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Sample records for area-level unemployment body

  1. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gauvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  2. Unemployment benefits and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    All developed economies have unemployment benefit programs to protect workers against major income losses during spells of unemployment. By enabling unemployed workers to meet basic consumption needs, the programs protect workers from having to sell their assets or accept jobs below their qualifications. The programs also help stabilize the economy during recessions. If benefits are too generous, however, the programs can lengthen unemployment and raise the unemployment rate. The policy chall...

  3. Unemployment - Structural

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1999-01-01

    Structural unemployment differs from cyclical unemployment by not disappearing in cyclical booms. In economic theory, structural unemployment is usually analysed in terms of the concept of equilibrium unemployment (the "natural unemployment rate" in Friedman’s terminology). Two elaborate concepts of equilibrium unemployment – the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and the unemployment rate that induces firms and workers to accept the same real wage (the PS-WS-model) a...

  4. Cyclical Unemployment, Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Diamond

    2013-01-01

    Whenever unemployment stays high for an extended period, it is common to see analyses, statements, and rebuttals about the extent to which the high unemployment is structural, not cyclical. This essay views the Beveridge Curve pattern of unemployment and vacancy rates and the related matching function as proxies for the functioning of the labor market and explores issues in that proxy relationship that complicate such analyses. Also discussed is the concept of mismatch.

  5. Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Herz, Benedikt; van Rens, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on whether the recent surge in unemployment in the US is due to cyclical or structural factors. The distinction is important because the policies required to reduce each type of unemployment are very dierent. We use a novel approach to empirically quantify the extent of structural unemployment and to shed light on its sources. We propose a simple model of a segmented labor market. Within each segment, search frictions generate unemployment. In addition, there is str...

  6. Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Benedikt Herz; Thijs van Rens

    2011-01-01

    Structural unemployment is due to mismatch between available jobs and workers. We formalize this concept in a simple model of a segmented labor market with search frictions within segments. Worker mobility, job mobility and wage bargaining costs across segments generate structural unemployment. We estimate the contribution of these costs to fluctuations in US unemployment, operationalizing segments as states or industries. Most structural unemployment is due to wage bargaining costs, which ar...

  7. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  8. Structural Unemployment in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pasi Holm; Elina Somervuori

    1997-01-01

    Since the Finnish unemployment rate has rocketed to a very high level in the beginning of the 1990?s it is worth to study to what extent the unemployment rate prevailing today is due to cyclical or to structural reasons. In this paper we try to estimate two different indicators that represent the structural part of unemployment, the NAWRU and the NAIRU. The NAWRU (non-accelerating wage rate of unemployment) measures the structural unemployment simply by relating unemployment to wage inflation...

  9. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  10. Unemployment and Structural Unemployment in the Baltics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ebeke; Greetje Everaert

    2014-01-01

    While the unemployment rate in the Baltics has fallen sharply from its crisis-peaks, it remains close to double digits. This paper estimates the structural component of the jobless rate in the three Baltic countries and analyzes its causes. Our main findings are that the current still elevated levels of unemployment mostly reflect structural factors. We then turn to why structural unemployment is so high. This paper points to skill mismatches, high tax wedges, and unemployment and inactivity ...

  11. Unemployment in Constanta County during 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2010-01-01

    Problems of unemployment, its nature, size and fighting it is one of the most serious problems facing the Romanian society. Employment and efficient use of human resources, the size of unemployment and unemployment are not only resultative parameters of the labor market, but also expressions of health and functionality of the whole economic body. Through its direct effects, unemployment exceeds the labor market itself, beeing involved in shaping the macroeconomic imbalances. In this paper is ...

  12. Australian Attitudes to Unemployment and Unemployed People

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Eardley; George Matheson

    1999-01-01

    Social security support for unemployed people in Australia in the last decade has become increasingly conditional on their demonstrating ever greater job search effort. Yet we know relatively little about whether this shift accords with public opinion. This paper draws on a study of community attitudes to unemployment and unemployed people, commissioned by the former Department of Social Security, based on review and analysis of attitudinal survey data. Overall the evidence is ambiguous. Alth...

  13. Unemployment 2004-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of the population in the labor force who are unemployed (unemployment rate), for California, its regions, counties, county...

  14. Unemployment Accounts for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Alfred; Alessio J. G. Brown; Snower, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a proposal for reforming unemployment assistance in Germany through the introduction of unemployment accounts (UAs). Instead of paying taxes that finance the unemployment assistance, employed people make ongoing contributions to their UAs and can make withdrawals from these accounts during periods of unemployment. The aim of this policy proposal is to improve employment incentives without significant changes in the current redistribution scheme. We provide a detailed account of how...

  15. Deconstructing Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    John Schmitt; Kris Warner

    2011-01-01

    Some economic observers argue “structural unemployment” has increased in the wake of the Great Recession, but in this paper we find little support for either of two arguments that suggest that structural unemployment has been on the rise. The first argument focuses on the large increase in unemployment among construction workers. The second argument is that falling house prices have reduced the mobility of unemployed workers — creating a “housing lock” in which unemployed workers, who would o...

  16. Pareto-Improving Unemployment Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingens, Jorg; Klaus WAELDE

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how continental European unemployment can be reduced without reducing unemployment benefits and without reducing the net income of low-wage earners. Lower unemployment replacement rates reduce unemployment, the net wage and unemployment benefits. A lower tax on labour increases net wages and - for certain benefit-systems - unemployment benefits as well. Combining these two policies allows to reduce unemployment in countries with "net-Bismarck" and Beveridge systems without r...

  17. The Social Costs of Unemployment: Accounting for Unemployment Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    The social costs of unemployment, in terms of unemployment's impact on European citizens' life satisfaction, relate strongly to unemployment duration. At any level of general joblessness, reducing long-term unemployment is more important than reducing the number of people unemployed at any point in time.

  18. Financial Risk and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Zvi; Setty, Ofer; Weiss, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between the corporate interest rate (BAA rated), and its spread relative to Treasuries, and the unemployment rate. We model how interest rates and potential default rates impact equilibrium unemployment in a Diamond-Mortesen-Pissarides model. We calibrate the model using US data without targeting business cycle statistics. Volatility in the corporate interest rate can explain about 80% of the volatility of unemployment, vacancies, and market tightness. Simulating...

  19. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  20. Unemployment and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Visens Torres, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment reduces the well-being of the unemployed and in some cases the well-being of the employed. In this project the effect of unemployment on well-being is studied. This research is focused on Spain, not like most articles based on Great Britain, Germany or United States and uses cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey from the year 2002 until 2012. The main literature reviewed reports that the impact of unemployment on well-being is negative and the negative effect of un...

  1. Unemployment Insurance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel C.

    1979-01-01

    An insurance management system has the goal of minimizing unemployment insurance costs. Components of a model system should include general administration, claims management, and appeals process. (Author)

  2. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão; Guida Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  3. AUTOMATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHMIDT, EMERSON P.; STEWART, CHARLES T.

    HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RESULTS IN ECONOMIC LOSSES TO THE ECONOMY AND IMPOSES SUFFERING ON MILLIONS OF INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES. OF THE MANY TYPES, LONG-TERM STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT AFFECTS MORE THAN ONE MILLION WORKERS AND IS MOST INTRACTABLE TO TREATMENT AND DISTURBING IN TERMS OF HUMAN HARDSHIP. MOST OF THE WORKERS CLASSIFIED AS STRUCTURALLY…

  4. [Cancer and unemployment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra-Del-Prado, R; Rodríguez-García, Juan; Muñoz Cifuentes, P; Gimeno Feliú, L A

    2016-03-01

    The lack of work is a increasingly dramatic situation in the times we are living. Daily experience of clinicians provides us with important clues that remind us of the existence of a direct relationship between prolonged unemployment and predisposition to serious health problems, in particular to suffering certain types of cancer. This paper aims to review the major epidemiological studies that have dealt the relationship between cancer and unemployment. Several hypotheses may be formulated with the results of this review arising from the possible etiological relationship between unemployment and development (or poor prognosis) of neoplastic processes. PMID:26165951

  5. The Effect of Unemployment Compensation on Unemployment Duration in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    1992-01-01

    In West Germany during the 1980's, law changes cut the level of unemployment compensation for the unemployed without children, and extended the duration of unemployment insurance for unemployed aged 42 and over, leaving other groups unaffected. This paper takes advantage of these natural experiments to estimate the disincentive effects of unemployment compensation in Germany, using the German Socio-Economic Panel. The analysis of the cut in level is inconclusive. However, the extension of the...

  6. Redefining Unemployment Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rural migrant workers are counted in China’s official urban unemployment rate Rural migrant workers are a major work force in Chinese cities. Their employment is usually temporary and sensitive to economic fluctuations.

  7. The Youth Unemployment Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, John

    1981-01-01

    Experts agree that the ability to attract and train young people is crucial in today's workplace. Cooperation between government, education, and the private sector is essential to eradicating the problem of youth unemployment. (JOW)

  8. Trade in Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Céline; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric; Fugazza, Marco Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We embed a model of the labor market with sector-specific search-and-matching frictions into a Ricardian model with a continuum of goods to show that trade liberalization causes higher unemployment in countries with comparative advantage in sectors with strong labor market frictions and leads to lower unemployment in countries with comparative advantage in sectors with weak labor market frictions. We test this prediction in a panel dataset of 97 countries during the period 1995-2009 and find ...

  9. Embodied human capital unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraku, Klajdi; Naqvi, Nadeem; Rexhepi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Adam Smith (1776) devoted the first three chapters to the division of labor in his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. This process, carried far enough, eventually results in a divergence between the distributions of supplies and demands of such horizontally-differentiated distinct types of human capital embodied in different persons, leading to the emergence of Embodied Human Capital Unemployment. We illustrate the relevance of this new concept of unemployment to the...

  10. Growth and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Howitt, Peter

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run effects of growth on unemployment. It assumes that growth arises explicitly from the introduction of new technologies, which require labour re-allocation for their implementation. Using a variant of the search theory developed by Pissarides, the paper shows how unemployment is affected by growth both directly, through the job-destruction rate, and indirectly through its effects on the incentive for firms to create job openings. Our results can be summarized as...

  11. Unemployment and Household formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Woolard, Ingrid; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to other continents, Africa has received little scholarly attention with regard to household composition. Household composition is endogenous to a variety of welfare issues and little is understood about the determinants of this composition. Understanding the household composition and formation decision may improve our understanding of how the unemployed gain access to resources and how household composition could provide a safety net to the unemployed. However, increasingly, mo...

  12. Social Security, Unemployment, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuninger, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops an overlapping generations model that highlights interactions between social security, unemployment and growth. The social security system has two components: old age pensions and unemployment insurance. Pensions have a direct effect on economic growth. Both pensions and unemployment benefits influence equilibrium unemployment caused by wage bargaining. Since unemployment impairs growth, both types of social security have an indirect, negative effect on growth.

  13. Explaining disparities in unemployment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  14. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  15. Part-Time Unemployment and Optimal Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Susanne; Holmlund, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    A significant fraction of the labor force consists of employed workers who are part-time unemployed (underemployed) in the sense that they are unable to work as much as they prefer. This paper develops a search and matching model to study the design of optimal unemployment insurance in an economy with unemployment as well as part-time unemployment. Part-time unemployment provides income insurance and serves as a stepping stone to full-time jobs. Unemployment benefits for part-timers increase ...

  16. Unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity relation

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelation between the degree of unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity trade-off. The analysis suggests that the more effective are structural labour market policies (designed to change labour market institutions and laws, such as job security legislation) in making wages and prices more responsive to current unemployment and making unemployment less persistent, the less effective will be the growth-promoting supply-side policies (such as traini...

  17. Should unemployment benefits decrease as the unemployment spell lengthens?

    OpenAIRE

    Saarenheimo , Tuomas

    2001-01-01

    It has become a conventional wisdom in economic policy debate that in order to minimise adverse effects on employment, unemployment benefits should decrease with the unemployment spell. This paper, using a series of simple search models, shows that the theoretical result regarding the optimality of a declining unemployment benefit profile is largely a result of specific modeling assumptions and fails to hold in a more general setting. While any pure reduction of unemployment benefits always i...

  18. Understanding Unemployment Hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    changing equilibrium, slow adjustment towards the equilibrium (persistent ‡fluctuations), or perhaps even a combination of the two. Different hypotheses of slow adjustment, as implied by theories of hysteresis, nominal rigidities or labor hoarding can also be compared. A small illustrative application to...... UK quarterly data on prices, wages, output, unemployment and crude oil prices, suggests that, for the period 1988 up to the onset of the …financial crisis, the non-stationarity of UK unemployment cannot be explained as a result of slow adjustment, including sluggish wage formation as emphasized by...

  19. Unemployment insurance and the uninsured

    OpenAIRE

    Tali Regev

    2006-01-01

    Under federal-state law workers who quit a job are not entitled to receive unemployment insurance benefits. To show how the existence of the uninsured affects wages and employment, I extend an equilibrium search model to account for two types of unemployed workers: those who are currently receiving unemployment benefits and for whom an increase in unemployment benefits reduces the incentive to work, and those who are currently not insured. For these, work provides an added value in the form o...

  20. THE UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE OF INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; GRAHAM GLENDAY

    1981-01-01

    In this study we examine the unemployment experience of workers who became unemployed during the period 1972 through 1979 in the 19 regions across the country, a group that represents about 58 per cent of the Canadian labour force. The employment/unemployment experience of workers over this eight-year period was derived from a data base constructed from the one-in ten sample of the administrative records kept by the Department of Employment and Immigration concerning Unemployment Insurance (U...

  1. Self-Fulfilling Unemployment Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of self-fulfilling unemployment fluctuations driven by an aggregate demand externality. Expectations of high unemployment, lead to low income and low aggregate demand. In turn, low aggregate demand leads to expectations of deflation and high unemployment. I show that this feedback between expectations and aggregate demand can lead to the emergence of self-fulfilling fluctuations in involuntary unemployment. Quantitative analysis calibrated to Spain shows that epis...

  2. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  3. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  4. Tackling the Unemployment Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As the world's largest economy in transition, Chinafaces a severe unemployment challenge. With aworking population of 751 million, China'sunemployment rate stands at more than l O% in urbanareas," including rural surplus laborers, it is astaggering 20%. Since assuming office in March

  5. Unemployment and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ha; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-01-01

    Did unemployment in the Great Recession hurt people's health? The broad answer is no: job losses have statistically insignificant impacts on mortality. The exogenous sources of job losses in a U.S. county is the tradable job losses driven by external demand collapses during the Great Recession. The insignificant relationship holds for males and females, for all age groups, and for almost a...

  6. Retraining the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    Case histories evaluate the effectiveness of recent and current retraining programs for unemployed workers under Federal, state, municipal, and union-management auspices, judging them by their success in placing workers in useful employment in distressed economic areas. Data on various aspects of retraining programs under a wide variety of…

  7. Youth Unemployment, 1978. Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This study of measures taken to reduce youth unemployment in Denmark is based on reports from local authorities, county authorities, and labor market boards, and on surveys made by the central government. The first section describes the total efforts made during 1978. The second section describes programs undertaken by the Danish Ministry of Labor…

  8. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  9. [Psychiatric interventions for the unemployed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, V; Scherbaum, N; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B; Meiler, B; Lieb, B; Mikoteit, T; Ehren, G; Hebebrand, J

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is related to a higher risk for psychological distress and mental disorders, which cause individual suffering and socioeconomic costs for society in general. This selective review surveys the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being and mental disorders. The most important programs for the improvement of the mental health of the unemployed are summarized: 1. Interventions for the unemployed with the aim of improving coping strategies reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. 2. The SUPPORT liaison outpatient unit collaborates closely with the unemployment agency and offers a low-threshold screening for mental disorders for unemployed subjects as well as counseling for those in need of treatment. 3. A group training based on cognitive behavioral therapy improves the psychological well-being of unemployed participants. 4. Supported employment is an effective means of placing severely mentally ill patients in a work-place accompanied by an extensive professional support. PMID:26105163

  10. Do the long-term unemployed adapt to unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Witte, Hans

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the psychological consequences of unemployment suggests that an adaptation process takes place among the long-term unemployed. Their psychological well-being decreases strongly at the beginning of unemployment, to stabilize at a lower level after a certain time. This stabilization is due to an adaptation process, in which the unemployed decrease their job search behaviors and lower their employment commitment. In this cross-sectional study from Belgium, 563 short-term and 195 long-term unemployed are compared on psychological well-being, the experience of unemployment, employment commitment and job search behavior. The results are in line with the hypothesis of an adaptation process among the long-term unemployed. The short-term unemployed experienced more psychological distress than the long-term unemployed. The short-term unemployed also showed stronger employment commitment and more often applied for jobs. The results of some retrospective questions, in which the respondents had to compare their actual behaviors and well-being with those in the past, suggest that an adaptation process took place. Some policy recommendations are discussed.

  11. The unemployment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the evolution of two characteristics, the unemployment rate and the medium level of education rate also in European Union (28 countries and particularly in Romania. The analyzed was made during six years, between 2008 and 2013. At the end of the paper it was applied a correlation coefficient in order to demonstrate if there is any link between the two characteristics. The results show that also in the European Union, as well as in Romania the evolution of the two characteristics has almost the same tendency during the entire period. Also the Pearson correlation coefficient shows that between the two indicators, the unemployment rate and the medium level of education rate there is a negative link but with a very small value which get us to the conclusion that the correlation is insignificant.

  12. Unemployment, migration, and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Economic development is typically accompanied by a very pronounced migration of labor from rural to urban employment. This migration, in turn, is often associated with large scale urban underemployment. Both factors appear to play a very prominent role in the process of development. We consider a model in which rural-urban migration and urban underemployment are integrated into an otherwise conventional neoclassical growth model. Unemployment arises not from any exogenous rigidities, but from...

  13. Unemployment out of nowhere

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment is usually explained with reference to the equilibrium of supply and demand in the labour market. This approach rests on specific behavioral assumptions that are formally expressed as axioms. The standard set of axioms is replaced in the present paper by a set of structural axioms. This approach yields the objective determinants of employment. They consist of effective demand, the actual outcome of price formation, structural stress as determined by the heterogeneity within the b...

  14. Effort, trade, and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz Altenburg; Anke Brenken

    2008-01-01

    This paper incorporates equilibrium unemployment caused by efficiency wages into a monopolistic competition model of trade. Worker effort is treated as an endogenous variable that depends on the optimizing behaviour of firms and workers. Opening up trade induces firms to demand greater worker effort and to cut the size of their workforce. This counteracts the positive employment effect due to entry of firms. Circumstances are indicated in which the two effects just balance, leaving aggregate ...

  15. Regional Unemployment and Industrial Restructuring in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Andrew; Pastore, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies regional unemployment inequality in Poland. We find that higher unemployment regions are those experiencing greater change in industrial structure. We also find high unemployment regions are those with higher inflow rates to unemployment rather than longer spells of unemployment. These findings suggest that regional unemployment varies importantly with job destruction in Poland. Econometric analysis of the determinants of employment to unemployment flows reinforces this imp...

  16. The Employment, Unemployment and Unemployment Compensation Benefits of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Michael E; Chiswick, Barry R.

    2000-01-01

    This report analyzes the employment and unemployment experiences of adult foreign-born men, both among themselves and in comparison with the native born. The empirical analysis uses microdata from the 1990 Census of Population. Three dependent variables are analyzed, weeks worked (employment) in 1989, unemployment status in the reference week in 1990, and a proxy measure of unemployment compensation benefits received in 1989. The theoretical model focuses on the job search behavior of the for...

  17. Social Psychology, Unemployment and Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Darity, William A; Arthur H. Goldsmith

    1996-01-01

    In a conventional macroeconomic model, following a policy change, as nominal wages adjust the economy returns to its original real levels of employment, output, and unemployment. This description of events ignores the social psychological consequences of exposure to unemployment. On theoretical grounds, unemployment is expected to damage psychological health, which in turn harms personal productivity. Empirical work supports both of these propositions. This paper presents a 'behavioral' macro...

  18. Unemployment in the great recession

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher A. Pissarides

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the responses of unemployment in Germany, the United States and Britain to the Great Recession of 2008-09 by making use of Beveridge curve analysis, and in the entire OECD with other techniques. It is shown that Britain suffered from recession but no structural problems; the United States suffered from structural unemployment during the recovery; Germany exhibited a much better performance both during and after the recession. The rise in OECD unemployment is broken down int...

  19. Balanced Unemployment in Polish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Szymańska

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of balanced unemployment in relation to the Polish economy. This issue with its variety considerations and economic, social and political implications is today one of the most important matter. Author analyses this problem together with its reasons and refer it to the Polish economy. In first and second part of the text there are presented basic assumptions of natural unemployment theory and Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. Third part is an a...

  20. Monetary policy and European unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Schettkat, Ronald; Sun, Rongrong

    2008-01-01

    In the long history of rising and persistent unemployment in Europe almost all institutions - employment protection legislation, unions, wages, wage structure, unemployment insurance, etc. - have been alleged and found guilty to have caused this tragic development at some point in time. Later, welfare state institutions in interaction with external shocks were identified as more plausible causes for rising equilibrium unemployment in Europe. Monetary policy has managed to be regarded as innoc...

  1. Unemployment and Labor Market Imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of various types of labor market imperfections for employment and unemployment. On the demand side for labor, the paper analyzes the consequences of labor turnover costs for wage formation and employment, showing that such costs may generate persistent unemployment due to the market powers which they create for incumbent workers ("insiders"). On the labor supply side, the paper emphasizes the role of alternative types of unemployment benefit systems. There is al...

  2. Sectoral Shocks and Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    When current employers rave more information about worker quality than to potential employers, sectoral shocks cause structural unemployment. That is, some workers laid off from an injured sector remain unemployed despite the fact that trey are of sufficient quality to be productively employed in an expanding sector at toe prevailing wage, Moreover, sectoral unemployment rates are not monotonic in one severity of sectoral shocks due to one interaction of layoff activity and hiring activity. F...

  3. Entrepreneurship, Asymmetric Information and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Maurice Marchand; Marianne Vigneault

    1998-01-01

    We examine how three sources of asymmetric information affect the supply of entrepreneurs and unemployment. In the first case, banks cannot observe entrepreneurs' risk of failure so ration credit. This increases the number of entrepreneurs and the level of unemployment. In the second case, firms cannot observe workers' effort so offer a wage above the market clearing one. This results in unemployment and too few entrepreneurs. The final case arises when firms cannot observe workers' abilities...

  4. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José

    1997-01-01

    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  5. Educational Mismatch and Wait Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Ordine; Giuseppe Rose

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates educational mismatch and its interrelationships with individual unemployment duration. By studying unemployment histories of Italian workers we show that overeducated have longer unemployment spells than well matched workers. Using duration models we show that hazard rates of graduates are higher than those of undergraduates only for transitions toward occupations that require the competencies provided by the universities. This process is strictly related to innate abil...

  6. Why scarce resources are sometimes unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Yetter, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    The unemployment rate always seems to be in the news, but did you know there are different kinds of unemployment? There is the natural rate of unemployment; cyclical, frictional, and structural unemployment; plus underemployment. Read the October 2013 Page One Economics Newsletter, “Why Scarce Resources Are Sometimes Unemployed,” to learn the differences.

  7. Surviving Unemployment without State Support: Unemployment and Household Formation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Woolard, Ingrid

    2000-01-01

    High unemployment in many OECD countries is often attributed, at least in part, to the generosity and long duration of unemployment compensation. It is therefore instructive to examine a country where high unemployment exists despite the near complete absence of an unemployment insurance system. In South Africa unemployment stood at 23% in 1997 and the unemployed have no unemployment insurance nor informal sector activities to fall back on. This paper examines how the unemployed are able to g...

  8. [Smoking among the unemployed: impact of structural factors on lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Jan; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, questions arise about its relationship to the state of public health. One of the responses might be to investigate health behaviors of people who suffer most from the crisis, which is the unemployed. This study focuses on the many links between smoking among the jobless and other aspects of their lifestyle as well as selected social factors. In our research, we used statistical methods and a questionnaire. based survey. The research was conducted in 2007 and it covered 1,068 unemployed persons registered with the District Employment Office in Poznan. The prevalence of smoking among the unemployed is higher than the national average and is associated with their socio-economic status, gender and such lifestyle aspects as the amount of alcohol consumed, the amount of free time, body mass index, the number of meals consumed, the number of persons the unemployed can rely on, and the amount of time devoted to exercise. PMID:20301929

  9. Analysis of unemployment in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Neumannová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor thesis, whose name sounds like an analysis of unemployment in the Czech Republic is divided into two parts, theoretical and analytical part. In the theoretical part are processed and přiblíženy basic knowledge unemployment — the issue of unemployment, its definition and measurement, the different types and causes of unemployment, unemployment policy is described and finally approached the historical development of unemployment by the year 1999. The analytical part consists of three p...

  10. Wage Inflation and Structural Unemployment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we represent structural unemployment by relating observed unemployment to wage inflation. An estimated series for the non-accelerating wage rate of unemployment (NAWRU) shows that the unemployment gap between observed unemployment and the structural rate provides an intuitive account of prevailing aggregate demand conditions within the Irish economy over the period 1980 to 2005. This indicates that the estimated NAWRU series is a good measure of Irish structural unemployment ove...

  11. A note on measuring unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Nanak Kakwani; Hyun H. Son

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new measure of the unemployment rate. This measure takes into account not only people who are unemployed, but also those earning below the subsistence level of income in the labor market. The proposed methodology is applied to Brazil?s unit record household surveys covering the period between 1995 and 2004.

  12. Youth Unemployment and National Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Franklin A.

    This 1983 speech by the president of the Ford Foundation addresses the problem of youth unemployment and examines the case for adoption of a system of "National Service." The widening effects of structural unemployment are cited; and economic, demographic, and technological reasons for this phenomenon are outlined. National Service is described as…

  13. Structural Unemployment: Theory and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, G. Peter

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a theoretical framework useful for measuring structural unemployment. Developed on the basis of a literature review, this framework was applied to Canadian data. The approach which explains structural unemployment in terms of the causes of labor displacement is inadequate because it ignores impediments…

  14. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Torrado, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  15. Parental unemployment and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Mörk, Eva; Sjögren, Anna; Svaleryd, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17 percent more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental...

  16. Immigrant unemployment: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P W; Neo, L M

    1997-01-01

    "Between 1980 and 1996 both male and female immigrants experienced higher unemployment rates than Australia-born workers....A multivariate analysis is used in this article to examine unemployment rate differentials between Australia-born and immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. A feature of the analysis is decomposition of unemployment rate differences between birthplace groups into a component attributable to the different characteristics of the birthplace groups (e.g. different mean levels of education) and a part that is viewed as an impact associated simply with being foreign born." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292381

  17. THE UNEMPLOYED TERRITORIAL PROFESSIONAL REORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuela NECŞULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the assessment regarding the relation between partial occupancy, education and the unemployed reorientation. The main section of the article analyzes from a statistical point of view the unemployed territorial reorientation concentrationing upon a county area according to data provided by AJOFM Argeş. There are emphasized here not only tendencies, structural dynamics but also processes of concentration and diversification upon age groups. A few final remarks are closing in an optimistic manner the analysis of the unemployed territorial reorientation in the specified territory.

  18. Separations, Sorting and Cyclical Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Andreas I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes a new fact about the compositional changes in the pool of unemployed over the U.S. business cycle and evaluates a number of theories that can potentially explain it. Using micro-data from the Current Population Survey for the years 1962-2011, it documents that in recessions the pool of unemployed shifts towards workers with high wages in their previous job. Moreover, it shows that these changes in the composition of the unemployed are mainly due to the higher cyclicalit...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  20. Young unemployed, single mothers and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Reiso, Katrine Holm

    2014-01-01

    Young unemployed and single mothers are natural target groups for labour market policy interventions. At young age, people are particularly prone to unemployment. Figure 1 depicts unemployment rates for the OECD countries and the US by age groups. As the figure shows, people aged 15-24 years are about twice as likely to be unemployed compared to people aged 25- 54 years.

  1. Essays on equilibrium unemployment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Speigner, Bradley James

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three essays in which the behaviour of unemployment is studied in different dynamic environments. Throughout, unemployment is understood to be involuntary, arising due to the uncoordinated nature of trade in the labour market as viewed from the perspective of the Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides equilibrium matching model. It goes without saying that the fundamental motivation for pursuing this line of research is provided by the untold consequences, bot...

  2. High Discounts and High Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    In recessions, all types of investment fall, including employers' investment in job creation. The stock market falls more than in proportion to corporate profit. The discount rate implicit in the stock market rises, and discounts for other claims on business income also rise. According to the leading view of unemployment-the Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model-when the incentive for job creation falls, the labor market slackens and unemployment rises. Employers recover their investments in job...

  3. Wages, Rent, Unemployment and Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    STEVEN C. DELLER

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this applied research project is to build on the Roback-Blanchflower-Oswald model linking rent, wages and unemployment to amenities. Using non-metropolitan county level US data and detailed measures of natural and built amenities I estimate a struc-tural model testing for trade-offs between rent, wages, unemployment and amenities. Results do not strictly confirm the Roback-Blanchflower-Oswald (RBO) model but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that amenities plays an importa...

  4. The impact of EMU on European unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Viñals Iñiguez, José M.; Jimeno Serrano, Juan Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Persistent unemployment is the top social and economic problem of most EU countries. Today, the unemployment rate in most EU countries is above ten percent and, although unemployment has decreased during expansions, the average EU unemployment rate within each cycle has increased since the early seventies. Although unemployment evolutions have been to some extent similar in EU countries, there are some outliers. On the one side, Portugal, Austria, the UK, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, whic...

  5. Essays on Unemployment and Real Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In the first essay, Persistence in Swedish Unemployment Rates, we study if there is no or weak tendency in unemployment rates to revert back to previous levels. Persistence is caused by: natural rate shocks, long unemployment cycles, and spill-over from cyclical to permanent unemployment. We find evidence of high persistence. The results suggest that the quick rise of unemployment rates during 1992-1994 was caused by large permanent and cyclical shocks in combination with spill-over effects. ...

  6. An alternative measure of structural unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Uluc Aysun; Florence Bouvet; Richard Hofler

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive an alternative measure for structural unemployment using a stochastic frontier analysis. This measure, by empirical design, is always less than total unemployment and it is, thus, more consistent with the theoretical description of structural unemployment than its usual interpretation as a smoothed long-run average of total unemployment. We find that our measure does not always track the long-run trends in total unemployment in the U.S. and when compared to the existin...

  7. Converting unemployment benefits into employment subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of giving unemployed people -- particularly the long-term unemployed -- the opportunity to use part of their unemployment benefits to provide employment vouchers to the firms that hire them. The vouchers would depend positively on unemployment duration and training. The paper argues that this policy would give unemployed people and their potential employers an expanded domain of choices in the labour market and thereby reduce the market failures generated ...

  8. Unemployment benefits and unemployment in the Great Recession: the role of macro effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Marcus; Karahan, Fatih; Manovskii, Iourii; Mitman, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    We exploit policy discontinuity at U.S. state borders to identify the effects of unemployment insurance policies on unemployment. We find large effects of unemployment benefit extensions on unemployment. In fact, the estimates imply that most of the persistent increase in unemployment during the Great Recession can be accounted for by the unprecedented extensions of unemployment benefit eligibility. In contrast to the existing literature that mainly focused on estimating the effects of benefi...

  9. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impairment of mind or body which is sufficient to render it impossible for the average person to follow a... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.340 Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability. (a)...

  10. Mobile Communication Signatures of Unemployment

    CERN Document Server

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Pentland, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of populations socio-economic well-being is highly constrained by the logistics of censuses and surveys. Consequently, spatially detailed changes across scales of days, weeks, or months, or even year to year, are difficult to assess; thus the speed of which policies can be designed and evaluated is limited. However, recent studies have shown the value of mobile phone data as an enabling methodology for demographic modeling and measurement. In this work, we investigate whether indicators extracted from mobile phone usage can reveal information about the socio-economical status of microregions such as districts (i.e., average spatial resolution < 2.7km). For this we examine anonymized mobile phone metadata combined with beneficiaries records from unemployment benefit program. We find that aggregated activity, social, and mobility patterns strongly correlate with unemployment. Furthermore, we construct a simple model to produce accurate reconstruction of district level unemployment from their mobi...

  11. An Umbrella for Unemployed Seniors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government recently took a significant step forward in improving its social safety net: A pension program benefiting the country’s 50 million unemployed urban residents was launched on July 1.The new program, covering unemployed urban residents above the age of 16, excluding students, will be implemented in 60 percent of the country’s cities and townships this year. Starting in 2012, it will be effective across the country.By then, the country’s pension umbrella will cover the last demo

  12. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  13. Are homeowners really more unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    jobs, which is in accordance with the predictions from our theoretical model. The overall hazard rate into employment is higher for homeowners, such that there is a negative correlation between homeownership and unemployment duration. Our empirical findings thus contradict the so-called Oswald......This article investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...

  14. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore, this...... paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance and...... positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  15. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  16. Unemployment Insurance Fraud and Optimal Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Fuller; Ravikumar, B.; Yuzhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An important incentive problem for the design of unemployment insurance is the fraudulent collection of unemployment benefits by workers who are gainfully employed. We show how to efficiently use a combination of tax/subsidy and monitoring to prevent such fraud. The optimal policy monitors the unemployed at fixed intervals. Employment tax is nonmonotonic: it increases between verifications but decreases after a verification. Unemployment benefits are relatively flat between verifications but ...

  17. Disaggregated Models of Unemployment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Borland

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence on causes of unemployment in Australia from disaggregated modelling of the labour market. Three main types of modelling are considered. First, information on unemployment rates of labour force participants with different skills is presented, and analyses that seek to explain why unemployment varies between skill groups are described. Second, descriptive evidence on unemployment rates by state and neighbourhood is presented, and possible causes of regional differenc...

  18. Psychological and social aspects of unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with unemployment, namely its psychological and social aspects. The theoretical part is divided into four blocks, namely the labor market, unemployment, the importance of working for human being and social incorporation. The first part, the labor market, analyses labour supply and labour demand and labor market functioning. Part two, unemployment, is composed of subchapters, where the classification of basic types of unemployment, the right to work, employment policy, economic...

  19. THE UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM AND ITS SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Yanchenko, N.; Yurchenko, L.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzed the types of unemployment, defined the cause and what factors influenced it, and the problem of unemployment in Ukraine, its condition at the moment. Provided suggestions for reducing the level of unemployment depending on its type. Unemployment in the face of market economic relations have, on the one hand, is an integral, and on the other, the unacceptable alternative to employment, a problem that society has to face on a daily basis by carrying out measures of government regulatio...

  20. The Unemployment Situation in 2010-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Simič, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the evolution of unemployment rates in the years 2010 to 2012. The issue of unemployment is currently in the Czech Republic very debated areas. It is linked to the labour market, employment, demographics, social and economic situation of the country. In the theoretical part of the work are set out and explained the types of unemployment, including the history of the emergence and development of political economy, which began to unemployment in the world. At the same time...

  1. Why is Unemployment in France so High?

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Moghadam

    1994-01-01

    High and persistent unemployment, as well as its composition, e.g., high youth unemployment, suggests underlying structural problems in the French labor market. Comparisons with other industrial countries, as well as time series and cross-section empirical evidence, point to a number of potential causes of structural unemployment in France. These Include the generosity of long-term relative to short-term unemployment benefits, the minimum wage, the level of employers’ tax wedge, skills mismat...

  2. Is structural unemployment on the rise?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    An increase in U.S. aggregate labor demand reflected in rising job vacancies has not been accompanied by a similar decline in the unemployment rate. Some analysts maintain that unemployed workers lack the skills to fill available jobs, a mismatch that contributes to an elevated level of structural unemployment. However, analysis of data on employment growth and jobless rates across industries, occupations, and states suggests only a limited increase in structural unemployment, indicating that...

  3. Labor Market Segmentation, Wage Dispersion and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Dickens, William T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the empirical evidence on labor market segmentation and presents some new results on the similarity of the pattern of segmentation across 66 different countries. The paper goes on to consider how unemployment might be understood in a labor market segmentation framework. Existing models of unemployment in a dual labor market suggest that unemployment should be concentrated among those who are ultimately employed in high wage jobs. In fact, unemployment seems to be co...

  4. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  5. Unemployment of Women: A Social Policy Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Linda S.

    1979-01-01

    Unemployment of women has scarcely been considered by policymakers. The author discusses differences between women and men in rates and types of unemployment and stresses the special problems and needs of unemployed women that must be taken into account in making social policy. (Author)

  6. Structural Unemployment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Barbara R.; Kaun, David E.

    An attempt was made in this study to clarify the concept of structural unemployment, defined as the amount of unemployment (less minimum frictional and seasonal unemployment) that remains at the level of demand which is consistent with general price stability. A principle objective of the study was to examine in some detail the changes in the…

  7. Young People's Explanations of Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Graham S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Responding to questionnaires, 983 Canadian high school and university students revealed the following reasons why their peers are unemployed: (1) work values; (2) business/government job creation; (3) educational system; (4) luck/contacts; (5) immigrants/women taking jobs; and (6) work experience/interview skills. These explanations are shaped by…

  8. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  9. Embodied technical progress and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    del RIO, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we build up a canonical vintage capital model with embodied and disembodied technical progress and generalized Nash bargaining in the labor market. First, we handle both types of technical progress as exogenous, but we endogenize them after. In these setups, we comprehensively study the relations between technical progress, unemployment, and job creation and destruction in the short and long run.

  10. The Notion of Structural Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1983-01-01

    Although it is often claimed that much current unemployment is "structural," the term is potentially misleading because it is poorly defined. The author identifies the following seven major elements in its make-up: changes in industrial structure, skill mismatch, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidities,…

  11. Income mobility, unemployment and GDP

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Karol

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify macroeconomic factors of income mobility. Explored is the relationship between biannual relative income mobility, the relative change in the unemployment rate and the relative change in GDP. A theoretical model is proposed which provides an explanation of the nature of this relationship. It is then verified using household budget data from the CHER database.

  12. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656. ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  13. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  14. Strategies of the unemployed in South Africa: Does moving allow the unemployed to get ahead?

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Ebrahim; Murray Leibbrandt; Ingrid Woolard

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survival strategies of the unemployed using the balanced panel of the first three waves of the National Income Dynamics Study. We find that in response to unemployment and almost no unemployment insurance, unemployed individuals look to parents, relatives and friends for economic support. They are more likely to attach themselves to household that have some income through an employed member or in receive of state support. In many cases the unemployed delay setting up t...

  15. Unemployment in Romania. A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment started to be registered in Romania in 1991, and in 1994 was conducted the first investigation to evaluate unemployment by ILO standards. Registered unemployment in Romania rose continuously till 1999, and then it decreased, as a result of the transformation processes occurred in the economy. The paper also try to investigate the structural characteristics of unemployment, by age, sex, occupation, instruction level, duration, regional distribution, focusing on changes occurred in the last 15 years and underlining the categories the most affected by unemployment.

  16. Unemployment in Romania. A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment started to be registered in Romania in 1991, and in 1994 was conducted the first investigation to evaluate unemployment by ILO standards. Registered unemployment in Romania rose continuously till 1999, and then it decreased, as a result of the transformation processes occurred in the economy. The paper also try to investigate the structural characteristics of unemployment, by age, sex, occupation, instruction level, duration, regional distribution, focusing on changes occurred in the last 15 years and underlining the categories the most affected by unemployment.

  17. Moral consequences of becoming unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Abigail; Miller, Luis; Ubeda, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    We test the conjecture that becoming unemployed erodes the extent to which a person acknowledges earned entitlement. We use behavioral experiments to generate incentive-compatible measures of individuals’ tendencies to acknowledge earned entitlement and incorporate these experiments in a two-stage study. In the first stage, participants’ acknowledgment of earned entitlement was measured by engaging them in the behavioral experiments, and their individual employment status and other relevant socioeconomic characteristics were recorded. In the second stage, a year later, the process was repeated using the same instruments. The combination of the experimentally generated data and the longitudinal design allows us to investigate our conjecture using a difference-in-difference approach, while ruling out the pure self-interest confound. We report evidence consistent with a large, negative effect of becoming unemployed on the acknowledgment of earned entitlement. PMID:27071100

  18. Social media fingerprints of unemployment

    CERN Document Server

    Llorente, Alejandro; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Recent wide-spread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and inter-personal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 145 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. ...

  19. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Den Haan, Wouter; Rendahl, Pontus; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features – in isolation – dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise in money demand has important consequences. The desire to hold money puts deflationar...

  20. Unemployment (fears) and deflationary spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Den Haan, Wouter J; Rendah, Pontus; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features ??? in isolation ??? dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise in money demand has important consequences. The desire to hold money puts deflati...

  1. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Den Haan; Pontus Rendahl; Markus Riegler

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features - in isolation - dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise ...

  2. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative ...

  3. Credit, Vacancies and Unemployment Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Petrosky-Nadeau

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of agency problems on credit markets when vacancy costs require some external financing for the propagation properties of an otherwise standard labor search model. The countercyclical premium on external finance greatly increases the elasticity of vacancies to exogenous innovations such that the model can match the volatility of aggregate unemployment, vacancies and labor market tension. The model is extended to allow for endogenous job separation as t...

  4. Immigrant Mental Health and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess whether stress associated with the transition to a new country combined with additional stress arising from unemployment affects the mental health of immigrants. I use the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (LSIA) to examine the effect of labour force status on the mental health of immigrants. By using a rich longitudinal data set, I am able to control for individual immigrant differences whilst examining whether changes in mental health...

  5. Unemployment as a social cost

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Ramazzotti; Marco Rangone

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, workfare programmes provided support to the unemployed onlyinsofar as they were willing to accept a job. The theoretical underpinnings of these programmesare that institutional constraints prevent labour supply from adjusting to thetechnologically determined requirements of labour demand. We contend that when individualslook for a job, they generally want to take into account non-monetary features suchas occupational status. Status cannot be traded, it usually is complem...

  6. Business cycle dependent unemployment insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive argument. Since benefits may be less distortionary in a recession than a boom, it follows that counter-cyclical benefits reduce average distortions compared to state independent benefits. We show t...

  7. Unemployment duration and personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Selver; Pohlmeier, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role personality traits play in determining individual unemployment duration. We argue that a worker's job search intensity is decisively driven by her personality traits, reflected in her propensity to motivate and control herself while searching for a job. Moreover, personality traits, in as far as they can be signaled to a potential employer, may also enhance the probability of receiving and accepting a job offer. For our econometric duration analysis, we use the ...

  8. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  9. Unemployment effects of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions. The politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often dominated by relatively short-term considerations. Yet the current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, in particular, the politically sensitive unemployment rate. Moreover, only a few of these studies also consider policies that would offset the negative direct economic effects of emissions restrictions. For plausible estimates of the parameters, the model shows that, with the labor market imperfections, if there were no offsetting policies, the reductions in GNP in the U.S. in the first 10 years after emissions restrictions were imposed would be as much as 4%. However, if there were two policies, instead of just one: a counteracting labor market policy, as well as the emissions restrictions, the negative direct economic effects could be completely eliminated

  10. Accounting for unemployment: the long and short of it

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hornstein

    2012-01-01

    Shimer (2012) accounts for the volatility of unemployment based on a model of homogeneous unemployment. Using data on short-term unemployment he finds that most of unemployment volatility is accounted for by variations in the exit rate from unemployment. The assumption of homogeneous exit rates is inconsistent with the observed negative duration dependence of unemployment exit rates for the U.S. labor market. We construct a simple model of heterogeneous unemployment with short-term and long-t...

  11. Unemployment in South Africa: The nature of the beast

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta G. Kingdon; John B. Knight

    2001-01-01

    Unemployment in South Africa is so widespread that it demands an explanation. This paper examines two questions about South African unemployment. Firstly, why do the unemployed not enter the informal sector, as is common in other developing countries? Secondly, why do the unemployed not enter wage employment more readily? The findings provide little support for the idea that unemployed people choose to be unemployed: the unemployed are substantially worse off, and less satisfied with their qu...

  12. Unexpected Victims: How Parents' Unemployment Affects Their Children's Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kind; Haisken-DeNew, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of unemployment on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) of the unemployed on the unemployed are well documented. Using data from the German SOEP for 17-25 year olds living with their parents, this paper examines the additional indirect effects of parents’ unemployment on their children’s subjective wellbeing in an attempt to capture the full impact of unemployment. The reason for entry (exogenous versus endogenous) into unemployment plays a major role. Fathers who enter unemployment exo...

  13. Unemployment and Health Behaviors Over the Business Cycle: a Longitudinal View

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Colman; Dhaval Dave

    2014-01-01

    We examine the first-order internal effects of unemployment on a range of health behaviors during the most recent recession using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). Consistent with prior studies based on cross-sectional data, we find that becoming unemployed is associated with a small increase in leisure-time exercise and in body weight, a moderate decrease in smoking, and a substantial decline in total...

  14. Unemployed and alone? Unemployment and social participation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dieckhoff, M.; Gash, V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between unemployment and social participation and aim to identify the role of national policies and attitudes as possible mediators. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use the 2006 EU-SILC module on social participation – a data set that provides rich information on social participation for 22/23 EU countries. They adopt a two-step multi-level design, allowing them to directly examine the impact of national po...

  15. The Effects of Unemployment Compensation in General Equilibrium with Search Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Axell, Bo; Lang, Harald

    1986-01-01

    In this article it is shown that when the effects of an increase in unemployment subsidies are studied in a general equilibrium framework, unemployment increases far less than in a 'partial-partial' model, or may even decrease.

  16. Unemployment (fears), precautionary savings, and aggregate demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter den Haan; Markus Riegler; Pontus Rendahl

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the feedback between firms' hiring decisions and the demand for their products in an environment in which agents are poorly insulated from the financial consequences of unemployment. In such an environment, an increase in the risk of remaining unemployed for a long time increases precautionary savings and reduces aggregate demand, which in turn exacerbates the unemployment duration further. We show that this feedback mechanism can propagate relatively modest exogenous shoc...

  17. Regional unemployment and new economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Zierahn, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Regional labor markets are characterized by huge disparities. The literature on the wage curve argues that there exists a negative relationship between unemployment and wages. However, this literature cannot explain how disparities of these variables between regions endogenously arise. In contrast, the New Economic Geography analyzes how disparities of regional goods markets endogenously arise, but usually ignores unemployment. Therefore, this paper discusses regional unemployment disparities...

  18. The Measurement of "True" Unemployment in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gudrun Biffl

    1997-01-01

    With EU membership Austria has become obliged to adopt the international definitions and concepts for the calculation of the unemployment rate. In 1994 the questionnaire of the microcensus was adapted to the labor force concept used by international organizations. Since the unemployment rate according to the traditional Austrian sources (registered unemployment and social security employment) differs greatly from that according to the household survey (3.7 percent versus 5.9 percent in 1995),...

  19. Evolution of unemployment population stocks in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Irena MOCANU

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the current crisis on the evolution of the stocks of theunemployed persons in Romania. The present paper is focused on the analysis of general dynamic of the input and output flows in/from unemployment, emphasising the growth of the stocks of unemployed population, at national and county levels. The annexes of the annual progress reports published by the National Agency for Employment represent the data-base used in the study. The input flows in unemployment registered a constant e...

  20. Unemployment and Labor Market Issues in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Furceri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze unemployment and labor market developments in Algeria and assess the factors that may hamper employment creation. The results of the paper suggest that the relative low output-employment elasticities and rigid labor market are the main factors behind the still high level of unemployment, particularly among the youth. Simulation analyses, based on the results on the relation between labor market institutions and unemployment, show that improvement in labor m...

  1. Exits from unemployment : recall or new job

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Bullón, Fernando; Alba, Alfonso; Arranz, José M.

    2006-01-01

    JEL Classification Numbers J21, J24 This paper studies transitions out of unemployment in Spain distinguishing between recall to the same employer and reemployment in a new job. We use a large sample of newly unemployed workers obtained from Social Security records for Spain. These data contain information about each individual's employer identy before and after the unemployment spell. A discrete-time duration model with competing risks of exits serves us to investigate the factors that in...

  2. Job Turnover Unemployment and Labor Market Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles JOSEPH; Olivier PIERRARD; Sneessens, Henri

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the role of labor market institutions on unemployment and on the cyclical properties of job flows. We construct an intertemporal general equilib- rium model with search unemployment and endogenous job turnover, and examine the consequences of introducing an unemployment benefit, a firing cost and a downward wage rigidity. The model is able to reproduce the main cyclical properties of a typical European economy. It also suggests that downward wage rigidities, ...

  3. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...

  4. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with a universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and ...

  5. Product market regulation, firm selection and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Felbermayr, Gabriel; Prat, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of product market regulation (PMR) on unemployment in a search model with heterogeneous multiple-worker firms. In our setup, PMR modifies the distribution of firm productivities, thereby affecting the equilibrium rate of unemployment. We distinguish between PMR related to entry costs and PMR that generates recurrent fixed costs. We find that: (i) higher entry costs raise the rate of unemployment mainly through our novel selection effect, (ii) higher fixed costs ...

  6. Unemployment hysteresis: empirical evidence for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Ayala; Juncal Cuñado; Luis Albériko Gil-Alana

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the unemployment dynamics of 18 Latin American countries for the last four decades. We use a time series approach to test the mean reversion of unemployment rates and its approximation to a Natural Rate of Unemployment (NRU). The tests include the possibility of one and two structural changes to account for the occurrence of significant macroeconomic changes experienced by the Latin American economies. In addition, we estimate the order of integration of the series, allowi...

  7. Unemployment and labor reallocation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hogrefe, Jan; Sachs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We ask whether sectoral shocks and the subsequent labor reallocation are responsible for unemployment within selected European economies. Our measure of sectoral labor reallocation is adjusted for aggregate influences and the remaining variation is linked to unemployment in country specific dynamic models. For Spain, the ADL-model estimation reveals a significant impact of sectoral reallocation on unemployment that goes beyond usual business cycle patterns. In Italy, there is weaker yet detec...

  8. Review of Structural Unemployment(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    GENDA Yuji; Kondo, Ayako

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of structural unemployment is a very important issue in employment policy. While many discussions on this important topic have taken place, there is still no clear definition of what, exactly, it is, and no accurate measurement methods have been introduced. This paper surveys what structural unemployment is, reviews some theoretical interpretations and existing methods of measuring structural unemployment, and explores new approaches in an attempt to grasp the nature ...

  9. Externalities in Wage Formation and Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    De La Croix, David

    1993-01-01

    A sectorial general equilibrium model in which externalities among sectors arise through wage envy is presented. Without externalities, equilibrium unemployment is only a function of the product market power of the firm and of demand uncertainty. With externalities, unemployment is higher. It is increasing with union power even though bargaining is efficient. Aggregate demand shock do not modify the magnitude of unemployment. However, when externalities are present, sectorial demand shocks mo...

  10. Financing Unemployment Benefits : Dismissal versus Employment Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Baumann; Nikolai Stähler

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of using dismissal taxes to finance unemployment benefits. We compare dismissal and employment taxes in a model with search frictions. Employment taxes give rise to externalities because firms do not take into account the effects their dismissal decisions have on others. By introducing dismissal taxes to finance unemployment insurance, these externalities can partly be internalized. Taking into account the budget of the unemployment insurance, employment ta...

  11. Implicit contracts, unemployment, and labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Huffman, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of imperfect contract enforcement on the emergence of unemployment. In an experimental labor market where trading parties can form long-term employment relationships, we compare a work environment where effort is observable, but not verifiable to a situation where explicit contracts are feasible. Our main result shows that unemployment is much higher when third-party contract enforcement is absent. Unemployment is involuntary, being caused by firms' employment and contra...

  12. Technological Unemployment and an Attainable Way Out

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlova, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the available information on the technological unemployment issue. The hypothesis of the thesis is that displacement of workers because of technological development has reasonable chances to happen in the future. Technological unemployment is hotly debated issue. Some part of economists argue that technological unemployment is a short-term problem; others see it as a risk for society. Thus, at this stage it is important to identify controversy in studie...

  13. Unemployment in Galician autonomous community (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane, Maria Jesus Freire; Cristal, Venancio Salcines; Freire, Maria Jesus Bilbao

    1998-01-01

    An aspect of unquestionable transcendency is the impact of the unemployment in the current society. Most part of the countries in the European continent present as from the decade of the 70's very significant rates of unemployment. The persistence of this characteristic in the occupational market constitutes the most important fact of concern for citizens and governments. The problem of the unemployment becomes much more serious in the case of Spain, and the Galician Autonomous Community is n...

  14. Unemployment and endogenous reallocation over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Tudela, Carlos; Visschers, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies unemployed workers’ decisions to change occupations, and their impact on fluctuations in aggregate unemployment and its underlying duration distribution. We develop an analytically and computationally tractable stochastic equilibrium model with heterogenous labor markets. In this model three different types of unemployment arise: search, rest and reallocation unemployment. We document new evidence on unemployed workers’ gross occupational mobility and use it ...

  15. Unemployment vs. In-work Benefits with Search Unemployment and Observable Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal search subsidy (i.e. the difference between the in-work benefit and the unemployment benefit) increases if, for efficient agents, the participation constraint (governing job search) becomes relativel...

  16. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  17. [Unemployment as psychological stress and coping methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág

    2013-01-01

    The present article focuses on unemployment as a stressor and a crisis situation as well. Both the definition and theories about this phenomenon are analyzed. The author tries to explore unemployment like a stressor and a special crisis situation afterwards illustrating it by several Hungarian results of the unemployment research. The author tries to emphasize coping methods of personality. Last but not least unemployment is presented like a special problem that could be solved by some practical aspects recommended for the professionals. PMID:24443576

  18. Urban Unemployment, Agglomeration and Transportation Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    1999-01-01

    We study the role of unemployment in the context of the endogeneous formation of a monocentric city in which firms set efficiency wages to deter shirking. We first show that, in equilibrium, the employed locate at the vicinity of the city-centre, the unemployed reside at the city-edge and firms set up in the city-centre. We then show that there is a `spatial mismatch' between location and jobs because the further away from jobs the unemployed, the larger the level of unemployment. Finally, we...

  19. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  20. Unemployment vs. In-work Benefits with Search Unemployment and Observable Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal se

  1. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) PMID:12343012

  2. House Lock and Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    2012-01-01

    A recent decline in geographic mobility in the United States may have been caused in part by falling house prices, through the “lock in” effects of financial constraints faced by households whose housing debt exceeds the market value of their home. I analyze the relationship between such “house lock” and the elevated levels and persistence of unemployment during the recent recession and its aftermath, using data that covers the period through the end of 2011. Because house lock will extend jo...

  3. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio......AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence...

  4. Evolution of unemployment population stocks in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena MOCANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the current crisis on the evolution of the stocks of theunemployed persons in Romania. The present paper is focused on the analysis of general dynamic of the input and output flows in/from unemployment, emphasising the growth of the stocks of unemployed population, at national and county levels. The annexes of the annual progress reports published by the National Agency for Employment represent the data-base used in the study. The input flows in unemployment registered a constant evolution, but the outputflows from unemployment have fell in all counties, this evolutions being the source of stocks of unemployed persons. In 2008, a number of 31 counties have stocks of unemployed, ranging between 9,900 persons and 80 persons; in 2009, all the counties registered stocks of unemployed. The largest stocks (more than 10,000 persons were specific for some counties situated in south, south-east and centre. The majority of counties registers some multi-annual averages values of the stocks of unemployed ranging between 2,500 – 1,000 persons, the largest being in Prahova, Suceava, Galaţi, Argeş, Dolj. Between2007 - 2009, the ratio between output form unemployment (by hiring and input in unemployment (due to layoffs decreased continuously and sharply in 2009 compared to 2008: 2.8 in 2007, 2.3 in 2008 and only 0.6 in 2009. The growth of the stocks of unemployed in all counties and the decrease of ration between hiring and redundancies represent ones of the effects of the current crisis.

  5. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affect the inflow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became unemployed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic made it attractive for workers to enter unemployment shortly after age 57.5 rather than shortly before. Indeed, we find a peak in the inflow into unemployment for workers after age 57.5. From Aug...

  6. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  7. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  8. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  9. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  10. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  11. Firing Costs, Payroll Taxes and Unemployement

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrel, Frédéric; Lebon, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple extension of Mortensen and Pissarides (1994), we show that substituting layoff taxes for payroll taxes reduces unemployment. Indeed, layoff taxes lead the firms to internalize the effect of dismissals on unemployment costs. So countries which have costly employment protection procedures (as happens in continental Europe) have much to gain in replacing them by firing taxes.

  12. Unemployed citizen or 'at risk' client?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Caswell, Dorte; Marston, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores recent developments in Australian and Danish unemployment policies with a special focus on the technologies used to classify and categorize unemployed people on government benefits. Using governmentality as our theoretical framework, we consider the implications of reducing com...

  13. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 198

  14. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  15. Unemployment Insurance Benefit Levels and Consumption Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas

    We use a survey of unemployed people to examine how a job loss impacts on household expenditures. The principal focus is on the effect of the level of income replacement provided by Unemployment Insurance. We restrict attention to a sub-sample of respondents who are still in their first spell of...

  16. Chronic Unemployment: A Social Work Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherraden, Michael W.

    1985-01-01

    To address chronic unemployment more effectively, social workers can describe the problem accurately, collect data by type of unemployment (frictional, structural, cyclical and chronic), document negative human effects, emphasize economic consequences, document the unequal burden on nonwhites, and lobby for long-term employment policy…

  17. Transfer of Pollution Abatement Technology and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Muneyuki Saito; Yasuyuki Sugiyama

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the transfer of pollution abatement technology on the level of urban unemployment, the total amount of pollution, and social welfare in a small, open Harris Todaro economy. We show that these transfers reduce urban unemployment and decrease the total amount of pollution. However, social welfare is unchanged because the technology transfer does not affect factor prices.

  18. Unemployment and health: physicians' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, S S

    1999-01-01

    Unemployment has been documented to have detrimental impacts on a person's mental, physical and social well being. When unemployment or being out of work is due to injury or sickness, the effects are compounded by mental and social factors. In an effort to prevent prolonged unemployment due to injury or sickness, changes were made to existing disability income supplement plans to redirect their focus from basic income support to active employment measures. This is intended to reduce individual's dependency on financial assistance and encourage individuals to take personal responsibility for getting back to work. The various disability insurance plans require primary care physicians to provide opinion and participate in the recovery and safety return to work of injured or sick persons. The physician approach to medical care of the injured/sick person with employment problems should focus on return to work as a goal of treatment. The patient should be seen as part of a social or environmental system and not as an isolated individual. The physician has a significant role to play in the diagnosis, determining functional abilities and participation in the return to work plan. The physician positive participation, not only provides an intrinsic cost saving value in insurance costs, but more important, helps patients maintain gainful employment. Work often helps in regaining health. Many factors are involved in a return to work outcome and physicians need to know how to identify and track the factors that facilitate or impede return to work. The challenge for the physician is to utilize the available resources to facilitate the recovery and communicate with other parties involved in the return to work process. This paper discusses the disability insurance plans in Canada and the community expectations from physicians dealing with patients who are out of work because of injury or sickness. It is acknowledged that primary care physicians' skills are not adequate in this

  19. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  20. Capital Market and Unemployment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele M. Ilo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the Nigerian capital market affects unemployment in Nigeria with a view to identifying how the market has been able to curtail unemployment over the years or otherwise. It employes annual series data from 1986 to 2012 on unemployment, market capitalization and other data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin. The study adopts the Johansson cointegration vector error correction technique for data analysis. The result shows that unemployment has risen unabatedly since the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP with an average unemployment rate of 8.12 per cent for the period while market capitalization relative to the size the economy is 14.42 per cent. The analysis also shows that while, economic growth significantly curtails unemployment capital market development fails to limit unemployment. The stock market thus has grown over the years at the expense job creation in Nigeria. It is expected that efforts are geared towards efficient capital market development to enhance mobilization of funds for long term investments by firms and propel job creation along the value chain. The government should also focus on developing those labour intensive sectors of the economy while pursuing its economic growth policy.

  1. Tunisia’s Revolution and Youth Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.

  2. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  3. The unhappily unemployed return to work faster

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that job loss is associated with a fall in subjective well-being (SWB). It then looks at how this change in SWB predicts job search and unemployment duration. The findings suggest that those who report feeling hurt by unemployment have shorter unemployment durations. Men who report a loss of SWB are also more likely to look for a job, but women’s job search is not affected by the SWB loss. These findings confirm the theoretical prediction from job search theory: search effort...

  4. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    Unemployment insurance schemes include conditions on past employment history as part of the eligibility conditions. This aspect is often neglected in the literature which primarily focuses on benefit levels and benefit duration. In a search-matching framework we show that benefit duration and...... employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show that a...... higher insurance motive captured by more risk aversion implies higher benefit generosity and more lax employment requirements but also shortened benefit duration....

  5. Education and Youth Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David Lam; Murray Leibbrandt; Cecil Mlatsheni

    2008-01-01

    The problem of high youth unemployment is a global phenomenon. According to an International Labour Office study in 2004, youth (15-24) make up nearly half (47%) of the world's unemployed, 88 million out of 186 million, even though youth are only 25% of the world's working age population. Of the world's 550 million working poor who cannot lift themselves above US $1 per day poverty measure, 150 million are youth. The ILO estimated in 2004 that halving global youth unemployment would increase ...

  6. Unemployment as a factor of entrepreneurial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Șipoș-Gug

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the nature and direction of the relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurial activity. Our research, using monthly data from Romania (1991-2012, brings evidence to the hypothesis that the relationship is non-linear in regard to the temporal delay factor. From our data it would seem that unemployment and entrepreneurial activity are negatively related on the short term, and positively related on the long term. Based on these results, we propose that the two effects be treated separately, and we propose two predictive models of entrepreneurial activity based on unemployment that follow this distinction.

  7. Age structure and the UK unemployment rate

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Barwell

    2000-01-01

    The proportion of youths in the labour force has fallen dramatically over the past 15 years, following the collapse in the fertility rate in the 1970s ('the baby bust'). Given that youths always have higher unemployment rates than adults, this shift in the composition of the labour force towards those with lower unemployment rates may have been responsible for a fall in the aggregate unemployment rate. Using data from the Labour Force Survey, it is estimated that about 55 basis points of the ...

  8. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  9. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  10. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  11. Reducing Urban Unemployment. What Works at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William H.; And Others

    This booklet considers the problems of urban unemployment and presents 21 case studies of urban areas dealing with the problem. The first chapter defines urban unemployment and classifies barriers to employment, trends in unemployment, and types of unemployed persons. Chapter 2 describes some general principles necessary to successfully combat the…

  12. How much of the decline in unemployment is due to the exhaustion of unemployment benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Luojia Hu; Shani Schechter

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have examined the impact of extended unemployment insurance (UI) benefits on the rise in the unemployment rate in this recession and early recovery. We use real-time microdata from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Current Population Survey (CPS) to examine whether there has been a reverse effect recently as benefits have been exhausted. We find that if UI benefits had lasted indefinitely, the unemployment rate would have been cumulatively about 0.1 to 0.3 percentage points higher...

  13. To be unemployed is not to be dependent. The politics of narratives surrounding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Based on six months of fieldwork in London in the first half of 2012, this thesis aims to understand how unemployment is a situation that is understood in different ways based on political understanding and moral categories. I want to contribute to the anthropological understanding of unemployment by studying the political resistance as a reaction to unemployment being explained in individual terms. This thesis problematizes a certain form of individuality that informs how people might interp...

  14. Literacy, CETA, and Unemployment: Coming Up Empty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Gerald; Coppel, Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes low literacy levels among Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) applicants in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Discusses how cutbacks in CETA funding will adversely affect attempts to decrease illiteracy among unemployed, low-income, urban adults. (GC)

  15. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van der Ploeg

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  16. Unemployment dynamics with international capital mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Azariadis, Costas; Pissarides, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    We study the response of domestic unemployment rates to shocks in total factor productivity for economies with high capital mobility and low labour mobility. We show that rapid capital movements across national borders, like those experienced by developed nations in the last twenty years, substantially amplify the impact on the domestic unemployment rate of domestic fluctuations in total factor productivity relative to what would have happened in a closed economy, shorten the duration of the ...

  17. Unemployment Insurance and Job Turnover in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Rebollo Sanz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the potential relationships between the unemployment insurance system and labour market turnover, seeking to further the traditional view that this system has only behavioural consequences for the labour supply side of the labour market. This study assumes the incentives embedded in the unemployment insurance system have a heterogeneous impact, depending on the type of labour market transition (quits versus layoffs and recalls versus new job entr...

  18. Crises, Labor Market Policy, and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Furceri; Lorenzo E Bernal-Verdugo; Dominique M. Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 97 countries spanning the period 1980?2008, we estimate that financial crises have a large negative impact on unemployment in the short term, but that this effect rapidly disappears in the medium term in countries with flexible labor market institutions, whereas the impact of financial crises is less pronounced but more persistent in countries with more rigid labor market institutions. These effects are even larger for youth unemployment in the short term and long-term unemp...

  19. Unemployment and the "Labour-Management Conspiracy"

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Larry; Paul, Thierry

    1998-01-01

    Management and a union bargain sequentially, first choosing a contract which will later determine the level of employment, and those choosing a wage. The government then chooses an output subsidy, after which the industry chooses employment according to the contract. The presence of a natural turnover rate in the unionized sector creates unemployment whenever the union wage exceeds the competitive wage. Government intervention can increase both the equilibrium amount of unemployment and worse...

  20. Unemployment Insurance, Job Search, and Informal Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Margolis, David N.; Navarro, Lucas; Robalino, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impacts of introducing unemployment insurance (UI) in middle income countries using the case of Malaysia, which today does not have such a system. The analysis is based on a job search model with unemployment and three employment sectors: formal and informal wage employment, and self employment. The parameters of the model are estimated to replicate the structure of the labor market in Malaysia in 2009 and the distribution of earnings for informal, formal and...

  1. Product Market Reforms and Unemployment in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Schniewind, Achim

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study how promoting product market competition by reducing mark-ups or by increasing productivity are able to complement labor market reforms. We use a simple general equilibrium model with different types of labor. The bottom-line of the paper is that product market reforms will help to reduce aggregate unemployment under many circumstances even though sectoral unemployment may increase. We also highlight that the mobility of high-skilled workers and the distribution of unem...

  2. The Duration of Unemployment in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gogran, L.; Berg, van den, V.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal survey data to assess factors affecting the duration of unemployment in Russia. We examine four types of marginalised labour force participants, according to ILO guidelines and survey responses, and we estimate duration models for each type. It turns out that the sets of characteristics with the strongest effects on the duration are remarkably similar across the different unemployment definitions and model specifications. Therefore, despite the formidable practica...

  3. Measuring structural unemployment: Some neglected issues

    OpenAIRE

    Paqué, Karl-Heinz

    1992-01-01

    This paper is no more than a critical note on the mismatch philosophy. Its main point is that, under empirically acceptable assumptions, all measures developed so far - and probably all measures likely to emerge from refining the mismatch tools - are bound to seriously underestimate the extent of structural unemployment by any reasonable standard. For all that matters empirically, no period with a high share of mismatch in total unemployment is ever likely to emerge. Hence, if structural mean...

  4. The Consumption Smoothing Benefits of Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    1994-01-01

    Previous research on unemployment insurance (UI) has focused on the costs of the program, in terms of the distorting effects of generous UI benefits on worker and firm behavior. For assessing the optimal size of an unemployment insurance program, however, it is also important to gauge the benefits of increased UI generosity, in terms of smoothing consumption across periods of joblessness. I do so through a reduced form approach which directly measures the effect of legislated variations in UI...

  5. Does European Unemployment Prop up American Wages?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider trade between a flexible wage America and a rigid real wage Europe. In a benchmark case, a move from autarky to free trade doubles the European unemployment rate, while it raises the American unskilled wage to the high European level. Entry of the unskilled South to world markets raises unemployment in Europe. But Europe's commitment to the high wage completely insulates America from the shock. Immigration to America raises American income, but lowers European income dollar-for-do...

  6. Search Unemployment and New Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    vom Berge, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a general equilibrium geographical economics model which uses matching frictions on the labor market to generate regional unemployment disparities alongside the usual core-periphery pattern of industrial agglomeration. In the model, regional wage differentials do not only influence migration decisions of mobile workers, but also affect the bargaining process on local labor markets, leading to differences in vacancies and unemployment as well. In a setting with two regio...

  7. Agglomeration, Congestion, and Regional Unemployment Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Zierahn, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Regional labor markets are characterized by huge disparities of unemployment rates. Models of the New Economic Geography explain how disparities of regional goods markets endogenously arise but usually assume full employment. This paper discusses regional unemployment disparities by introducing a wage curve based on efficiency wages into the New Economic Geography. The model shows how disparities of regional goods and labor markets endogenously arise through the interplay of increasing return...

  8. Unemployment and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Carroll

    2005-01-01

    Who records the largest drops in life satisfaction when they move into unemployment? Do men experience a larger drop in life satisfaction than women? Do Australians and Americans record a larger drop than Europeans? Using an Australian panel data-set (the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Survey of Australia), this paper finds that the unemployed in Australia report lower life satisfaction than observationally equivalent employed people (holding current income constant). Being currently un...

  9. The analysis of unemployment in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hafenrichterová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The thesis titled The analysis of unemployment in the Czech Republic is focused on current issues in the labour market and the analysis of unemployment in the period from 2000 to 2010. The first part of the Bachelor thesis describes in more detail the characteristics of the labour market and unemployment from the standpoint of economic theory. Describing basic concepts, different types of unemployment and how to measure unemployment. The second part deals with a brief characteristic...

  10. Unemployment and endogenous reallocation over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Visschers, Ludo; Carrillo-Tudela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies unemployed workers’ decisions to change occupations, and their impact on fluctuations in aggregate unemployment and its underlying duration distribution. We develop an analytically and computationally tractable stochastic equilibrium model with heterogenous labor markets. In this model three different types of unemployment arise: search, rest and reallocation unemployment. We document new evidence on unemployed workers’ gross occupational mobility and use it to calibrate th...

  11. Unemployment and Endogenous Reallocation over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrillo-Tudela; Ludo Visschers

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies unemployed workers’ decisions to change occupations, and their impact on fluctuations in aggregate unemployment and its underlying duration distribution. We develop an analytically and computationally tractable stochastic equilibrium model with heterogenous labor markets. In this model three different types of unemployment arise: search, rest and reallocation unemployment. We document new evidence on unemployed workers’ gross occupational mobility and use it to calibrate th...

  12. The length of spells of unemployment in ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Omahony, M

    1983-01-01

    Abstract- This paper examines the average length of a spell of unemployment in the Irish Republic. The analysis is conducted using two measures, one emphasising the flow of persons into unemployment and the other concentrating on the stock of currently unemployed individuals. These measures imply long average durations for the unemployed in Ireland both in absolute terms and relative to their British counterparts. Some of the traditional structural aspects of Irish unemployment, i.e., the hig...

  13. The unemployment inflation trade-off in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Linzert, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between unemployment and wage inflation for 10 of the euro area countries. The combination of low wage inflation and high unemployment in Europe is usually attributed to a rise in the natural rate of unemployment. Using a panel data approach, this paper models directly the specific structural determinants of the natural rate of unemployment that may account for a changing pattern in the unemployment inflation trade-off. Moreover, it analyzes whether the re...

  14. Education and Unemployment : A French-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the link between educational attainment and unemployment risk in a French-German comparison, based on a discrete time competing risks hazard rate model applied to comparable microdata sets. The unemployment risk is broken down into the risk of entering unemployment and the risk, once unemployed, of not getting reemployed. The paper examines the impact of education on both risk components. France faces a higher unemployment rate than West-Germany, due to a higher risk of en...

  15. Race and the Incidence of Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    2001-01-01

    South Africans unemployment rate is one of the highest in the world, and it has important distributional implications. The paper examines the incidence of unemployment using two national household surveys for the mid-1990s. Both entry to unemployment and the duration of unemployment are examined. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment is estimated: it shows an important role for race, education, age, gender, home-ownership, location, and numerous other variables, all of which have...

  16. Race and the Oncidence of Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    2001-01-01

    South Africa’s unemployment rate is one of the highest in the world, and it has important distributional implications. The paper examines the incidence of unemployment using two national household surveys for the mid-1990s. Both entry to unemployment and the duration of unemployment are examined. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment is estimated: it shows an important role for race, education, age, gender, home-ownership, location, and numerous other variables, all of which have...

  17. Designing a Cheaper and More Effective Unemployment Benefit System

    OpenAIRE

    Melvyn G. Coles

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an equilibrium labour market in which an unemployment benefit system cannot raise the average value of being unemployed in the long run. It proposes an alternative benefit system which pays generous benefit rates when unemployment is high, but pays much lower rates in booms. By targeting unemployment compensation to recessions, when being unemployed is particularly costly, this policy provides insurance equivalent to that provided by the current system. By reducing the va...

  18. The Ins and Outs of Unemployment: The Ins Win

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for analyzing unemployment in terms of variations in the nt.imber and distribution of people becoming unemployed and in individual probabilities of leaving unemployment. Contrary to the emphasis on exit probabilities in the recent macroeconomics literature, we present empirical evidence in support of the proposition that changes in the size and distribution of the inflow Into unemployment are the primary determinant of the unemployment rate. Instead of falling ...

  19. Cultures of Unemployment : A Comparative Look at Long-Term Unemployment and Urban Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbersen, Godfried; Schuyt, Kees; Timmer, Jaap; Waarden, van Frans

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980s a team of Dutch sociologists conducted a study on the daily life of unemployed in the Netherlands. They were inspired by the classical work Marienthal: the Sociology of an Unemployed Community first published in 1933. The authors conducted three neighborhood studies to analyze the socia

  20. Community unemployment and immigrants' health in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Forster, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise; Raynault, Marie-France; Douglas Willms, J

    2006-07-01

    This research examines the relationship between community unemployment and the physical and mental health of immigrants in comparison to non-immigrants in Montreal under the hypothesis that high unemployment in the community may generate more negative effects on the health of immigrants than on non-immigrants. Possible gender differences in these associations are also examined. Montreal residents were studied via multilevel analysis, using both individual survey data and neighbourhood data from 49 police districts. Individual-level data were excerpted from a 1998 health survey of Montreal residents, while neighbourhood data originated from survey data collected in the 49 Montreal police districts and the 1996 Canadian Census. The associations between community unemployment and self-rated health, psychological distress and obesity are examined, and hypotheses regarding the modifying mechanisms via which male and female immigrants may run a greater risk of poor health than non-immigrants when living in areas of high unemployment were tested. Between neighbourhoods, variations in the three health outcomes were slight, and differences in health were not associated with differences in community unemployment. The associations between community unemployment and health varied according to immigration status. At the individual level, immigrants do not differ from non-immigrants with respect to the three health indicators, except that second-generation males are slightly heavier. However, when living in areas of high unemployment, immigrants tend to report poor physical and mental health in comparison to non-immigrants. Among first-generation immigrants, community unemployment was associated with psychological distress. Among second-generation immigrants, the probability of obesity and poor self-rated health increased significantly for those living in areas with high unemployment, but these associations reached statistical significance only for men. Findings among first

  1. Economic Growth and Unemployment: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad M. Kreishan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research investigates the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in Jordan through the implementation of Okun’s law. Approach: Using annual data covering the period 1970-2008, time series techniques are used to test the relation between unemployment and economic growth and to obtain estimates for Okun’s coefficient. Namely, the study used Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF for unit root, cointegration test and a simple regression between unemployment rate and economic growth. Results: The empirical results reveal that Okun’s law cannot be confirmed for Jordan. Thus, it can be suggested that the lack of economic growth does not explain the unemployment problem in Jordan. Conclusion: The study recommended that economic policies related to demand management would not have an important effect in reducing unemployment rate. Accordingly implementation of economic policies oriented to structural change and reform in the labor market would be more appropriate by policy makers in Jordan.

  2. Structural change and long-term unemployment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Strobl; Patrick P. Walsh

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the build-up in male long-term unemployment by allowing for heterogeneity both in the unemployment inflow and conditional survival rates. We construct semi-annual series of the male flows into and out of the Irish Live Register for the period 1967 to 1995 and develop a methodology that allows us to decompose the unemployment inflow by age and unemployment scheme and the unemployment outflow by duration of spell, age and unemployment scheme. Our results in conjunct...

  3. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground......While examining the macroeconomic effects of increased governmentcontrol of the informal sector, this paper develops a two-sectorgeneral equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining. Workers search for jobs in both the formaland the informal sector. We analyse the...

  4. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    The development of paternalist policies, such as the increase of punitive methods in welfare services, has been identified and analysed internationally (Mead, 1998; Soss et al., 2011a). The combination of these with an emphasis on instruments such as competition and performance measurement has been...... have gained more political legitimacy and are being more widely used as a tool to improve the willingness of the unemployed clients to participate in activities under the canopy of active labour market policy. This does not only affect unemployed people, who are highly employable, but also those who...

  5. Equilibria with Unemployment in Segmented Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitri G. Demekas

    1990-01-01

    The paper proves four theorems in an n-sector model of a segmented labor market, with search costs, and a continuum of workers with different reservation wages, who can apply to any number of sectors. The main conclusions are that: (i) an equilibrium with unemployment always exists; and (ii) some of the unemployment is involuntary, in the sense that it consists of workers with reservation wages below the equilibrium wage in the secondary market. These conclusions hold in the case of both sepa...

  6. Hysteresis in Unemployment: Evidence from Norwegian Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    The paper tests hysteresis effects in unemployment using aggregate and panel data for Norway. While tests using aggregate or county—specific time series do not reject the null of unit root hysteresis, the panel tests firmly reject the null. When a one—time structural break is incorporated, the unit root hypothesis is rejected (or nearly so) in most counties. All results reveal a high degree of unemployment persistence, but the speed of adjustment is much higher when we allow for a change in m...

  7. Long term youth unemployment or disposable workforce?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini; Elisa Grand

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a process which I denote as “young workforce disposal” (YWD). YWD reflects the fact that many young people enter the labor market as dependent employees, at some later time they are dismissed and (presumably) move into never-ending unemployment. Long term unemployment may last two, three, four years, but, in the end, it should lead to re-entry in working activities. If it does not, i.e. if we observe young men separating from their jobs for whatever reason, and, for as lon...

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Mihaela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.

  9. Are Home Owners Really More Unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2006-01-01

    jobs, which is in accordance with the predictions from our theoretical model. The overall hazard rate into employment is higher for homeowners, such that there is a negative correlation between homeownership and unemployment duration. Our empirical findings thus contradict the so-called Oswald......This paper investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...

  10. The Dynamics of Unemployment: Job Loss and Job Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of unemployment in terms of job loss and job search. Compares job loss to the grieving process and job search to burnout. Describes counseling strategies for people at various stages in the unemployment process. (Author)

  11. Is Longer Unemployment Rewarded with Longer Job Tenure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro

    This paper examines whether or not a prolonged unemployment period can raise the quality of job matching after unemployment. We focus on job tenure as an indicator of a good quality job match after unemployment. We match two sets of Japanese administrative data compiled by the public employment...... security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show a negative relationship between unemployment duration and the subsequent job duration. Restricting the...... sample to job seekers who changed search behaviors in the final 59 days before expiration of unemployment insurance, we secondly show an even greater negative effect of unemployment duration on the following job duration. The importance lies not only in the duration of unemployment. If job seekers keep a...

  12. Health and Health Care Utilization among the Unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Åhs, Annika

    2006-01-01

    The number of persons who are not employed has increased in Sweden since the early 1990s. Unemployment has been found to influence health, especially when unemployment rates are low. The extent to which unemployment affects health when unemployment is high is less clear, and this needs to be further studied. To improve health in the population, the health care system should offer equal access to health care according to need. It is important to study whether the employment status hinders the ...

  13. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  14. Individuals' Unemployment Experiences: Heterogeneity and Business Cycle Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwij, Adriaan S.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines individuals? unemployment experiences from the age of 18 up to the age of 35 using a large panel of administrative records on unemployment related benefit claims of men in the United Kingdom over the past two decades. The main focus is on the extent to which individuals? unemployment experiences are affected by regional and skill differences, i.e. individual heterogeneity, and the business cycle. In particular this study analyses the extent to which repeated unemployment i...

  15. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Abbring, Jaap; Berg, Gerard; Ours, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was on the duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exit rate out of unemployment have been investigated. Unlike the partial approach of previous studies this paper takes all elements of unemployment dynamics simultaneously into account. We find that cyclical fluct...

  16. How to Embrace Change: Provincial Unemployment After the 2008 Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko, Yevgeniya

    2014-01-01

    Five years after the 2008 recession, provincial unemployment rates in Canada remain higher than pre-recession levels. In some provinces, initial declines in unemployment have plateaued. When structural changes occur, a higher unemployment rate can persist even after a full economic recovery. This study undertakes an empirical analysis of provincial panel data to uncover potential causes of persistent unemployment across Canada. The results indicate that, after the recession, the structural co...

  17. Long-Term Unemployment in the Varieties of Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Usually, when the attention is focused on the different performances of the labour market, the overall rate of unemployment is at the center stage. But this is misleading: while short term unemployment can be seen as physiological for the the working of the labour market, long-term unemployment is certainly pathological. The paper considers how the different varieties of capitalism affect the rate of long-term unemployment, rather than the aggregate rate. The liberal market variety, where emp...

  18. Is longer unemployment rewarded with longer job tenure?

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether or not a prolonged unemployment period can raise the quality of job matching after unemployment. We focus on job tenure as an indicator of a good quality job match after unemployment. We match two sets of Japanese administrative data compiled by the public employment security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show...

  19. The search for success: do the unemployed find stable employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Taylor, Mark P

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses an independent competing risks framework to model job tenure, with previous labour market status and the duration of the preceding unemployment spell as explanatory variables. We find that jobs that follow an unemployment spell have shorter mean duration than other jobs. Less than one half of jobs that follow unemployment last for twelve months. Multivariate results suggest that an unemployment spell has a severe penalty on subsequent job tenure. However, men and women who spe...

  20. The Problem with Structural Unemployment in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2012-01-01

    Following the most recent recession, an attempt has been made to explain current levels of unemployment as resulting from structural unemployment, or a mismatch between the skills of the unemployed and the types of jobs available. The evidence, however, indicates that the issue is actually a lack of aggregate demand. Since accepting one of these views over the other will lead to very different policy solutions, it is important to accurately assess the cause of unemployment. This issue brief f...

  1. new jobs or recalls? flow dynamics in austrian unemployment reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Pichelmann, Karl; Riedel, Monika

    1991-01-01

    abstract: the results of this study demonstrate the importance of explicitly accounting for the possibility of recalls in the analysis of unemployment composition and the determinants of unemployment spell durations in austria. in our sample covering unemployment spells in 1985 we find that recalls accounted for nearly one half of the employment to unemployment to re-employment transitions with the probability of recall being mainly dependent on industry and job characteristics related to sea...

  2. Decomposition of Unemployment: The Case of the Visegrad group countries

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Tvrdoň

    2015-01-01

    Generally, economic performance declines and the unemployment rate rises during the economic crisis. This relationship was confirmed in the past several crises. Moreover, we can decompose unemployment into several components – seasonal, cyclical and structural. The aim of the paper is to decompose unemployment and we try to estimate the rate of structural unemployment. Quarterly data from the Eurostat database in the period between 2000 and 2012 were applied. In order to estimate the trend of...

  3. Structural Estimates of Equilibrium Unemployment in Six OECD Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Albert van der Horst

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, neither unemployment rates nor institutions are uniform. In the EMU, countries have coordinated their monetary policy, and fiscal policy might follow. Does convergence in fiscal policy imply that unemployment rates will converge, too, or is diversified fiscal policy desirable? An answer to this question requires insight into the dependence on fiscal policy of the unemployment rate in equilibrium. This study estimates the equilibrium rate of unemployment and shows that it has been a...

  4. Structural unemployment in Europe: A bird's-eye view

    OpenAIRE

    Paqué, Karl-Heinz

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a synoptic interpretation of structural unemployment in Europe. The paper consists of three parts. Part 1 summarises some major stilysed facts of the record and the state of unemployment in Europe. In part 2, these facts are taken as the basis for a theoretical interpretation of the genesis and persistence of European unemployment. Part 3 contains policy conclusions. The main message of the paper is that the ultimate cause of European unemployment since the early 1980s is ...

  5. INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT: ARE THEY COMPLEMENTS OR SUBSTITUTES?

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Clark

    1980-01-01

    Inflation and unemployment plagued the U S economy during the decade of the seventies Some economic models suggest that inflation and unemployment are bi-polar events - they cannot occur at the same time This article reviews two models that have been in the economics literature since the thirties and that explain inflation and unemployment as complements, not substitutes One is the well-known IS/LM framework, the other is sometimes called the structural unemployment framework A third model wh...

  6. Unemployment and Welfare State: What do the Data Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    DING, HONG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between welfare expenditure by government and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 34 OECD countries from 1980 to 2010 and a two-way fixed effect model for panel data subject to endogeneity test and persistence test, the results of the paper suggest that total welfare expenditure as a percentage of GDP has a statistically significant positive impact on unemployment outcomes (total unemployment, long-term unemployment and youth unemployme...

  7. Why Has Unemployment Risen in the New South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Banerjee; Sebastian Galiani; Jim Levinsohn; Zoë McLaren; Ingrid Woolard

    2007-01-01

    We document the rise in unemployment in South Africa since the transition in 1994. We describe the likely causes of this increase and analyze whether the increase in unemployment is due to structural changes in the economy (resulting in a new equilibrium unemployment rate) or to negative shocks (that temporarily have increased unemployment). We conclude the former are more important. Our analysis includes a multinomial logit approach to understanding transitions in individual-level changes in...

  8. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  9. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  10. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  11. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  12. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  13. Employment and Unemployment: the Doughnut or the Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiskin, Julius

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of unemployment and the relative merits of various types of employment and unemployment rates as measures of the economy's performance and as cyclical indicators is supplemented by tables. The employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate are deemed useful cyclical indicators. (Author/LH)

  14. Optimal Unemployment Insurance With Different Types of Job

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Pidong

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the design of optimal unemployment insurance with multiple types of job. The environment is an extension of Hopenhayn and Nicolini(1997). We study the model by using the fi�rst-order approach. The optimal contract still displays benefit� decreasing over the length of the unemployment spell. The wage tax after reemployment depends on the length of unemployment spell.

  15. Unemployment and Inflation in Canada: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gwillym J.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on unemployment and inflation. Material is divided into nine sections. Section 1 covers historical trends in unemployment and inflation. Section 2 examines four types of unemployment: frictional,…

  16. Worker's unemployment protection systems in the OAS countries

    OpenAIRE

    Islas, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical foundations and characteristics of unemployment insurance and its effects on the labour market and explores features of Latin American labour markets and unemployment insurance. Examines current legislation on severance pay and unemployment insurance in the region and analyses changes during the 1990s.

  17. Provisions of the welfare state: employment protection versus unemployment insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Neugart

    2007-01-01

    Employment protection and unemployment benefits are considered as the most prominent insurance devices for workers to protect themselves against the risk of unemployment. It occurs that societies either choose a high level of employment protection relative to unemployment benefits or vice versa. This paper explains where countries locate on this trade-off.

  18. The Effects of Benefits, Incentives, and Sanctions on Youth Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses the...

  19. Search Time, Unemployment, and the Migration Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Ernst P.; Schoening, Niles C.

    1984-01-01

    Unemployed in distressed regions of the United States have been reluctant to move to areas of greater employment opportunities. By establishing a negative correlation between weeks of job search and probability of migration, this study is able to provide a partial explanation for lack of a positive relationship between outmigration rates and…

  20. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  1. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the need to learn to live…

  2. A perspective of South African unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Basdevant, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Based on stylized facts on South Africa, this article provides a simple theoretical framework to analyze the relations between reducing working time, unemployment, education and growth. It is flexible enough to provide some main macro-economic implications of work sharing, especially in terms of education and growth.

  3. Explaining unemployment trends in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a small macroeconomic model of the Dutch labour market is estimated. The model is used to detect the causes of the rise in unemployment since the early 70s. In contrast to existing empirical work, we treat labour supply as an endogenous variable. This adjustment appears to

  4. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  5. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  6. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  7. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  8. New Insights on Unemployment Duration and Post Unemployment Earnings in Germany: Censored Box-Cox Quantile Regression at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzenberger, Bernd; Wilke, Ralf A.

    2007-01-01

    In light of nonstationary search theory (van den Berg, 1990), this paper estimates the effects of benefit entitlement periods and the size of unemployment benefits on unemployment durations and post-unemployment earnings in West Germany. For the unemployment duration, we estimate censored Box-Cox quantile regression, which is robust with respect to the specification of the unobserved error distribution and avoids the common proportional hazard assumption. Our results suggest that the length o...

  9. Unemployment and crime: Experimental evidence of the causal effects of intensified ALMPs on crime rates among unemployed individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Hald Andersen

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigate the extent to which levels of welfare benefits reduce crime among the unemployed. This paper expands this literature by testing whether the intensity of other welfare programs aimed at the unemployed affects their criminal activity, using evidence from a Danish social experiment that randomly assigned active labor market programs (ALMPs) of different levels of intensity to newly unemployed individuals.

  10. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unemployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...

  11. Associations of smoking prevalence with individual and area level social cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, J.; Eberly, L.; Ding, Y.; Hargreaves, M.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To discover if area level social cohesion, neighbourhood safety, and home safety are associated with current cigarette smoking among adults after adjustment for concentrations of poverty and low education.

  12. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Schootman Mario; Lian Min; Yun Shumei

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variati...

  13. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    1998-01-01

    illness. The data base for our analyses has been constructed by merging two large Danish longitudinal data sets. The first is a panel of approximately 240.000 individuals which corresponds to 5 per cent of the Danish population aged 16-74, and contains detailed year-by-year information about...... length thereof) and other labour market statuses during the years preceding the first admission. This allows us to study whether unemployment as a risk factor differs between age groups, men and women, and single and married persons, and whether education and earnings have a moderating effect......The purpose of this paper is also to analyze the importance of unemployment and other social factors as risk factors for impaired mental health. It departs from previous studies in that we make use of information about first admissions to a psychiatric hospital or ward as our measure of mental...

  14. Capital Export, Unemployment, and Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Gunther G

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses capital export controls under majority voting. It is shown that individuals vote according to their factor endowment ratio. An individual’s optimal restriction is tighter, the lower their capital-labour ratio and the larger the country; it is also tighter if unemployment prevails. If there is illegal immigration, however, results are dramatically reversed: the conflict of interests collapses and all individuals favour unrestricted capital export until immigration is elimin...

  15. Youth employment and unemployment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Dev, S.; M. Venkatanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Increase in the share of youth population due to demographic `dividend' or the `youth bulge' seems to be one of the sources of future economic growth in India. Although with increase in school and college enrolment rates, the proportion of youth in the labour force has been declining, their high proportions in the labour force indicate that the problem of youth unemployment and underemployment would remain a serious policy issue for many more years to come in India. In this context, this pape...

  16. On Monetary Policy, Unemployment, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    ROSAS MARTINEZ, Victor H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Recognizing the possible relation between investments, economic growth and unemployment, and how there is not an established impact of an unlikely productive project failure on the secondly mentioned variables, we address such relation and asses theoretically the effect of different instruments of monetary policy on the mentioned macroeconomic indicators. To do this we build upon two models of economic growth considering the role of entrepreneurs, risk takers, and a monetary authori...

  17. Hidden Unemployment and Older Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A number of policy reforms have recently been announced by the Commonwealth government to encourage greater labour force participation by older people in the context of an ageing society. These policy reforms are generally supply side in orientation such as the removal of the Mature Age Allowance, or restrictions to the Disability Support Pension. In this paper it is argued that these pensions have historically been used to accommodate otherwise unemployed older male workers. A number of meth...

  18. Equilibrium labour turnover, firm growth and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Melvyn G; Dale T. Mortensen

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies a data-consistent, equilibrium model of unemployment, wage dispersion, quit turnover and firm growth dynamics. In a separating equilibrium, more productive firms signal their type by paying strictly higher wages in every state of the market. Workers optimally quit to firms paying a higher wage and so move effciently from less to more productive firms. Start-up firms are initially small and grow endogenously over time. Consistent with Gibrat's law, individual firm growth ...

  19. Hysteresis in Unemployment: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Mednik; César Rodríguez.; Inder J. Ruprah

    2008-01-01

    This paper tests the hysteresis hypothesis in unemployment for 13 Latin American countries covering the period 1980-2005. The tests exploit the time series and the cross sectional variation of the series, and allows for cross section dependence and a different number of endogenously determined structural breakpoints. The findings give support to the hysteric dynamic hypothesis for the majority of the countries analyzed. The implications of the results have ramifications regarding macro-stabil...

  20. Politics and unemployment in industrialized democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Linda Gonçalves; Chappell Junior, Henry

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical appraisal of the influence of politics on the evolution of unemployment rates in 13 industrialized democracies (12 European Union countries and the U.S.) from 1960 to 1999. We conduct new tests of opportunistic and partisan business cycle models, using richer data and more general specifications than previous studies. In contrast to most previous studies, we pay particular attention to the importance of labor market structure in conditioning the influenc...

  1. From mass unemployment to mass underemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Pugliese

    2007-01-01

    The article brings into focus the changes that have taken place in Italy and Europe in the last twenty years. In Italy unemployment rates have decreased in the last 12 years while the political orientation of the government has changed several times. The article underlines that a decline in job quality and increase in insecure employment are also to be seen in all the countries due to labour policies aiming at greater flexibility. Within this framework the immigrant labour force is playing an...

  2. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the unobserved individual heterogeneity and the initial condition and that the degree of state dependence is overstated if we do not address this problem. The results show that an individual who was ...

  3. In-work benefits and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Mirco; Kolm, Ann-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    In-work benefits are becoming an increasingly relevant labour market policy, gradually expanding in scope and geographical coverage. This paper investigates the equilibrium impact of in-work benefits and contrasts it with the traditional partial equilibrium analysis. We find under which conditions accounting for equilibrium wage adjustments amplifies the impact of in-work benefits on search intensity, participation, employment, and unemployment, compared to a framework in which wages are fixe...

  4. Tax-Competition with Involuntary Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Upmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the classical tax-competition framework of Zodrow and Mieszkowski (1986) by modelling involuntary unemployment and by allowing for labour taxation as a second source of public funds. For a large class of production functions (including CES), it turns out that tax competition is characterized by underprovision of public goods, and by positive taxes on both labour and capital. We thus conclude that the results of Zodrow and Mieszkowski survive some important and s...

  5. The Dynamic Correlation Between Growth and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Tripier

    2002-01-01

    We apply the measure of dynamic correlation developed by Croux, Forni and Reichlin (2001) [A measure of comovement for economic variables: theory and empirics. Review of Economics and Statistics 83, 232-241] to the relation between the quarterly rates of unemployment and labor productivity growth for the post-war United-States economy. The application of the dynamic correlation reveals that these variables are strongly related, but in a different manner according to the frequencies considered...

  6. Unemployment and the Demand for Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchflower, David G.; Robert Crouchley; Saul Estrin; Andrew Oswald

    1990-01-01

    Why do people join open-shop unions when they would receive union wage rates even if they were not members? Why are unionization rates so low in the south-east of England? To address these questions, which we treat as interrelated, the paper considers the idea that unions offer insurance against victimization and arbitrary dismissal. Consistent with our theoretical approach, we find that union density is greatest, ceteris paribus, within establishments in areas of high unemployment.

  7. Growth, Employment and Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Hodge

    2009-01-01

    The high rate of unemployment in South Africa stands out in an otherwise vastly improved set of macroeconomic fundamentals compared to the situation in the early 1990s. One might be tempted to argue that by this single indicator alone, government policies such as GEAR have been a failure. This paper explains why jumping to such a conclusion would be a mistake and focuses on the relationship between economic growth and employment and shows how estimates of the employment coefficient have chang...

  8. Wage subsidies to combat unemployment and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Justine; Edwards, Lawrence; Pauw, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Wage or employment subsidies have been used in both developed and developing countries to raise employment levels. Various advisers to the South African government have endorsed wage subsidies as a policy measure to deal with this countrys massive unemployment problem. This paper takes stock of the international literature and conducts an economywide macro-micro analysis to obtain insights into wage subsidy design and implementation issues facing developing countries. It also investigates whe...

  9. Local Trade Networks and Spatially Persistent Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Nienke Oomes

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of local trade networks on the spatial distribution of employment in a Cooper and John (1988) type model with effective demand externalities. It is shown that, if labor can be hired in continuous quantities, then the long run spatial distribution of employment is uniform, and independent of any trade network topology. When labor has binary support, however, local trade networks are shown to generate spatial unemployment clusters which can persist indefinitely.

  10. Credit and Unemployment: Do Institutions Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Donatella; Vaubourg, Anne-Gaël

    2010-01-01

    we analyse the relationship between firms' access to credit and unemployment in the second section. The third section is dedicated to the literature on institutional and legal determinants of the access to credit. In the fourth section, we both complete and moderate the view developed in the second section, stressing the complex interactions that exist between financial arrangements and labour market institutions. The final section concludes.

  11. Institutions and unemployment: Do interactions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Isolated effects of labor and product market institutions as well as the interaction between both aforementioned categories on unemployment have been extensively discussed in the empirical literature. However, interaction effects between individual labor market institutions have been widely neglected, mainly due to the infeasibility to correctly specify the model. In this paper, a model averaging approach is adopted to show that considering institutional interactions can improve the explanato...

  12. Statistical analysi of unemployment development in Ústecký Region

    OpenAIRE

    Prokop, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is to analyse an unemployment in Usti nad Labem region and to compare this unemployment with the situation in Czech republic. Usti nad Labem region is the most affected region in Czech republic from the unemployment point of view. The teoretical part of this thesis descibes all types of unemployment and possible impacts on unemployed people. The bachelor thesis unfolds instruments, which can help to lower unemployment, describes each type of unemployment and ...

  13. Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs? A comparison between the unemployed, inactive and wage-earners

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Pernilla; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    In many countries unemployed people are helped to become self-employed. Self-employment, however, does not necessarily lead to success. Many leave self-employment after a short period and the economic outcome varies greatly. It is important to learn more about the economic outcome for unemployed who become self-employed. In the first part of the paper we analyse who became self-employed in the period from 1999 to 2002 of Swedish-born men aged 20 to 60 years who were either wage-earners, unemp...

  14. The Design of Signalised Intersections at Area Level. Models and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the PRIN research project named “Guidelines for the urban transportation network analysis and design: methods and models for designing at area level the signalised intersections” are summarised. In the research project, several problems of signal settings optimisation at area level were studied and some methods and model for optimising the signal setting parameters were proposed. All proposed methods were tested on a real-scale case: the road network of Benevento. The results of the research showed that the proposed methods are able to solve the problem in acceptable computing times also on real-scale networks.

  15. Basic income and unemployment in a unionized economy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Linden, Bruno

    1997-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model of a unionized economy to analyze the impact of unconditional basic income schemes on unemployment. Starting from a given level of the unemployment benefits, two reforms are envisaged : one where these benefits are replaced by a higher unconditional grant (the full basic income) and another where the income of the unemployed remains unchanged (the partial basic income). Assuming a proportional tax on earnings and a balanced budget of the...

  16. Unemployment persistence and inflation convergence: evidence from regions of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gözgör, Giray

    2013-01-01

    As an emerging economy, Turkey has suffered from high unemployment rate, as well as major discrepancies among regional unemployment rates, even in the periods of rapid economic growth. In this study, we mainly investigate the unemployment persistence at the regional level for Turkey, and we apply recent and powerful Panel-based Unit Root (PUR) tests, when the panels have small time series dimensions and cross-sections in highly persistent data. Results from the PUR tests clearly show that the...

  17. Labor Market Dynamics in Tunisia: The Issue of Youth Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Stampini, Marco; Verdier-Chouchane, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of the youth labor market in Tunisia using unique labor force survey data from 2005 to 2007 that include a longitudinal component. It first shows that sustained economic growth will reduce youth unemployment over the next few years. Second, forecasts indicate that the growth of private sector services has the highest potential to reduce youth unemployment. Third, the analysis of labor market characteristics reveals that young graduates experience long unemploy...

  18. Labor market transitions and the availability of unemployment insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Economists often expect unemployment insurance (UI) benefits to elevate unemployment rates because recipients may choose to remain unemployed in order to continue receiving benefits, instead of accepting a job or dropping out of the labor force. This paper uses individual data from the Current Population Survey for the period between 2005 and 2013 - a period during which the federal government extended and then reduced the length of benefit availability to varying degrees in different states ...

  19. Unemployment Insurance and Disability Insurance in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Andreas I.; Jesse Rothstein; Till M. von Wachter

    2013-01-01

    Disability insurance (DI) applications and awards are countercyclical. One potential explanation is that unemployed individuals who exhaust their Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits use DI as a form of extended benefits. We exploit the haphazard pattern of UI benefit extensions in the Great Recession to identify the effect of UI exhaustion on DI application, using both aggregate data at the state-month and state-week levels and microdata on unemployed individuals in the Current Population Su...

  20. The role of uncertainty in the unemployment theory of Keynes

    OpenAIRE

    Piluso, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the role of uncertainty in Keynes theory of involuntary unemployment. This concept has no role in the model of Keynes resulting from the neoclassic synthesis: a result of unvoluntary unemployment equilibrium is obtained as to the violation of Walras law. Section 1 shows the gap between Keynes analysis of unemployment and Glustoff's model. It concerns the question of wage flexibility. Section 2 tries to underline that uncertainty has actually a role in the relation...

  1. Labor Market Institutions and Unemployment Dynamics in Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Garibaldi; Zuzana Brixiova

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies interactions between labor market institutions and unemployment dynamics in transition economies. It presents a dynamic matching model in which state sector firms endogenously shed labor and private job creation takes time. Two main conclusions arises. First, higher unemployment benefits increase steady-state unemployment, and, during the transition, they reduce the fall in real wages and speed up closure of state enterprises. Second, higher minimum wages can theoretically ...

  2. Unemployment and Mental Health: Some Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Anders

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the effects of unemployment on mental health are analysed. A simple model where both the occurrence of and duration of unemployment are allowed to affect mental health is specified. Panel data are used to control for 'fixed effects', i.e. omitted variables that are constant over time. The main finding is that those who are unemployed seem to have worse mental health than others whereas no effects were found after having controlled for fixed effects.

  3. Long-Term Unemployment in the Varieties of Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Chilosi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how the different varieties of capitalism affect the rate of long-term unemployment. The liberal market variety, where employment protection is the lowest, presents lower rates of long-term unemployment than the continental European, or the Mediterranean varieties. In the latter both employment protection and long-term unemployment are the highest and labour market participation the lowest. But the social-democratic Scandinavian variety gets the best of both worlds: low r...

  4. Golden parachutes: Changing the experience of unemployment for managers

    OpenAIRE

    Anya M Johnson, Paul R Jackson

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables —financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner — on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After using qualitative research to explore managers' experiences during unemployment, we used the themes that emerged from this first study to conduct a su...

  5. Urban youth unemployment and human capital development in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This is a study on the main causes of urban youth unemployment in Iran. It argues that, based upon structural and classical explanations of unemployment, urban youth unemployment in Iran is caused by deficiencies in human capital development. Based in the two approaches to human capital development, the study uses empirical findings obtained through interviews, surveys and statistics in Iran to discuss earlier studies on the phenomenon, and to see whether investments in human capital developm...

  6. Evaluating Unemployment Policies: What do the Underlying Theories Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper surveys unemployment policies for advanced market economies and evaluates them by examining the predictions of the underlying macroeconomic theories. The basic idea is that, for the most part, different unemployment policy prescriptions rest on different macroeconomic theories, and our confidence in the prescriptions should depend - at least in part - on the ability of these theories to predict some salient stylized facts about unemployment behaviour. The paper considers four types ...

  7. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new match depends on the applicant's unem­ployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration o...

  8. Statistical analysis of unemployment in a selected region

    OpenAIRE

    Cvachová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment represents a very serious economical and social problem of every market economy. Its monitoring in the Czech Republic belongs to the administration of Czech Statistical Office and Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MPSV). This thesis focuses on the analysis of the rate of unemployment and the unemployed of various categories in the Central Region between the years 2000 and 2010. The Central Region consists of 12 districts and due to its close proximity to the capital city ...

  9. Does Unemployment Hysteresis Exist in Economy of Iran?

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Eisazadeh; Mahbobeh Tabarsi

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the unemployment hysteresis hypothesis for Iran, by using annual data of actual unemployment rate, during period 1959-2011. We first apply traditional methods of unit root test without considering structural breaks such as ADF and Phillips and Perron (1988) tests and fail to reject the hysteresis hypothesis in unemployment time series. When one structural break is incorporated, we again fail to reject hysteresis hypothesis. Since the mentioned tests have little ...

  10. Endogeneity in Structural Unemployment Equations; The Case of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the endogeneity of several structural variables which enter unemployment rate equations—the generosity of unemployment benefits, nonwage labor costs, the relative minimum wage, and the degree of unionization. It finds evidence of reverse causality for these structural variables based on causality tests. The structural unemployment rate equation is then estimated using instruments suggested by the empirical analysis of the structural variables. The paper confirms the earlie...

  11. Structural Determinants of the Natural Rate of Unemployment in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, David T

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents empirical estimates of the policy and structural determinants of the natural rate of unemployment in Canada. The paper begins with a discussion of structural features of the economy which impinge on the adjustment of real wages to their equilibrium level. Estimates are presented showing how the generosity of the unemployment insurance system is related to past levels of unemployment. The empirical results indicate that government policies have been largely responsible for ...

  12. How Different are the Sources of Unemployment of Ukrainian Regions?

    OpenAIRE

    Bizyayev Vadym; Smal' Valentina

    2009-01-01

    There are large spatial differences in unemployment within Ukraine. For example, it ranged from 0.15 percent for Illichivsk (Odesska obl) to more than 14 percent for Chernigivskiy rayon (Zaporizka obl.) in 2006. Regions within a country may have different sources and structure of unemployment (e.g., some regions may have a high natural rate of unemployment, while others may suffer from a recent cut in local labor demand) and need different kinds of regional policies. This paper aims at decomp...

  13. STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT AND ITS DETERMINANTS IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Botrić, Valerija

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides comparative analysis of the structural unemployment for a group of transition countries in Southeast Europe, based on relatively simple measure, NAWRU. The paper also investigates and discusses the determinants of relatively high structural unemployment in the region. The results of the empirical estimates point to the remittances and overall changes in business climate as being the significant variables that explain relatively high structural unemployment in analyzed coun...

  14. The Redistributive Role of Minimum Wage Legislation and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Marceau; Robin Boadway

    1991-01-01

    The use of unemployment insurance and minimum wages as instruments for redistributing income are analyzed. The government is assumed to be able to implement an optimal income tax in an economy consisting of two ability-types of persons. The effect of introducing a minimum wage which induces involuntary unemployment combined with unemployment insurance is considered. Social welfare can be improved despite the possible revenue costs to the government if the policy causes a self-selection constr...

  15. Wage, Productivity and Unemployment Microeconomics Theory and Macroeconomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, Weshah

    2014-01-01

    We confront microeconomic theory with macroeconomic data. Unemployment results from two main micro-level decisions of workers and firms. Most of the efficiency wage and bargaining theories predict that over the business cycle, unemployment falls below its natural rate when the worker’s real wage exceeds the reservation wage. However, these theories have weak empirical support. Firm’s decision predicts that when the worker’s real wage exceeds the marginal product of labor, unemployment increas...

  16. Wage Effects of Mobility, Unemployment Benefits and Benefit Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Hans

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies how wages and employment are affected by unemployment insurance when there is endogenous labor mobility. In a simple model with symmetric sectors, it is shown that introducing labor mobility reduces the wage level, and thereby also unemployment. It is also shown that an increased benefit level has an ambiguous effect on the wage level, contrary to the standard result in the literature. The finding in the literature that an increase in the fraction of unemployment costs born...

  17. Occupational change and mobility among employed and unemployed job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Labour Force Survey to show that employed and unemployed job seekers in Great Britain originate from different occupations and find jobs in different occupations. We find substantial differences in occupational mobility between job seekers: employed job seekers are most likely to move to occupations paying higher average wages relative to their previous occupation, while unemployed job seekers are most likely to move to lower paying occupations. Employed and unemployed jo...

  18. Unemployment, Skills, and the Business Cycle Since 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Sparber, Chad; Fan, Jasmine Sijie

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs reduced-form microeconometric analysis to examine how yearly changes in aggregate income and GDP growth affect the unemployment probability of individuals with varied skills in the United States. The paper goes beyond traditional education-based measures and assesses how manual, communication, and quantitative skills affect the relationship between macroeconomic shocks and unemployment. Workers specialized in communication skills exhibit lower unemployment rates, reduced un...

  19. Wages, Rents, Unemployment, and the Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Wrede, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Combining a spatial equilibrium model with a search-matching unemployment model, this paper analyzes the willingness to pay for regional amenities and the regional quality of life when wages, rents, and unemployment risk compensate for local amenities and disamenities. The results are compared with those obtained from the Rosen-Roback approach. Furthermore, the paper shows that the wage curve is negatively sloped for quasi-linear utility. Specifically, the wage rate increases and the unemploy...

  20. Unemployment Insurance in the Presence of an Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bardey, David; Jaramillo, Fernando; Peña, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of UI benefits in a typical developing country where the informal sector is sizeable and persistent. In a partial equilibrium environment we characterize the stationary equilibrium of an economy where policyholders may be employed in the formal sector, short-run unemployed receiving UI benefits and long-run unemployed without UI benefits. We perform comparative static exercises to understand how UI benefits affect unemployed workers´effort to secure a formal job, their lab...

  1. "Government Outlays, Economic Growth and Unemployment: A VAR Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan Wang; Burton A. Abrams

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic effects of government outlays on economic growth and the unemployment rate in the context of vector autoregression. We utilize data from 20 OECD countries over three recent decades. Our main conclusions are: (1) positive shocks to government outlays will slow down economic growth and raise the unemployment rate; (2) different types of government outlays have different effects on growth and unemployment, with transfers and subsidies having a larger effect than g...

  2. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: Perspectives from the banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Faith Oluwajodu; Derick Blaauw; Lorraine Greyling; Kleynhans, Ewert P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduat...

  3. Unemployment and wages in South Africa: A spatial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    1999-01-01

    A large amount of recent evidence finds a negative relationship between local unemployment and wages in OECD countries, a relationship christened a ‘wage curve’. This contradicts the conventional model of the labour market in which high unemployment regions have higher wages to compensate for search and other costs. This paper discovers a wage curve in South Africa, a country with several times the typical unemployment rate of OECD countries. The wage curve elasticity in South Africa is simil...

  4. Book review: Unemployment in Africa: A psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Joannides

    2005-01-01

    Title: Unemployment In an African country: a psychological perspective By: Webster Gonzo and Ilse Elisabeth Plattner Publishers: University of Namibia Press, 2003 Unemployment in an African country is a concisely written and well-structured book, which investigates the psychological impact of unemployment on Namibia’s ‘street unemployed’. This term refers to the large population of men who wait alongside the roads and at traffic intersections, in the hope of being offered causal employment. E...

  5. The Relationship Between Unemployment and Earnings Inequality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment and earnings inequality have moved closely together in South Africa in recent years, suggesting that there may not be a trade-off between them as the literature generally suggests. This article explores the relationship between unemployment and earnings inequality in South Africa, specifically investigating the extent to which changes in unemployment can account for changes in earnings inequality. Decomposing overall income inequality by factor source shows the overwhelming impor...

  6. Equilibrium Unemployment and Investment Under Product and Labour Market Imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi , Heikki; Koskela, Erkki; Stenbacka, Rune

    2004-01-01

    The study looks at the implications of product market competition and investment for price setting, wage bargaining and thereby for equilibrium unemployment in an economy with product and labour market imperfections. We show that intensified product market competition will reduce equilibrium unemployment, whereas the effect of increased capital intensity is more complex. Higher capital intensity will decrease the equilibrium unemployment when the elasticity of substitution between capital and...

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT SEASONALITY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Balan Christiana Brigitte; Gagea Mariana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses one of the components of a time series, that is the seasonal component. The phenomenon studied in the paper is the unemployment in Romania during 1996-2005. The unemployment seasonality is measured by three indicators: low-peak seasonality, amplitude seasonality and mean seasonal variation. The seasonal factor is used, together with the extrapolation of the trend, to predict the unemployment level in Romania for the first quarter of 2009.

  8. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  9. Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The job search literature suggests that on-the-job search reduces the probability of unemployed people finding a job. However, there is little evidence that employed and unemployed job seekers are similar or apply for the same jobs. We compare employed and unemployed job seekers in terms of their individual characteristics, preferences over working hours, job-search strategies and employment histories, and identify how any differences vary over the business cycle. We find systematic differenc...

  10. A social net? Internet and social media use during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Feuls, Miriam; Fieseler, Christian; Suphan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many people who are unemployed tend to experience forms of psychological and social losses, including a weakened time structure, diminished social contacts, an absence of collective purpose, falling status, and inactivity. This article focuses on the experience of diminished social contacts and addresses whether social media help the unemployed maintain their relationships. Based on qualitative interviews with unemployed individuals, the article identifies various types of social supp...

  11. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  12. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between an...... active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  13. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between an...... active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  14. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between an...... active and a passive search strategy. Labour market policy has two options available. First, only the medium-term and long-term unemployed MLTU) placed by the PES are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a MLTU. We show that under both regimes equilibrium unemployment is increasing...

  15. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  16. High unemployment after the recession: mostly cyclical, but adjusting slowly

    OpenAIRE

    Tasci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has remained very high since the end of last recession, leading some economists to suggest that the underlying trend of the unemployment rate must have risen, driving unemployment permanently higher. Using a more accurate method of calculating the underlying trend, I find that the long-term rate has not risen and that most of the recent increase in the unemployment rate can be attributed to cyclical causes. But the weak nature of the recovery in real output and the slow rate of w...

  17. A profile of UK unemployment: regional versus demographic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Sessions, J G

    1997-06-01

    "This paper profiles the incidence of unemployment in the [United Kingdom] over the period 1985-91 using data derived from the British Social Attitudes Survey. The approach of the paper is to quantify the differential probabilities of unemployment faced by particular groups within the population, focusing in particular on the relative effects of demographic and regional influences. Our results indicate that, even after controlling for a plethora of demographic characteristics, regional disparities in unemployment risk are prevalent, with individuals in Northern Ireland, Wales, the North and West Midlands of England facing a higher chance of unemployment ceteris paribus." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293417

  18. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bonney; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Lawrence Bott; Stephen E J Andersen; Peter Caputi; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI obje...

  19. Does an increase in unemployment income lead to longer unemployment spells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toomet, Ott-Siim

    2005-01-01

    Danish unemployment assistance depends on age; it increases by 70% when unemployedindividuals turn 25. This feature is used to identify the impact of income on theunemployment-to-employment hazard rate. A mixed proportional hazard frameworkbased on a 10% representative Danish registry data set is...

  20. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend to...... reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has the...

  1. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." PMID:12341287

  2. Unemployment and Right-Wing Extremist Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Zweimüller, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Right-wing extremism is a serious problem in many societies. A prominent hypothesis states that unemployment plays a crucial role for the occurrence of right-wing extremist crime. In this paper we empirically test this hypothesis. We use a previously not used data set which includes all officially recorded right-wing criminal acts in Germany. These data are recorded by the German Federal Criminal Police Office on a monthly and state level basis. Our main finding is that there is in fact a sig...

  3. Technical progress, market forms and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ASIMAKOPULOS A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is threefold. The first purpose is to emphasise the importance of the insights to be found in Sylos Labini’s work. The second purpose is to expand upon it by distinguishing  between the different types of technical progress. Finally, the third purpose is to comment on Labini’s comparison of Ricardo and Keynes on the possibility of technological unemployment. Regarding his description of technological progress as “labour saving”, the author shows that a more comprehensive description would be more useful for his purposes.

  4. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Viasu

    2014-01-01

    One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the a...

  5. Unemployment problem via multistage stochastic programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňková, Vlasta; Chovanec, Petr

    Bratislava: University of Economics in Bratislava, 2006 - (Pekár, J.; Lukáčik, M.), s. 69-76 ISBN 80-8078-129-X. [Quantitative Methods in Economics. Multiple Criteria Decision Making XIII. Bratislava (SK), 06.12.2006-08.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multistage stochastic programming problems * unemployment problem * restructuralization * random element * probability constraints Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  6. Spanish unemployment persistence and the ladder effect

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Fabrice; Fonseca, Raquel; Munoz, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to examine unemployment persistence in Spain by the soûcalled ''ladder'' effect. This arises when highly-skilled workers who do not find a job matching their skills accept jobs which previously were occupied by less qualified staff. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model, in which two types of workers ù characterised by their level of formal education ù coexist on the labour market. Highly educated workers are then assumed to compete with lowûskilled workers, generatin...

  7. Are searching and non-searching unemployment distinct states when unemployment is high? The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    2000-01-01

    Broadly and narrowly measured unemployment rates differ very markedly in certain countries, and the measure chosen to be the ‘official’ unemployment rate affects perceptions about the extent of the problem. The appropriate measure of the unemployment rate depends on whether jobless persons who say they want work but who are not actively searching should be regarded as part of the labour force. This paper examines whether the non-searching-unemployed state is distinct from the searc...

  8. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  9. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and State Income and Eligibility... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and Eligibility... comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200...

  10. 78 FR 19735 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration. Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment..., South Carolina and Texas in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program, and the...: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding a change in eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI)...

  11. 78 FR 51211 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration... 21, 2013, the three month average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate (TUR) in Louisiana...

  12. 77 FR 54927 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Benefit Accuracy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance... written comments to Andrew Spisak, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Room S-4524, Employment and Training... UI benefit payments in three programs: State UI, Unemployment Compensation for Federal...

  13. 78 FR 38074 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment... Virgin Islands and Wisconsin in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program, and the...: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding a change in eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI)...

  14. 77 FR 57595 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment... written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training... accordance with the same terms and conditions of the paying state's unemployment insurance law which apply...

  15. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051): Extension Without Change AGENCY... ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and.... Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) Activities, is a monthly...

  16. Migration and unemployment in an efficiency wage model of a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney

    2005-01-01

    International migration affects equilibrium unemployment in a small open economy characterised by efficiency wages. Immigration into employment reduces unemployment rates, and immigration into unemployment increases them. The effect of emigration depends on its impact on the aggregate job turnover rate.

  17. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Edén Lena; Andersson Ingemar H; Axelsson Lars; Ejlertsson Göran

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the r...

  18. The model of employment: a possible solution to the problem of unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenčič, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Unemployment inflicts costs on the government budget, on the unemployed individual, and on the society as a whole in many ways. The paper summarizes the findings of published research on negative consequences of unemployment and as such founds the need to solve the problem of unemployment. It discusses the Model of Employment, which is a possible solution to the problem of unemployment and thus addresses the need to reduce the costs of unemployment. The crux of the model is a redistribution o...

  19. On the spike in hazard rates at unemployment benefit expiration: The signalling hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Decreuse, Bruno; Kazbakova, Elvira

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the signalling hypothesis, whereby potential employers use the duration of unemployment as a signal as to the productivity of applicants. We suggest that the quality of sucha signal is very low when the unemployed receive unemployment benefits: individuals have good reasons to remain unemployed. Conversely, the signal becomes much more efficient once benefitshave elapsed: skilled workers should not stay unemployed in such cases. Therefore, the potential duration of unemployment ben...

  20. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  1. Golden Parachutes: Changing the Experience of Unemployment for Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anya M.; Jackson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables--financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner--on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After…

  2. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  3. Business Cycles and Compositional Variation in U.S. Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Abbring (Jaap); G.J. van den Berg (Gerard); J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was on the duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exit

  4. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  5. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Abbring, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was onthe duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exitrate out of u

  6. The Experience of Unemployment for University Graduates: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, William A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reported results of exploratory, descriptive study of unemployment experience for 12 university graduates under age 25. Analysis of interview data suggested that experience of unemployment could be divided into initial vacation period and downward trend. Participant reactions were marked by fluctuations of emotion and reduction in self-confidence…

  7. Types of Structural Unemployment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter E.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the extent of the following types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom: technological change, skills mismatch, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidity, unemployability, and capital restructuring. Concludes that measurement is difficult and the types create segmented labor markets that obstruct the…

  8. Black Youth and the Labor Market: The Unemployment Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gail E.; Scott, Will B.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews economic and sociological theories that identify structural and personal factors associatied with unemployment. Suggests a policy approach for dealing with the problem, hypothesizing that effective social network systems and sponsorship groups are needed to help presently unemployed youth gain entry and acceptance into the labor market.…

  9. The Minimum Level of Unemployment and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Frank C.

    This study focuses on the role of the federal government in reducing persistent joblessness that prevails at relatively high levels even during periods of high employment or prosperity ("structural unemployment"). While the problem of cyclincal joblessness dominates public policy discussion at the present time, structural unemployment is being…

  10. The Netherlands: social partners' involvement in unemployment benefit regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Knegt

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002 the role of social partners in the Dutch unemployment benefit system has been reduced to an advisory one in the development phase of unemployment benefit (UB) programmes. There is no involvement any more of social partners in the implementation, management and monitoring phases of UB prog

  11. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  12. The Labor Market and the Problem of Unemployment in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kufuor, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment is a global, social and economic problem prevalent in developing countries with Ghana not an exception. For some time now, the problem of unemployment in Ghana has been making headlines in Ghanaian news media, both the print and the non-print. The long period for which this problem has remained seem to suggest that it is undefeatable.

  13. Analysis of the Evolution of Unemployment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the existing situation of the labour market, from the unemployment standpoint. The present article begins by reviewing the literature and goes on to analyse the evolution of unemployment in Romania. The present study indicates that unemployment is higher among men than among women. This phenomenon has become apparent after the economic crisis, when the fields most affected were production and constructions in which most employees are male. It is predicted that the large number of unemployed individuals will not be diminished, even after the end of the crisis. Even if the economy returns to normal and consumers begin using consumer goods again, this increase will only be able to absorb a small fraction of the unemployed.

  14. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... Empirical evidence suggests that unemployment benefit receipt is associated with longer reemployment duration at the individual level. Furthermore, countries with more generous unemployment insurance and higher ALMP spending show a more sustainable reintegration record of previously unemployed workers....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....

  15. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs. (author)

  16. The Relationship of Unemployment and Depression with History of Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Walid, M Sami; Zaytseva, Nadezhda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic back pain is a known risk factor for unemployment, disability, and depression. This paper discusses the interaction of unemployment, depression, and history of prior spine surgery.

  17. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...

  18. Do Relationships Between Environmental Attributes and Recreational Walking Vary According to Area-Level Socioeconomic Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Natasha J. Howard; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Daniel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1...

  19. UNEMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN CROATIA: PERSPECTIVE OF UNEMPLOYED YOUTH AT RISK OR WITH BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivex Koller-Trbović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this paper is to provide insight into perspective of unemployed youth at risk or with potential risks in enviroment, aboutstatus and experiance of being unemployed. Krounauer model of social excluasion was taken as the base for interpretation of riskfactors related to unemployment. Mentioned model is defi ned with six dimesions: exclusion from labour market, economic exclusion,social isolation, institutional exclusion, spatial and cultural exclusion. Five focus groups with 19 unemployed youth (age from 18 to27 years from 4 cities in Croatia and from two types of institutions (croatian employment service and center for social welfare havebeen conducted. Results implicate that unemployment represents important factor for integration and independence of youth, andrelevant risk factor especially for economical exclusion. However, result shows that unemployment does not lead to social isolation asthird key dimesion in social exclusion model. These results are, to some extant, similar to results in other countries in EU, especiallyin south-east European countries (Italy, Spain, Greecee where research results show that unemployment do not neccessarily leads tosocial exclusion due to the strong family and friends support. Results can be used for the creation of public strategies in coping withrisk of (longterm youth unemployment and also with risk of their social exclusion.

  20. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  1. Concordance between Individual vs. Area-Level Socioeconomic Measures in an Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narla, Nirmala P; Pardo-Crespo, Maria R; Beebe, Timothy J; Sloan, Jeff; Yawn, Barbara; Williams, Arthur R; Juhn, Young J

    2015-11-01

    Area-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures have been used as a proxy in child health research when individual SES measures are lacking, yet little is known about their validity in an urban setting. We assessed agreement between census block-group and individual-level SES measures obtained from a caregiver telephone survey in Jackson County, Missouri. Associations with prevalence of childhood overweight (OW), low birth weight (LBW), and household smoking exposure were examined using logistic regression models. Seven hundred eighty-one households were surveyed: 49% male, 76% White, mean child age 9.4 years. We found misclassification rates of 20-35% between individual vs. area-level measures of education and income; Kappa indices ranged from 0.26-0.36 indicating poor agreement. Both SES measures showed an inverse association with LBW and smoking exposure. Area-level SES measures may reflect a construct inclusive of neighborhood resources; routine substitution of these measures should be interpreted with caution, despite similar correlations with health outcomes. PMID:26548670

  2. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Viasu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the average skill level of domestic employed labor differs from the average skill level of migrant labor, but the two kinds of labor grow at the same constant rate. We prove that the immigration process could have both positive and negative effects on consumption, human capital and physical capital, depending on the skill level of the migrant labor. The numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  3. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: Perspectives from the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Oluwajodu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduateunemployment in South Africa and across the globe, but few studies have beenconducted on the causes of graduate unemployment. There appear to be some gaps in theliterature; therefore, other problems and solutions to graduate unemployment have to beexploredResearch approach, design and method: The researchers followed a survey design. Questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used as research instruments to identify theperceived causes of graduate unemployment in the banking sector of South Africa. Researchparticipants were unemployed graduates, recently employed graduates and graduaterecruitment managers in the banking sector.Main findings: The study shows that several factors are perceived to be the causes of graduateunemployment in the South African banking sector. These include: skills, institution attendedby graduate and differences in expectations from employers and graduates.Practical/managerial application: The findings have implications for educational institutionsand companies that are encouraged to consider possible solutions to resolving the causes ofgraduate unemployment.Contribution/value-add: This study is one of the first papers to investigate the causes ofgraduate unemployment in the South African banking sector. It provides a rich platform forfurther studies and replication in other sectors, especially within the African context.

  4. Short and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist since women may simply postpone child bearing to better economics times. Using over 140 million U.S. birth records for the period 1975 to 2010, we analyze both the short and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of U.S. born...

  5. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration of...

  6. Is Deregulation Necessary? The Effects of Employment Protection on Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Avdagic

    2013-01-01

    Using new data, the paper examines the effect of employment protection legislation (EPL) on aggregate and youth unemployment in advanced OECD economies and in Central and Eastern Europe during 1980–2009. The analysis assesses both the direct and indirect effects of EPL on levels of unemployment, as well as the short-term and long-term effects of changes in EPL on changes in unemployment. The results offer no clear support for the argument that EPL is a cause of either aggregate or youth unemp...

  7. The Effect of Receiving Supplementary UI Benefits on Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael

    We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplemen­tary unemployment insurance beneits in the Danish labour market. Following the "timing-of-events" approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time work on the hazard rate out of unemployment insurance beneit receipt. We fin...... evidence of a negative lock-in effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across individ­uals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative for others (e.g. young workers).  ...

  8. New Evidenceon Cyclical and Structural Sources of Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhu Chen; Bharat Trehan; Prakash Kannan; Prakash Loungani

    2011-01-01

    We provide cross-country evidence on the relative importance of cyclical and structural factors in explaining unemployment, including the sharp rise in U.S. long-term unemployment during the Great Recession of 2007-09. About 75% of the forecast error variance of unemployment is accounted for by cyclical factors-real GDP changes (?Okun‘s Law?), monetary and fiscal policies, and the uncertainty effects emphasized by Bloom (2009). Structural factors, which we measure using the dispersion of in...

  9. Suicide and unemployment: a panel analysis of Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalles, João Tovar; Andresen, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between suicide and unemployment. We use panel data from Canadian provinces and use recent panel econometric techniques to account for endogenous structural breaks in both the unit root and cointegration testing procedures in order to account for statistical specification issues. We find that the relationship between unemployment and suicide is context dependent. We do find positive and statistically significant relationships, but only for males in particular provinces. The relationship between unemployment and suicide is not monolithic. Rather, relationships are not always as expected for different demographic groups and all places. PMID:24579917

  10. New evidence on cyclical and structural sources of unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Zinzhu Chen; Prakash Kannan; Prakash Loungani; Bharat Trehan

    2011-01-01

    We provide cross-country evidence on the relative importance of cyclical and structural factors in explaining unemployment, including the sharp rise in U.S. long-term unemployment during the Great Recession of 2007-09. About 75% of the forecast error variance of unemployment is accounted for by cyclical factors—real GDP changes (“Okun’s Law”), monetary and fiscal policies, and the uncertainty effects emphasized by Bloom (2009). Structural factors, which we measure using the dispersion of indu...

  11. The cost of human capital depreciation during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Laureys, Lien

    2014-01-01

    Skill erosion during unemployment was of particular concern as unemployment duration increased in the Great Recession. I argue that it generates an externality in job creation: firms ignore how their hiring decisions affect the unemployment pool’s skill composition, and hence the output produced by other firms' new hires. As a consequence, job creation is too low from a social point of view. But the extent to which it is too low varies over the cycle. This is because the externality’s magnitu...

  12. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  13. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  14. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  15. 76 FR 18260 - Announcement Regarding Pennsylvania Triggering “Off” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public Law 111-92 which... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a...

  16. 76 FR 75561 - Information Collection Request for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activities Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Information Collection Request for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activities Reports: Extension... Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) require that all monies received in the unemployment fund of a state be paid immediately to the Secretary of Treasury to the credit of the Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF). This is...

  17. 76 FR 18259 - Announcement Regarding Delaware Triggering “on” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public Law 111-92 which... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a...

  18. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  20. Potential causes and implications of the rise in long-term unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hornstein; Thomas A. Lubik; Jessica Sackett Romero

    2011-01-01

    Long-term unemployment rose dramatically during the recent recession and remains elevated. A primary cause may be the fact that more workers with inherently low job finding rates have become unemployed. This would suggest that the natural rate of unemployment has increased, and that additional monetary stimulus may have only a limited effect on reducing unemployment.

  1. Concepts and Measures of Structural Unemployment. Technical Analysis Paper No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Robert; And Others

    The meaning and measures of structural unemployment are discussed in this paper. The first section examines the linkages between the concepts of cyclical, frictional, seasonal, and structural unemployment. The next sections analyze measures of structural unemployment based on the view that structural unemployment is substantial during times of…

  2. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  3. Changes in physical health among participants in a multidisciplinary health programme for long-term unemployed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuring Merel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between poor health and unemployment is well established. Health promotion among unemployed persons may improve their health. The aims of this study were to investigate characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs in a multidisciplinary health promotion programme for long-term unemployed persons with health complaints, to evaluate changes in physical health among participants, and to investigate determinants of improvement in physical health. Methods A longitudinal, non-controlled design was used. The programme consisted of two weekly exercise sessions and one weekly cognitive session during 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were body mass index, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and low back and hamstring flexibility. Potential determinants of change in physical health were demographic variables, psychological variables (self-esteem, mastery, and kinesiophobia, and self-perceived health. Results The initial response was 73% and 252 persons had complete data collection at baseline. In total, 36 subjects were lost during follow-up. Participants were predominantly low educated, long-term unemployed, and in poor health. Participation in the programme was not influenced by demographic and psychological factors or by self-reported health. Drop-outs were younger and had a lower body mass index at baseline than subjects who completed the programme. At post-test, participants' cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and flexibility had increased by 6.8%–51.0%, whereas diastolic and systolic blood pressures had decreased by 2.2%–2.5%. The effect sizes ranges from 0.17–0.68. Conclusion Participants with the poorest physical health benefited most from the programme and gender differences in improvement were observed. Physical health of unemployed persons with health complaints improved after participation in this health promotion programme, but not

  4. Monetary or fiscal stimulus can help only if unemployment is cyclical; otherwise, if unemployment is structural expansionary policies will lead only to inflation. Careful recent analyses indicate that unemployment is mainly cyclical in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Ilzetzki, Ethan; Pinder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Ethan Ilzetzki and Jonathan Pinder examine the US economic woes since the beginning of the recession and the policy response aimed at fighting unemployment. They find that monetary or fiscal stimulus can help only if unemployment is cyclical and that unemployment (now at 7.8%) is indeed mainly cyclical. The examination of the US experience provides valuable insight for the UK experience, currently undergoing a tough austerity programme with an unemployment rate hovering at 7.9%.

  5. Predicting fuel poverty at a small-area level in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a series of models for predicting the incidence of fuel poverty in England at a small-area level and examines the adequacy of the modelled results in informing our understanding of the geography of fuel poverty. This paper summarises the development of alternative approaches to model specification based upon different approaches to the treatment of household income. Since 2003 small-area fuel poverty estimates have been widely used to inform affordable warmth policies and local targeting of fuel poverty programs. Whilst improvements in data sources and methods in recent years provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial distribution of fuel poverty, these analyses suggest that our understanding of the incidence and spatial distribution of fuel poverty is highly sensitive to the way in which household incomes are measured. - Highlights: → The proposed models estimate fuel poverty incidence at a small-area level. → This is necessary in order to accurately target local fuel poverty interventions. → Fuel poverty estimates are highly sensitive to differences in income measurement. → Fewer children and more pensioners are fuel poor using EHCS income measures. → More children and fewer pensioners are fuel poor using HBAI income measures.

  6. Routine health check-ups of unemployed in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterdahl, T

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 all the 273 long-term unemployed in the municipality Lillesand, Norway were invited to participate in a proactive health care program. 229 were included in the program, consisting of a medical examination by a general practitioner, councelling, personal support and referrals. The job-loss aroused lots of negative emotions, mostly defensive feelings and resignations, which are likely to reduce self-esteem and coping ability. The prevalence of somatoform symptoms and anxiety was twice as high as in the normal population, and for depression the prevalence was three times higher. 24% of the unemployed were referred to further examination. Invitation to a health examination may be the ticket of entry for revealing some of the concealed morbidity among long-term unemployed. Health check-ups of unemployed will probably be very cost-effective PMID:10197474

  7. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915. ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  8. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915. ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  9. The Measurement of Persistence and Hysteresis in Aggregate Unemployment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ossama Mikhail; Curtis J. Eberwein; Jagdish Handa

    2003-01-01

    There exists no consensus regarding the definition and the measure of persistence. We aim to spark research interests to address the lack of a standard definition. This paper reviews this issue and proposes an informal definition to unemployment persistence.

  10. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm......We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM......-algorithm to this problem. The models are extended to account for the panel data structure of the data set by including random effects. We use exclusion restrictions to identify quits and lay offs. We find many quitters among young and old women but only few among men....

  11. Youth Unemployment: Can Voc Ed Do Anything about It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dean

    1977-01-01

    Emphasizing five variables of particular importance to vocational education, the article describes the youth unemployment problem, what is currently being done to combat it, what vocational education can do to help, and what the government can do to help. (BM)

  12. A social work study to measure the effect of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is believed as one of most important issues in today's economy around the world. The recent economic turmoil in European countries, for instance, has created some troubles such as increase in rate of depression, divorce, etc. In this paper, we present a social study work in one of regions of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire among 80 experts who live in the region and tries to understand whether there is a correlation between unemployment and rubbery, immigration, drug addiction and non-value jobs. The survey uses Pearson correlation to test four hypotheses and the results indicate that although there is no strong correlation between unemployment and rubbery and immigration but there is a strong evidence to believe that unemployment can increase drug addiction and non-value added jobs.

  13. [Informal employment, unemployment and underemployment: a matter of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, Juan C; Riaño-Casallas, Martha I; Benavides-Piracón, John A

    2012-06-01

    Unemployment and underemployment are problems that have been studied from the economy and politics points of view. Although public health has taken an approach to this problem, it has been mainly disciplinary, since it has focused on the health effects of the unemployed and underemployed but it has failed to propose alternatives from the public policy to solve this problem. The purpose of this essay is to examine the unemployment as an economic, social and health problem of the population. According to records of diagnosis, we review this situation (which requires different strategies at various levels) including different groups involved and their organizations, the State, companies, trade unions and employers unions, not just people unemployed and underemployed. PMID:23258753

  14. Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee-Ryan, Frances; Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie R; Kinicki, Angelo J

    2005-01-01

    The authors used theoretical models to organize the diverse unemployment literature, and meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the impact of unemployment on worker well-being across 104 empirical studies with 437 effect sizes. Unemployed individuals had lower psychological and physical well-being than did their employed counterparts. Unemployment duration and sample type (school leaver vs. mature unemployed) moderated the relationship between mental health and unemployment, but the current unemployment rate and the amount of unemployment benefits did not. Within unemployed samples, work-role centrality, coping resources (personal, social, financial, and time structure), cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies displayed stronger relationships with mental health than did human capital or demographic variables. The authors identify gaps in the literature and propose directions for future unemployment research. PMID:15641890

  15. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR COMPILING THE ILO UNEMPLOYMENT WITH MONTHLY PERIODICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PISICĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for deriving the monthly unemployment statistics directly from the quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS results by econometric modeling meets the requirements of insuring the information on short-term needed for employment policies, aiming to achieve the objectives of Europe 2020. Estimated monthly data series according to the methodology allow assessment of short-term trends in unemployment measured according to the criteria of the International Labour Organisation (ILO in terms of comparability with European statistics.

  16. Unemployment insurance savings accounts in Latin America: Overview and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Ana M.; Riddell, W. Craig

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment protection systems that exist in most Latin American economies are generally considered inadequate in terms of providing insurance to workers. They may also encourage stratified labor markets and impose barriers to the employee’s mobility and the firm's adjustment to changing labor market conditions. In addition, some of these systems involve high administrative and monitoring costs and may create additional adverse effects that induce higher unemployment rates and longer dur...

  17. Fixed-term contracts and unemployment: an efficiency wage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guell, Maia

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980s, many European countries introduced fixed-term contracts to fight high and persistent levels of unemployment. Although these contracts have been widely used, unemployment has remained about the same after fifteen years. This paper builds a theoretical model to reconcile these facts. We analyse the labour market effect of the introduction of fixed-term contracts and the firm''s choice of contracts are studied. Permanent contracts are the standard way to offer incentives, but f...

  18. How Do Institutions Affect Structural Unemployment in Times of Crises?

    OpenAIRE

    Furceri Davide; Mourougane Annabelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of economic crises on structural unemployment using an Autoregressive Distributed Lags model and accounting for the role of institutional settings on an unbalanced panel of 30 OECD economies from 1960 to 2006. We found that downturns have, on average, a significant positive impact on the level of structural unemployment rate. The maximum impact varies with the severity of the downturn. Institutions (such as employment protection legislation, average replac...

  19. Crime, deterrence and unemployment in Greece: a panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saridakis, George; Spengler, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically examines the relationship between crime, deterrence and unemployment in Greece. A regional dataset over the period 1991-1998 was collected and analyzed. Our econometric methodology follows the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator applied to dynamic models of panel data. The results show that property crimes are significantly deterred by higher clear-up rates. Also for property crime rates, the results indicate that unemployment increases crime. For violent crim...

  20. Agro-manufactured Export Prices, Wages and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2008-01-01

    This article estimates the impacts of world agricultural trade liberalization on wages and unemployment in Argentina in the presence of individual labor supply responses and adjustment costs in labor demand. After a 10% increase in agro-manufactured export prices, I find that: (a) the employment probability would increase by 1.36 percentage points, matched by a decline in the unemployment probability of 0.75 percentage points and an increase in labor market participation of 0.61 percentage po...

  1. Structural change and regional disparities in (un)employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewig, Oliver; Blien, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in economics is the explanation of unemployment. Doing so "modern mainstream macroeconomics" frequently refers to institutional structures in the individual countries (e.g. Layard, Nickell & Jackman 1991, 2006; Carlin & Soskice 2006). However, unemployment within states varies as much as between these countries. In Germany, for example, there are regions in which even during the crisis virtual full employment prevails (e.g. Munich Area) and others which face a deep labou...

  2. Tackling unemployment in China: state capacity and governance issues

    OpenAIRE

    Duckett, J.; Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers China's state capacity and changing governance as revealed through its policies to tackle unemployment. Despite high levels of growth, economic restructuring has resulted in rising unemployment over the last decade. The Chinese state has been able to manage job losses from state enterprises, demonstrating some state capacity in relation to this sector and some persistent command economy governance mechanisms. However both design and implementation of policies to compensat...

  3. Homeownership and Unemployment: The Roles of Leverage and Public Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Flatau; Matt Forbes; Patric H. Hendershott

    2003-01-01

    Oswald hypothesizes that regions and countries with high homeownership rates will experience higher natural rates of unemployment and that rising homeownership in OECD countries since the 1960s provides a key explanation for the rise in the natural rate of unemployment over the same time period. Recent tests of the Oswald thesis have found the opposite. This study differs from earlier ones both by considering different states of ownership (degrees of leverage) and types of tenancy (private, p...

  4. On Migration and Unemployment: Evidence from Italian Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the unemployment rate on the decision to migrate among recent Italian graduates. A fixed-effects approach is used to avoid potential omitted variable problems. This method allows us to account for unobservable location-specific characteristics that are likely to be correlated with the unemployment rate and the probability that an individual migrates. The empirical results highlight the importance of controlling for location-specific effects and show that lowe...

  5. Unemployment, Underemployment, and Employment Opportunities: Results from a Correspondence Audit

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Nunley; Adam Pugh; Nicholas Romero; Richard Alan Seals, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We use data from a résumé audit to estimate the impact of unemployment and underemployment on the employment prospects facing recent college graduates. We find no statistical evidence of negative duration dependence associated with unemployment spells for recent college graduates. Alternatively, college graduates who are underemployed have callback rates that are 30 percent lower than that for applicants who are adequately employed. The adverse effects of underemployment are robust across cit...

  6. Factors affecting the motivation of unemployed for education

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2003-01-01

    The present study tested how well Ajzen in Fishbein's (1980) Theory of reasoned action (TRA) predicted educational intentions and aspiration of the unemployed, who were enrolled in governmental funded educational programs. Study also explores the role of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) as the third independent determinant of intention within the theory of reasoned action and its impact on motivation for further education. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 326 unemployed person...

  7. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  8. Book review: Unemployment in Africa: A psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Joannides

    2005-01-01

    Authors: Webster Gonzo and Ilse Elisabeth Plattner Publishers: University of Namibia Press Year: 2003 Reviewed For: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology Unemployment in an African country is a concisely written and well-structured book, which investigates the psychological impact of unemployment on Namibia’s ‘street unemployed’. This term refers to the large population of men who wait alongside the roads and at traffic intersections, in the hope of being offered caus...

  9. Nowcasting Unemployment Rate in Turkey : Let's Ask Google

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem Gulenay Chadwick; Gonul Sengul

    2012-01-01

    We use linear regression models and Bayesian Model Averaging procedure to investigate whether Google search query data can improve the nowcast performance of the monthly nonagricultural unemployment rate for Turkey for the period from January 2005 to January 2012. We show that Google search query data is successful at nowcasting1 monthly nonagricultural unemployment rate for Turkey both in-sample and out-of-sample. When compared with a benchmark model, where we use only the lag values of the ...

  10. UNEMPLOYMENT AND HYSTERESIS: A NONLINEAR UNOBSERVED COMPONENTS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Pérez Alon; Silvestro Di Sanzo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find a possible hysteresis effect on unemployment rate series from Italy, France and the United States. We propose a definition of hysteresis taken from Physics which allows for nonlinearities. To test for the presence of hysteresis we use a nonlinear unobserved components model for unemployment series. The estimation methodology used can be assimilated into a threshold autoregressive representation in the framework of a Kalman filter. To derive an appropriate p-va...

  11. Unemployment, Job Flows and Hours in a New Keynesian Model

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Holt

    2007-01-01

    New Keynesian models attempt to account for economic fluctuations under nominal rigidities without modelling unemployment. They struggle to generate observed output and inflation persistence. To address these issues, recent research embeds labour search with matching frictions in a New Keynesian framework. Models with labour market search, matching and endogenous job destruction, feature unemployment, but generate an upward sloping Beveridge curve and overly volatile gross job flows. By intro...

  12. Measuring the Equilibrium Effects of Unemployment Benefits Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, van, A.; Berg, van den, V.A.C.; Ridder, Geert

    1999-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in the Journal of Applied Econometrics (2000). Volume 15, issue 6, pages 547-574. We analyze the impact of unemployment benefits and minimum wagesusing an equilibrium search model which allows for dispersion ofbenefits and productivity levels, job-to-job transitions, andstructural and frictional unemployment. The estimation method usesreadily available aggregate data on marginal distributions ofunemployment durations as well as wages and benefit...

  13. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics 2010 the Fifth Sudan Population and Housing Census 2008. We explain several stylized facts on the relation between the structure of the labour market and demographic structure, labour force, participation rates...

  14. Social capital, industrial districts and regional unemployment in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Andriani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We consider the industrial districts “conductors” of social capital. Hence, we use the regional density of industrial districts to measure social capital and we analyse its impact on regional unemployment in Italy. By using regional data from the Italian National Statistical Office (ISTAT), we develop a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on the years 2001 and 2005. For a more robust analysis we divide unemployment into two types: general and youth. Interestingly, contrary to the theory of ...

  15. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Fæhn, Taran; Gómez-Plana, Antonio G.; Kverndokk, Snorre

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper addresses the frequently articulated worry for the unemployment impacts of abating CO2 emissions. The Spanish economy is ridden by unemployment rates well above the EU average. At the same time the deviation from EU's intermediate emission goals is more serious than for most other EU countries. We use a CGE model that includes a matching model with two types of labour, and which allows for different pricing rules and returns-to-scale assumptions. Our findin...

  16. Wages, Unemployment and Inequality with Heterogeneous Firms and Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Elhanan Helpman; Oleg Itskhoki; Stephen Redding

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop a multi-sector general equilibrium model of firm heterogeneity, worker heterogeneity and labor market frictions. We characterize the distributions of employment, unemployment, wages and income within and between sectors as a function of structural parameters. We find that greater firm heterogeneity increases unemployment, wage inequality and income inequality, whereas greater worker heterogeneity has ambiguous effects. We also find that labor market frictions have non...

  17. Unemployment and Endogenous Reallocation over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ludo Visschers; Carlos Carrillo-Tudela

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a tractable stochastic general equilibrium model in which to study different types of unemployment over the business cycle. In our model workers face search frictions on their local labor markets and reallocation frictions across labor markets. The interaction of these two types of frictions is shown to have important implications for the analysis of resource allocation over the business cycle. We focus attention on (i) the impact on the aggregate unemployment rate, and it...

  18. Is Jamaica Caught in A Structural Unemployment Policy Trap?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W Jones

    2007-01-01

    For the last seventeen years in Jamaica, the theory of the natural rate of unemployment has dominated Jamaican Government macroeconomic policy making. Attention has predominantly focused on its implications for the inflation - unemployment trade-off as a result of the complete embracing of the Euro-American economic theory in comparison to say “neo-south-south economic thinking” as has happened in Brazil on this matter . However, another implication concerns the possibility that Jamaican Gove...

  19. How much has labour taxation contributed to European structural unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Planas; Werner Roeger; Alessandro Rossi

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of labour taxes on Euro area unemployment. Empirical estimates obtained so far can be criticised as being spurious because the regressions generally lack non-measurable variables constituting the reservation wage that can possibly be non stationary. Here we overcome this problem by using an unobserved component model. For the Euro area unemployment, we find a significant tax effect that is in the middle of the estimates that can be found in the empirical literat...

  20. Sources of German unemployment: evidence from a structural VAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Linzert, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic effects of different macroeconomic shocks on unemployment in Germany. In a first step, a cointegration analysis of productivity, prices, real wages, employment, and the unemployment rate reveals two long run relationships, interpreted as a labor demand and a wage setting scheme. Secondly, a structural VAR model is identified using the restrictions suggested by a single macroeconomic model. The impulse response analysis and the forecast error variance decomposit...

  1. Unemployment and vacancy in the Hong Kong labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, CY; Leung, CKY; Chan, WYF

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines unemployment and vacancy data to analyse the efficiency of the Hong Kong labour market for the period 1976 to 1997. It is confirmed that the negative relationship between unemployment and vacancy, commonly known as the Beveridge curve, applies to the Hong Kong labour market. There was an inward shift of the Beveridge curve around 1982, which implies falling match frictions since then. Systematic evidence is also found that Hong Kong has been close to full employment, for o...

  2. ^The^ causes of German unemployment: a structural VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Li

    2007-01-01

    The unemployment evolution in Germany is characterized by the stepwise upward trend since the mid 1970s. Neither explanations based merely on rigid labor institutions nor those emphasize adverse macroeconomic shocks alone are able to give a convincing account of this odd unemployment development. With the help of Structural Vector AutoRegressive (SVAR) approach, this thesis aims at shedding more light on the role of macroeconomic shocks hitting the economy over time and their persistent effec...

  3. Sources of German Unemployment: A Structural Vector Error Correction Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the sources of German unemployment within a structural vector error correction model (SVECM) framework. For this purpose, we propose a method to estimate an exactly identified Subset SVECM, which is a SVECM with short run parameter restrictions. A cointegration analysis for the unified Germany reveals a long rum relationship between real wages, productivity and unemployment which is interpreted as a wage setting relation. From a Subset VECM we identify meaningful stru...

  4. Should the Specificity of Human Capital Affect Unemployment Insurance Generosity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdan, Ophélie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the argument whereby the more specific the human capital of the workforce is, the less such individuals can expect to receive in benefits if and when they experience unemployment. We present a theoretical model for understanding how the composition of human capital determines the level of unemployment benefits. This model shows that, depending on the scenario chosen for the management of the insurance fund, the proportion of individuals with specific human capital can le...

  5. Monitoring and Optimal Income Taxation with Involuntary Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Boadway, Robin; Cuff, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the role of monitoring as an instrument to improve the redistributive and insurance properties of an optimal tax-transfer system. Workers of different skills can choose to participate in job search or to become voluntarily unemployed. Labour markets exist for jobs of each skill level, and workers can search for a job of their own skill or mimic workers of lesser skill. The government implements a nonlinear income tax and makes transfers to the unemployed. The government ran...

  6. Unemployment Accounts and Employment Incentives over the Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lontzek, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The major goal in this thesis is to explore the potential impact of an unemployment account system on individuals' employment incentives. This thesis consists of three parts. In the first part (Chapter 2) we identify the extent of the intrapersonal income redistribution, which is inherent in the German tax-benefit system. Disentangling the income redistribution in this way shows that the extent of intrapersonal income redistribution in Germany is indeed very high. In particular, unemployment ...

  7. Is labour market training a curse for the unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Skipper, Lars

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 a social experiment was conducted in Denmark, where unemployed applicants for classroom training were randomised into treatment and control groups. The data are contaminated by the presence of no-shows and crossovers, biasing the traditional experimental estimator. We interpret our...... experiment within an economic model of agents maximising outcomes facing different cost regimes and present results interpretable within this model. Surprisingly, we find that classroom training significantly increases individual unemployment rates and decreases employability. We discuss possible reasons for...

  8. Nordic wage formation and unemployment seven years later

    OpenAIRE

    Rødseth, Asbjørn; Nymoen, Ragnar

    1999-01-01

    The paper performs a reinvestigation of Nordic wage formation along the lines of Calmfors and Nymoen (1990) with data that include the recent period of high unemployment and low in ation. Among the main findings are: 1)There has been no shift in Nordic wage formation since 1987. 2)The wage formation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is fairly similar, even though the unemployment histories differ. 3)Real wage flexibility is not particularly high in the Nordic countries. 4)No strong concl...

  9. Unemployment rate sensitivity to GDP fluctuations across Polish voivodeships

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Gajderowicz; Gabriela Grotkowska; Leszek Wincenciak; Ewelina Wirtek

    2014-01-01

    This article takes up the issue of sensitivity of unemployment with respect to changes in the aggregate production in Poland, in the years 1995-2011. It continues a long tradition of empirical literature on Okun’s Law. The issue of consequences of economic growth changes for the labour market gained importance recently, especially with the recent economic crisis and significant slowdown in economic growth in Poland. In the study we used data on unemployment rates and economic growth for sixte...

  10. Psychiatric disorders and health service utilization in unemployed youth

    OpenAIRE

    Reissner, Volker; Rosien, Meike; Jochheim, Kai; Kuhnigk, Olaf; Dietrich, Hans; Hollederer, Alfons; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim Youth unemployment is associated with increased levels of anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, reduced self-esteem and satisfaction with life. Up to date data based on standardized psychiatric diagnostic assessments in adolescent or young adult unemployment is very scarce. To our knowledge, this study has, for the first time, assessed both Axis-I (non-personality) and Axis-II (personality) psychiatric disorders and related constructs in a pres...

  11. Policy Action to Prevent Unemployment in EU and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Diane Paula Corina; Ploae Victor

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a comparative situation on the Active Labour Market. Policies in the country members of the EU with a specific accent on the Romanian labour market. We discuss about the public employment services, training schemes, employment subsidies adopted by the countries in the view to help the unemployed find work. We conclude that not all the countries have the same commitment in the efforts to cut the unemployment; even they face a very difficult economic crisis.

  12. The Challenge of South Africa to Reduce Its High Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Mellet

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment rate in South Africa has been in excess of 20% for many years. Various questions can be asked about policies and probable solutions to reduce unemployment. What is wrong with South African macroeconomic policies or is it rather what is wrong with economic and political coordination of policies? What is the probability of millions of South African inhabitants to rise out of poverty? Certain policies for example ASGISA have good foundations, but the main problem in South Africa...

  13. Youth unemployment, firm size and reservation wages in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Neil A.; Roberts, Gareth A.

    2010-01-01

    Youth unemployment in South Africa is high. We investigate whether one of the reasons may be that the wages young people want or need are above those that they could reasonably expect to earn given their characteristics. Unlike previous work on the relationship between reservation wages and unemployment we differentiate between wages in different sizes of firms. Larger firms pay more and thus, even if reservation wages are similar to average predicted wages they may be above wages that young ...

  14. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: A much exaggerated problem

    OpenAIRE

    Servaas van der Berg; Hendrik van Broekhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Increasing reference in the media and public discussions to high and rising levels of graduate unemployment in the South African labour market has raised concern about the functionality of South Africa’s higher education system and the employability of the graduates that it produces. While such references are generally premised on the findings of a handful of published research studies that have made reference to rising graduate unemployment, the results of those studies are subject to a numb...

  15. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Olivier; Avinash Govindjee

    2015-01-01

    The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act), introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015). Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days), the increas...

  16. Technological progress, on-the-job search, and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto,Hiroaki; Takahashi, Yuya

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of long-run productivity growth on job finding and separation rates, and thus the unemployment rate, using a search and matching model. We incorporate disembodied technological progress and on-the-job search into the endogenous job separation model of Mortensen and Pissarides (1994). The incorporation of on-the-job search allows faster growth to reduce unemployment by decreasing the separation rate and inducing job creation. We demonstrate that introducing on-the...

  17. Hiring Practices, Duration Dependence, and Long-Term Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pilossoph; Gregor Jarosch

    2014-01-01

    We develop an equilibrium search model of the labor market in which firms cannot observe worker quality prior to interviewing. Upon meeting an applicant, firms can interview workers at a cost to learn their type. Less productive workers are more likely to be turned away after an interview so that, on average, they are also unemployed for longer. In equilibrium, firms use the information contained in unemployment duration to screen workers before deciding whether or not to interview them. Thus...

  18. Determinants of Unemployment In Pakistan: A Statistical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Mahmood; Amjid Ali; Noureen Akhtar; Muhammad Iqbal; Sadia Qamar; Hafiz Zafar Nazir; Nasir Abbas; Iram Sana

    2014-01-01

    The current study has been designed to investigate the relationship between unemployment and the different factors having impact on unemployment directly or indirectly. The basic purpose of the study is to check that either their effects are significant or insignificant. At first, normality, independence, homoscedasticity and autocorrelation are checked. Stepwise regression with forward selection technique is utilized for the model selection. Model selection criteria used is to select a best ...

  19. The labour market and the problem of unemployment in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pengryn, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis studies the situation of the Russian labor market; in particular, it examines the problems of the unemployment in the country. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the society had to accept new behavioral rules of the market economy. Those changes had a great influence on the labor market specifics. In order to assist to the unemployed people, government of the country created Federal Employment Agencies and started to develop employment policies. Furthermore, the...

  20. The Causal Impact of Fear of Unemployment on Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, Arndt; Tauchmann, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of job insecurity on psychological health. We extend the group of people being affected to employees who have insecure jobs to account for a broader measure of the mental health consequences of potential unemployment. Using panel data with staff reductions in the company as an exogenous source of job insecurity, we find that an increase in fear of unemployment substantially decreases the mental health status of employees. Quantile regression results yield particularly st...

  1. The Determinants of Unemployment Duration by Gender in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Virve Ollikainen

    2003-01-01

    This paper models unemployment durations for men and women in Finland using a nationally representative data set from 1997. We begin with a baseline model where durations are modelled using a single risk discrete time hazard model. These estimations are extended to a piecewise constant hazard model and to a competing risks model. The results indicate that young children as well as foreign citizenship have a prolonging effect on female unemployment periods. Education appears as a highly positi...

  2. Labor Market Flexibility and Unemployment: New Empirical Evidence of Static and Dynamic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo E Bernal-Verdugo; Davide Furceri; Dominique M. Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between labor market flexibility and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 97 countries from 1985 to 2008, the results of the paper suggest that improvements in labor market flexibility have a statistically and significant negative impact on unemployment outcomes (over unemployment, youth unemployment, and long-term unemployment). Among the different labor market flexibility indicators analyzed, hiring and firing regulations and hiring co...

  3. Strukturelle Arbeitslosigkeit in Europa : eine Bestandsaufnahme (Structural unemployment in Europe * an inventory)

    OpenAIRE

    Beissinger, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    "This paper summarises, explains and evaluates the most important findings on the scale and causes of structural unemployment in Europe against the background of a standardised theoretical frame of reference. In literature, structural unemployment is usually interpreted as the unemployment that is consistent with a constant inflation rate in the long term. This unemployment rate is also called the long-term NAIRU or natural unemployment rate. The critical evaluation of various methods to esti...

  4. Structural/Frictional and Demand-Deficient Unemployment in Local Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Harry J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper uses data on unemployment rates and job vacancy rates to measure structural/frictional and demand-deficient components of unemployment rate differences across local labor markets. Data on occupational and industrial distributions of unemployed workers and vacant jobs, as well as on local wages, recent sales growth, Unemployment Insurance, and demographics are then used to help account for these components of unemployment across local areas.

  5. Estimating Incentive and Welfare Effects of Non-Stationary Unemployment Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Launov, Andrey; Wälde, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of unemployment duration in our equilibrium matching model with spell-dependent unemployment benefits displays a time-varying exit rate. Building on Semi-Markov processes, we translate these exit rates into an expression for the aggregate unemployment rate. Structural estimation using a German micro-data set (SOEP) allows us to discuss the effects of a recent unemployment benefit reform (Hartz IV). The reform reduced unemployment by only 0.3%. Contrary to general beliefs, we ...

  6. Are there Regional Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Nattavudh Powdthavee

    2003-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non- pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, we show that individuals’ reported well-being levels are inversely related to unemployment for South African adults as to be expected in richer countries. Reported well-being levels are shown to be associated...

  7. Anspruchslohn und Arbeitslosigkeit in Deutschland (Reservation wage and unemployment in Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Björn

    2003-01-01

    For the integration of unemployed persons into the first labour market, the reservation wage of the unemployed plays an important role. It is the wage level from which the unemployed person is prepared to accept a job offer. The paper examines the level and the determinants of reservation wages ascertained in the socio-economic panel (GSOEP 2000). Reservation wages in Germany are on average above wages before unemployment and very high in international comparison. It seems that unemployed tak...

  8. The effects of unemployment on gambling behaviour in Iceland: Are gambling rates higher in unemployed populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Eilif Magnusson Arge 1991; Steinþór Kristjánsson 1986

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed a light on the effects of employment status on gambling behaviour, with relation to problem gambling. The handful of previous studies on the subject have not found any consistent association between unemployment and gambling behaviour. However, none of these studies have had employment status in relation to gambling as their main focus. This lack of research in the field calls for further research and the study at hand was made in light of this paucity of prev...

  9. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  10. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  11. Unemployment as a Psycho-Social Stressor during Economic Recession. Well-being in employed vs. unemployed workers in Iceland.

    OpenAIRE

    Klargaard, Sólja Katrina, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    The level of deprivation of latent and manifest functions of employment (Jahoda, 1981) during economic recession and high local unemployment was explored with resulting health-related outcomes. Strain and stress factors in employed vs. unemployed workers were compared, with age as a constant (35-45 years). Results indicated no significant group-differences on latent deprivation, quality of sleep, circadian rhythm, napping or depression; on the other hand, manifest or financial deprivation and...

  12. A Theory of Efficiency Wage with Multiple Unemployment Equilibria: How a Higher Minimum Wage Law Can Curb Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; Amanda J Felkey

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses efficiency wage theory and the existence of community-based sharing to hypothesize that labor markets in developing countries have multiple equilibria - the same economy can be stuck at different levels of unemployment with different levels of wages. The model is meant for developing economies where wage-productivity links are discernible and income-sharing among the poor is prevalent. It seems reasonable to posit that in such an economy more unemployment leads to more income ...

  13. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Vleugels; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Yannick Griep; Hans De Witte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment), attitudes (employment commitment), and behaviour (job search intensity). Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people’s experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypo...

  14. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  15. Migration in the Face of Unemployment and Unemployment Risk: a Case Study of Temporal and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stefanie A. Kley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs an elaborated model of migration decision-making and behaviour to analyse the influence of individually experienced unemployment and unemployment risk. Following a contrast group design, respondents from two cities in Germany with different levels of economic prosperity are compared using event history data from a tailor-made panel study. According to a micro-economic approach to migration it is expected that respondents living in an economically deprived city are more likely to decide in favour of migration and actually move compared to those living in a prosperous city because they often perceive opportunities as better elsewhere than at their current place of residence. Moreover, perceiving a risk of becoming unemployed in the near future might trigger migration decision-making more in a deprived city because difficulties to find a new job at the place of residence are anticipated. On the other hand, the new household economics approach and the theory of social networks stress the importance of the meso level. Individuals seldom decide in favour or against migration solely; the family rather makes joint decisions. Former research revealed that for unemployed people social networks are a major source for social support and are therefore especially important. There is evidence that in deprived regions social networks deter individuals stronger from moving than in others. These theoretical considerations and findings lead to the expectation that once people are unemployed they seldom leave deprived regions, what is at odds with the expectations from micro-economic theory. The analyses reveal that the perceived risk of becoming unemployed indeed triggers migration decision-making, but exclusively in the deprived city, whereas people who are already unemployed do not consider or plan leaving the city more often than employed people. Nevertheless, having a partner, children and family at the place of residence might outweigh

  16. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010. PMID:27073716

  17. 中国失业问题的简便测量%A Shortcut to Measure Unemployment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊祖辕; 喻东

    2004-01-01

    There are different data about Chinese unemployment rate and unemployment quantity in China at present. So it leads to the difficulty for reducing unemployment rate. This paper adopts feasible method and consults available statistical materials to calculate Chinese unemployment rate and unemployment quantity.

  18. A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrell Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, associations between geographic remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage, and colorectal cancer (CRC survival show that survival rates are lowest among residents of geographically remote regions and those living in disadvantaged areas. At present we know very little about the reasons for these inequalities, hence our capacity to intervene to reduce the inequalities is limited. Methods/Design This study, the first of its type in Australia, examines the association between CRC survival and key area- and individual-level factors. Specifically, we will use a multilevel framework to investigate the possible determinants of area- and individual-level inequalities in CRC survival and quantify the relative contribution of geographic remoteness, socioeconomic and demographic factors, disease stage, and access to diagnostic and treatment services, to these inequalities. The multilevel analysis will be based on survival data relating to people diagnosed with CRC in Queensland between 1996 and 2005 (n = 22,723 from the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR, area-level data from other data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and individual-level data from the QCR (including extracting stage from pathology records and Queensland Hospitals. For a subset of this period (2003 and 2004 we will utilise more detailed, individual-level data (n = 1,966 covering a greater range of risk factors from a concurrent research study. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residence to treatment centres. The analyses will be conducted using a multilevel Cox proportional hazards model with Level 1 comprising individual-level factors (e.g. occupation and level 2 area-level indicators of remoteness and area socioeconomic disadvantage. Discussion This study focuses on the health inequalities for rural and disadvantaged populations that have often been documented but poorly

  19. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehn, Taran [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.B. 8131 Dep, 0033 Oslo (Norway); Gomez-Plana, Antonio G. [Public University of Navarre, Department of Economics, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Kverndokk, Snorre [Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2009-07-15

    This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs. (author)

  20. UNEMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS CYCLES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN CHIRILĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The economies of the capitalist countries are continuously facing fluctuations known as business cycles. The estimation of global business cycles as well as of business cycles of different macroeconomic variables expressing the state of the economy are of utter importance for the decision making process having as a final goal the reduction of recession periods. The unemployment rate is known as a lagging indicator for the business cycles and it can offer important information regarding the business cycles forecasting. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze in a comparative manner the general business cycles and the business cycles of unemployment rate in the CEE countries. The results confirm the persistence of the business cycles under analysis and the existence of great differences by countries of the reaction of unemployment business cycles to general business cycles.

  1. Instability of capitalism inflation, unemployment, and business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Mouhammed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the instability of capitalism defined as a condition under which capitalism creates inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. Great economists such as Marx, Veblen, and Schumpeter have examined this problem, concluding that capitalist instability will transform capitalism. A model is developed in this paper to investigate instability, and the finding is that the basic causebehind instability is the conflict on income share: wages and profits. The fluctuations in the share of profits create inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. This generalization has been verified by using data from the American economy for the 1970s, 1980s, and the 1990s. Over this period, the paper concludes, whenthe profit share is high, moderate inflation and employment were generated, and when profit share is low, inflation, unemployment, and business cycles have appeared.

  2. Forecast Intervals for Inflation Rate and Unemployment Rate in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to construct forecast intervals for inflation and unemployment rate in Romania. Two types of techniques were employed: bootstrap technique (tpercentile method and historical error technique (root mean square error method- RMSE. The forecast intervals based on point forecasts of National Bank of Romania (NBR include more actual values of quarterly inflation rate during Q1:2011-Q4:2013. The proposed prediction intervals for quarterly inflation and unemployment rate contain the registered values. Considering as constant the error from previous year, we will build forecast intervals for annual inflation and unemployment rate based predictions provided by two anonymous experts on the horizon 2004-2015.All the forecast intervals for inflation rate based on first expert expectations included the actual values during 2004- 2013.

  3. Youth, work, unemployment and identity: An social psychological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena del Carmen Gallardo Góngora

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis aims to study some of the aspects of the work of young unemployed Chileans. This was done through the analysis of their “centrality” by taking into account the influence of values and concepts they have about work, in the process of their identity construction. The research was divided into two different sections. The first one is the theoretical framework, which consists of studies and analysis from a  social  psychological perspective in relation to the phenomena that come up from the main purpose of the study. For example, youth as a psychosocial phenomenon; work as meaning, centrality and psychosocial functions; Identity under a psychosocial approach as well as psychosocial effects due to the unemployment they suffer. The second section of the research is the qualitative analysis, which considers work factors regarding to young unemployed Chileans as well as the influence of such factors in the process of their identity construction.

  4. Job Loss and Unemployment Research from 1994 to 1998: A Review and Recommendations for Research and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Kathy A.

    1999-01-01

    This review of research on unemployment examines the prevalence of job loss, meaning of unemployment, individual outcomes, coping, effects on families, reemployment issues, and interventions. The article suggests additional research needed to understand the unemployment experience. Lists 91 references. (SK)

  5. Particularities of youth unemployment and the labour market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela RÎMBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.

  6. Structural change and regional disparities in (un)employment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Ludewig; Uwe Blien

    2011-01-01

    One of the key issues in economics is the explanation of unemployment. Doing so “modern mainstream macroeconomics” frequently refers to institutional structures in the individual countries (e.g. Layard, Nickell & Jackman 1991, 2006; Carlin & Soskice 2006). However, unemployment within states varies as much as between these countries. In Germany, for example, there are regions in which even during the crisis virtual full employment prevails (e.g. Munich Area) and others which face a de...

  7. Job Search Behaviour and Job Search Success of the Unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Eppel, Rainer; Mahringer, Helmut; Weber, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We combine information from a job-seeker survey and two sources of administrative data to shed light on the job search behaviour and job search success of the unemployed. Our particular focus is on the way the Public Employment Service (AMS) shapes job search effort and outcomes in terms of the exit rate to work and of post-unemployment job match quality. Job-seekers attach a high value to internet job search, but social networks are by far the most promising job search channel. The AMS has a...

  8. The Employment and Unemployment in Romania - Decisive Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina BALDAN; Neacsu, Madalina

    2008-01-01

    The employment, but also the efficient use of the available work resources is directly connected to the work market. It is an element that can not be separated from the other elements of the work market, especially from unemployment, because if one deals with them separately, one can not cover all the aspects, particularities and effects on the work factor. There are many causes for unemployment, causes that are to be found both at the macroeconomic level and at the microeconomic level. In mo...

  9. Okun's law revisited. Is there structural unemployment in developed countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Okun's law for the biggest developed countries is re-estimated using the most recent data on real GDP per capita and the rate of unemployment. Our results show that the change in unemployment rate can be predicted with a high accuracy. The link needs the introduction of a structural break which might be caused by the change in monetary policy or/and in measurement units. Statistically, the link between the studied variables is characterized by the coefficient of determination between 0.40 (Au...

  10. Wage coordination and unemployment dynamics in Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    From a detailed study of the yearly wage bargaining rounds in Norway and Sweden, we construct time series of five complemetary coordination indices. Econometrics is used to evaluate the importance of the coordination indicators for our understanding of the changes in the rates of unemployment in the two countries. The results show that there is considerable similarity between the two countries, e.g., in terms of the estimated effects of macroeconomic variables on unemployment, The coefficients ar...

  11. How do institutions affect structural unemployment in times of crises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furceri Davide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of economic crises on structural unemployment using an Autoregressive Distributed Lags model and accounting for the role of institutional settings on an unbalanced panel of 30 OECD economies from 1960 to 2006. We found that downturns have, on average, a significant positive impact on the level of structural unemployment rate. The maximum impact varies with the severity of the downturn. Institutions (such as employment protection legislation, average replacement ratio and product market regulation influence both the extent of the initial shock and the adjustment pattern in the aftermath of an economic downturn.

  12. The OECD’s thinking on the governing of unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Based on Foucault's notion of governmentality and problematisation, I analyse the problematisations, causal assumptions and policy recommendations found in the documents of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning labour market issues. The article shows that......, since the mid-1970s, the OECD's strategies on employment have consistently evolved around the problematisation of 'structural unemployment'. Demand management and other ways of tackling unemployment have been dismissed in favour of interventions seeking to stimulate the self-governing capacities of the...

  13. Is the impact of labour taxes on unemployment asymmetric?

    OpenAIRE

    Everaert, Gerdie; Berger, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This paper tests whether the impact of labour taxes on unemployment is symmetric with respect to increases and decreases in labour taxes. Using a panel of 16 OECD countries over the period 1970-2005, we estimate a panel unobserved component model to account for the fact that unemployment rates and labour taxes are non-stationary but not co integrated. We find a positive impact of tax increases in European and Nordic countries but no effect of decreasing labour taxes on the rate of unemploymen...

  14. Not Working At Work: Loafing, Unemployment and Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Michael C.; Genadek, Katie R.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) 2003-12, we estimate time spent by workers in non-work while on the job. Non-work time is substantial and varies positively with the local unemployment rate. While the average time spent by workers in non-work conditional on any positive non-work rises with the unemployment rate, the fraction of workers who report time in non-work varies pro-cyclically, declining in recessions. These results are consistent with a model in which heterogeneous workers a...

  15. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelaher Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.

  16. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  17. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  18. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  19. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. PMID:26094617

  20. 75 FR 20387 - Contech Castings, LLC, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Contech Castings, LLC, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... subject firm had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under...