. Investigation of Regional Fractures and Cu Mineralization Relationships in the Khezrabad and Shahr-e-Babak Area: Using Fry and Fractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    such linear trends occur at a characteristic spacing. There is 37 and 42 copper point's index in the Khezr-Abad and Shar-B-Babak areas. The Fry patterns of copper index for two areas were determined with application of Dot Proc software. Fractal analysis is another technique for determination of regional distribution of faults. In this research the fractal dimension of joints and faults was determined in different locations using box-counting fractal method and drawing the logarithmic graphs. Results - The major faults show NW/SE trends in the Khezr-Abad area. They have a similar trend with Dehshir-Baft fault. Other sets of faults show NE/SW trend. These faults are younger than the Dehshir-Baft and release sinistral sense of shear. - Intrusion of two intrusive bodies leads to the accumulation of strike-slip faults in the vicinity of intrusive rocks. In this region faults and joints mainly show NW/SE and NE/SW trends. - The results of Fry analysis show that the mineralization in the Khezr-Abad occurred in the Cretaceous (and younger rocks with NE/SW and NW/SE orientations. In the other words, these areas of mineralization are mainly related to the secondary faults or (P faults in the pull basins and cross cutting points of these faults which have similar strike with the Dehshir-Baft fault. NE/SW mineralization is probably related to the tensional stress direction or faults having the general trends of central Iran structures. - The calculations of fractal dimension show that the southeastern parts of the Khezr Abad have higher amounts of fractal dimension (Db= 1.7002. Also there is a relatively higher copper index in this part, indicating a logical relation between fault structures and mineralization. -The generated maps indicate that the mineralization in the Shahr-e-Babak area occurred at the intersection of faults and volcanic system and the Fry analysis shows a NE/SW and NW/SE trend of ore concentration. - Northwestern parts of the Share-e-Babak show higher fractal

  3. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  4. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Dionísio, Lídia; Afonso, Maria Odete; Neto, Luís; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Campino, Lenea

    2013-01-01

    The Algarve Region (AR) in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL) seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection. PMID:23827997

  5. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations.

  6. Soil and Water Resources and Land Sustainable Productivity in the Catchment Area with Intensive Management in Hilly Red Soil Regions,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dao-you; WANG Ke-lin; CHEN Gui-qiu; HUANG Min; PENG Ting-bo

    2004-01-01

    Taking an example of Majiayu Catchment Area (14.15 ha) in Taoyuan County of Hunan Province, the soil and water resources dynamics, fertility evolution characteristics and land productivity changing situation were studied. Fixed observation results from 1993 to 2002 showed that pools covering about 15% of total area could store up 10% of surface runoff, keep 78.1% of eroded soil and 65.4% of lost nutrients. The yearly ratio of interception and evapotranspiration in land, storage in pools and drainage was 7:2:1,which ensured the resources and nutrients equilibrium and a benign recycle in the catchment area system, and benefited the aquatic culture and helped to resist seasonal drought. Moreover, the results showed that soil erosion modulus decreased significantly,equal to or lower than soil loss tolerance (≤500 t km-2) in reddish yellow soil regions.Soil organic matter, total and available N content in sloping land, dryland and paddy field increased steadily (>10%); water storage enhanced by more than 20% in sloping land and dryland in drought season; crop production increased by more than 20%; and production of trees, fruits, tea and fish as well as land productivity increased yearly.

  7. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  8. Modelling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS: model design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Turuncoglu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999–2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, Caspian Sea Surface Temperature (SST, with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The sea ice extent over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced, however, a significant negative bias in sea-ice fraction exists due to the relatively poor representation of the bathymetry. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL, showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem, which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM4-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

  9. Modeling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS: model design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Turuncoglu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM-ROMS and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999–2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, lake surface temperatures (LSTs, with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The distribution of sea ice over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL, showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

  10. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  11. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge...

  12. Field experience with soil gas mapping using Japanese passive radon/thoron discriminative detectors for comparing high and low radiation areas in Serbia (Balkan Region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunić, Zora S; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Veselinović, Nenad; Yarmoshenko, Ilia V; Zhukovsky, Michael; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ramola, Rakesh C; Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Jovanović, Peter; Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Celiković, Igor; Ujić, Predrag; Onischenko, Aleksandra; Sahoo, Sarat K; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Based on results of fieldwork in the Balkan Region of Serbia from 2005 to 2007, soil gas radon and thoron concentrations as well as gamma dose rates were measured. Campaigns were conducted in two different geological regions: Niska Banja, considered a high natural radiation area, and Obrenovac around the TentB Thermal Power Plant (TPP), a low natural radiation area. Radon and thoron gas measurements were made by using two types of Japanese passive radon/thoron detectors, which included GPS data and gamma dose rates. The concentrations of soil radon gas in Niska Banja ranged from 1.8 to 161.1 kBq m(-3), whereas the concentrations for soil thoron gas ranged from 0.9 to 23.5 kBq m(-3). The gamma dose rates varied from 70 to 320 nGy h(-1). In the TentB area, radon concentration was found to range from 0.8 to 24.9 kBq m(-3) and thoron from 0.6 to 1.9 kBq m(-3). The gamma dose rate ranged from 90 to 130 nGy h(-1). In addition, the natural radioactivity of the soil was investigated at the low background area. The radium and thorium contents in collected soil samples ranged from 23 to 58 and 33 to 67 Bq kg(-1), respectively. As a result of correlation analyses between the measured values, the highest correlation coefficient (R > 0.95) was found for thorium in the soil and the thoron gas concentration.

  13. GIS and Remote Sensing based zonation map for volcaniclastic debris flow susceptibility: a case study from area surrounding the Vesuvius (Campania Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marina; Spinetti, Claudia; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The volcanic areas affected by pyroclastic deposits and significant hillslopes can be considered zone with high proneness for triggering volcaniclastic debris flows. In fact, in presence of heavy and/or persistent rainfall, loose pyroclastic covers can be remobilized and generate volcaniclastic flows causing disastrous effects. The most important volcanoclastic debris flow in the Campania Region (Italy) has been the Sarno-Quindici event occurred on May 5-6, 1998 that caused the death of more than 150 people and relevant damages to villages at the foot of the Apennine Mountains in the circumvesuvian area. In order to improve the volcaniclastic flow hazard zonation in the area surrounding the Vesuvius volcano, we propose a methodological approach based on remote sensing analyses combined with morphometric study derived from a Digital Elevation Model having a spatial resolution of 10 meters to identify the drainage basins potentially more prone to generate volcaniclastic flows. The satellite high-medium resolution data will be used to derive the land cover mapping. The elaborations will be performed in the GIS environment and the combination of identified drainage basins with the land cover classes will provide the map classifying the areas according to different degree of susceptibility for triggering debris flows.

  14. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30°30° - 40°40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50°50° - 70°70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60°60° - 80°80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  15. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  16. Deep seated tectonic-gravitive failure and large landslide in the area from Scilla to Punta Pezzo (Calabria region South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerricchio, A.; Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the

  17. Research on soil multi-media environmental pollution around a Pb-Zn mining and smelting plant in the karst area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chaobing; WANG Shuangfei; LI Fasheng

    2009-01-01

    The method of principal component analysis was applied to systematical research on the soil multi-media environment, including soil, surface water, ground water, waterbody sediment and agricultural crops, as well as pollution-inducing wastewater, mullock (or waste ore) and slag in the periphery of a large-sized Pb-Zn mining and smelting plant in a karst area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The results revealed that soils in the area studied have been heavily polluted by Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg, and the levels of these metals in the samples of agricultural crop greatly exceed the standards. The above-mentioned pollutants exist in all soil-multi-media environments. The mullock, slag, wastewater, surface water, ground water, soil, and agricultural crops constitute a composite ecological chain. Therefore, the improper disposal of mullock and slag, and the use of polluted wastewater for agricultural irrigation are the main causes of soil pollution. Heavy metals in the soil have three transition progresses: point (improved soil with slag, ground water inflow plot), linear (river transition) and non-point transition (regional pollution by slag) patterns, and the tailing yard is the most important locus for heavy metals to release into the environment.

  18. Large and great earthquakes in the Shillong plateau-Assam valley area of Northeast India Region: Pop-up and transverse tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, J. R.; Arefiev, S. S.; Baruah, Saurabh; Hazarika, D.; Gogoi, N.; Gautam, J. L.; Baruah, Santanu; Dorbath, C.; Tatevossian, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic model of the Shillong plateau and Assam valley in the northeast India region, the source area for the 1897 great earthquake (Ms ~ 8.7) and for the four (1869, 1923, 1930 and 1943) large earthquakes (M. ≥ 7.0), is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station broadband seismic network. About 300 selected earthquakes M ≥ 3.0 recorded during 2001-2009 are analysed to study the seismicity and fault plane solutions. The dominating thrust/reverse faulting earthquakes in the western plateau may be explained by the proposed pop-up tectonics between two active boundary faults, the Oldham-Brahmaputra fault to the north and the Dapsi-Dauki thrust to the south, though the northern boundary fault is debated. The more intense normal and strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the eastern plateau (Mikir massif) and in the Assam valley, on the other hand, are well explained by transverse tectonics at the long and deep rooted Kopili fault that cuts across the Himalaya and caused the 2009 Bhutan earthquake (Mw 6.3). It is conjectured that the complex tectonics of the Shillong plateau and transverse tectonics at the Kopili fault make the region vulnerable for impending large earthquake(s).

  19. Preliminary Study on Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, Escherichia coli and their Potential Seasonality in Shellfish from Different Growing and Harvesting Areas in Sardinia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattaccio, Maria Caterina; Salza, Sara; Canu, Antonella; Marongiu, Edoardo; Pisanu, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Edible lamellibranch molluscs can be involved in foodborne disease and infections of varying severity. They are filter feeding animals able to retain and concentrate in their organism bacteria, parasites, viruses and biotoxins marine algae present in their external environment. Major shellfish harvesting and relaying areas from different areas in Sardinia region were defined and studied by analysing different physicochemical parameters in the water and the levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Norovirus (NoVs) genogroup I (NoVGI), NoVs genogroup II (NoVGII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the shellfish harvested and farmed from 2009 to 2011. During that period the identification of the viral agents was carried out by one step real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Escherichia coli according to ISO TS 16649-3:2005 standard method. A total of 1266 shellfish samples were tested for NoVGI, NoVGII, HAV and faecal indicators. Norovirus contamination was found in 337 samples (26.6%); only one sample of mussels was positive for HAV (0.08%); while E. coli prevalence was 3.8% in shellfish. The probability of observing shellfish samples positive for NoVs, HAV and E. coli presence was associated with harvesting, growing and relaying areas, period of sampling, environmental parameters, animal species (P<0.05). Although the higher prevalence rate of human enteropathogenic viruses was found in the winter period, we did not observe a significant relationship between the effect of seawater temperature (seasonality) and NoVs presence all over the study period; in fact, according to statistical analysis, the presence of human enteric viruses does not appear to be related to water temperature.

  20. Preliminary Study on Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, Escherichia coli and their Potential Seasonality in Shellfish from Different Growing and Harvesting Areas in Sardinia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzardi, Riccardo; Fattaccio, Maria Caterina; Salza, Sara; Canu, Antonella; Marongiu, Edoardo; Pisanu, Margherita

    2014-04-17

    Edible lamellibranch molluscs can be involved in foodborne disease and infections of varying severity. They are filter feeding animals able to retain and concentrate in their organism bacteria, parasites, viruses and biotoxins marine algae present in their external environment. Major shellfish harvesting and relaying areas from different areas in Sardinia region were defined and studied by analysing different physicochemical parameters in the water and the levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Norovirus (NoVs) genogroup I (NoVGI), NoVs genogroup II (NoVGII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the shellfish harvested and farmed from 2009 to 2011. During that period the identification of the viral agents was carried out by one step real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Escherichia coli according to ISO TS 16649-3:2005 standard method. A total of 1266 shellfish samples were tested for NoVGI, NoVGII, HAV and faecal indicators. Norovirus contamination was found in 337 samples (26.6%); only one sample of mussels was positive for HAV (0.08%); while E. coli prevalence was 3.8% in shellfish. The probability of observing shellfish samples positive for NoVs, HAV and E. coli presence was associated with harvesting, growing and relaying areas, period of sampling, environmental parameters, animal species (P<0.05). Although the higher prevalence rate of human enteropathogenic viruses was found in the winter period, we did not observe a significant relationship between the effect of seawater temperature (seasonality) and NoVs presence all over the study period; in fact, according to statistical analysis, the presence of human enteric viruses does not appear to be related to water temperature.

  1. Preliminary study on Norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Escherichia coli and their potential seasonality in shellfish from different growing and harvesting areas in Sardinia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bazzardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible lamellibranch molluscs can be involved in foodborne disease and infections of varying severity. They are filter feeding animals able to retain and concentrate in their organism bacteria, parasites, viruses and biotoxins marine algae present in their external environment. Major shellfish harvesting and relaying areas from different areas in Sardinia region were defined and studied by analysing different physicochemical parameters in the water and the levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli, Norovirus (NoVs genogroup I (NoVGI, NoVs genogroup II (NoVGII and hepatitis A virus (HAV in the shellfish harvested and farmed from 2009 to 2011. During that period the identification of the viral agents was carried out by one step real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Escherichia coli according to ISO TS 16649- 3:2005 standard method. A total of 1266 shellfish samples were tested for NoVGI, NoVGII, HAV and faecal indicators. Norovirus contamination was found in 337 samples (26.6%; only one sample of mussels was positive for HAV (0.08%; while E. coli prevalence was 3.8% in shellfish. The probability of observing shellfish samples positive for NoVs, HAV and E. coli presence was associated with harvesting, growing and relaying areas, period of sampling, environmental parameters, animal species (P<0.05. Although the higher prevalence rate of human enteropathogenic viruses was found in the winter period, we did not observe a significant relationship between the effect of seawater temperature (seasonality and NoVs presence all over the study period; in fact, according to statistical analysis, the presence of human enteric viruses does not appear to be related to water temperature.

  2. Establishment of comprehensive dairy herd management and support techniques for the area based on regional characteristics in northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    久保田, 学

    2014-01-01

    The recent dairy farms in Hokkaido have been increasing the amount of production milk yield by the scale expansion of production facilities and increase in the number of cows. A new machine and a new technology were adopted, and dependence on concentrate feeds became higher in the nourishment of the cow. Furthermore, the production system in dairy farms changed from grazing to housing to maintain stable milk production and stable milk quality. A figure of grazing style in dairy farms disappe...

  3. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  4. Timespace matters - Exploring the gap between knowing about activity patterns of people and knowing how to design and plan urban areas and regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaick, J.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to know about peoples’ temporospatial activity patterns when making urban and regional designs and plans. Despite wide acknowledgment of this idea, knowledge about people’s activity patterns does not get full attention in day-to-day practice of urban and regional design and planning.

  5. [Old and immobile in rural areas? Limited mobility of the elderly in the context of increasingly problematic health care in rural regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, F; Köhler, K; Nowossadeck, E

    2013-10-01

    Against the background of considerable population ageing processes in rural areas, it is expected that access to the health care system in these regions will deteriorate. Within this context, the question arises as to whether elderly people have the ability to overcome increasing distances in order to receive adequate medical care. Hence the objective of this study is an in-depth analysis of the everyday mobility of elderly people living in rural areas. The empirical analysis is based on the German National Travel Survey "Mobilität in Deutschland 2008". Findings show that older women in particular experience limitations in their mobility options. Only 63% of mobility-impaired women (aged > 75 years) were mobile outside their homes, and only 37% had access to a car, which can be regarded as the crucial factor for being mobile. It follows that older and mobility-impaired women have to cope with everyday life under difficult conditions. In the context of the growing problem of access to the health care system in rural areas, the challenge is to ensure adequate primary health care for a large proportion of the immobile elderly.

  6. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume V. North Atlantic, Central East Pacific, and Caribbean Regions Communication Systems Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    in response to providers questionnaire" received December 11, 1979. 20. Secretairerie D’Etat, Des Travaux Publico , Transports et Ctommunicationes...CA 94025 13. Type of Rep-r ed Period Cottoed 13. Spaerrii Agncy Memo and Address. Department of Transportation Final Report Federal Aviation...Interna- tional Air Transport Association (IATA), the airlines, the International Federation of Airline Pilots Association (IFALPA), other aviation

  7. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif

    2016-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  8. Structural Analysis of Recent and Active Faults and Regional State of Stress in the Epicentral Area of the 1978 Thessaloniki Earthquakes (northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jacques-Louis; Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Mouyaris, Nicolas; Simeakis, Konstantinos; Roundoyannis, Theodora; Anghelidhis, Christos

    1983-12-01

    During spring and summer 1978, Macedonia (Greece) suffered damaging seismic activity. During the two main shocks which occurred on May 23 (Mb = 5.7) and June 20 (Mb = 6.1), seismic open cracks and faults were formed in the epicentral area, 25 km NNE from Thessaloniki. They have been mapped and their kinematics analyzed. These studies have shown that they result from the reactivation of existing faults of Pleistocene, Recent, and historical age and that the crust is stretching along a N-S to NNE-SSW direction in that part of the North Aegean. Principal stress directions have been computed from the slip vectors measured on recent neotectonic faults and seismic cracks and faults, this computation utilizing a simple mechanical model (homogeneous deformation through the addition of small and independent displacements of rigid blocks in a highly fractured body). A striking feature of this analysis is that the tensional directions σ3 deduced from seismic faulting and from recent neotectonic faulting are nearly the same. They are compatible with the regional tension axis deduced from focal mechanisms of North Aegean and with the focal mechanisms of the 1978 Thessaloniki main shocks. They are also compatible with in situ stress measurements in this region. Studies of superficial seismic faulting strongly support previous assumptions proposed from aftershock distribution: the 1978 Thessaloniki earthquakes resulted from reactivation of several different faults situated within the same NE dipping fault zone of Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene age (and older) separating the Serbo-Macedonian Massif from the Peonias (East Vardar) zone.

  9. Study on Self-Affine Fractal and Multi-Fractal Features of Geomorphic System in the Tianshan Area of Xinjiang Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Meng; Zhu Lingren; Long Haiying

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use the standard deviation method and the fixed mass method to study theself-affine fractal and multi-fractal features along two topographic profiles across differenttectonic-geomorphic elements in the Tianshan area of Xinjiang region, China. The results showthat in the studied scaling range, the two profiles display different scaling fractal features, andthe form and value range of multi-fractal spectra Dq also show different characteristics. Thestudy suggests that the landforms are not completely random, but are deterministicallyrandom. The fractal dimension values in different scaling ranges express the mode, intensityand spatial dimension of the endogenic and exogenic processes. Meanwhile, a boundary pointbetween the macroscopic and microscopic scales of geomorphic process is suggested to be about5 km. These results are of significance in quantitative study of geomorphic dynamics.

  10. Examining the major contributors and controlling factors of ozone production in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta region during harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Open biomass burning (OBB has been reported to emit substantial amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, and the mixing of OBB with urban plumes could exacerbate regional ozone (O3 pollution. In the present study, an observational field campaign was performed in a rural area at the edge of Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR during harvest season when intensive open burning of wheat residues was observed. The O3 production rate at the site was calculated using a photochemical box model (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism, Version 2 constrained by real-time ambient measurements (e.g., O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, the sum of NO2 + NO (NOx, J values. During the period impacted by OBB, the O3 concentration frequently exceeded 100 ppbv. Analysis showed that the net O3 production was pronounced, in particular when the site was characterized by a prevailing southerly wind that also brought substantial amounts of NOx emitted from urban areas. At these times, the maximum rate of O3 production was 20 ppbv h−1 with potential production rate of 102 ppbv on a daily basis. The O3 production at the site was typically VOC-sensitive in the morning because NOx dominated the plumes. However, in the afternoon, conditions became NOx-sensitive due to the rapid photochemical consumption of NOx in the production of O3. A positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that solvent usage and OBB were the primary contributors to the mass fraction of ambient NMHCs observed at the study site, and were responsible for 35 and 23% of the total O3 production, respectively. The preferential presence of NOx in the morning inhibited net O3 production; meanwhile O3 built up in the afternoon due to a decrease in NOx concentrations. These results indicated that a joint effort in the regulation of solvent (aromatics usage and OBB, as well as NOx from on-road vehicle exhaust may be effective in eliminating high-O3 pollution risk in the rural areas of the YRDR.

  11. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in the Chicago metropolitan area: evaluation with a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Conry, P.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Hellmann, J. J.; Chen, F.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of urban heat islands (UHIs) have a substantial bearing on the sustainability of cities and environs. This paper examines the efficacy of green and cool roofs as potential UHI mitigation strategies to make cities more resilient against UHI. We have employed the urbanized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (uWRF) model at high (1 km) resolution with physically-based rooftop parameterization schemes (conventional, green and cool), a first-time application to the Chicago metropolitan area. We simulated a hot summer period (16-18 August 2013) and assessed (i) UHI reductions for different urban landuse with green/cool roofs, (ii) the interaction of lake breeze and UHI, and (iii) diurnal boundary layer dynamics. The performance of uWRF was evaluated using sensible heat flux and air temperature measurements from an urban mini-field campaign. The simulated roof surface energy balance captured the energy distribution with respective rooftop algorithms. Results showed that daytime roof temperature reduced and varied linearly with increasing green roof fractions, from less than 1 °C for the case of 25% green roof to ˜3 °C during peak daytime for 100% green roof. Diurnal transitions from land to lake breeze and vice versa had a substantial impact on the daytime cycle of roof surface UHI, which had a 3-4 hour lag in comparison to 2 m UHI. Green and cool roofs reduced horizontal and vertical wind speeds and affected lower atmosphere dynamics, including reduced vertical mixing, lower boundary layer depth, and weaker convective rolls. The lowered wind speeds and vertical mixing during daytime led to stagnation of air near the surface, potentially causing air quality issues. The selection of green and cool roofs for UHI mitigation should therefore carefully consider the competing feedbacks. The new results for regional land-lake circulations and boundary layer dynamics from this study may be extended to other urbanized areas, particularly to coastal

  12. The cosmic-ray and gas content of the Cygnus region as measured in gamma rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The Cygnus region hosts a giant molecular-cloud complex which actively forms massive stars. Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields make it shine at gamma-ray energies. Several gamma-ray pulsars and other energetic sources are seen in this direction. In this paper we analyse the gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV in order to probe the gas and cosmic-ray content over the scale of the whole Cygnus complex. The signal from bright pulsars is largely reduced by selecting photons in their off-pulse phase intervals. We compare the diffuse gamma-ray emission with interstellar gas maps derived from radio/mm-wave lines and visual extinction data, and a global model of the region, including other pulsars and gamma-ray sources, is sought. The integral HI emissivity and its spectral energy distribution are both consistent within the systematics with LAT measurements in the interstellar space near the solar system. The ave...

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdneh Tomass

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia during June - September, 2012. Material and methods: Seven hundred fourteen pigs of different ages and sexes were selected for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of pigs with strict sanitation. A total of 25 soil samples were also collected from backyards of pig pens using clean zipped plastic bags. Both fecal and soil samples were examined for eggs and cysts of GIT parasites by flotation and sedimentation techniques. Modified Ziehl – Neelsen technique was used to examine oocysts of Cryptosporidium species from 276 randomly selected fecal samples. Results: Out of 714 pigs examined through flotation and sedimentation, 27.3% were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite. Ascaris suum (25.9% was the most prevalent parasite followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%, Eimeria spp. (1.7% and Trichuris suis (0.3%. There was no significant association between sex and prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 1] = 1.921; P=0.166. Contrary to this, age of pigs had effect on prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 2] = 8.376; P=0.015. About 7% of pigs examined were positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. Moreover, 72% of the soil samples found to be contaminated with eggs of Ascaris spp. in the study area. Apart from causing morbidity in the infected pigs, the potential of Ascaris of pigs to infect man and vice versa together with poor environmental hygiene, may complicate the epidemiology and control of Ascariasis in the study areas. Extensively managed pigs may also act as potential reservoirs for zoonoses of Cryptosporidium species. Conclusion: It is concluded that further investigations are crucial on molecular characterization of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium isolates of extensively managed pigs to determine the

  14. Morphological correlates of prey consumed by Podarcis melisellensis (Braun, 1877 and P. siculus (Rafinesque, 1810 (Sauria, Lacertidae from two mainland regions in the eastern Adriatic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between trophic utilization and morphology was studied for two lizard species (Podarcis melisellensis and P. siculus from two mainland localities in the eastern Adriatic area; this is the first report of trophic and morphometric data for P. melisellensis from mainland populations. Variance partitioning showed that most of the variation in morphological traits for the analyzed lizards was the result of differences between species, and to a lesser extent between sexes. Locality did not have a strong effect on the variation of morphological traits. Prey weight is the only characteristic of prey that generally exhibits correlations with morphological characteristics rather than prey size. The pattern of correlations is generally weaker for P. melisellensis than for P. siculus. Optimal foraging theory predictions were generally confirmed: P. siculus is more constrained by trophic resource availability, with a premium on larger and heavier prey consumed in the less productive locality (SM, which can be relaxed in more productive regions (KL. P. melisellensis shows such constraints only for males in the less productive region (SM. Females of both species consume heavier prey. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43001 i br. 173011

  15. Multi scale seismic data correlation and integration with regional tectonic framework: example of the Piratininga Dome, SP, Brazil; Correlacao de dados sismicos multiescala e integracao com arcabouco tectonico regional: exemplo da area do Domo de Piratininga, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriane Fatima de; Bartoszeck, Marcelo Kulevicz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia. Lab. de Analise de Bacias e Petrofisica]. E-mail: adrianefcampos@yahoo.com.br; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Romeiro, Marco Antonio Thoaldo [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Kiang, Chang Hung [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia Aplicada

    2008-06-15

    The study area covers the Piratininga Dome, a structural high composed by a center horst bordered by faults. The main objective of this work was to establish a systematic multi scale approach, in which high resolution seismic data was compared to conventional seismic, digital terrain models and geophysical potential data. The subsurface data include an 80 km conventional seismic section and the well 1-80 km-1-SP. The Kingdom (Seismic Micro-Technology) software was used to interpret the seismic data in order to map the main horizons and faults. To test the multi scale hypothesis was acquired a high resolution seismic line just over the regional seismic trace. This detailed line measures 1 km length and 360 m depth. The seismic processing was based on a conventional flowchart for CDP technique with Vista (Gedco) software. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and aero magnetic data of Botucatu and Bauru projects were used to the lineaments interpretation. Comparison between observed horizons in the high resolution and conventional seismic lines made possible to test different alternatives to map structural and stratigraphic features. The obtained multi scale geological elements hierarchies enlarge the knowledge in reservoir resolution. The results of the interpretation indicate the close relationship between regional structural framework and features observed in seismic data, and can be applied to enhance and guide the studies of analogous to depth reservoirs. (author)

  16. LAND RECLAMATION IS BASIC GUARANTEE OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN COAL MINING AREAS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张和生; 刘邦涛; 周丽霞; 崔春香

    1998-01-01

    Necessity of land reclamation is discussed, setting out viewpoint of sustainabledevelopment and land connotation and its attribute and combining destroyed forms andcharacteristics of land in coal mining areas. It is pointed out that land reclamation of coal miningareas is basic guarantee of solving contradiction between coal mining areas and countryside,raising life of resident and ensuring regional sustainable development.

  17. The Evolution of Regional Disparities in the Rural Areas of Muscelele Argeşului

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA CÂRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities are clearly a significant challenge to the new European construction. Disparities are often sources of instability but are also sources of antagonism and unrest. In the case of Muscelele Argeşului, in the past, it was a unitary area in terms of economic and social development, the two Middle Ages royal capitals keeping the balance of this area. After the 50s, the situation changed radically and the uneven development of the towns and villages began to widen. Some villages were collectivized; others were industrialized, while a third category was simply omitted from the development plans. As a consequence, development disparities evolved and became common during the 80s. After 1992, around the towns of Curtea de Argeş and Câmpulung, two relatively more developed regions emerged, while regions in the north and central part of the area were disadvantaged. Beginning with 2002, we are witnessing a reduction of disparities because the underdeveloped areas are increasing and incorporate previously developed areas. The area is starting to become a huge underdeveloped area and some of the main factors that led to this situation are the decay of the two poles of regional development and the closing of the coal mines. Today, the entire area is experiencing a rebirth and the entrepreneurial activities are playing an important role. The huge number of small hotels and accommodation establishments constructed in the west part of the area in the last five years, coupled with several investment projects in Curtea de Argeş, has led to the increased regional importance of the town to the expense of Câmpulung. In the meantime, former mining centres that where the engines of growth for the region became rather underdeveloped. The main cause of this is the fact that the region does not have perspectives and lacks the much needed entrepreneurial activities.

  18. Hydrophobic thickness, lipid surface area and polar region hydration in monounsaturated diacylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: SANS study of effects of cholesterol and beta-sitosterol in unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallová, J; Uhríková, D; Kucerka, N; Teixeira, J; Balgavý, P

    2008-11-01

    The influence of a mammalian sterol cholesterol and a plant sterol beta-sitosterol on the structural parameters and hydration of bilayers in unilamellar vesicles made of monounsaturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (diCn:1PC, n=14-22 is the even number of acyl chain carbons) was studied at 30 degrees C using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Recently published advanced model of lipid bilayer as a three-strip structure was used with a triangular shape of polar head group probability distribution (Kucerka et al., Models to analyze small-angle neutron scattering from unilamellar lipid vesicles, Physical Review E 69 (2004) Art. No. 051903). It was found that 33 mol% of both sterols increased the thickness of diCn:1PC bilayers with n=18-22 similarly. beta-sitosterol increased the thickness of diC14:1PC and diC16:1PC bilayers a little more than cholesterol. Both sterols increased the surface area per unit cell by cca 12 A(2) and the number of water molecules located in the head group region by cca 4 molecules, irrespective to the acyl chain length of diCn:1PC. The structural difference in the side chain between cholesterol and beta-sitosterol plays a negligible role in influencing the structural parameters of bilayers studied.

  19. Changes in rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation and run-out on a local and regional scale in the Wenchuan earthquake area, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Theo; Luna, Byron Quan; Tang, Chenxiao; van Westen, Cees; Alkema, Dinand; Fan, Xuanmei

    2013-04-01

    For the development of early warning systems for the initiation and run-out distances of debris flows, to avoid or mitigate intolerable risks, it is necessary to assess rainfall thresholds. However one must be aware that these thresholds can change. These changes can be ascribed to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical changes. In the Wenchuan area in the Sichuan Province, SW China, changes in thresholds are related to a depletion of source materials for these debris flows. The intensive Earthquake of 2008 in the Wenchuan area generated many co-seismic landslides, which delivered a lot of loose source material. It caused a dramatic increase in debris flow occurrences in the subsequent years. A preliminary model was designed, with entrainment processes driven by run-off water as the main triggering mechanism, to describe the relationship between rain input and debris flow run-out with the intention to assess rainfall thresholds for the start of debris flows and critical run out distances. The model was calibrated on the depositional volumes of debris flow events which occurred in individual catchments in August 2011. The calibrated model was used to construct rainfall intensity -duration threshold curves. These curves describe the thresholds for a critical run-out distance, determined by the outlet of the catchment, which was considered as the limit beyond which elements at risk situated in the main river plain are threatened. The research is focused on the change in these thresholds curves after a range of consecutive debris flow triggering rain events. It appeared that for individual catchments the rate of change of these thresholds can vary dramatically which is related to the location of available loose erodible material in the catchment. The model is also applied on a regional scale in the Jingxiu area. A method was proposed to made a general estimate of the time duration to arrive at a debris flow frequency level before the earthquake

  20. [Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem.

  1. Study on Eco-climate Type Regionalization of Wheat Growing Areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxin; LU; Limin; CAO; Zhongping; ZHANG; Hongbo; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide an objective and scientific theoretical basis for rational distribution of wheat growth in Yunnan Province,according to the relationship between Yunnan weather conditions and wheat growth adaptability,a study on eco-climate type regionalization of wheat growing areas in Yunnan was conducted using principal component analysis and GIS technology. The results show that Yunnan Province could be divided into four types,namely southern warm and humid wheat growing area,central semi-arid wheat growing area,central semi-humid wheat growing area and north-central cold wheat growing area.

  2. [Isolation and characteristics of DNA fragments for the region of the tissue plasminogen activator genes and areas adjacent to it in the human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafanov, A G; Timofeeva, M Ia; Aleshkov, S B; Kupriianova, N S; Bannikov, V M; Zakhar'ev, V M; Baev, A A

    1994-01-01

    Fragments overlapping the tPA gene and its 5'- and 3'-flanking regions were isolated from human liver DNA library cloned in lambda Charon4A vector. A BglII fragment comprising the 3' end and the adjacent genomic region (total length 3.7 kb) was subcloned in plasmid pUC19 and its restriction map was determined. The nucleotide sequence of the 5' region of this fragment was compared with the 3' end region of the tPA gene and the corresponding regions of five published variants of tPA mRNA cDNA from different tissues; discrepancies in seven positions were revealed, which might be caused by intragenomic polymorphism.

  3. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  4. Open boundary conditions for tidally and subtidally forced circulation in a limited-area coastal model using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Gan, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    In limited-area ocean models, open boundary conditions (OBCs) often create dynamic inconsistencies and perform poorly in resolving tidal or subtidal flow when both forces exist. Orlanski-type radiation OBCs are reasonably efficient at treating the subtidally forced flow, and Flather-type OBCs are commonly adapted for the tidally forced flow. However, neither of them performs well when tidal and subtidal forces simultaneously drive the flows. We have developed a novel OBC that integrates the active OBC in Gan and Allen (2005) and a Flather-type OBC. This new OBC accommodates the concurrent Tidal and Subtidal (TST) forcing, and the respective tidal or subtidal forcing, at the open boundary of a limited-area model. This new TST-OBC treats the tidal component with a Flather-type OBC, and it separates subtidal barotropic and baroclinic components into local (forced) and global (unforced) components. Then an unforced Orlanski-type OBC can be applied to the global part. We applied the TST-OBC to all model variables to reduce dynamic inconsistence. Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System, we applied the TST-OBC to the shallow East China Sea shelf where strong tidal and subtidal forces over complex topography govern the circulation. Our numerical experiments and analyses suggest that the TST-OBC was robust for both concurrent tidal-subtidal forcing and solely tidal or subtidal forcing at the open boundary. It reduced spurious energy reflection, and, overall, it performed better than an Orlanski-type or Flather-type OBC in reproducing realistic tidal and subtidal shelf circulation.

  5. Water resources of the Green Bay area, Wisconsin: G in Water resources of industrial regions: A summary of the source, occurrence, availability, and use of water in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Doyle Blewer; Dreher, F.C.; Whetstone, George Walter

    1964-01-01

    The Green Bay area comprises an area of about 525 square miles in eastern Wisconsin at the south end of Green Bay. It includes the western three-fourths of Brown County and the eastern one-ninth of Outagamie County. In 1960, the population of the area was estimated at 124,000.

  6. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mitrofanenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered by the research community. This paper explores the potential for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management in mountainous regions, guided by 3 research questions: What challenges of protected area management could benefit from intergenerational practice? How can intergenerational practice help to address these challenges? And how could intergenerational practice be more strongly integrated into current protected area management? The paper focuses on selected management challenges, mostly related to the development function of protected areas, and suggests intergenerational practice solution pathways for each challenge, derived from qualitative content analysis of the literature, interviews with protected area and regional development experts, and participation in the project Big Foot: Crossing Generations, Crossing Mountains, which tested intergenerational learning approaches in 3 rural municipalities—one each in Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy. Recommendations are proposed for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management policy and practice at the global, regional, and local levels.

  7. Methodology for the elaboration of Natura 2000 sites designation acts in the Walloon Region (Belgium: calcareous grasslands in the Lesse-and-Lomme area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahy G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Walloon Region (Belgium, 239 sites have been selected to be included in the Natura 2000 network. The next step is to write designation acts in order to legally protect these 221,000 ha. In this pilot study, a designation act was elaborated for a Natura 2000 site of 2,569 ha and located in the Lesse-and-Lomme area within the Calestienne region. Although the site includes 40 ha of calcareous grasslands, characterised by an exceptional flora and fauna, this habitat is very threatened by abandonment and fragmentation.The methodology used to elaborate the designation act is presented with respect to calcareous grassland. Firstly, in spring and summer 2003, an accurate map of natural habitats was produced, with every single patch of calcareous grassland being mapped. Information was also collected in order to evaluate conservation status. Based on this information, conservation status was then assessed with respect to three different criteria: (1 integrity of the cortege species, (2 habitat structure and (3 degradations. Thirdly, the site was divided into objective zones according to the different habitats and species of Community interest found in the site. Hence, an objective zone was delineated for calcareous grasslands. This objective zone was then divided in several management units. Finally, at these different spatial levels (site, objective zone, management unit, management measures were suggested. As a result, in the draft designation act, the target is to maintain or restore 230 ha of calcareous grassland, instead of the existing 40 ha. This ambitious target requires large-scale restoration and an efficient grazing scheme. These will need important resources for their successful implementation

  8. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  9. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  10. MM5 Simulations of the China Regional Climate During the LGM.Ⅱ: Influence of Change of Land Area, Vegetation, and Large-scale Circulation Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; HE Jinhai; LI Weiliang; CHEN Longxun

    2008-01-01

    Using a regional climate model MM5 nested to an atmospheric global climate model CCM3, a series of simulations and sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the relative LGM climate response to changes of land-sea distribution, vegetation, and large-scale circulation background over China.Model results show that compared with the present climate, the fluctuations of sea-land distribution in eastern Asia during the LGM result in the temperature decrease in winter and increase in summer. It has significant impact on the temperature and precipitation in the east coastal region of China. The impact on precipitation in the east coastal region of China is the most significant one, with 25%-50% decrease in the total precipitation change during the LGM. On the other hand, the changes in sea-land distribution have less influence on the climate of inland and western part of China. During the LGM, significant changes in vegetation result in temperature alternating with winter increase and summer decrease, but differences in the annual mean temperature are minor. During the LGM, the global climate, i.e., the large-scale circulation background has changed significantly. These changes have significant influences on temperature and precipitation over China. They result in considerable temperature decreases in this area, and direct the primary patterns and characteristics of temperature changes. Results display that, northeastern China has the greatest temperature decrease, and the temperature decrease in the Tibetan Plateau is larger than in the eastern part of China located at the same latitude. Moreover, the change of large-scale circulation background also controls the pattern of precipitation change. Results also show that, most of the changes in precipitation over western and northeastern parts of China are the consequences of changing large-scale circulation background, of which 50%-75% of precipitation changes over northern and eastern China are the

  11. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  12. Geochemistry of the Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, eastern Mexico: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal; Rosalez-Hoz, Leticia; Lee, Yong Il; Balaram, Vysetti; Cruz-Martínez, Adriana; Avila-Ramírez, Gladis

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the Jurassic (Huayacocotla and Pimienta Formations) and Upper Cretaceous (Méndez Formation) shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, Mexico. In this article, we discuss the mineralogy, major, and trace element geochemistry of the Mesozoic shales of Mexico. The goal of this study is to constrain the provenance of the shales, which belong to two different periods of the Mesozoic Era and to understand the weathering conditions and tectonic environments of the source region.

  13. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95th percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates.

  14. Geochronology and Hf Isotope Study of Pegmatite in the Xiaoqinling Area of NW China:Implication for Petrogenesis and Regional Metamorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixiang Zhao; Shaoyong Jiang; Baozhang Dai; Liang Ma; Jianwei Li

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out petrography, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic analyses on a granitic pegmatite dyke in the Xiaoqinling area in southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Our study suggests that the pegmatite dyke likely crystallized from a volatile-rich peg-matitic magma. Different from most other pegmatite elsewhere, zircon from this pegmatite dyke does not contain unusually high U and Th concentrations and suffered no evident radioactive damage, therefore we successfully obtained a zircon U-Pb dating using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which yields an average 207Pb/206Pb age of 1 814±6 Ma, representing the intrusive age of the granitic pegmatite dyke. ZirconεHf(t) values are between-8.3 and-3.0, corresponding to Hf depleted mantle model ages from 2 649 to 2 991 Ma with an average of 2 881 Ma. These data indicate that this granitic pegmatite dyke may have been derived from partial melting of Meso-Neoarchean metamorphic rocks from the Xiaoqinling basement. Granitic pegmatite magma may have emplaced within the Taihua Group wall rocks during the last stage of the middle to high grade metamorphism. Furthermore, according to the petrographic observation, the 1.81 Ga pegmatite dyke and the 1 800–1 750 Ma Xiong’er Group rocks were not undergone middle to high grade meta-morphism, indicating 1.81 Ga as the termination of the latest regional metamorphism in the southern margin of the NCC.

  15. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. Brodmann's Area Template Based Region of Interest Setting and Probabilistic Pathway Map Generation in Diffusion Tensor Tractography: Application to Arcuate Fasciculus Fiber Tract in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon eLee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to acquire accurate diffusion tensor tractography (DTT results for arcuate fasciculus (AF fiber tract using Brodmann's area (BA template for region of interest (ROI setting. Thirteen healthy subjects were participated in this study. Fractional anisotropy (FA map of each subject was calculated using diffusion tensor data, and T1w template was co-registered to FA map. The BA template was also co-registered using the transformation matrix. The ROIs were drawn in the co-registered BA template, and AF fiber tract was extracted. To generate the probabilistic pathway map, a binary mask image was generated based on the fiber tract image and co-registered to T1w template image. We also measured relative location of the AF fiber tract. The location of the probability pathway map of each subject’s AF fiber tract was well defined in the brain. By using this probabilistic map, the mediolateral position ratio of AF was measured 18%, and the anteroposterior position ratio of AF was measured 35%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the AF fiber tract can be extracted using BA template for ROI setting and probabilistic pathway of fiber tract. Our results and analytical approaches can helpful for accurate fiber tracking and application of perspective clinical researches.

  17. Microconchids from Microbialites near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Zuodeng Section, Baise Area, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China and Their Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yang; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Weiquan Ou

    2015-01-01

    Abundant microconchid worm tubes were extracted from the microbialites deposit near the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Zuodeng Section, Baise area, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Re-gion, South China. These calcareous worm tubes were studied in both petrographic thin sections and isolated specimens using optical microscope and sensitive electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. They are categorized into two morphological types: helically coiled and planispirally coiled tubes, which are assignable to Microconchus aberrans (Hohenstein, 1913) and M. utahesis (Zatońet al., 2013), respectively. The tube wall ultrastructure is characterized by laminated micrites, which distinguish the studied microconchids from comparable microgastropods or spirorbid polychaete that usually has shell ultrastructure of spar texture. The overwhelm majority of microconchids from the microbialite possess the planispirally coiled tubes. The lifestyle of extant, morphologically convergent spirorbids suggests that these planispirally coiled microconchids may have colonized in some local oxygenic oases probably produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria in the oxygen-poor microbialite ecosystem in which they may have settled densely with high competition among various individuals and with other associated animals for oxygen consumption and food soucres. The deleterious environment condition of the mi-crobialite ecosystem immediately after the Permian-Triassic biocrisis is also indicated by various geo-chemical signals derived from the same section. Such a deleterious habitat may be inhospitable for most metazoans, but it has some local oxygenic oases that was favorable for opportunistic taxa to dwell.

  18. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism,64 adult male healthy Spragne-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups,the false operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group).After surgical operation,the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation,while the other group did not.Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h,8 h,24 h and 3 d after surgical operation,respectively.The rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus was also detected by the PerifluxPF model laser Doppler flowmetry,and the expressions of c-fos or c-jun or Bcl-2 and Bax were also measured by immune histochemistry S-P method accordingly.Results showed that the rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group (P < 0.05).The learning indexes,error number (EN),day of reach standard and total reaction time (TRT) in the operation group,were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).However,the initiative evasion rate in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group.The study also found that the rCBF was relatively more,the indexes (EN,the day of reach standard and TRT) relatively fewer,but the initiative evasion rate and the memory keeping rate were relatively more.The positive expression and the average absorbency of Fos and Jun in the operation group were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).Furthermore,Bax and Bcl-2 positive cells were all increased over time in the operation group,and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the operation group was significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P<0.01).In conclusion,rCBF decrease can impair the learning and memory function in rats,which may be related to

  19. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  20. REGIONAL FEATURES OF LONG-TERM SST VARIATION IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启龙; 翁学传; 程明华

    2001-01-01

    The main features of SST interarmual and long-term variations in the Western Pacific Warm Pool area were studied by using regression analysis, running t-test and spectral analysis methods based on monthly mean SST data in the Pacific during 1950 - 1998. The results showed that the SST inter-annual and long-term variations in the Western Pacific Warm Pool area had evident regional features.There were significant differences in variation range, phase, period, occurrence time of abrupt variation between SST in the eastern area (east of 100°E) and SST in the western area (west of 100°E).

  1. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Transmission Organization Membership AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Western Area Power Administration Recommendation to Pursue Regional Transmission Organization Membership... formal negotiations with the Southwest Power Pool (SPP), a Regional Transmission Organization...

  2. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  3. Applying spatio-temporal models to assess variations across health care areas and regions: Lessons from the decentralized Spanish National Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Martínez-Lizaga, Natalia; Peiró, Salvador; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the ability of hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal models in capturing different geo-temporal structures in order to explain hospital risk variations using three different conditions: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer (CCC) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Research design This is an observational population-based spatio-temporal study, from 2002 to 2013, with a two-level geographical structure, Autonomous Communities (AC) and Health Care Areas (HA). Setting The Spanish National Health System, a quasi-federal structure with 17 regional governments (AC) with full responsibility in planning and financing, and 203 HA providing hospital and primary care to a defined population. Methods A poisson-log normal mixed model in the Bayesian framework was fitted using the INLA efficient estimation procedure. Measures The spatio-temporal hospitalization relative risks, the evolution of their variation, and the relative contribution (fraction of variation) of each of the model components (AC, HA, year and interaction AC-year). Results Following PCI-CCC-CODP order, the three conditions show differences in the initial hospitalization rates (from 4 to 21 per 10,000 person-years) and in their trends (upward, inverted V shape, downward). Most of the risk variation is captured by phenomena occurring at the HA level (fraction variance: 51.6, 54.7 and 56.9%). At AC level, the risk of PCI hospitalization follow a heterogeneous ascending dynamic (interaction AC-year: 17.7%), whereas in COPD the AC role is more homogenous and important (37%). Conclusions In a system where the decisions loci are differentiated, the spatio-temporal modeling allows to assess the dynamic relative role of different levels of decision and their influence on health outcomes. PMID:28166233

  4. Regional Virtual Water Trade Strategy in Drought Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze the virtual water trade in drought area in China.[Method]Taking agricultural production which was related to water resources as study object and by dint of opportunity cost and comparative advantage theory,water resources have been included into a series of state macro-objective models,such as economic growth,crops safety,and increase of people's well-fare.Virtual water resource strategy was verified effectively and relevant suggestions on virtual water trade in the drought...

  5. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N.

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth.

  6. US EPA Region 9 24-Hour PM-25 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are...

  7. Reduced uncertainty of regional scale CLM predictions of net carbon fluxes and leaf area indices with estimated plant-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Baatz, Roland; Montzka, Carsten; Schmidt, Marius; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of carbon fluxes and states at regional scales are required to reduce uncertainties in regional carbon balance estimates and to support decision making in environmental politics. In this work the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5-BGC) was applied at a high spatial resolution (1 km2) for the Rur catchment in western Germany. In order to improve the model-data consistency of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and leaf area index (LAI) for this study area, five plant functional type (PFT)-specific CLM4.5-BGC parameters were estimated with time series of half-hourly NEE data for one year in 2011/2012, using the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The parameters were estimated separately for four different plant functional types (needleleaf evergreen temperate tree, broadleaf deciduous temperate tree, C3-grass and C3-crop) at four different sites. The four sites are located inside or close to the Rur catchment. We evaluated modeled NEE for one year in 2012/2013 with NEE measured at seven eddy covariance sites in the catchment, including the four parameter estimation sites. Modeled LAI was evaluated by means of LAI derived from remotely sensed RapidEye images of about 18 days in 2011/2012. Performance indices were based on a comparison between measurements and (i) a reference run with CLM default parameters, and (ii) a 60 instance CLM ensemble with parameters sampled from the DREAM posterior probability density functions (pdfs). The difference between the observed and simulated NEE sum reduced 23% if estimated parameters instead of default parameters were used as input. The mean absolute difference between modeled and measured LAI was reduced by 59% on average. Simulated LAI was not only improved in terms of the absolute value but in some cases also in terms of the timing (beginning of vegetation onset), which was directly related to a substantial improvement of the NEE estimates in

  8. The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory: Applying Innovative Deep-sea Technologies Toward Research, Service, and Stewardship in Marine Protected Areas of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) is the only U.S. deep submergence facility in the Pacific Rim tasked with supporting undersea research necessary to fulfill the mission, goals, and objectives of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), along with other national interests of importance. Over 30 years of submersible operations have resulted in nearly 1900 dives representing 9300 hours underwater, and a benthic ecology database derived from in-house video record logging of over 125,000 entries based on 1100 unique deep-sea animal identifications in the Hawaiian Archipelago. As a Regional Center within the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), HURL conducts undersea research in offshore and nearshore waters of the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and waters of the central, southern, and western Pacific. HURL facilities primarily support marine research projects that require data acquisition at depths greater than wet diving methods. These consist of the research vessel Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK), human occupied submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V (2000 m), a new remotely operated vehicle (6000 m), and a multibeam bathymetric sonar system (11,000 m). In addition, HURL has also supported AAUS compliant wet diving since 2003, including technical mixed gas/rebreather work. While ecosystem studies of island, atoll, and seamount flanks are the largest component of the HURL science program, many other thematic research areas have been targeted including extreme and unique environments, new resources from the sea, episodic events to long term changes, and the development of innovative technologies. Several examples of HURL's contributions to marine protected areas (MPAs) include: (a) A long term presence in the pristine ecosystems of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Researchers from National Marine Fisheries have used HURL assets to study endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal habitat

  9. Regionalism and geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of regional features, outlining of the contours of regions, tendency to regionalize ethnic, economic, cultural and state-administrative space, and strengthening the ideology of regionalism in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is Serbia and Montenegro, appear as a practical and political but also as a theoretical problem which includes and combines several scientific disciplines. The phenomenon of regionalism is not contradictory although it is primarily expressed through the numerous conflicts of interests rivalry and antagonisms of political subjects. The problematic side of the phenomenon of regionalism includes the result of an extremely negative and existentially tragic experience of the several years-long disintegration of the complex Yugoslav state. During the partition and disintegration of the second Yugoslavia, there also happened the disintegration of the Serbian ethnic area Growth, support and instigation of regional tendencies occurred in the historical circumstances of secession and did not stop in the post-secession period. Particularization and segmentation of political area, as well as the disintegration of the former state, did not occur in accordance with the norms of internal and international law. Legality was late and was achieved within the transformation of power reflected in the changed territorial policy of the dominant alliance of great powers. The entire past decade was characterized by an extraordinary metamorphosis of political space. Secession trend had the territorial features which included the change of borders and had been long in the focus of the global geopolitical attention. Territories were divided and made smaller. Intensive territorial dynamics within the external silhouette of the de-stated SFR of Yugoslavia resulted in the creation of several state and quasi-state political formations. Former republics became semi-sovereign states. Dispersed and displaced Serbian ethnos was configured

  10. Climate regionalization for main production areas of Indonesia: Case study of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdinan; Farysca Adi, Ryco; Sugiarto, Yon; Arifah, Annisa; Yustisi Arini, Enggar; Atmaja, Tri

    2017-01-01

    Spatially, climate condition is vary within a region and considered as essential information for planning activities such as agro-climate zonation. An approach to understand the spatial climate variability is the utilization of climate regionalization that is applied to rainfall data to distinguish differences in the pattern and magnitude (characteristics) of spatial rainfall variability over a region. Unfortunately, the application of climate regionalization poses a challenging issue in Indonesia, considering the availability of climate data. Recent advances in satellite and reanalysis data measuring climate variability over a large area provided an opportunity for the application of climate regionalization in the country. Using the West Java, one of main crop production regions in Indonesia, climate regionalization techniques were applied to map spatial variability of climate types based on rainfall data recorded by climate stations (point based analysis) and estimated by modeled/reanalysis data and satellite observations (gridded data). The regionalization derived from gridded rainfall data have reasonably better in capturing the zonal pattern of differences in climate types within the study region than the regionalization applied to insufficient numbers of site-based rainfall observation. This indicates that the gridded data offers an alternative for climate regionalization, when site-based observations are unavailable or limited.

  11. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  12. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE AMOUNTS OF SINGLE AREA PAYMENT SCHEME IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Teszbir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the causes of regional variation in the direct payments. The publication data has been used from ARiMR, publications which spans the time included the amount of subsidies paid throughout the post-accession period. Both at national and regional level, the total amount of payments increased from year to year, average 10%, which was connected to the principle phasing in. The amount of aid received by individual regions and individual farms varied widely, which had a direct relationship with the agrarian structure and the average total area of farms in these areas. The bigger number of small farms, as well as the smaller average total surface area of a single voivodeship, the lower sum of the payments.

  13. Environmental Status of the Lake Michigan Region Volume 11. Natural Areas of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin and Endangered or Threatened Plant and Animal Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Forest [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lindsley, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation a.re now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endange~ ed or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  14. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume II. Natural areas of the Lake Michigan drainage basin and endangered or threatened plant and animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, F.; Lindsley, D.

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation are now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endangered or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  15. A Contribution to Mitigating Seismic Risk in the Bay Area: The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) GPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.

  16. METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL AREAS OF FORMING SOCIO-ECONOMIC INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Donichev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems of formation of innovation clusters in the regions, the role and the importance of government in these issues. The characteristics of the main socio-economic and innovative performances of the region are analyzed to determine its potential for creating innovative economic cluster. The methods for detecting possible potential areas of formation of such cluster are developed.

  17. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado... the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Desert Southwest Customer Service Region (DSWR... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration,...

  18. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  19. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  20. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter IV. Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on rangelands, pasture, and/or feedlots. The limited...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the areas were

  1. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  2. 50 CFR 92.11 - Regional management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Archipelago; (3) Bristol Bay; (4) Yukon/Kuskokwim Delta; (5) Bering Strait/Norton Sound; (6) Northwest Arctic... agreements with at least 1 partner organization in each of the 12 regions. The partner...

  3. Changes in rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation and run-out on a local and regional scale in the Wenchuan earthquake area, SW China

    OpenAIRE

    Asch, Th. W. J. van; B. Quan Luna; Tang, C.; Westen, A. Van; Alkema, D.; Fan, X.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of early warning systems for the initiation and run-out distances of debris flows, to avoid or mitigate intolerable risks, it is necessary to assess rainfall thresholds. However one must be aware that these thresholds can change. These changes can be ascribed to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical changes. In the Wenchuan area in the Sichuan Province, SW China, changes in thresholds are related to a depletion of source materials for these debris fl...

  4. Bacterial and Archaeal Communities Variability Associated with Upwelling and Anthropogenic Pressures in the Protection Area of Arraial do Cabo (Cabo Frio region - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A. COELHO-SOUZA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUpwelling systems contain a high diversity of pelagic microorganisms and their composition and activity are defined by factors like temperature and nutrient concentration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE technique was used to verify the spatial and temporal genetic variability of Bacteria and Archaea in two stations of the Arraial do Cabo coastal region, one under upwelling pressure and another under anthropogenic pressure. In addition, biotic and abiotic variables were measured in surface and deep waters from three other stations between these stations. Six samplings were done during a year and adequately represented the degrees of upwelling and anthropogenic pressures to the system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed negative correlations between the concentrations of ammonia and phosphorous with prokaryotic secondary production and the total heterotrophic bacteria. PCA also showed negative correlation between temperature and the abundance of prokaryotic cells. Bacterial and archaeal compositions were changeable as were the oceanographic conditions, and upwelling had a regional pressure while anthropogenic pressure was punctual. We suggest that the measurement of prokaryotic secondary production was associated with both Bacteria and Archaea activities, and that substrate availability and temperature determine nutrients cycling.

  5. Assessment of area under menace of torrents in Shivalik region of Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A. K.; Aggarwal, R. K.; Sharma, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    Torrents are causing vast area submergence and damage to life, property and infrastructure almost every year. This is the most common problem in foothills of Shivaliks, spread over the northern states of India. With the help of modern tools like GIS and remote sensing techniques, a study has been made to assess the extent of problem more accurately.Data from Indian Remote Sensing Satellites has been used for gathering the information about the area under study. The data and imageries were acquired for different northern states under Shivalik region viz. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttranchal/Uttar Pradesh and Chandigarh (UT). Data were collected and analyzed with the help of Punjab Remote Sensing Centre Ludhiana and Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre Dehradun. The results shows that the area under torrents and rivers was found to be 323 sq. km in Punjab, 400 sq.km in Himachal Pradesh, 238 sq.km in Haryana, 414 sq.km in Uttar Pradesh/Uttranchal and about 140 sq.km in J and K., which may vary every year depending on the monsoon and other factors in the Shivalik region. The assessment of the magnitude of the problem provides the insight and need of reclamation of the affected land and suitable technology to control the flashy torrents, which do much damage in the rainy season and causes flood in the downstream areas. About 1500-sq. km area lies under torrents and the area affected can be up to 7,500 sq. km in the Shivaliks. This demands a development of economically viable and suitable technology to combat the menace of torrent in the region.

  6. [Content of natural uranium in the lichens and distribution of forms in the soil at the coastal area of Lakes Itkul and Sinara of Chelyabinsk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyudina, A L; Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of natural uranium in soils superaquatic and transeluvial positions of the coastal landscape of lakes Itkul and Sinara, and liches on this site.The necessity of analysis of the content item in accordance with its form of occurrence in the natural environment. The peculiarities of the migration, accumulation and distribution of uranium in soils of the mountain areas of the watersheds of lakes Itkul and Sinara are found. Identified of specificity species lichens on the content of uranium in the substrate.

  7. Valuing nature-based recreation in public natural areas of the Apalachicola River region, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Stein, Taylor V; Clark, Julie

    2007-12-01

    As more people visit natural areas for tourism and recreation purposes, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the value they place on these natural resources. Specifically, tourists to Florida have been increasingly interested in visiting natural areas, forests, parks, and preserves-highlighting the importance of this new and growing phenomenon. We analyze visitors' demand for nature-based recreation in the Apalachicola River region of Florida using the travel cost method. The results from a count data regression model reveal that on average visitors would pay 74.18 dollars per visit-day for nature-based recreation resulting in a total economic value of 484.56 million dollars attributable to nature-based recreation in the Apalachicola River region. Results of this study provide useful information for natural resources management in the region and a rationale to preserve Florida's unique ecosystems.

  8. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  9. Structural geology and regional tectonics of the Mineral County area, Nevada, using Shuttle Imaging Radar-B and digital aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borengasser, Marcus X.; Taranik, James V.

    1988-01-01

    SIR-B and aeromagnetic lineaments show a correlation with known faults within the Walker Lane of the western Basin and Range Province. Walker Lane faults can be extended based on SIR-B data and unmapped Walker Lane features are identified. South of the Pancake Range lineament, Walker Lane faults are seldom recognized but SIR-B data have the potential for delineating structural features in this area. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in profiles across a SIR-B lineament is consistent with that expected from a vertical fault. Field examination indicates that the lineament is an unmapped neotectonic Walker Lane feature.

  10. Synthesis of Findings from Southern Regional Cooperative Research Project S-44: Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Virlyn A.; Morgan, Carolyn A.

    A group of rural sociologists initiated this 1958-1965 research project for the purpose of increasing knowledge about social and economic adjustments of low-income people in the rural areas of the South. Factors found to be associated with the adjustment of low-income families and individuals were anomia, level-of-living, joint decision making,…

  11. Heavy minerals and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the Almklovdalen area, Western Gneiss Region, SW Norway: Implications for provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Anne; Meinhold, Guido; Morton, Andrew C.; Schönig, Jan; von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy minerals commonly document the geological setting in the source area, hence they are widely used in sedimentary provenance analysis. In heavy mineral studies, the 63-125 and 63-250 μm grain size fractions are most commonly used. Heavy mineral data and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the catchment area draining the Almklovdalen peridotite massif in SW Norway reveal that a wider grain size spectrum needs to be considered to avoid misleading interpretations. The Almklovdalen peridotite massif consists mainly of dunite and harzburgite, as testified by the heavy mineral suite. At the outlet of the main river, the heavy mineral spectrum is very monotonous due to dilution by a strong influx of olivine. Heavy minerals like apatite and epidote characterising the host gneisses have almost disappeared. MgO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the coarser grain size fractions, whereas MnO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the finer grain size fractions. Garnets with pyrope content exceeding 50% are only found in the 500-1000 μm grain size fraction. Therefore, the sample location and the selected grain size fraction are of paramount importance when dealing with heavy minerals and mineral geochemical data; otherwise, provenance-sensitive information may be missed.

  12. Shallow earthquake swarms in southern Ryukyu area: manifestation of dynamics of fluid and/or magma plumbing system revealed by teleseismic and regional datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake swarm occurrence beneath volcanic domains is one of the indicators of current magmatic activity in the Earth's crust. Repeated occurrence of teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms has been observed in the lithospheric wedge of the southern Ryukyu area above the subducting slab of the Philippine Sea Plate. The swarms were analyzed using the EHB, ISC and JMA catalogs of hypocenter parameters. The swarm earthquakes are shallow (1-60 km), in the body-wave magnitude range up to 5.8. The swarms are distributed beneath the seafloor, parallel to the Ryukyu Trench along a belt connecting active subaerial volcanoes Io-Torishima north-east and Kueishantao west of the investigated area. Epicentral zones of the swarms often coincide with distinct elevations at the seafloor—seamounts and seamount ranges. The top of the subducting slab reaches a depth of about 100 km beneath the zones of earthquake swarm occurrence, which is an average depth of a slab beneath volcanoes in general. The repeated occurrence of relatively strong, teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms thus probably reflects fluid and/or magma migration in the plumbing system of the volcanic arc and points to brittle character of the lithospheric wedge at respective depths. In addition to the factual results, this study documents the high accuracy of hypocenter parameter determinations published by the International Seismological Centre and the usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure.

  13. On the Area Expansion of Magnetic Flux-Tubes in Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Cirtain, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field extrapolated from the high-resolution \\textit{Hinode}/SOT magnetogram of a quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux-tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the SOT magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes t...

  14. People Participation, an Undeniable Necessity for Conserving Forest Areas of Arasbaran Region in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of participation has recently become an interesting point for many national, regional and international institutions. Participation and collaboration of Iranians in the field of natural resources conservation has an old history. During a long period of time, vast areas of natural resources have been protected by the dwellers and indigenous users; we are witnessing deep land use changes in the fields of natural resources so that we can observe its negative impacts in different places because of changes in the traditional systems of exploitation, decentralization, lack of appropriate alternative participatory system, population growth, poverty and lack of adequate knowledge of users,. It is while, the villagers and forest's inhabitants, play an important role in managing of natural resources particularly in forested areas. It is because they have an indigenous knowledge which can be used in the process of natural resources management. Among Iranian forests, Arasbaran Region has a significant ecological value for the whole country as well as regional ecosystems. Hence, for protecting the forests of this region, people participation is inevitable. For an appropriate participatory forestry in this region, first of all there must be an adequate awareness about inhabitants of region. For this purpose, many methods such as PRA or RRA can be used. In the present research, Arasbaran forested region was investigated and people collaboration and participation with respect to the developing and protecting of forests of the region were analyzed using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA. Accordingly, this research tried to spotlight the people participation in the protection of natural resources. The results revealed that, expanding people’s participation in this field depends on informing local people, decentralizing management process, reducing poverty, facilitating and improving the participation mechanism.

  15. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SEASON PATTERN ON PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, FUNCTION OF HEMOSTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DESEASE OF CLIMATE AREA OF MIDDLE VOLGA REGION

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    O.K. Rybak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate season pattern, severity and outcome of acute myocardial infarction in dependence of yearly patterns of function of hemostasis in middle Volga Region. Season pattern of prevalence myocardial infarction with winter peak was discovered, be accompanied of increase platelet aggregation, deterioration of blood viscosity, fibrinolysis depression. Most serious clinical course of summer myocardial infarction was observed with prosperity of hemostasis.

  17. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  18. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  19. Assessment of water quality in a border region between the Atlantic forest and an urbanised area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Guimarães, Flávia Ramos; Vieira, Carmen Baur; Fumian, Tulio Machado; da Gama, Nilson Porto; Victoria, Matias; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Mendes, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2014-06-01

    The preservation of water resources is one of the goals of the designation of parks that act as natural reservoirs. In order to assess the impact of the presence of humans in an environmental preservation area bordering urban areas, the presence of four pathogenic enteric viruses [group A rotavirus (RV-A), norovirus (NoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV)], as well as the physico-chemical parameters, and Escherichia coli levels were assessed in riverine water samples. From June 2008 to May 2009, monthly monitoring was performed along the Engenho Novo River. RV-A, NoV, and HAdV were observed in 29% (31/108) of the water samples, with concentrations of up to 10(3) genome copies/liter. The natural occurrence of infectious HAdV was demonstrated by Integrated Cell Culture-PCR (ICC-PCR). This study confirms the suitability of using the detection of fecal-oral transmitted viruses as a marker of human fecal contamination in water matrices and indicates the spread of pathogenic viruses occurring in an alleged area of environmental protection.

  20. The contribution of the Youth Communication Center (YCC to the peace building process in the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelava Vera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since its formation, the YCC has been working intensely on the reconciliation process and peace building. Over the past few years, we have implemented programs and conducted activities aimed at different categories of the population (refugees and displaced persons, ethnic minorities returnees, discharged soldiers, representatives of political parties representatives of local NGO-s, etc in more than 40 communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina and broader. During our activities, we have developed a methodology of education on reconciliation and peace building by adapting the experiences of the good practice from other countries to the needs of the local environment we work in. In addition, we also organize programs aiming at connecting the young people in the region, actions and campaigns of public advocacy aimed at bringing about democratic change on the local and on the state level, counseling and psychotherapy for the vulnerable groups of citizens, continual media promotion of reconciliation over radio programs, we organize education for local experts dealing with reconciliation issues etc.

  1. On the area expansion of magnetic flux tubes in solar active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, Jaroslav [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Dzifčáková, Elena [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Cirtain, Jonathan W., E-mail: J.Dudik@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: elena@asu.cas.cz [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field, extrapolated from the high-resolution Hinode/SOT magnetogram of the quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show an overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the Solar Optical Telescope magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist or to active regions producing significant flares.

  2. Regional ecological compensation based on ecosystem service value in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin%基于生态系统服务价值的环京津地区生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭年冬; 李恒哲; 李超; 陈召亚; 许皞

    2015-01-01

    为促进京津冀一体化协同发展及生态环境建设,本文在总结国内外相关研究方法的基础上,引入生态亚区空间尺度,将河北省环京津地区划分为7个生态亚区,应用生态补偿优先级模型,对环京津地区73个县(市)的单位面积生态系统服务价值和生态补偿优先级进行了计算,并从环京津地区整体、生态亚区、县(市)3个空间尺度分析了环京津地区生态补偿的优先领域。结果表明:环京津地区生态补偿优先级总体较高,且西部山地丘陵地区的生态补偿优先级明显高于中东部及东南部平原地区。不同生态亚区单位面积生态系统服务价值差距不大;而不同县(市)的生态系统服务价值差异明显,最低的涞水县为2440元·hm-2,最高的滦南县达10060元·hm-2。各生态亚区中坝上高原草原与农业生态亚区、永定河上游间山盆地林农草生态亚区、冀北及燕山山地落叶阔叶林生态亚区应优先获得生态补偿;各县(市)中位于研究区北部的丰宁满族自治县、围场满族蒙古族自治县等9个县(市)的生态补偿优先级较高,应优先获得生态补偿;而位于东部及南部地区的三河市、大厂回族自治县等49个县(市)应率先支付生态补偿。研究结果与以往的经济补偿强度模型相比,量化了区域间生态补偿的迫切程度,能够较好地反映环京津地区生态经济关系,对于促进京津冀地区协同发展、生态环境保护与土地资源高持续效利用发挥着重要作用。%The area around Beijing and Tianjin is a strategic region in terms of ecological defense of Beijing and Tianjin municipalities. To promote the integration of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the construction of ecological environment, it is key point to clarify the compensators and recipients of ecological compensation. This paper introduced spatial scale of sub-ecological region, and divided the area around Beijing and Tianjin of

  3. The Dynamics of Transmission and Spatial Distribution of Malaria in Riverside Areas of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Costa, Joana D'Arc Neves; da Silva Araújo, Maisa; Escobar, Ana Lúcia; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2010-01-01

    The study area in Rondônia was the site of extensive malaria epidemic outbreaks in the 19th and 20th centuries related to environmental impacts, with large immigration flows. The present work analyzes the transmission dynamics of malaria in these areas to propose measures for avoiding epidemic outbreaks due to the construction of two Hydroelectric Power Plants. A population based baseline demographic census and a malaria prevalence follow up were performed in two river side localities in the suburbs of Porto Velho city and in its rural vicinity. The quantification and nature of malaria parasites in clinical patients and asymptomatic parasite carriers were performed using microscopic and Real Time PCR methodologies. Anopheles densities and their seasonal variation were done by monthly captures for defining HBR (hourly biting rate) values. Main results: (i) malaria among residents show the riverside profile, with population at risk represented by children and young adults; (ii) asymptomatic vivax and falciparum malaria parasite carriers correspond to around 15% of adults living in the area; (iii) vivax malaria relapses were responsible for 30% of clinical cases; (iv) malaria risk for the residents was evaluated as 20–25% for vivax and 5–7% for falciparum malaria; (v) anopheline densities shown outdoors HBR values 5 to 10 fold higher than indoors and reach 10.000 bites/person/year; (vi) very high incidence observed in one of the surveyed localities was explained by a micro epidemic outbreak affecting visitors and temporary residents. Temporary residents living in tents or shacks are accessible to outdoors transmission. Seasonal fishermen were the main group at risk in the study and were responsible for a 2.6 fold increase in the malaria incidence in the locality. This situation illustrates the danger of extensive epidemic outbreaks when thousands of workers and secondary immigrant population will arrive attracted by opportunities opened by the Hydroelectric Power

  4. The dynamics of transmission and spatial distribution of malaria in riverside areas of Porto Velho, Rondonia, in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The study area in Rondônia was the site of extensive malaria epidemic outbreaks in the 19(th and 20(th centuries related to environmental impacts, with large immigration flows. The present work analyzes the transmission dynamics of malaria in these areas to propose measures for avoiding epidemic outbreaks due to the construction of two Hydroelectric Power Plants. A population based baseline demographic census and a malaria prevalence follow up were performed in two river side localities in the suburbs of Porto Velho city and in its rural vicinity. The quantification and nature of malaria parasites in clinical patients and asymptomatic parasite carriers were performed using microscopic and Real Time PCR methodologies. Anopheles densities and their seasonal variation were done by monthly captures for defining HBR (hourly biting rate values. MAIN RESULTS: (i malaria among residents show the riverside profile, with population at risk represented by children and young adults; (ii asymptomatic vivax and falciparum malaria parasite carriers correspond to around 15% of adults living in the area; (iii vivax malaria relapses were responsible for 30% of clinical cases; (iv malaria risk for the residents was evaluated as 20-25% for vivax and 5-7% for falciparum malaria; (v anopheline densities shown outdoors HBR values 5 to 10 fold higher than indoors and reach 10.000 bites/person/year; (vi very high incidence observed in one of the surveyed localities was explained by a micro epidemic outbreak affecting visitors and temporary residents. Temporary residents living in tents or shacks are accessible to outdoors transmission. Seasonal fishermen were the main group at risk in the study and were responsible for a 2.6 fold increase in the malaria incidence in the locality. This situation illustrates the danger of extensive epidemic outbreaks when thousands of workers and secondary immigrant population will arrive attracted by opportunities opened by

  5. [Nitrates and nitrites content in the samples taken from the dug and drilled wells from the area of Podkarpacie region as a methemoglobinemia risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Maciej; Rybakowa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the nitrates and nitrites content in water samples taken from fourteen dug and drilled wells from the area of Podkarpacie, as well as a summary of the previously performed analysis. Private water intakes are not under the supervision of the State Sanitary Inspection. So in the case of exceeding the standards provided by the Regulation of the Minister of Health, regulating the requirements for drinking water, private water intakes can be a serious threat to the health of consumers. Particularly at risk are infants, in whom nitrates and especially nitrites can cause, among others, methemoglobinemia. The analysis was performed by ion chromatography method, making it possible to simultaneously determining the concentrations of nitrates and nitrites. As it turned out there was no presence of nitrites in the water of the tested wells. In five samples taken from the dug wells nitrates concentration exceeding the norm of 50 mg/L have been reported. In two cases, exceeding the nitrate concentrations were significant: 96.53 mg L and 204.65 mg/L.

  6. Air quality assessment of Estarreja, an urban industrialized area, in a coastal region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M L; Monteiro, A; Lopes, M; Ferreira, J; Borrego, C

    2013-07-01

    Despite the increasing concern given to air quality in urban and industrial areas in recent years, particular emphasis on regulation, control, and reduction of air pollutant emissions is still necessary to fully characterize the chain emissions-air quality-exposure-dose-health effects, for specific sources. The Estarreja region was selected as a case study because it has one of the largest chemical industrial complexes in Portugal that has been recently expanded, together with a growing urban area with an interesting location in the Portuguese coastland and crossed by important road traffic and rail national networks. This work presents the first air quality assessment for the region concerning pollutant emissions and meteorological and air quality monitoring data analysis, over the period 2000-2009. This assessment also includes a detailed investigation and characterization of past air pollution episodes for the most problematic pollutants: ozone and PM10. The contribution of different emission sources and meteorological conditions to these episodes is investigated. The stagnant meteorological conditions associated with local emissions, namely industrial activity and road traffic, are the major contributors to the air quality degradation over the study region. A set of measures to improve air quality--regarding ozone and PM10 levels--is proposed as an air quality management strategy for the study region.

  7. LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE INTENSITIES AND SECONDARY COLLATERAL IMPACTS IN THE SEA OF MARMARA REGION - Application of Standardized Remote Sensing and GIS-Methods in Detecting Potentially Vulnerable Areas to Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Other Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive earthquake that struck near the Gulf of Izmit along the North Anatolian fault in Northwest Turkey on August 17, 1999, not only generated a local tsunami that was destructive at Golcuk and other coastal cities in the eastern portion of the enclosed Sea of Marmara, but was also responsible for extensive damage from collateral hazards such as subsidence, landslides, ground liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction and underwater slumping of unconsolidated sediments. This disaster brought attention in the need to identify in this highly populated region, local conditions that enhance earthquake intensities, tsunami run-up and other collateral disaster impacts. The focus of the present study is to illustrate briefly how standardized remote sensing techniques and GIS-methods can help detect areas that are potentially vulnerable, so that disaster mitigation strategies can be implemented more effectively. Apparently, local site conditions exacerbate earthquake intensities and collateral disaster destruction in the Marmara Sea region. However, using remote sensing data, the causal factors can be determined systematically. With proper evaluation of satellite imageries and digital topographic data, specific geomorphologic/topographic settings that enhance disaster impacts can be identified. With a systematic GIS approach - based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM data - geomorphometric parameters that influence the local site conditions can be determined. Digital elevation data, such as SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with 90m spatial resolution and ASTER-data with 30m resolution, interpolated up to 15 m is readily available. Areas with the steepest slopes can be identified from slope gradient maps. Areas with highest curvatures susceptible to landslides can be identified from curvature maps. Coastal areas below the 10 m elevation susceptible to tsunami inundation can be clearly delineated. Height level maps can also help locate

  8. Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh Attila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seizure propagation phenomenon by inducing remote symptoms brings several difficulties in finding the seizure onset and delineating the epileptic network which should be taken into consideration in epilepsy surgery. By demonstrating a difficult (MRI negative epilepsy surgery case explored with invasive presurgical evaluation we highlight the importance to recognise the secondary sensory area and to explore the the parieto-opercular-insular-medial frontal network in certain cases. A further conclusion is the consideration of the redistributory role of the insula as a special structure in the cerebral connectome, having a role in epileptic network organisation.

  9. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  10. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Deniz; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) in İzmir for 2008-2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir.

  11. CONFLICT OF AQUATIC RESOURCES AND ITS UNDERLYING CAUSES: A CASE STUDY FROM DONAN RIVER AREA, SEGARA ANAKAN REGION, CILACAP, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Budhi Pramono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to know internally conflict on the use of aquatic  resources at around Donan River, Segara Anakan region Cilacap.  Using on fisheries resources was not free against potential conflict among the user or with its interest’s one related to that resources.  The lack on capability of identified conflict would be a limiting factor for the implementation on the fisheries resources management program.  The research was hold in the region of Segara Anakan, Donan River from August until October 2005.  The data collection techniques applied in this survey included questionnaire; observation; in-depth interview with leaders of fisherman organizations; and focus group discussion. Quantitative data was analyzed by descriptive statistics.  The research showed that fisherman’s community along Donan River line were not out of inside potentially conflict among inter micro-micro, intra micro-micro and intra micro-macro.  This potential conflict were appeared because of presence on the different perception belong to its authority access against Donan River and their open system on the fisheries resources management.Keywords : Conflict, Donan River, Aquatic Resources, Fisherman Community

  12. Knowledge and practices on maternal health care among mothers: A Cross sectional study from rural areas of mid-western development region Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gyawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe motherhood is a priority program in Nepal, aiming to restrain maternal deaths. Meanwhile, knowledge, practices, accessibility, and service quality are considered keys to improve service utilization. This study was conducted to identify knowledge and practices of maternal health care among mothers having < 1-year-old child in the Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during January-April 2011 in rural, Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Three Village Development Committees (VDC from Bardiya (plain and two VDCs from each of the Salyan and Pyuthan (hill and Jumla (mountain districts were selected randomly. Hence, there were 81 clusters (1VDC = 9 clusters and 7-8 participants were selected randomly from each cluster. Data were collected by interview using structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guideline (18 FGDs, analyzed by SPSS (16.0. CD recorded qualitative data were transcribed and narrated. Percent mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Three quarters of the participants had correct knowledge regarding minimum numbers of antenatal visits to be done by a pregnant woman (WHO guideline. Nearly two-fifth participants knew schedule of antenatal care (ANC visits. Almost 60% had done ≥ 4 ANC visits during last pregnancy. Majority visited Sub Health Post/Health Post/Primary Health Care Centre for ANC Checkup. About 90% had taken Iron and folic acid tablets. About 57% were home deliveries (last childbirth, 40% deliveries were assisted by relatives/husband, and only 32% did postnatal health checkup. Conclusions: There were gaps in the knowledge and practices for health care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postpartum period. A high rate of home deliveries with the low postnatal service utilization was prevalent. Intensive awareness progam and behavioral change interventions, regular pregnancy monitoring may promote the

  13. Forecasting Areas Vulnerable to Forest Conversion in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tam Dao National Park (TDNP is a remaining primary forest that supports some of the highest levels of biodiversity in Vietnam. Forest conversion due to illegal logging and agricultural expansion is a major problem that is hampering biodiversity conservation efforts in the TDNP region. Yet, areas vulnerable to forest conversion are unknown. In this paper, we predicted areas vulnerable to forest changes in the TDNP region using multi-temporal remote sensing data and a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN with a Markov chain model (MLPNN-M. The MLPNN-M model predicted increasing pressure in the remaining primary forest within the park as well as on the secondary forest in the surrounding areas. The primary forest is predicted to decrease from 18.03% in 2007 to 15.10% in 2014 and 12.66% in 2021. Our results can be used to prioritize locations for future biodiversity conservation and forest management efforts. The combined use of remote sensing and spatial modeling techniques provides an effective tool for monitoring the remaining forests in the TDNP region.

  14. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  15. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  16. Housing of the Gorodets Population Forest-Steppe Area Don Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razuvaev Yury D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies middle – second half of the first millennium BC dwellings found on the Gorodets settlements from the forest-steppe area of the Don region. Majority of sites belonging to this culture are short-term stations without any permanent structures. Such structures were found only on stationary settlements located in river basins and on hillforts. Overall, thirteen surface (including with partly buried foundation and three half-buried dwellings were studied, including some small (3.5–7 sq.m, medium (11–17 sq.m and bigger (over 25 sq.m structures, of different shapes (rectangular, square, trapezoid. Half of the structures had open hearths. Three hillforts contained traces of dwellings forming one complex with fortifications. The studied structures find analogies both within the Gorodets area and on adjacent forest-steppe and forest areas.

  17. Changes in composition and pore space of sand rocks in the oil water contact zone (section YU1 3-4, Klyuchevskaya area, Tomsk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolivko, N.; Perevertailo, T.; Pavlovec, T.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides an analysis of specific features in changes of rocks in the oil water contact zone. The object of study is the formation YU1 3-4 (J3o1) of Klyuchevskaya oil deposit (West Siberian oil-gas province, Tomsk region). The research data allow the authors to determine vertical zoning of the surface structure and identify the following zones: oil saturation (weak alteration), bitumen-content dissolution, non-bitumen-content dissolution, cementation, including rocks not affected by hydrocarbon deposit. The rocks under investigation are characterized by different changes in composition, pore space, as well as reservoir filtration and volumetric parameters. Detection of irregularity in distribution of void- pore space in oil-water contact zones is of great practical importance. It helps to avoid the errors in differential pressure drawdown and explain the origin of low-resistivity collectors.

  18. Permian Radiolarians from the A’nyemaqen Mélange Zone in the Huashixia Area of Madoi County, Qinghai Province, Western China, and Their Implications on Regional Tectonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Zhao; Xing Huang; Xionghua Zhang; Bing Yang; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Fuhao Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The Huashixia area in the Madoi County, Qinghai Province, western China is one of the most important areas for the studies of the formation and evolution of the A’nyemaqen mélange zone due to the well exposed, relatively complete tectonostratigraphic successions. However, the timing and evolu-tionary process of the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean has long been poorly understood. Recently, we obtained abundant radiolarians from the siliceous rocks of the Maerzheng Formation of this mélange zone in Huashixia. Total 19 species in 10 radiolarian genera have been identified. They belong mainly to the Al-baillellaria, Spumellaria, Entactinaria, and Latentifistularia. Four radiolarian assemblage zones are es-tablished, including: thePseudoalbaillella rhombothoracata,Pseudoalbaillella scalprata,Ruzhencevispongus uralicus,andFollicucullus bipartitus-Follicucullussp. cf.F. ventricosus zones. Radiolarian faunal correla-tions suggest a late Artinskian–early Kungurian age and late Capitanian–early Wuchiapingian age for the first two zones from the lower part and the last two zones from the upper parts of the Maerzheng Forma-tion, respectively. All radiolarians are typical of deep water elements living in deep oceans in low latitudes during the Permian. Previously, the radiolarians of Early Carboniferous to Early Permian age and fusu-linids of Early–Middle Permian age have also been reported from the A’nyemaqen mélange successions. The combination of the newly found radiolarians with the previously reported faunal and microfloral as-semblages as well as radiometric ages obtained from the same stratigraphic units indicates that the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean may have opened initially during the Early Carboniferous, expanded from the Early–Middle Permian, reached its acme in the early Late Permian, shrunk during the latest Permian to Early Triassic, and eventually was closed in the Middle Triassic.

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Malta Rocket Fuel Area Site, Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, NY, July 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) selection of the remedial action for the Malta Rocket Fuel Area site (the Site). The remedy addresses the principal threats to human health and the environment that are posed by conditions at the Site. Exposure to soil contamination at the Malta Test Station will be addressed by excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil. Ingestion of contaminated ground water by on-site employees will be addressed by pumping the Test Station water supply wells and treating the water to acceptable drinking water standards using an air stripper. Ground water not captured by the air stripper will be remediated to cleanup standards through natural attenuation and degradation processes.

  20. Aerosol modeling at regional scale over Paris area.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodzic, Alma

    2005-01-01

    Aerosol modeling is a challenging scientific problem aimed at improving our knowledge in the complex processes involved in aerosol emissions, multiphase chemistry and transport. Current chemistry-transport models include sophisticated aerosol parameterizations and need to be evaluated against! observations to assess their performances. However, the evalu! ation of the space-time variability of simulated aerosol concentrations is fairly lacunar, mostly based on episode situations and ground me...

  1. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Deniz, E-mail: deniz.sari@tubitak.gov.tr [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model.

  2. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early

  3. Minimization of Handoff Failure by Introducing a New Cell Coverage Area in the Handoff Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Sarddar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presently, IEEE 802.11 based wireless local area networks (WLAN have been widely deployed for business and personal applications. The main issue regarding wireless network technology is handoff or hand over management, especially in urban areas, due to the limited coverage of access points (APs or base stations (BS. When a mobile station (MS moves outside the range of its current access point (AP it needs to perform a link layer handover. This causes data loss and interruption in communication. Many people have applied efficient location management techniques in the literature of next generation wireless system (NGWS. However, seamless handover management still remains an open matter of research. Here we propose a method to minimize the handoff failure probability by effectively placing a wireless local area network (WLAN AP in the handoff region between two neighboring cells. The WLAN coverage, on one hand, provides an additional coverage in the low signal strength region, and on the other hand, relieves the congestion in the cellular network. Moreover, we perform the channel scanning (required for horizontal handover between the two base stations within the WLAN coverage area, thus minimizing the handoff failure due to scanning delay.

  4. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  5. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  6. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpiérrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodríguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

    2013-08-16

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (Pcomposition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (Pwheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required.

  7. Learning from the energetic rural area. Local and regional coalitions for sustainable development of rural areas; Leren van het energieke platteland. Lokale en regionale coalities voor duurzame plattelands ontwikkeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjon, H.; Arnouts, R.

    2013-07-15

    Citizens and businesses start on a regular basis, and in cooperation with the Dutch government, initiatives to improve the living environment in rural areas. In this study, 32 examples are discussed to detect issues that can be improved. The examples concern more or less successful partnerships for sustainable rural development, in which the market, citizens and civil society play a prominent role. Four issues for improvement are identified: (1) Other accents are required in laws and regulations for the living environment; (2) The Dutch government must give smart directions by means of levies and incentives; (3) A vision of the governments is essential; and (4) Towards a proactive, facilitating government [Dutch] Burgers en bedrijven nemen regelmatig samen met overheden initiatieven om de leefomgeving op het platteland te verbeteren. In deze studie zijn 32 praktijkvoorbeelden onder de loep genomen om die verbeterpunten op te sporen. Het gaat om meer of minder succesvolle samenwerkingsverbanden voor duurzame plattelandsontwikkeling, waarin marktpartijen, burgers en het maatschappelijk middenveld een vooraanstaande rol spelen. Hierbij worden vier verbeterpunten gesignaleerd: (1) Andere accenten gewenst in wet- en regelgeving voor de leefomgeving; (2) Slimmer sturen met heffingen en vergoedingen door de overheid; (3) Visie van overheden is onontbeerlijk; en (4) Naar een proactieve, faciliterende overheid.

  8. Solar Energy Potential Assessment in the Algerian South Area: Case of Ghardaïa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacem Gairaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical position in the solar belt, Algeria is blessed with an abundance of solar energy and has the opportunity to utilize this bounty of natural energy effectively, promoting a clean environment and developing renewable energy technologies in the region. This paper assesses and analyses the solar energy potential in Ghardaïa area (south Algeria to help users for solar energy applications. A database of solar radiation components has been employed for this purpose. The data presented in the paper are compared with other data supplied by renowned regional and international establishments, such as the solar atlas for the Mediterranean and the NASA. The frequency and the hourly distribution of solar radiation components indicate that the region is considered as an economical area and favorable for solar applications, such as the photovoltaic and the concentrating solar power (CSP technologies. In addition to solar radiation, data of two functions, namely, clearness index and sunshine fraction have been examined; their results specify that the site has a clear sky conditions in most time of the year. In general, the obtained results illustrate that the site under consideration can use solar energy as a promising solution to conventional energy.

  9. Anopheline species, some of their habits and relation to malaria in endemic areas of Rondônia State, Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Guimarães, A E; Arlé, M; da Silva, T F; Castro, M G; Motta, M A; Deane, L M

    1989-01-01

    In view of recent studies incriminating several species of anophelines, besides Anopheles darlingi, as malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon, we performed an anopheline survey in four localities--Ariquemes, Cujubim, Machadinho and Itapoã do Oeste--in Rondônia, the most malarious State in the Country. Twenty species were found. An. darlingi was, by far, the dominant species and the only one whose density coincided with that of malaria. On human baits it was more numerous in the immediate vicinity of houses than indoors where, however, it was almost the only species encountered. On both situations it fed mostly at sunset and during the first half of the night. It was less numerous far from houses and scarce inside the forest. Other species (An. triannulatus, An. evansae, An. albitarsis, An. strodei) appeared in appreciable numbers only in Ariquemes, both in areas with and without malaria. The remaining species were scanty. An. darlingi was confirmed as the primary local vector.

  10. Regional climate models downscaling in the Alpine area with multimodel superensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The climatic scenarios show a strong signal of warming in the Alpine area already for the mid-XXI century. The climate simulations, however, even when obtained with regional climate models (RCMs, are affected by strong errors when compared with observations, due both to their difficulties in representing the complex orography of the Alps and to limitations in their physical parametrization. Therefore, the aim of this work is to reduce these model biases by using a specific post processing statistic technique, in order to obtain a more suitable projection of climate change scenarios in the Alpine area. For our purposes we used a selection of regional climate models (RCMs runs which were developed in the framework of the ENSEMBLES project. They were carefully chosen with the aim to maximise the variety of leading global climate models and of the RCMs themselves, calculated on the SRES scenario A1B. The reference observations for the greater Alpine area were extracted from the European dataset E-OBS (produced by the ENSEMBLES project, which have an available resolution of 25 km. For the study area of Piedmont daily temperature and precipitation observations (covering the period from 1957 to the present were carefully gridded on a 14 km grid over Piedmont region through the use of an optimal interpolation technique. Hence, we applied the multimodel superensemble technique to temperature fields, reducing the high biases of RCMs temperature field compared to observations in the control period. We also proposed the application of a brand new probabilistic multimodel superensemble dressing technique, already applied to weather forecast models successfully, to RCMS: the aim was to estimate precipitation fields, with careful description of precipitation probability density functions conditioned to the model outputs. This technique allowed for reducing the strong precipitation overestimation, arising from the use of RCMs, over the Alpine chain and to

  11. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  12. Evaluation of the technical instruction for monitoring and control of water reuse in the health areas managed by the environmental health service of the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Gómez Castelló

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic activities of the Water Reuse Monitoring and Control Program is the supervision of self-control programs–which should be put into practice by the concessionaires that reuse the water provided by the River Basin Organization, in the Health Areas managed by the Environmental Health Service–to check compliance with Annex I of Royal Decree 1620/2007. To facilitate these tasks, this Service issued a Water Reuse Monitoring and Control Technical Instruction in June 2012.In order to test the e effectiveness of monitoring activities concerning water reuse after the issuance of the Technical Instruction, the results obtained from the inspection activities carried out in 2012 were compared with those obtained after the 2014 inspections.The results obtained show that the performance of inspections and the sending of reports to the Basin Organization have led to an increase in compliance with R.D. 1620/2007. All of the inspected plants have a self-control program in place. Furthermore, the number of inspected plants that perform analytical determinations with a frequency below that set by current regulations has decreased drastically.

  13. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area, an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500. Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic, and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60. The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  14. Estimation of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Using Frontal Area Density Determined from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  15. Permanent focal brain ischemia induces isoform-dependent changes in the pattern of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene expression in the ischemic core, periinfarct area, and intact brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscia, Francesca; Gala, Rosaria; Pignataro, Giuseppe; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Cicale, Maria; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2006-04-01

    Dysregulation of sodium [Na+]i and calcium [Ca2+]i homeostasis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Three gene products of the sodium-calcium exchanger family NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 couple, in a bidirectional way, the movement of these ions across the cell membrane during cerebral ischemia. Each isoform displays a selective distribution in the rat brain. To determine whether NCX gene expression can be regulated after cerebral ischemia, we used NCX isoform-specific antisense radiolabeled probes to analyze, by radioactive in situ hybridization histochemistry, the pattern of NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 transcripts in the ischemic core, periinfarct area, as well as in nonischemic brain regions, after 6 and 24 h of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. We found that in the focal region, comprising divisions of the prefrontal, somatosensory, and insular cortices, all three NCX transcripts were downregulated. In the periinfarct area, comprising part of the motor cortex and the lateral compartments of the caudate-putamen, NCX2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was downregulated, whereas NCX3 mRNA was significantly upregulated. In remote nonischemic brain regions such as the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, and tenia tecta, both NCX1 and NCX3 transcripts were upregulated, whereas in the medial caudate-putamen only NCX3 transcripts increased. In all these intact regions, NCX2 signal strongly decreased. These results indicate that NCX gene expression is regulated after pMCAO in a differential manner, depending on the exchanger isoform and region involved in the insult. These data may provide a better understanding of each NCX subtype's pathophysiologic role and may allow researchers to design appropriate pharmacological strategies to treat brain ischemia.

  16. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  17. [Regional ecosecurity pattern in urban area based on land use analysis: a case study in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Xiao, Dunin; An, Shuqing

    2005-12-01

    Mid-scale regional ecosecurity, which takes practical ecosecurity issues as its priority, should be viewed as the core of the multi-scale concept of ecosecurity. For urban area, a special region taking ecological infrastructure as its core mission, the construction of regional ecosecurity pattern may provide a good chance to realize its sustainable development. Based on land use analysis, a qualitative and quantitative research on the landscape pattern, ecovalue evaluation, and driving force analysis of social economy could provide an effective approach to construct the ecosecurity pattern in urban area. This study showed that in Lanzhou, the ecosecurity pattern consisted of three parts, i.e., eco-safeguarding system, eco-buffering system and eco-percolating system, among which, eco-buffering system was the decisive part determining ecosecurity pattern construction. The quantitative analysis of urban spatial expansion pattern was taken as the decisive function to determine the security level of the ecosecurity pattern, which was divided into low, middle and high levels.

  18. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien Hagedoorn

    Full Text Available Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in lung cancer mortality.

  19. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  20. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  1. Classification of evapotranspiration units in major discharge areas of Death Valley regional

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The raster-based classification of evapotranspiration (ET) units is for nine major discharge areas in the Death Valley regional flow system. The ET units delineate...

  2. Ultramafic rocks in the Namurian C series in the Zebrzydowice area (Rybnik coal region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochemczyk, L.

    1984-08-01

    The chemical and physical properties as well as origin of ultramafic rock samples from the Zebrzydowice area in the Rybnik coal region are evaluated. The ultramafic rocks detected by drilling were situated at depths of 1035 m in the top of dacite-andesite system and thermally alterated claystones. Chemical analyses and X-ray examination show that the ultramafic rock consists of secondarily alterated peridotite. The peridotite consists of chlorite-serpentite, phlogopite, bastite, nepheline and opaque minerals. Its chemical composition is characterized by reduced content of silica and a high content of ferric oxide. The ultramafic rock in the Zebrzydowice area differs from mineral and chemical composition of igneous rocks which occur in Carboniferous strata in the west and the southwest of the Upper Silesia basin. Rock of this type has been recorded in the Upper Silesia basin for the first time. 12 references.

  3. Connections of the juxtaventromedial region of the lateral hypothalamic area in the male rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D Hahn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary conservation of the hypothalamus attests to its critical role in the control of fundamental behaviors. However, our knowledge of hypothalamic connections is incomplete, particularly for the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA. Here we present the results of neuronal pathway-tracing experiments to investigate connections of the LHA juxtaventromedial region, which is parceled into dorsal (LHAjvd and ventral (LHAjvv zones. Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL, for outputs and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, for inputs coinjections were targeted stereotaxically to the LHAjvd/v. RESULTS: LHAjvd/v connections overlapped highly but not uniformly. Major joint outputs included: Bed nuc. stria terminalis (BST, interfascicular nuc. (BSTif and BST anteromedial area, rostral lateral septal (LSr- and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nuc., and periaqueductal gray. Prominent joint LHAjvd/v input sources included: BSTif, BST principal nuc., LSr, VMH, anterior hypothalamic-, ventral premammillary-, and medial amygdalar nuc., and hippocampal formation (HPF field CA1. However, LHAjvd HPF retrograde labeling was markedly more abundant than from the LHAjvv; in the LSr this was reversed. Furthermore, robust LHAjvv (but not LHAjvd targets included posterior- and basomedial amygdalar nuc., whereas the midbrain reticular nuc. received a dense input from the LHAjvd alone. Our analyses indicate the existence of about 500 LHAjvd and LHAjvv connections with about 200 distinct regions of the cerebral cortex, cerebral nuclei, and cerebrospinal trunk. Several highly LHAjvd/v-connected regions have a prominent role in reproductive behavior. These findings contrast with those from our previous pathway-tracing studies of other LHA medial and perifornical tier regions, with different connectional behavioral relations. The emerging picture is of a highly differentiated LHA with extensive and far-reaching connections that point to a role as a central coordinator of behavioral

  4. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Beaumont

    Full Text Available The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5. The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  5. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  6. Relationship between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions, using the example of the city of Leipzig region. Final report; Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen am Beispiel der Stadtregion Leipzig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.

    1997-08-01

    Based on the continuous stationary measurements of climate carried out since the summer of 1992 at various sites in the Leipzig area and for mobile air temperature and humidity measurements carried out for in situ weather in the city area at selected test areas, relationships were carried out between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions of the air layer near the ground in the city of Leipzig region. The data on the sealing of the functional types of structures obtained in the context of a further part project were used as an important indicator for the use of areas. A basic precondition for these city climate investigations is the preparation of the extensive data obtained in the form of tables and graphs. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Auf der Basis der seit Sommer 1992 an verschiedenen Standorten im Raum Leipzig kontinuierlich vorgenommenen stationaeren Klimamessungen und bei autochthonen Wetterlagen im Stadtgebiet und in ausgewaehlten Testgebieten durchgefuehrten mobilen Lufttemperatur- und -feuchtemessungen wurden Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen der bodennahen Luftschicht in der Stadtregion Leipzig erarbeitet. Als wesentlicher Indikator fuer die Flaechennutzung fanden die im Rahmen eines weiteren Teilvorhabens gewonnenen Angaben zur Versiegelung der funktionalen Strukturtypen Verwendung. Eine Grundvoraussetzung fuer diese stadtklimatischen Untersuchungen stellt die Aufarbeitung des gewonnenen umfangreichen Datenmaterials in Form von Tabellen und Grafiken dar. (orig./KW)

  7. Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step.

  8. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  9. Features of soil microbial groups in the area Kilmezsky landfill dumping of toxic chemicals ( Kirov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezin Grigory Ivanovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of pesticides a transformation of soil microbial complexes occurs. In the area of Kilmezsky dumping of toxic chemicals (Kirov Region the species composition of soil phototrophes and quantitative characteristics of soil algo-cyano-mycological complexes change as a result of chronic exposure to pesticides . The content of cyanobacteria in the structure of phototrophic systems and the degree of mikromycets populations melanization can be used as bioindicators of soil contamination complementing the set of indicators based on certified laboratory methods of biotesting.

  10. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a

  11. Warty/basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia is more prevalent than differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in nonendemic regions for penile cancer when compared with endemic areas: a comparative study between pathologic series from Paris and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskin, Ana; Vieillefond, Anicke; Carlotti, Agnes; Plantier, Francoise; Chaux, Alcides; Ayala, Gustavo; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-02-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma shows an ample geographic variation in its prevalence with regions of low (North America, Europe, Japan, and Israel) and high (Africa, Asia, and South America) incidence. However, the geographic variation in the distribution of penile intraepithelial neoplasia is not well established. The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of in situ and invasive lesions between geographic areas with low (France) and high (Paraguay) penile cancer incidence using a series of consecutive cases. The French series included 86 cases (57 in situ and 29 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma), and the Paraguayan series, 117 cases (31 in situ and 86 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the overall samples was higher in the Paraguayan series (P < .00001). Comparing the Paraguayan and the French series, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in the former (65.0% versus 19.8%), whereas lesions showing warty and/or basaloid features predominated in the latter (35.0% versus 80.2%) to a significant level (P < .00001). This distinctive pattern of differential distribution was maintained when cases with associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. The pattern of distribution of lichen sclerosus was also distinctive, with a significantly higher prevalence in the Paraguayan population when compared with the French series (32.5% versus 12.8%, P = .0015). In summary, there appears to be a distinctive distribution of penile precursor lesions depending on the geographic region in consideration. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with warty and/or basaloid features predominated in low-incidence areas, whereas differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in endemic regions for penile cancer. Further prospective studies in matched populations and from different geographic regions are needed to further clarify the reasons for this

  12. Regional climate models downscaling in the Alpine area with Multimodel SuperEnsemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The climatic scenarios show a strong signal of warming in the Alpine area already for the mid XXI century. The climate simulations, however, even when obtained with Regional Climate Models (RCMs, are affected by strong errors where compared with observations, due to their difficulties in representing the complex orography of the Alps and limitations in their physical parametrization.

    Therefore the aim of this work is reducing these model biases using a specific post processing statistic technique to obtain a more suitable projection of climate change scenarios in the Alpine area.

    For our purposes we use a selection of RCMs runs from the ENSEMBLES project, carefully chosen in order to maximise the variety of leading Global Climate Models and of the RCMs themselves, calculated on the SRES scenario A1B. The reference observation for the Greater Alpine Area are extracted from the European dataset E-OBS produced by the project ENSEMBLES with an available resolution of 25 km. For the study area of Piedmont daily temperature and precipitation observations (1957–present were carefully gridded on a 14-km grid over Piedmont Region with an Optimal Interpolation technique.

    Hence, we applied the Multimodel SuperEnsemble technique to temperature fields, reducing the high biases of RCMs temperature field compared to observations in the control period.

    We propose also the first application to RCMS of a brand new probabilistic Multimodel SuperEnsemble Dressing technique to estimate precipitation fields, already applied successfully to weather forecast models, with careful description of precipitation Probability Density Functions conditioned to the model outputs. This technique reduces the strong precipitation overestimation by RCMs over the alpine chain and reproduces well the monthly behaviour of precipitation in the control period.

  13. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  14. Zeolites and Usage Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Gülen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are formed via several reactions from the minerals that consist of aluminium and silica. Zeolites, which have a growing significance in recent days are one of important industrial raw materials. As well as being used as a catalyst, theirability to do ion exchange and adsorption make them even more valuable. Zeolites are used in several industries such as energy, agriculture and animal husbandry, mining and metallurgy, construction, detergent, paper, etc. In this study, the definiton, formation and usage areas of zeolites are explained.

  15. Estuarine chinook capacity - Estimating changes in juvenile Chinook rearing area and carrying capacity in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the Puget Sound region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project has two objectives: 1. Estimate the amount of rearing habitat available to juvenile Chinook salmon currently and historically (i.e., ~1850s) throughout...

  16. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 4, Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The two most common types of livestock operations are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the

  17. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  18. Changes in rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation and run-out on a local and regional scale in the Wenchuan earthquake area, SW China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, Th.W.J.; Quan Luna, B.; Tang, C.; van Westen, A.; Alkema, D.; Fan, X.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of early warning systems for the initiation and run-out distances of debris flows, to avoid or mitigate intolerable risks, it is necessary to assess rainfall thresholds. However one must be aware that these thresholds can change. These changes can be ascribed to environmental and

  19. American Indian Areas Located in Region 2 (CENSUS.AM_INDIAN_AREAS_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are both legal and statistical American Indian, Alaska Native, and native Hawaiian entities for which the U.S. Census Bureau provides data for Census 2000. The...

  20. Monitoring snow-cover area change in Antarctic coastline region using MODIS product data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing; Li Rendong; Ye Ming; Lu Yang

    2009-01-01

    Based on MODIS snow products, this article studied the changes of snow cover area during 2003-2006 along the coastline of the Antarctic, and 18 typical regions were chosen for further analysis. The result showed that the change of snow cover area was in a fluctuant downward trend as a whole, and more fluctuated obviously in warm season than in cold season. In temporal scale: for the season cycle, the snow cover extent increased rapidly in cold season (Apr-Oct), while the performance in warm season (Nov-Mar) was not exactly the same during the four years, the snow cover extent decreased in the first and then increased in 2004 and 2006, however, increased firstly and then decreased but reduced as a whole in 2005, for the inter-annual cycle, snow cover extent was the largest in 2003, but reached to the lowest level in 2004, and then increased gradually in 2005 and 2006, whereas, it declined with fluctuant as a whole. In spatial scale, changes mainly centralized along the coastline, moreover, it was more remarkable in the West Antarctic than in the East Antarctic, especially in the Antarctic Peninsula region.

  1. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  2. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part I. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    UBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE ACRONYMS REFERENCES LIST OF PREPARERS INDEX DISTRIBUTION LIST CONTENTS 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Description of Proposed Action and... zeolites , a suspected carcinogen, occur in the soil. Distribution of zeolites in the Great Basin soils is discussed under Mining and Geology (Section...SPRINGPISH 3 WHITE RIVER SPRINOPISH 38 HIKO WFITE RIVER SPRINGFISH 3b MOAPA WHITE RIVER SPRINGFISH 4 ASH MEADOWS SPECKLED DACE 5 INDEPENDENCE VALLEY

  3. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    ‘Crisis’ has been a word frequently heard of over the last couple of years, both in a global meaning (e.g. the environmental crisis, the financial crisis) and also in a more regional or national meaning, many times related to Africa (Horn of Africa, Ivory Coast, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast......, Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory...

  4. Terrorism and Politics Predominate on the Front Pages of the Basque Press. Content and Area Analysis of the Front Pages of the Regional Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jesús A. Pérez Dasilva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the results of research project 08/20 of the University of the Basque Country on the news published on the front pages of the Basque press during the years 1996, 2001 and 2006.The researchers analyse the front pages of the Basque press to determine if their content matches the demand and interests of their readers. The study shows what are the most relevant topics for these newspapers. The research involved a detailed analysis of 2,448 front pages of the five main Basque newspapers, with a total of 19,156 news items. A specific methodology was developed for this work, enabling both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the news stories to be made. The data shown in this paper are a summary of the more detailed results that emerged in the different fields of the research.

  5. Sustaining U.S. Leadership in the Asia-Pacific Region: Why a Strategy of Direct Defense Against Antiaccess and Area Denial Threats Is Desirable and Feasible

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Congressional China Caucus, September 20, 2013. As of December 4, 2014: http://forbes.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=350448 Gilpin , Robert , War...figures adjusted to reflect only combat coded aircraft). 13 Prominent exemplars of this theory are Kennedy, 1987, and Gilpin , 1981. 14 For example

  6. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Dense Gas in the Young L1451 Region of Perseus

    CERN Document Server

    Storm, Shaye; Lee, Katherine I; Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W; Teuben, Peter; Arce, Héctor G; Rosolowsky, Erik W; Meisner, Aaron M; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Shirley, Yancy L; Kwon, Woojin; Plunkett, Adele L; Pound, Marc W; Segura-Cox, Dominique M; Tassis, Konstantinos; Tobin, John J; Volgenau, Nikolaus H; Crutcher, Richard M; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We present a 3 mm spectral line and continuum survey of L1451 in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. These observations are from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), which also imaged Barnard 1, NGC 1333, Serpens Main and Serpens South. L1451 is the survey region with the lowest level of star formation activity---it contains no confirmed protostars. HCO+, HCN, and N2H+ (J=1-0) are all detected throughout the region, with HCO+ the most spatially widespread, and molecular emission seen toward 90% of the area above N(H_2) column densities of 1.9x10^21 cm^-2. HCO+ has the broadest velocity dispersion, near 0.3 km/s on average, compared to ~0.15 km/s for the other molecules, thus representing a range from supersonic to subsonic gas motions. Our non-binary dendrogram analysis reveals that the dense gas traced by each molecule has similar hierarchical structure, and that gas surrounding the candidate first hydrostatic core (FHSC), L1451-mm, and other previously detected single-dish continuum clumps have sim...

  7. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL DENGAN WORK ENGAGEMENT PADA KARYAWAN PT. BANK MEGA REGIONAL AREA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ari Setyo Nugroho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between psychological capital with work engagement employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang. Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development and is characterized by self- efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Then, work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. This study used proportional sampling technique. The subjects were all employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang which have staff levels (N=73. The research instrument was psychological capital scales with 28 items (α = 0.953 and work engagement scales with 29 items (α = 0.938. The results by simple regression analysis obtained rxy = 0.716, with p value = 0.000 (p <0.05. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between psychological capital and work engagement. The higher psychological capital was higher work engagement. Coefficient of determination by 51,3, it meaning that psychological capital effectively contributed for 51,3 % of work engagement. The remaining 48,7 % determined by other factors that are not revealed in this study, for example: job resources and job demands. Keywords: Psychological capital, work engagement, employee

  8. CONCEPTS OF REGIONALIZATION, REGIONAL SUBSYSTEMS, REGIONAL COMPLEXES AND REGIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei D. Voskressenski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines theoretical aspects of regional dimension in international relations and the ways to apply in practice the results of world politics’ analysis from the viewpoint of regional and macro-regional levels. It also considers the key discussion points on regions and macro-regions in the world and Russian research literature. The author concludes that this is exactly the new IR concepts of regional level which should become the prototype of original Russian regional and country studies. These studies need to have a higher degree of theoretical conceptualization of regional level as their basis. Such an approach will enable the researchers to draw deep and unconventional conclusions of practical use especially as far as the non-Western parts of the world which are traditionally less examined by Western researchers, theorists and practitioners are concerned.

  9. Regional heat flux over the NOPEX area estimated from the evolution of the mixed-layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    1999-01-01

    A method to determine the regional integrated heat flux from measurements on the evolution of the mixed-layer is presented. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from successive radiosoundings. The regional heat flux over the NOPEX experimental area, an inhomogeneous region with patches...... was compared to a land-use-weighted average heat flux. The two independent estimates of the regional heat Bur were found to be in general agreement. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Othman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR, weight of evidence (WOE, logistic regression (LR and probit regression (PR approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI. We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC, and relative landslide density (R index show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  11. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  12. Probabilistic map of critical functional regions of the human cerebral cortex: Broca's area revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Matthew C; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Tate, Joseph E; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-10-01

    The organization of basic functions of the human brain, particularly in the right hemisphere, remains poorly understood. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have improved our understanding of cortical organization but do not allow for direct interrogation or determination of essential (versus participatory) cortical regions. Direct cortical stimulation represents a unique opportunity to provide novel insights into the functional distribution of critical epicentres. Direct cortical stimulation (bipolar, 60 Hz, 1-ms pulse) was performed in 165 consecutive patients undergoing awake mapping for resection of low-grade gliomas. Tasks included motor, sensory, counting, and picture naming. Stimulation sites eliciting positive (sensory/motor) or negative (speech arrest, dysarthria, anomia, phonological and semantic paraphasias) findings were recorded and mapped onto a standard Montreal Neurological Institute brain atlas. Montreal Neurological Institute-space functional data were subjected to cluster analysis algorithms (K-means, partition around medioids, hierarchical Ward) to elucidate crucial network epicentres. Sensorimotor function was observed in the pre/post-central gyri as expected. Articulation epicentres were also found within the pre/post-central gyri. However, speech arrest localized to ventral premotor cortex, not the classical Broca's area. Anomia/paraphasia data demonstrated foci not only within classical Wernicke's area but also within the middle and inferior frontal gyri. We report the first bilateral probabilistic map for crucial cortical epicentres of human brain functions in the right and left hemispheres, including sensory, motor, and language (speech, articulation, phonology and semantics). These data challenge classical theories of brain organization (e.g. Broca's area as speech output region) and provide a distributed framework for future studies of neural networks.

  13. 宁夏中部干旱带土地利用变化及驱动力分析%Analysis on Land Use Change and Its Driving Forces in Arid Area of Central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾科利; 张俊华

    2011-01-01

    By using data derived from the 1978 MSS image and 1987,1996,2007 Landsat TM/ETM images and with the help of GIS,the land use change in arid area of central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was analyzed.At the same time,the driving forces of the land use change was identified by making use of the correlation analysis and principal component.The results showed that the overall trend of land use change in arid area of central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was in an enlargement of the areas of cultivated land,urban land,whereas sandy land area decreased 281 682 hm2,an average annual increase rate grassland area was 0.17%,and area of forest land reduced nearly 30 000 hm2 over 30 years.The land use information entropy indicating that the degree of disorder for land use system increased,and the structure of land use became complexity and diversity.It was considered that population,economic,regional socio-economic development degree,industrial structure,agricultural production,socio-input,government policy,and natural factors are the main driving forces inducing land use change in arid area of central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.More importantly,the principal component analysis showed that the impacts of human activity combining with some other conditions were the leading factors that induced dynamic change of the 1and use.%利用1978年MSS、1987年、1996年及2007年TM遥感影像,借助遥感和GIS技术及相关分析、主成分分析方法,对宁夏中部干旱带1978-2007年土地利用变化及驱动力进行了分析。结果表明:1978-2007年耕地、城镇用地面积快速增加,沙地面积减少了281 682hm2。草地以年均0.17%的速率不断增加,林地面积减少了近3万hm2。土地利用系统无序化程度增加,土地利用利用结构复杂性和多样性增大。人口、经济、产业结构、农业生产、投入、富裕程度、政策和自然因素是驱动研究区土地利用变化的主要因素,其中,人口作为社会经济活

  14. The Potential of Periurban Areas for the Resilience of Metropolitan Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present as an organic structure the outcomes from various pieces of research and consulting activities developed over the last few years (2011-2015. Shared topics are: urban-rural partnerships, food planning, metropolitan polices and the territorial resilience of periurban areas. In the first part (the core of the paper the paper underlines critical questions and establishes needs so as to move towards a new approach to development processes in periurban areas. The paper uses some key concepts to present the main outcomes: 1. Understanding complexity (multiscales in space and dynamics (multiscales in time; 2. Identifying all the resources and opportunities; 3. Crosscutting and multi-issues. In the second part (in the final part the paper proposes the “Ecotone” metaphor to support innovation in the approach to periurban areas. It is a “zone of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics uniquely defined by space and time scales and by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems” (Hansen et al, 1992. In these terms, periurban areas may be assumed to be ecotonal zones of transition between urban and rural or natural systems. Using the concept of “ecotonal buffer of transition” to approach the periurban systems it is possible to connect main needs and critical questions underlined to a homogeneous framework and to emphasise on the strategic role that the peri-urban systems play for the future development of metropolitan regions oriented to a improvement of resilience of socio-ecosystems. In the final part the paper focuses on the governace of urban rural partnerships and research perspectives.

  15. Historical aspects about of environmental and sanitary engineering development in local, regional and world area; Aspectos historicos del desarrollo de la ingenieria sanitaria y ambiental en el ambito local, regional y mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2010-07-01

    The development of sanitary and environmental engineering has been significant progress over time reflected in the use of technology to solve problems of different communities not only have engineering aspects but always goes hand in hand with social and cultural. In a short, set out in this paper some significant historical facts before Christ until these days where development has been evident in the field of engineering. (Author) 27 refs.

  16. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    of entrepreneurship). This study sets out to obtain an in-depth understanding of the micro-, community-, and regional-level localized entrepreneurial processes as well as the way in which these processes are intertwined with the spatial context. The contribution of this dissertation lies in the illustration of how...... influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact......, culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...

  17. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  18. Comparison of Hounsfield units by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest by using the CT phantom made with a 3D printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we have observed the change of the Hounsfield (HU) in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest (ROI) at focus on kVp and mAs. Four-channel multi-detector computed tomography was used to get transverse axial scanning images and HU. Three dimensional printer which is type of fused deposition modeling (FDM) was used to produce the Phantom. The structure of the phantom was designed to be a type of cylinder that contains 33 mm, 24 mm, 19 mm, 16 mm, 9 mm size of circle holes that are symmetrically located. It was charged with mixing iodine contrast agent and distilled water in the holes. The images were gained with changing by 90 kVp, 120 kVp, 140 kVp and 50 mAs, 100 mAs, 150 mAs, respectively. The ‘image J’ was used to get the HU measurement of gained images of ROI. As a result, it was confirmed that kVp affects to HU more than mAs. And it is suggested that the smaller size of physical area, the more decreasing HU even in material of a uniform density and the smaller setting size of ROI, the more increasing HU. Therefore, it is reason that to set maximum ROI within 5 HU is the best way to minimize in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest.

  19. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  20. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  1. Temporal-spatial Variations of Dynamic Source Parameters in the Capital Circle Region and Its Surrounding Areas before the 2006 Ms 5.1 Wen'an Earthquake in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuezhong; Li Yan'e; Guo Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Source spectra, corner frequency and zero frequency amplitudes in near-source conditions were measured using waveform data from 989 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ML2. 0 observed by the Beijing Digital Telemetry Seismic Network in the Capital Circle Region of China and its surrounding areas from January 2002 to June 2006 by the Brune model. Relevant formulas that were used for the calculation of dynamic source parameters include rupture radius, seismic moment, seismic energy, stress drop, and apparent stress. Scaling relations and characteristics of temporal-spatial variations of these dynamic parameters before the Ms5.1 Wen'an earthquake in Hebei Province that occurred on July 20, 2006 were analyzed. Results show that apparent stress, stress drop, and the ratio of seismic energy to the rupture radius had relatively high values in some areas before the Wen'an earthquake. These high-value concentration areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain seismic zone. As is seen from the time curves, parameters, such as apparent stress, stress drop, and ratio of seismic energy to rupture radius underwent significant ascending processes before the Wen'an earthquake, but the variation in the corner frequency showed a descending trend. This result might be related to the enhancement of stress in the North China Plain seismic zone before the earthquake.

  2. On the Area Expansion of Magnetic Flux-Tubes in Solar Active Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Dzifcakova, Elena; Cirtain, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field extrapolated from the high-resolution \\textit{Hinode}/SOT magnetogram of a quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux-tubes hav...

  3. Agricultural Land Use Optimal Allocation System in Developing Area:Application to Yili Watershed, Xinjiang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Hongqi; NI Dongying; SONG Wei

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries,land productivity involves little market,where the agricultural land use is mainly determined by the food demands as well as the land suitability.The land use pattern will not ensure everywhere enough land for certain cropping if spatial allocation just according to land use suitability.To solve this problem,a subzone and a pre-allocation for each land use are added in spatial allocation module,and land use suitability and area optimization module are incorporated to constitute a whole agricultural land use optimal allocation (ALUOA) system.The system is developed on the platform.Net 2005 using ArcGIS Engine (version 9.2) and C# language,and is tested and validated in Yili watershed of Xinjiang Region on the newly reclaimed area.In the case study,with the help of soil data obtained from 69 points sampled in the fieldwork in 2008,main river data supplied by the Department of Water Resources of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China,and temperature data provided by Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,land use suitability on eight common crops are evaluated one by one using linear weighted summation method in the land use suitability model.The linear programming (LP) model in area optimization model succeeds to give out land area target of each crop under three scenarios.At last,the land use targets are allotted in space both with a six subzone file and without a subzone file.The results show that the land use maps with a subzone not only ensure every part has enough land for every crop,but also gives a more fragmental land use pattern,with about 87.99% and 135.92% more patches than the one without,while at the expense of loss between 15.30% and 19.53% in the overall suitability at the same time.

  4. Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990-2013:a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, John N; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Murray, Christopher J L; Dicker, Daniel; Foreman, Kyle J.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mohammad H Forouzanfar; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Barber, Ryan M; Vos, Theo; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Hughes, Andrew J.; Fay, Derek F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in Engli...

  5. Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, JN; Briggs, ADM; Murray, CJL; Dicker, D; Foreman, KJ; Wang, HD; Naghavi, M.; Forouzanfar, MH; Ohno, SL; Barber, RM; Vos, T; Stanaway, JRD; Schmidt, JC; Hughes, AJ; Fay, DFJ

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in English regi...

  6. Regional Sustainable Development Strategy for the Athabasca Oil Sand Area : progress report July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents an update on the implementation of the Regional Sustainable Development Strategy for the Athabasca Oil Sands Area (RSDS) which was first released in July 1999 as a framework for managing the cumulative environmental effects of oil sands developments in Alberta to ensure sustainable development. The development of the Athabasca deposit has meant significant economic growth for northeastern Alberta, but also significant environmental impacts. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) is a regional multi-stakeholder group composed of government, industry, environmental organizations, and Aboriginal groups. Both CEMA and RSDS are working in partnership to ensure that environmental objectives are met. RSDS outlined activities and timelines for 14 different themes regarding environmental issues. The delivery of initial products is expected from the fall of 2001 to 2002. Individual product reports will be published and made available to the public as soon as objectives are developed and approved. CEMA has established 5 working groups and several subgroups that have established work plans, budgets and funding plans for their projects. The 5 working groups are as follows: (1) the sustainable ecosystems working group which will deal with issues regarding wildlife, landscapes, and cultural resources, (2) the trace metals and air contaminants working group, (3) nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide management working group, (4) the water working group, and (5) the reclamation working group. This paper described the challenges facing each group and the progress that has been made thus far. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Late Permian mafic intrusions along the boundary area of Jiamusi and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs and adjacent regions, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Mudanjiang Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Ge, Wen-chun; Yang, Hao; Xu, Wen-liang; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock major and trace element data, and Hf isotope data for the metagabbros from the Zhushan pluton and gabbros from the Taiping pluton along the boundary area of Jiamusi and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs and adjacent regions, which will not only place important constraints on the rock-forming ages, source characteristics and tectonic setting of these gabbros, but will also provide insights into understanding the Permian tectonic evolution between the Jiamusi Massif and the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif. Zircon U-Pb dating, determined using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and secondary-ion mass spectrometry, indicates that the magmatic zircons from the Zhushan and Taiping plutons yield 206Pb/238U ages of 256 ± 2 Ma and 259 ± 3 Ma, respectively, interpreted as the emplacement ages of the intrusions. The metagabbros from the Zhushan pluton display the geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline series rocks, and are enriched in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements, and depleted in Nb, Ta, P, Zr and Hf. The εHf(t) values of magmatic zircons in these metagabbros vary from - 5.47 to + 0.74. All these geochemical features indicate that the primary magma of the Zhushan pluton was derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The gabbros from the Taiping pluton are also enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Ba and U) relative to high field strength elements, and have negative Nb-Ta-P anomalies, with εHf(t) values of - 4.02 to - 1.70. It is inferred that they also formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The rocks from the Zhushan and Taiping plutons have similar petrogenetic processes, but their primary magmas are likely to be derived from two distinct magma sources based on geochemical and

  8. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision New Town Center Growth Areas, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_new_town_growth_areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates town center new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Town center new growth areas include local...

  9. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision New Growth Areas, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_new_growth_areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. New growth areas include a mix of industrial, single...

  10. Partial revision of Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Grand Caribbean Region, with the description of two new species and a key to species recorded in the area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado Blas, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    Five Scolelepis species from the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean are reported and certain species previously synonymized with Scolelepis (S.) squamata are revised. Four species are reinstated: S. (S.) goodbodyi (Jones, 1962), S. (S.) minuta (Treadwell, 1939), S. (S.) acuta (Treadwell, 1914

  11. Differences in Parental Involvement Typologies among Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y Parents: A Study of Select Bay Area Region of Houston Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…

  12. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometry and lead isotope data for the regional geothermal system in the Twin Falls area, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Bullen, T.D.; Janik, C.J.; ,

    1997-01-01

    Sulfate-water isotope geothermometry for the geothermal system at Twin Falls, Idaho indicates aquifer-temperatures of 90?? to 106 ??C; most sites are between 90?? and 93 ??C. 206Pb/204pb and 280Pb/204Pb of individual thermal waters are principally a function of how much lead has been dissolved from the carbonate and silicate fractions of the Paleozoic limestone collected west of Grand View Peak. Although most thermal waters are recovered from Tertiary rhyolite, very little of the dissolved lead is from the rhyolite. Recharge to this system occurs in northern Nevada and the fluid moves northward in the Paleozoic limestones. The occurrence of thermal fluid in the Idavada Volcanics near and south of Twin Falls, Idaho is the result of upward movement of this fluid from the Paleozoic limestone.

  13. 长三角区域环境空气质量预测预警体系建设的思考%Discussions on the System of Regional Air Quality Forecasting and Early Warning in Yangtze Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2012-01-01

    Environmental information sharing system and air quality monitoring network of the Yangtze River Delta Region for Shanghai Exuv 2010 provide a successful case for long-tenr regional air quality forecasting an early warning system construction covering this area. The modality for co-operation and essential factors of this system on the Delta were analysed. It is concluded thai Ihe full range of air quality monitoring network and data sharing, emissiun uivenlurj establishment, multi-Diodel ensemble forecast system development, regional consultation and personnel training system are main factors for the long-term project and play an important role in establishment of Yangtze Delta Regional Air Quality Early Forecast Warning System.%世博会期间长三角区域空气质量自动监测网络和数据共享平台的成功搭建和有效运行,为探索长三角区域空气质量预测预警长期合作模式提供了宝贵的经验和启示.需要建立全方位区域空气质量监测网络和数据资源共享系统、源排放清单、开发区域多模式集合预报系统,构建区域多层面运作机制和会商制度,建设一批专业技术和复合型人才队伍.区域不同层面有效的管理体制机制的保障是区域环境空气质量预测预警体系的基础支撑.

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Luthersville, Georgia Tax Areas UTM-NAD 83, Published in 2004, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is...

  15. Business and Commerce, Villa Rica, Georgia Commercial Areas Map, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Business and Commerce dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described...

  16. Rebalancing to the Asia-Pacific Region, and Challenges of Anti-Access/Area Denial & the Air-Sea Battle Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    have made great strides in developing “kinetic and non-kinetic anti-satellite ( ASAT ) weapons, space launch and space surveillance infrastructure...of Intelligence testified to Congress that the Chinese would have substantial ASAT capabilities by 2015. A year after his testimony, he revised the...had arrived on the scene as a serious space competitor.19 The PLA has also developed ground-based ASAT laser systems. In the near future China can

  17. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  18. Identificação e mapeamento de áreas de milho na região sul do Brasil utilizando imagens MODIS Identification and mapping of maize areas in the south region of Brazil using MODIS images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. R. Yi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como proposta avaliar a identificação e o mapeamento das áreas de milho da região noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul a partir de dados multitemporais do sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer a bordo do satélite Earth Observing System - EOS-AM (Terra. O algoritmo de classificação supervisionada Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM foi aplicado com sucesso em uma série multitemporal de imagens EVI pré-processadas. Verificou-se que as áreas classificadas como milho na imagem coincidiam plenamente com áreas mais extensas ou contínuas (> 90 ha de milho. Áreas de menor extensão ou localizadas em encostas de morros, ao lado de vegetação arbórea, não foram detectadas pelo classificador devido à baixa resolução espacial das imagens. A maior utilidade prática da identificação e da classificação digital das áreas de milho obtidas das imagens MODIS está na sua aplicação para isolar ou complementar o mapeamento das áreas agrícolas visando ao seu monitoramento a partir de diferentes índices de vegetação, derivados de imagens de alta resolução temporal e baixa resolução espacial.The present work had the proposal of evaluating the identification and mapping of maize areas in the northwestern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul using multi-temporal data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor on board of the Earth Observing System satellite - EOS-AM (Terra. The supervised classification algorithm Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM was successfully applied in a multi-temporal series of pre-processed EVI images. It was verified that the areas classified as maize in the image fully agree with more extensive or continuous maize areas (> 90 ha. Small or hillsides maize areas having close to shrub and wood vegetation were not detected by the classifier mainly due low spatial resolution of images. The main practical utility of maize’s areas digital classification

  19. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  20. Diversity of malaria in rice growing areas of the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, P; Guillet, P; Robert, V; Fontenille, D; Doannio, J; Coosemans, M; Mouchet, J

    1999-09-01

    It is well known that 'in many instances the rice agrosystem perfectly fits the ecological requirements of pathogens or vectors' and in fact 'malaria, schistosomiasis and Japanese encephalitis are important vector-borne diseases associated with rice production in developing countries' (IRRI, 1987). In spite of these fears, rice cultivation has been on the increase in the African region in response to demographic and economic pressures. However, although rice fields provide suitable breeding places for Anopheles mosquitoes and rice cultivation leads to an increase in the biting rates, the species which are adapted to these sites are not the same in all parts of Africa. Several examples illustrate this phenomenon: An. funestus in the rice fields of Madagascar, An. pharoensis in saline water rice fields in the delta of the Senegal river, An. arabiensis in northern Cameroon and Burundi, An. gambiae Mopti form in the Kou Valley (Burkina Faso) and An. gambiae Savanna form in the rice fields of Kafine near Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire). The vectorial capacities of these species are not the same and malaria inoculation rates are not necessarily increased in the riceland agroecosystem. The consequences for malaria of introducing rice cultivation depend on the situation before its introduction: it could be worsened in unstable malaria areas but not in stable malaria areas. Therefore, sound epidemiological and entomological knowledge are needed before causing any environmental modifications for agricultural purposes and there should be regular monitoring to avoid any outbreak.

  1. [Feasibility Study of a One-Day Educational Program to Train Advance Care Planning Facilitators(ACPFs)in Regional Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Mitsunori; Miura, Hisayuki; Oya, Sanae; Kato, Tomonari; Nagae, Hiroyuki; Osada, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Sachiko; Otsuka, Yasuro; Yamaguchi, Mie; Watanabe, Kazuko; Kito, Katsutoshi; Ooi, Hatsue; Suzuki, Naoko

    2016-12-01

    Promoting advance care planning in regional areas is important. Education For Implementing End-of-Life Discussion(EFIELD) is a two-day educational program for Advance Care Planning Facilitators(ACPFs)developed by the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology. Unfortunately, some trainers experience difficulties implementing the content of the program, and some trainees feel the program is too long for implementation in many regional areas. The purpose of the research is to clarify the feasibility of ACPFs education using a one-day program in regional areas. The methods involved documenting the process of a one-day program from implementation to evaluation from May of 2015 to March of 2016 and then evaluating the effectiveness of the program 3 months after the implementation using meeting minutes from 7 local hospitals. The results indicated a need for 5 steps from program implementation to evaluation as well as 5 categories for final evaluation. The most important finding is that E-FIELD challenged trainers to shorten and simplify their expressions in order to teach the content more efficiently. The second finding is that Group for Promoting Advance Care Planning & End Of Life Discussion in Chita(GACPEL) activities encouraged ACPimplementation within each hospital. The limitations of this research are related to small regional areas. In conclusion, a one-day regional ACPFs educational program is feasible.

  2. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  3. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olutola Fadiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  4. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study’s results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species’ distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587

  5. Data to Accompany the Regional Potentiometric-Surface Map of the Great Basin Carbonate and Alluvial Aquifer System in Snake Valley and Surrounding Areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and...

  6. Regional Development, Inequality and Adult Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen; Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    the growing social and educational divide between the peripheral areas in the region and the largest city center as a major challenge for the society as a whole and for adult education in particular. In this perspective, we describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies...

  7. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  8. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  9. The Regional Objective Precipitation Forecast in North China and Adjacent Areas in Summer%华北及周边地区夏季分区客观降水预报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠光; 赵声蓉

    2011-01-01

    North China is one of three major summer rainfall areas in eastern China. Precipitation over North China shows the characteristics of obvious emergency and locality. According to the statistics, 80%-90% precipitation occurs in June-August. Sometimes daily precipitation of a rainstorm can account for 50% precipitation amount of that month. Therefore, effective forecast is crucial especially for larger magnitude precipitation. Objective precipitation forecast is a difficult problem in NWP products interpretation at present. Objective precipitation forecast models are always established station by station, but larger magnitude precipitation is rare event for individual station. It is difficult to establish an effective forecast equation for an individual station. Precipitation intensity, spatial and temporal distribution over North China has its own particularity. Due to the regional characteristic, it is difficult to summarize in one model. Objective partitioning can be used in establishment of precipitation forecast model. Similar samples in the weather region are combined together. Regional forecast model is more stable than single-station forecast model, as the number of large-class precipitation samples increases.Seven weather divisions for summer precipitation over North China and adjacent areas are developed through Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) method, defined by the large contours of the seven REOF models. Objective precipitation forecast is based on probability regression precipitation categorical forecast. First, original precipitation is converted to 0 and 1 corresponding categories, and then forecast equations of different categories are developed to calculate each criterions. In real forecasting, the categorical precipitation will be determined through the criterion and the probability forecast of that category. Based on the daily precipitation data of station and T213 NWP products during the summer of 2006-2008, precipitation forecast

  10. 江南古桥及文化的地域性功能研究%A Study of the Regional Function of the Ancient Bridges and the Related Culture in Areas South of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱铁军

    2012-01-01

    Located in special geographical environment, the ancient bridges in areas south of Yangtze River has thrived with rich cultural connotations. The paper analyzes the diversification brought by the ancient bridges along with their regional social, economic, and cultural functions, finding that in ancient times they were not only the life support of the local people and the center of the regional commercial economy, and more importantly, in the process of their integration with the society, the ancient bridges had been tightly interweaved with the local social customs, anecdotes, Feng Shui, politics and religion, acquiring a distinctive regional culture. It is shown that the ancient bridges in the areas south of Yangtze River, boasting an important status and unique value in the local culture, has become valuable material and spiritual wealth of the region.%由于江南地区特殊的地理环境,江南古桥及文化发展兴盛,据此对江南古桥及文化所赋予的多元化和更深层次的区域性的社会、经济和文化功能及特质进行了深入的调查和研究,从而认为江南古桥不仅是古代江南百姓的生存依托和江南商业经济的枢纽,更为重要的是,江南古桥在与江南社会不断交融的历史进程中,与当地的社会风俗、奇人逸事、风水玄学、政治宗教等紧密相联,浸染了鲜明的地域文化色彩,充分显示出江南古桥及文化的重要地位和独特价值,也成为江南地域宝贵的物质和精神的双重财富。

  11. Picking up the pieces: conserving remnant natural areas in the post-industrial landscape of the Calumet Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Paul; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker

    1999-01-01

    The Calumet Region was shaped by geologic forces, succession, and interacting biomes converging on a unique natural landscape. Over the past 4500 years, a strand plain has formed to the north of a geologic area called Toleston Beach. Sequential and differential primary succession of dune and swale communities in this region allowed species from different biomes to interact freely. In the mid-nineteenth century, commerce and settlement drastically changed the area, and natural areas were fragmented, manipulated, and degraded by cultural intrusions and industrialization. Despite the near obliteration of dune and swale habitat, small fragments of natural land escaped destruction. These native fragments maintained some semblance of the landscape that once covered the region. Currently, these native fragments are threatened by the lingering intrusion of historic contamination and the continuing presence of industry and commerce. Restoration and conservation of these remnants will need to be a process of integrating biological diversity goals into the landscape of the industrialized region through planning and design. We outline here the natural history of the region, the philosophical rationale for conservation, and possible approaches for integrating and maintaining these valuable remnant resources and processes.

  12. Regional hydrogeological simulations using CONECTFLOW. Preliminary site description. Laxemar sub area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; McCarthy, Rachel [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale based on the available data of November 2004 (Data Freeze L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the role of both known and less quantified hydrogeological conditions in determining the present-day distribution of saline groundwater in the Laxemar subarea on a regional-scale. An improved understanding of the palaeo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions on a local-scale, as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. Another objective is to assess the flow-paths from the local-scale model domain, based on the present-day flow conditions, to assess the distribution of discharge and recharge areas connected to the flow at the approximate repository depth to inform the Preliminary Safety Evaluation. Significant new features incorporated in the modelling include: a depth variation in hydraulic properties within the deformation zones; a dependence on rock domain and depth in the rock mass properties in regional-scale models; a more detailed model of the overburden in terms of a layered system of spatially variable thickness made up of several different types of Quaternary deposits has been implemented; and several variants on the position of the watertable have been tried. The motivation for introducing a dependence on rock domain was guided by the hydrogeological interpretation with the aim of honouring the observed differences in hydraulic properties measured at the boreholes.

  13. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermience, Michael; Mathieu, Françoise; Li, Xiao Wei; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Claus, William; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Dufourny, Ghislaine; Bin, Li; Yangzom, Dechen; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. PMID:28257043

  14. Supplementary motor area and other cortical areas in organization of voluntary movements in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    in the contralateral primary motor area. In addition, there were more modest rCBF increases in the contralateral sensory hand area, the convexity part of the premotor area, and bilaterally in the inferior frontal region. 4. Repetitive fast flexions of the same finger or a sustained isometric muscular contraction raise...

  15. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic card test (ICT is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon.A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20, and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1-39.0; p < 0.001. Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman's rho = 0.900; p = 0.037 was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area: a rate of 1% or more of positive

  16. Influence of socioeconomic processes on the level of regional criminality (on the example of the Donetsk area)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The level of regional criminality has been analyzed. The Basic factors which influence on the level of criminality in the Donetsk area have been defined. It has been proved that the increase of unemployment and migration of population leads to social tension in society and causes the growth of crimes.

  17. SERVICES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven ILLERIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to discuss what roles the different economic sectors, and in particular services activities (the tertiary sector play in regional development, understood as growth in production, incomes and employment in weakly developedregions. This question is approached in two ways. The contribution first contains a – primarily theoretical – re-examination of the so-called economic base model, which states that services play a passive role in regional development. The discussion leads to substantial modifications of the model. The second approach is more empirical. It will take as its point of departure the proposition – often heard, but rarely examined – that since service activities are more concentrated in big cities than other activities and in recent decades have shown higher growth rates than other economic activities, it follows that the economic development is now pulled towards big city regions. Examined by way of a statistical analysisin Denmark and France, this proposition could not be verified.

  18. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization on Regional Climate Change: A Case Study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced rapid urbanization since 1978, and the dramatic change in land cover is expected to have significant impacts on the climate change. Some models have been used to simulate the relationship between land use and land cover change and climate change; however, there is still no sufficient evidence for the impacts of urbanization on the regional climate. This study aims to identify the impact of urban land use change on regional temperature and precipitation in summer in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan area during 2030–2040 based on the analysis of the simulation results of WRF model. Firstly, we analyzed the land use change and climate change during 1995–2005 in the study area. The impacts of future urbanization on regional climate change were then simulated. The results indicate that urbanization in this area has affected the regional climate and has the potential to increase temperature and precipitation in the summer of 2030–2040. These research results can offer decision-making support information related to future planning strategies in urban environments in consideration of regional climate change.

  19. Characterization and Study of Edaphic Landscape in Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Region of El Bierzo; Caracterizacion y Estudio de Escenarios Edafopaisajisticos en Zonas Afectadas por las Actividades Mineras en la Comarca de El Bierzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejuto, M.; Millan, R.; Garcia, A.; Schmid, T.; Martinez, P. E.

    2008-08-06

    This scientific c-technical report forms part of an ongoing research work carried out by Marcos Mejuto Mendieta to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies, a degree related to his doctoral studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Geological Sciences at the Complutense University of Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The objective of this work is to develop a methodological basis for characterizing and assessing edaphic landscapes degraded by mining activities and overlaying mine tailings in the upper river basin of Rodrigatos (Leon, Spain). This combines the work carried out in the fi eld and lab as well as on a regional scale implementing satellite images and remote sensing techniques. Eight zones representing the spatial variability within the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos were chosen, which include reference areas not affected by mining activities or other anthropogenic influences Furthermore, three scenarios outside of the study area are included as case studies of the variability of restoration processes that are not present within the research zone. (Author) 32 refs.

  20. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People’s Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jie Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007- 2008 in the People’s Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH. Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%, those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%, those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%, and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999- 2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.

  1. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2012-05-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.

  2. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  3. Understanding the cultural historical value of the Wadden Sea region : The co-evolution of environment and society in the Wadden Sea area in the Holocene up until early modern times (11,700 BC-1800 AD): An outline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, J.; Meier, D.; Nieuwhof, A.; Spek, T.; Vos, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden region is a cultural landscape of exceptional cultural historical value. The present article describes in qualitative terms how the cultural landscape of the Wadden Sea region came about through the complex interaction of people and nature. Human impact on this region has occurred in stag

  4. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Willcock

    Full Text Available Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74 Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced

  5. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L; Platts, Philip J; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D; Lovett, Jon C; Ahrends, Antje; Bayliss, Julian; Doggart, Nike; Doody, Kathryn; Fanning, Eibleis; Green, Jonathan; Hall, Jaclyn; Howell, Kim L; Marchant, Rob; Marshall, Andrew R; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Munishi, Pantaleon K T; Owen, Nisha; Swetnam, Ruth D; Topp-Jorgensen, Elmer J; Lewis, Simon L

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon) for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74) Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced for a relatively

  6. Social Facilitation: the Kaliningrad Region and Russian Mainland Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toropov P.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors look at the concept of social facilitation as a possible component of Russian social consolidation in the course of social reforms. The article focuses on the results of an empirical study of the levels and characteristics of competence in social facilitation, which is here understood as the ability to apply certain knowledge and systems of skills and as a success rate of actions based on experience in improving the conditions of social development. The study was conducted in the Kaliningrad region in 2012—2013. The data was obtained through a survey of 400 respondents using the authors’ methodology encompassing eight basic elements of competence and a structured interview aimed at a better understanding of the subject of the study and attitudes towards it. The data is compared against the results of a similar study in two regions of central Russia with similar conditions. The results suggest a disharmonic and inconsistent structure of competence in social facilitation, low motivation for social activity in youth, and a narrow range of ideas about possible areas of personal activities in the current conditions. Gender differences are identified in the level and structure of competence. The authors believe that certain differences in competence components identified through mathematical methods are determined by the geographical characteristics of the Kaliningrad region — its exclave nature, a relatively small territory, and proximity to the EU countries. It is stressed that the regional conditions affecting motivation, forms and areas of activities, and structure of experience should be taken into account in

  7. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  8. REL Pacific Research Alliances and Priority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) is to help states, districts, and territories use data and research to improve student outcomes. RELs build capacity to do three things: (1) Use data to identify target areas for improvement; (2) Select the best approaches for improvement, drawing on credible and up-to-date research; and…

  9. Regional Size, Wealth and EU Regional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pavía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los fondos de convergencia tienen como objetivo estimular el crecimiento de las regiones menos desarrolladas dentro de la Unión Europea. Para que una región pueda ser elegida debe ser catalogada como NUTS-2. Sin embargo, como es bien conocido, el valor que toma cualquier variable no es independiente de la escala espacial (y temporal utilizada. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar la gran sensibilidad que muestra el criterio utilizado en la UE para seleccionar regiones de convergencia y evaluar el impacto que tendría en la distribución del presupuesto entre los diferentes países la utilización de una división territorial diferente.

  10. Evaluation of the Relative Importance of Radical Sources in Determining the Regional Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, D.; Sanchez, D.; Blake, D. R.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss oxidation capacity in the boundary layer of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) by analyzing a comprehensive field observational datasets of trace gases, radicals, and radical precursors. Two intensive field observations will be discussed. From mid-May to mid-June of 2015, we conducted a field observation in the middle of Seoul, representing a region with high anthropogenic emissions and photochemistry near the source region. We deployed an identical suite of instrumentation (i.e., CO, NOX, O3, SO2, VOCs, ClNO2, HONO, and PANs) at Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), ~ 50 km from the center of Seoul in early September of 2015. The site has been characterized as an ideal region in probing roles of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in a moderately polluted regional background. Therefore, the comparisons between two datasets will allow us to assess regional oxidation capacity of a megacity surrounded by forests, which is a typical set-up in the East Asian region. The main focus of the discussion was to investigate the following: (i) relative impact of nighttime radical reservoirs (i.e., HONO and ClNO2) in the morning radical budget in the urban and suburban environments and (ii) relative importance of unconstrained primary and recycling (e.g., BVOC oxidation) OH production at the isoprene dominated TRF region. An observationally constrained box model with detailed VOC chemical oxidation schemes (e.g., MCM) will be used for the comprehensive evaluations.

  11. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut