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Sample records for area-level unemployment body

  1. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gauvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  2. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  3. Smoking, drinking and body weight after re-employment: does unemployment experience and compensation make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Kelly L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of unemployment on behaviours such as smoking, drinking and body weight has been extensively researched. However, little is known about the possible protective effects of social assistance programs on these behavioural changes. This study examines the impact of unemployment periods on smoking, drinking and body weight changes among re-employed individuals and investigates whether the receipt of unemployment benefits influences these behaviours. Methods This study used panel data provided by the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Logistic regression models were used to analyze whether a period of unemployment in 2000 resulted in an increase in smoking and drinking or fluctuations in body weight among 2001 re-employed individuals in comparison with 1999 baseline levels. A total of 3,451 respondents who had been initially healthy and who had been continuously employed between 1998 and 1999 were included in the analysis. Results Compared to stably employed respondents, those who had experienced periods of unemployment in 2000 and did not receive unemployment benefits were more likely than continuously employed individuals to report an increase in alcohol consumption (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.1 and a decrease in body weight (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8 when they were already re-employed in 2001. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the receipt of unemployment benefits confers a protective effect on health behavioural changes following periods of unemployment. These findings underscore the need to monitor the impact of unemployment assistance programs on health, particularly in light of the rapidly changing structure of employment and unemployment benefits.

  4. Unemployment benefits and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    All developed economies have unemployment benefit programs to protect workers against major income losses during spells of unemployment. By enabling unemployed workers to meet basic consumption needs, the programs protect workers from having to sell their assets or accept jobs below their qualifications. The programs also help stabilize the economy during recessions. If benefits are too generous, however, the programs can lengthen unemployment and raise the unemployment rate. The policy chall...

  5. Cyclical Unemployment, Structural Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Diamond

    2013-01-01

    Whenever unemployment stays high for an extended period, it is common to see analyses, statements, and rebuttals about the extent to which the high unemployment is structural, not cyclical. This essay views the Beveridge Curve pattern of unemployment and vacancy rates and the related matching function as proxies for the functioning of the labor market and explores issues in that proxy relationship that complicate such analyses. Also discussed is the concept of mismatch.

  6. Unemployment - Structural

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1999-01-01

    Structural unemployment differs from cyclical unemployment by not disappearing in cyclical booms. In economic theory, structural unemployment is usually analysed in terms of the concept of equilibrium unemployment (the "natural unemployment rate" in Friedman’s terminology). Two elaborate concepts of equilibrium unemployment – the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and the unemployment rate that induces firms and workers to accept the same real wage (the PS-WS-model) a...

  7. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  8. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  9. Australian Attitudes to Unemployment and Unemployed People

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Eardley; George Matheson

    1999-01-01

    Social security support for unemployed people in Australia in the last decade has become increasingly conditional on their demonstrating ever greater job search effort. Yet we know relatively little about whether this shift accords with public opinion. This paper draws on a study of community attitudes to unemployment and unemployed people, commissioned by the former Department of Social Security, based on review and analysis of attitudinal survey data. Overall the evidence is ambiguous. Alth...

  10. Unemployment insurance and unemployment assistance : a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the two most common programs that provide cash compensation to unemployed workers: unemployment insurance (UI) and unemployment assistance (UA). It compares them in two areas: costs and labor market disincentives. The cost analysis first derives a framework for examining costs, and then applies the framework to both UI and UA programs. Costs are estimated for several countries, but particular attention is given to Australia, Canada and the United States. A major finding i...

  11. Unemployment 2004-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of the population in the labor force who are unemployed (unemployment rate), for California, its regions, counties, county...

  12. Unemployment Accounts for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Alfred; Alessio J. G. Brown; Snower, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a proposal for reforming unemployment assistance in Germany through the introduction of unemployment accounts (UAs). Instead of paying taxes that finance the unemployment assistance, employed people make ongoing contributions to their UAs and can make withdrawals from these accounts during periods of unemployment. The aim of this policy proposal is to improve employment incentives without significant changes in the current redistribution scheme. We provide a detailed account of how...

  13. Unemployment in America, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ken

    1983-01-01

    The unemployed are a varied group; being unemployed may be related more to individual circumstances than the overall state of the economy. The unemployed are discussed in terms of job-losers, job-leavers, new entrants (job searching for the first time), reentrants, age groups, minority groups, and the discouraged worker. (SR)

  14. The Social Costs of Unemployment: Accounting for Unemployment Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    The social costs of unemployment, in terms of unemployment's impact on European citizens' life satisfaction, relate strongly to unemployment duration. At any level of general joblessness, reducing long-term unemployment is more important than reducing the number of people unemployed at any point in time.

  15. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  16. Unemployment and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Visens Torres, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment reduces the well-being of the unemployed and in some cases the well-being of the employed. In this project the effect of unemployment on well-being is studied. This research is focused on Spain, not like most articles based on Great Britain, Germany or United States and uses cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey from the year 2002 until 2012. The main literature reviewed reports that the impact of unemployment on well-being is negative and the negative effect of un...

  17. Unemployment Insurance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel C.

    1979-01-01

    An insurance management system has the goal of minimizing unemployment insurance costs. Components of a model system should include general administration, claims management, and appeals process. (Author)

  18. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  19. Understanding Unemployment Hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    to UK quarterly data on prices, wages, output, unemployment and crude oil prices, suggests that, for the period 1988 up to the onset of the …financial crisis, the non-stationarity of UK unemployment cannot be explained as a result of slow adjustment, including sluggish wage formation as emphasized...... by the hysteresis theories. Instead, it is the equilibrium that has evolved persistently as a consequence of exogenous oil prices shifting the price setting relation (in the unemployment-real wage space) in a non-stationary manner....

  20. The Effect of Unemployment Compensation on Unemployment Duration in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    1992-01-01

    In West Germany during the 1980's, law changes cut the level of unemployment compensation for the unemployed without children, and extended the duration of unemployment insurance for unemployed aged 42 and over, leaving other groups unaffected. This paper takes advantage of these natural experiments to estimate the disincentive effects of unemployment compensation in Germany, using the German Socio-Economic Panel. The analysis of the cut in level is inconclusive. However, the extension of the...

  1. The Youth Unemployment Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, John

    1981-01-01

    Experts agree that the ability to attract and train young people is crucial in today's workplace. Cooperation between government, education, and the private sector is essential to eradicating the problem of youth unemployment. (JOW)

  2. Redefining Unemployment Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rural migrant workers are counted in China’s official urban unemployment rate Rural migrant workers are a major work force in Chinese cities. Their employment is usually temporary and sensitive to economic fluctuations.

  3. Trade in Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Céline; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric; Fugazza, Marco Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We embed a model of the labor market with sector-specific search-and-matching frictions into a Ricardian model with a continuum of goods to show that trade liberalization causes higher unemployment in countries with comparative advantage in sectors with strong labor market frictions and leads to lower unemployment in countries with comparative advantage in sectors with weak labor market frictions. We test this prediction in a panel dataset of 97 countries during the period 1995-2009 and find ...

  4. Growth and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Howitt, Peter

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run effects of growth on unemployment. It assumes that growth arises explicitly from the introduction of new technologies, which require labour re-allocation for their implementation. Using a variant of the search theory developed by Pissarides, the paper shows how unemployment is affected by growth both directly, through the job-destruction rate, and indirectly through its effects on the incentive for firms to create job openings. Our results can be summarized as...

  5. Unemployment and Household formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Woolard, Ingrid; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to other continents, Africa has received little scholarly attention with regard to household composition. Household composition is endogenous to a variety of welfare issues and little is understood about the determinants of this composition. Understanding the household composition and formation decision may improve our understanding of how the unemployed gain access to resources and how household composition could provide a safety net to the unemployed. However, increasingly, mo...

  6. Social Security, Unemployment, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuninger, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops an overlapping generations model that highlights interactions between social security, unemployment and growth. The social security system has two components: old age pensions and unemployment insurance. Pensions have a direct effect on economic growth. Both pensions and unemployment benefits influence equilibrium unemployment caused by wage bargaining. Since unemployment impairs growth, both types of social security have an indirect, negative effect on growth.

  7. Explaining disparities in unemployment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  8. Part-Time Unemployment and Optimal Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Susanne; Holmlund, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    A significant fraction of the labor force consists of employed workers who are part-time unemployed (underemployed) in the sense that they are unable to work as much as they prefer. This paper develops a search and matching model to study the design of optimal unemployment insurance in an economy with unemployment as well as part-time unemployment. Part-time unemployment provides income insurance and serves as a stepping stone to full-time jobs. Unemployment benefits for part-timers increase ...

  9. Unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity relation

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelation between the degree of unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity trade-off. The analysis suggests that the more effective are structural labour market policies (designed to change labour market institutions and laws, such as job security legislation) in making wages and prices more responsive to current unemployment and making unemployment less persistent, the less effective will be the growth-promoting supply-side policies (such as traini...

  10. Should unemployment benefits decrease as the unemployment spell lengthens?

    OpenAIRE

    Saarenheimo , Tuomas

    2001-01-01

    It has become a conventional wisdom in economic policy debate that in order to minimise adverse effects on employment, unemployment benefits should decrease with the unemployment spell. This paper, using a series of simple search models, shows that the theoretical result regarding the optimality of a declining unemployment benefit profile is largely a result of specific modeling assumptions and fails to hold in a more general setting. While any pure reduction of unemployment benefits always i...

  11. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  12. THE UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE OF INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; GRAHAM GLENDAY

    1981-01-01

    In this study we examine the unemployment experience of workers who became unemployed during the period 1972 through 1979 in the 19 regions across the country, a group that represents about 58 per cent of the Canadian labour force. The employment/unemployment experience of workers over this eight-year period was derived from a data base constructed from the one-in ten sample of the administrative records kept by the Department of Employment and Immigration concerning Unemployment Insurance (U...

  13. Self-Fulfilling Unemployment Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of self-fulfilling unemployment fluctuations driven by an aggregate demand externality. Expectations of high unemployment, lead to low income and low aggregate demand. In turn, low aggregate demand leads to expectations of deflation and high unemployment. I show that this feedback between expectations and aggregate demand can lead to the emergence of self-fulfilling fluctuations in involuntary unemployment. Quantitative analysis calibrated to Spain shows that epis...

  14. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  15. Informal Unemployment and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    zealous enforcement policy will in this case improve educational incentives as it reduces the attractiveness of remaining a low-educated worker. However, unemployment also increases. Characterizing the optimal enforcement policies, we find that relatively more audits should be targeted towards the sector...... employing low-educated workers; elsewise, a too low stock of educated workers is materialized....

  16. Tackling the Unemployment Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As the world's largest economy in transition, Chinafaces a severe unemployment challenge. With aworking population of 751 million, China'sunemployment rate stands at more than l O% in urbanareas," including rural surplus laborers, it is astaggering 20%. Since assuming office in March

  17. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  18. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  19. Youth Unemployment, 1978. Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This study of measures taken to reduce youth unemployment in Denmark is based on reports from local authorities, county authorities, and labor market boards, and on surveys made by the central government. The first section describes the total efforts made during 1978. The second section describes programs undertaken by the Danish Ministry of Labor…

  20. [Psychiatric interventions for the unemployed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, V; Scherbaum, N; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B; Meiler, B; Lieb, B; Mikoteit, T; Ehren, G; Hebebrand, J

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is related to a higher risk for psychological distress and mental disorders, which cause individual suffering and socioeconomic costs for society in general. This selective review surveys the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being and mental disorders. The most important programs for the improvement of the mental health of the unemployed are summarized: 1. Interventions for the unemployed with the aim of improving coping strategies reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. 2. The SUPPORT liaison outpatient unit collaborates closely with the unemployment agency and offers a low-threshold screening for mental disorders for unemployed subjects as well as counseling for those in need of treatment. 3. A group training based on cognitive behavioral therapy improves the psychological well-being of unemployed participants. 4. Supported employment is an effective means of placing severely mentally ill patients in a work-place accompanied by an extensive professional support. PMID:26105163

  1. The unemployment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the evolution of two characteristics, the unemployment rate and the medium level of education rate also in European Union (28 countries and particularly in Romania. The analyzed was made during six years, between 2008 and 2013. At the end of the paper it was applied a correlation coefficient in order to demonstrate if there is any link between the two characteristics. The results show that also in the European Union, as well as in Romania the evolution of the two characteristics has almost the same tendency during the entire period. Also the Pearson correlation coefficient shows that between the two indicators, the unemployment rate and the medium level of education rate there is a negative link but with a very small value which get us to the conclusion that the correlation is insignificant.

  2. Unemployment, migration, and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Economic development is typically accompanied by a very pronounced migration of labor from rural to urban employment. This migration, in turn, is often associated with large scale urban underemployment. Both factors appear to play a very prominent role in the process of development. We consider a model in which rural-urban migration and urban underemployment are integrated into an otherwise conventional neoclassical growth model. Unemployment arises not from any exogenous rigidities, but from...

  3. Regional Unemployment and Industrial Restructuring in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Andrew; Pastore, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies regional unemployment inequality in Poland. We find that higher unemployment regions are those experiencing greater change in industrial structure. We also find high unemployment regions are those with higher inflow rates to unemployment rather than longer spells of unemployment. These findings suggest that regional unemployment varies importantly with job destruction in Poland. Econometric analysis of the determinants of employment to unemployment flows reinforces this imp...

  4. The Employment, Unemployment and Unemployment Compensation Benefits of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Michael E; Chiswick, Barry R.

    2000-01-01

    This report analyzes the employment and unemployment experiences of adult foreign-born men, both among themselves and in comparison with the native born. The empirical analysis uses microdata from the 1990 Census of Population. Three dependent variables are analyzed, weeks worked (employment) in 1989, unemployment status in the reference week in 1990, and a proxy measure of unemployment compensation benefits received in 1989. The theoretical model focuses on the job search behavior of the for...

  5. Entrepreneurship, Asymmetric Information and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Maurice Marchand; Marianne Vigneault

    1998-01-01

    We examine how three sources of asymmetric information affect the supply of entrepreneurs and unemployment. In the first case, banks cannot observe entrepreneurs' risk of failure so ration credit. This increases the number of entrepreneurs and the level of unemployment. In the second case, firms cannot observe workers' effort so offer a wage above the market clearing one. This results in unemployment and too few entrepreneurs. The final case arises when firms cannot observe workers' abilities...

  6. Balanced Unemployment in Polish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Szymańska

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of balanced unemployment in relation to the Polish economy. This issue with its variety considerations and economic, social and political implications is today one of the most important matter. Author analyses this problem together with its reasons and refer it to the Polish economy. In first and second part of the text there are presented basic assumptions of natural unemployment theory and Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. Third part is an a...

  7. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José

    1997-01-01

    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  8. Educational Mismatch and Wait Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Ordine; Giuseppe Rose

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates educational mismatch and its interrelationships with individual unemployment duration. By studying unemployment histories of Italian workers we show that overeducated have longer unemployment spells than well matched workers. Using duration models we show that hazard rates of graduates are higher than those of undergraduates only for transitions toward occupations that require the competencies provided by the universities. This process is strictly related to innate abil...

  9. Surviving Unemployment without State Support: Unemployment and Household Formation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Woolard, Ingrid

    2000-01-01

    High unemployment in many OECD countries is often attributed, at least in part, to the generosity and long duration of unemployment compensation. It is therefore instructive to examine a country where high unemployment exists despite the near complete absence of an unemployment insurance system. In South Africa unemployment stood at 23% in 1997 and the unemployed have no unemployment insurance nor informal sector activities to fall back on. This paper examines how the unemployed are able to g...

  10. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Stel; R. Thurik; I. Verheul; L. Baljeu

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of entrepre

  11. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    and higher active labour market policy (ALMP) spending achieve more sustainable reintegration of previously unemployed workers. These results point to a policy trade-off between the well-confirmed disincentive and locking-in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand...

  12. Immigrant unemployment: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P W; Neo, L M

    1997-01-01

    "Between 1980 and 1996 both male and female immigrants experienced higher unemployment rates than Australia-born workers....A multivariate analysis is used in this article to examine unemployment rate differentials between Australia-born and immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. A feature of the analysis is decomposition of unemployment rate differences between birthplace groups into a component attributable to the different characteristics of the birthplace groups (e.g. different mean levels of education) and a part that is viewed as an impact associated simply with being foreign born." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292381

  13. Parental unemployment and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Mörk, Eva; Sjögren, Anna; Svaleryd, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17 percent more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental...

  14. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  15. Young unemployed, single mothers and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Reiso, Katrine Holm

    2014-01-01

    Young unemployed and single mothers are natural target groups for labour market policy interventions. At young age, people are particularly prone to unemployment. Figure 1 depicts unemployment rates for the OECD countries and the US by age groups. As the figure shows, people aged 15-24 years are about twice as likely to be unemployed compared to people aged 25- 54 years.

  16. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  17. Essays on equilibrium unemployment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Speigner, Bradley James

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three essays in which the behaviour of unemployment is studied in different dynamic environments. Throughout, unemployment is understood to be involuntary, arising due to the uncoordinated nature of trade in the labour market as viewed from the perspective of the Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides equilibrium matching model. It goes without saying that the fundamental motivation for pursuing this line of research is provided by the untold consequences, bot...

  18. The impact of EMU on European unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Viñals Iñiguez, José M.; Jimeno Serrano, Juan Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Persistent unemployment is the top social and economic problem of most EU countries. Today, the unemployment rate in most EU countries is above ten percent and, although unemployment has decreased during expansions, the average EU unemployment rate within each cycle has increased since the early seventies. Although unemployment evolutions have been to some extent similar in EU countries, there are some outliers. On the one side, Portugal, Austria, the UK, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, whic...

  19. Converting unemployment benefits into employment subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of giving unemployed people -- particularly the long-term unemployed -- the opportunity to use part of their unemployment benefits to provide employment vouchers to the firms that hire them. The vouchers would depend positively on unemployment duration and training. The paper argues that this policy would give unemployed people and their potential employers an expanded domain of choices in the labour market and thereby reduce the market failures generated ...

  20. Essays on Unemployment and Real Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In the first essay, Persistence in Swedish Unemployment Rates, we study if there is no or weak tendency in unemployment rates to revert back to previous levels. Persistence is caused by: natural rate shocks, long unemployment cycles, and spill-over from cyclical to permanent unemployment. We find evidence of high persistence. The results suggest that the quick rise of unemployment rates during 1992-1994 was caused by large permanent and cyclical shocks in combination with spill-over effects. ...

  1. Unemployment in Mexico : its characteristics and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Revenga, Ana; Riboud, Michelle; DEC

    1993-01-01

    The restructuring of Mexico's economy has had surprisingly little effect on Mexican unemployment, which is low even in the worst years. The authors ask: Is the official definition of unemployment adequate? Is unemployment properly measured? And who bears its burden? Is the welfare cost of unemployment widespread or are certain population groups especially vulnerable to it, repeatedly hit by it, and therefore deserving of special attention? Is most unemployment associated with normal turnover ...

  2. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: Does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walter (Stefan); M.M. Glymour (Maria); M. Avendano (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypot

  3. Unemployment benefits and unemployment in the Great Recession: the role of macro effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Marcus; Karahan, Fatih; Manovskii, Iourii; Mitman, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    We exploit policy discontinuity at U.S. state borders to identify the effects of unemployment insurance policies on unemployment. We find large effects of unemployment benefit extensions on unemployment. In fact, the estimates imply that most of the persistent increase in unemployment during the Great Recession can be accounted for by the unprecedented extensions of unemployment benefit eligibility. In contrast to the existing literature that mainly focused on estimating the effects of benefi...

  4. Mobile Communication Signatures of Unemployment

    CERN Document Server

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Pentland, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of populations socio-economic well-being is highly constrained by the logistics of censuses and surveys. Consequently, spatially detailed changes across scales of days, weeks, or months, or even year to year, are difficult to assess; thus the speed of which policies can be designed and evaluated is limited. However, recent studies have shown the value of mobile phone data as an enabling methodology for demographic modeling and measurement. In this work, we investigate whether indicators extracted from mobile phone usage can reveal information about the socio-economical status of microregions such as districts (i.e., average spatial resolution < 2.7km). For this we examine anonymized mobile phone metadata combined with beneficiaries records from unemployment benefit program. We find that aggregated activity, social, and mobility patterns strongly correlate with unemployment. Furthermore, we construct a simple model to produce accurate reconstruction of district level unemployment from their mobi...

  5. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  6. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...... control benefits, unemployed individuals are more likely to accept job offers in the local labour market. Based on a rich Danish data set, we find that the probability of finding a local job increases with the rent control intensity of the housing unit, whereas the probability of finding ajob outside...... the local labour market decreases with the rent control intensity....

  7. An Umbrella for Unemployed Seniors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government recently took a significant step forward in improving its social safety net: A pension program benefiting the country’s 50 million unemployed urban residents was launched on July 1.The new program, covering unemployed urban residents above the age of 16, excluding students, will be implemented in 60 percent of the country’s cities and townships this year. Starting in 2012, it will be effective across the country.By then, the country’s pension umbrella will cover the last demo

  8. Are homeowners really more unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    jobs, which is in accordance with the predictions from our theoretical model. The overall hazard rate into employment is higher for homeowners, such that there is a negative correlation between homeownership and unemployment duration. Our empirical findings thus contradict the so-called Oswald......This article investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...

  9. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  10. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  11. Unemployment Insurance in High Informality Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Espino, Emilio; Sanchez, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Providing unemployment insurance is particularly problematic in countries with high informality because workers can claim unemployment benefits and work in the informal sector at the same time. This paper proposes a method to evaluate alternative schemes to provide insurance for unemployed individuals. First, it presents an economy that can be calibrated to reproduce key features of the economy for which the reform will be evaluated. Then, it shows how the implementation of an unemployment in...

  12. Labor Market Segmentation, Wage Dispersion and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Dickens, William T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the empirical evidence on labor market segmentation and presents some new results on the similarity of the pattern of segmentation across 66 different countries. The paper goes on to consider how unemployment might be understood in a labor market segmentation framework. Existing models of unemployment in a dual labor market suggest that unemployment should be concentrated among those who are ultimately employed in high wage jobs. In fact, unemployment seems to be co...

  13. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  14. Income mobility, unemployment and GDP

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Karol

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify macroeconomic factors of income mobility. Explored is the relationship between biannual relative income mobility, the relative change in the unemployment rate and the relative change in GDP. A theoretical model is proposed which provides an explanation of the nature of this relationship. It is then verified using household budget data from the CHER database.

  15. Unemployed Youth: A Ticking Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Harvey A.

    1978-01-01

    The author gives a worldwide perspective on the vast numbers of unemployed young people in industrialized nations, takes a hard look at the changing job market, and considers the responsibilities of universities in ensuring that its students study subjects relevant to their future interests. (RK)

  16. Young People's Explanations of Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Graham S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Responding to questionnaires, 983 Canadian high school and university students revealed the following reasons why their peers are unemployed: (1) work values; (2) business/government job creation; (3) educational system; (4) luck/contacts; (5) immigrants/women taking jobs; and (6) work experience/interview skills. These explanations are shaped by…

  17. Gaining Access to Unemployment Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Using contingent faculty gives colleges and universities scheduling flexibility, and the lack of obligation to offer benefits to contingents saves them much money. In this article, the author contends that, in return for this shirking of responsibility, institutions of higher education should provide the merest unemployment insurance benefit to…

  18. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  19. The Match Quality Gains from Unemployment Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of unemployment insurance (UI) by measuring its effect in match quality are assessed. The relationship between post-unemployment job tenure and measures of the state level UI generosity and the unemployment rate at the time of the job is analyzed, using NLSY data.

  20. Strategies of the unemployed in South Africa: Does moving allow the unemployed to get ahead?

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Ebrahim; Murray Leibbrandt; Ingrid Woolard

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survival strategies of the unemployed using the balanced panel of the first three waves of the National Income Dynamics Study. We find that in response to unemployment and almost no unemployment insurance, unemployed individuals look to parents, relatives and friends for economic support. They are more likely to attach themselves to household that have some income through an employed member or in receive of state support. In many cases the unemployed delay setting up t...

  1. Health Effects of Unemployment in Europe During the Great Recession: The Impact of Unemployment Generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøge, Anne G

    2016-10-01

    Social and economic security could be particularly important for health among the unemployed. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking as to whether and how different policy contexts affect health when people move into unemployment. This article investigates whether and to what degree the unemployment generosity explains why individual health effects of unemployment vary across Europe. The 2008-2011 longitudinal panel of the European Union statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) and fixed-effects models are used to estimate the individual effects of unemployment on self-rated health (SRH). Social spending on unemployment is used as a proxy for unemployment generosity. The results show that unemployment generosity is associated with reduced negative effects of unemployment on SRH. For every increase in adjusted purchasing power standard spending, the negative effect of unemployment on SRH is reduced by 0.003 (SE = 0.001) and the change in SRH is improved by 0.002 (SE = 0.001) for each year following the transition, after controlling for time-variant confounders at the individual level and unemployment rate at the macro level. The association between spending on unemployment and cross-national differences in individual health changes that occur as people enter unemployment provides a robust indication of the mitigating health effects of unemployment generosity. PMID:27562054

  2. Social media fingerprints of unemployment

    CERN Document Server

    Llorente, Alejandro; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Recent wide-spread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and inter-personal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 145 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. ...

  3. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  4. Unemployment effects of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions. The politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often dominated by relatively short-term considerations. Yet the current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, in particular, the politically sensitive unemployment rate. Moreover, only a few of these studies also consider policies that would offset the negative direct economic effects of emissions restrictions. For plausible estimates of the parameters, the model shows that, with the labor market imperfections, if there were no offsetting policies, the reductions in GNP in the U.S. in the first 10 years after emissions restrictions were imposed would be as much as 4%. However, if there were two policies, instead of just one: a counteracting labor market policy, as well as the emissions restrictions, the negative direct economic effects could be completely eliminated

  5. Accounting for unemployment: the long and short of it

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hornstein

    2012-01-01

    Shimer (2012) accounts for the volatility of unemployment based on a model of homogeneous unemployment. Using data on short-term unemployment he finds that most of unemployment volatility is accounted for by variations in the exit rate from unemployment. The assumption of homogeneous exit rates is inconsistent with the observed negative duration dependence of unemployment exit rates for the U.S. labor market. We construct a simple model of heterogeneous unemployment with short-term and long-t...

  6. Unexpected Victims: How Parents' Unemployment Affects Their Children's Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kind; Haisken-DeNew, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of unemployment on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) of the unemployed on the unemployed are well documented. Using data from the German SOEP for 17-25 year olds living with their parents, this paper examines the additional indirect effects of parents’ unemployment on their children’s subjective wellbeing in an attempt to capture the full impact of unemployment. The reason for entry (exogenous versus endogenous) into unemployment plays a major role. Fathers who enter unemployment exo...

  7. Unemployment in South Africa: The nature of the beast

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta G. Kingdon; John B. Knight

    2001-01-01

    Unemployment in South Africa is so widespread that it demands an explanation. This paper examines two questions about South African unemployment. Firstly, why do the unemployed not enter the informal sector, as is common in other developing countries? Secondly, why do the unemployed not enter wage employment more readily? The findings provide little support for the idea that unemployed people choose to be unemployed: the unemployed are substantially worse off, and less satisfied with their qu...

  8. The Effects of Unemployment Compensation in General Equilibrium with Search Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Axell, Bo; Lang, Harald

    1986-01-01

    In this article it is shown that when the effects of an increase in unemployment subsidies are studied in a general equilibrium framework, unemployment increases far less than in a 'partial-partial' model, or may even decrease.

  9. Evolution of unemployment population stocks in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Irena MOCANU

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the current crisis on the evolution of the stocks of theunemployed persons in Romania. The present paper is focused on the analysis of general dynamic of the input and output flows in/from unemployment, emphasising the growth of the stocks of unemployed population, at national and county levels. The annexes of the annual progress reports published by the National Agency for Employment represent the data-base used in the study. The input flows in unemployment registered a constant e...

  10. Exits from unemployment : recall or new job

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Bullón, Fernando; Alba, Alfonso; Arranz, José M.

    2006-01-01

    JEL Classification Numbers J21, J24 This paper studies transitions out of unemployment in Spain distinguishing between recall to the same employer and reemployment in a new job. We use a large sample of newly unemployed workers obtained from Social Security records for Spain. These data contain information about each individual's employer identy before and after the unemployment spell. A discrete-time duration model with competing risks of exits serves us to investigate the factors that in...

  11. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    -biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  12. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and...

  13. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane; Zimmermann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with a universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and ...

  14. Implicit contracts, unemployment, and labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Huffman, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of imperfect contract enforcement on the emergence of unemployment. In an experimental labor market where trading parties can form long-term employment relationships, we compare a work environment where effort is observable, but not verifiable to a situation where explicit contracts are feasible. Our main result shows that unemployment is much higher when third-party contract enforcement is absent. Unemployment is involuntary, being caused by firms' employment and contra...

  15. Technological Unemployment and an Attainable Way Out

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlova, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the available information on the technological unemployment issue. The hypothesis of the thesis is that displacement of workers because of technological development has reasonable chances to happen in the future. Technological unemployment is hotly debated issue. Some part of economists argue that technological unemployment is a short-term problem; others see it as a risk for society. Thus, at this stage it is important to identify controversy in studie...

  16. Regional unemployment and new economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Zierahn, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Regional labor markets are characterized by huge disparities. The literature on the wage curve argues that there exists a negative relationship between unemployment and wages. However, this literature cannot explain how disparities of these variables between regions endogenously arise. In contrast, the New Economic Geography analyzes how disparities of regional goods markets endogenously arise, but usually ignores unemployment. Therefore, this paper discusses regional unemployment disparities...

  17. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits. (a... Director of Unemployment and Sickness Insurance may waive such requirement in connection with unemployment... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits....

  18. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  19. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică; ANA-GABRIELA BABUCEA; Doru Cîrnu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  20. Unemployment vs. In-work Benefits with Search Unemployment and Observable Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal search subsidy (i.e. the difference between the in-work benefit and the unemployment benefit) increases if, for efficient agents, the participation constraint (governing job search) becomes relativel...

  1. Unemployment persistence in Belgium : An in-depth econometric analysis of the flows out of unemployment/

    OpenAIRE

    Dejemeppe, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Finding an explanation for the rise and persistence of European unemployment has been one of the main research programmes of labour economists during the last decade. In this doctoral thesis, we contribute to this literature by questioning the causes of unemployment persistence in Belgium. To that purpose, we conduct an in-depth econometric analysis of the flows out of unemployment in this country. In Chapters 2 and 3, we study the behaviour of the exit rate out of unemployment over duration ...

  2. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  3. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) PMID:12343012

  4. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  5. Income for the Unemployed: The Variety and Fragmentation of Programs. Studies in Unemployment Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Merrill G.

    Unemployment insurance is the principal income program for workers who lose their jobs, however, it does not provide adequate income, nor does it provide for all unemployed persons. Because many different programs are operated for this purpose, they tend to have a fragmented effect and leave many unemployed persons with no income support. This…

  6. Unemployment vs. In-work Benefits with Search Unemployment and Observable Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal se

  7. Scarring Effects of Remaining Unemployed for Long-Term Unemployed School-Leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cockx, B.; Picchio, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether and to what extent further unemployment experience for youths who are already long-term unemployed imposes a penalty on subsequent labor market outcomes. We propose a flexible method for analyzing the effect on wages aside of transitions from unemployment and employme

  8. Evolution of unemployment population stocks in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena MOCANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the current crisis on the evolution of the stocks of theunemployed persons in Romania. The present paper is focused on the analysis of general dynamic of the input and output flows in/from unemployment, emphasising the growth of the stocks of unemployed population, at national and county levels. The annexes of the annual progress reports published by the National Agency for Employment represent the data-base used in the study. The input flows in unemployment registered a constant evolution, but the outputflows from unemployment have fell in all counties, this evolutions being the source of stocks of unemployed persons. In 2008, a number of 31 counties have stocks of unemployed, ranging between 9,900 persons and 80 persons; in 2009, all the counties registered stocks of unemployed. The largest stocks (more than 10,000 persons were specific for some counties situated in south, south-east and centre. The majority of counties registers some multi-annual averages values of the stocks of unemployed ranging between 2,500 – 1,000 persons, the largest being in Prahova, Suceava, Galaţi, Argeş, Dolj. Between2007 - 2009, the ratio between output form unemployment (by hiring and input in unemployment (due to layoffs decreased continuously and sharply in 2009 compared to 2008: 2.8 in 2007, 2.3 in 2008 and only 0.6 in 2009. The growth of the stocks of unemployed in all counties and the decrease of ration between hiring and redundancies represent ones of the effects of the current crisis.

  9. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    . Empirical evidence suggests that unemployment benefit receipt is associated with longer reemployment duration at the individual level. Furthermore, countries with more generous unemployment insurance and higher ALMP spending show a more sustainable reintegration record of previously unemployed workers...

  10. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affect the inflow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became unemployed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic made it attractive for workers to enter unemployment shortly after age 57.5 rather than shortly before. Indeed, we find a peak in the inflow into unemployment for workers after age 57.5. From Aug...

  11. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 198

  12. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is hardl

  13. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  14. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  15. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  16. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  17. Unemployment Insurance Benefit Levels and Consumption Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas

    We use a survey of unemployed people to examine how a job loss impacts on household expenditures. The principal focus is on the effect of the level of income replacement provided by Unemployment Insurance. We restrict attention to a sub-sample of respondents who are still in their first spell...

  18. Unemployed citizen or 'at risk' client?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Caswell, Dorte; Marston, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores recent developments in Australian and Danish unemployment policies with a special focus on the technologies used to classify and categorize unemployed people on government benefits. Using governmentality as our theoretical framework, we consider the implications of reducing com...

  19. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    have gained more political legitimacy and are being more widely used as a tool to improve the willingness of the unemployed clients to participate in activities under the canopy of active labour market policy. This does not only affect unemployed people, who are highly employable, but also those who...

  20. An International Review of Unemployment Insurance Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.; Craig, Isabel

    Fifteenth in a series designed to provide a broad review of unemployment insurance and related issues, this study describes existing unemployment insurance programs, as they applied in 1975, in 22 selected countries, with particular emphasis on programs in the industrialized nations of Western Europe, North America, and Japan, as well as on those…

  1. Unemployment Insurance and the Older American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    This monograph reports on an inquiry into the likely distributional effects of recent reductions in the payment of unemployment insurance to recipients of pension and social security benefits and its potential effects on labor market and consumption behavior of older people. An introductory chapter provides facts about unemployment insurance and…

  2. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  3. Changes in State Unemployment Insurance Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Joseph A.

    1974-01-01

    Many State legislatures in 1973 eliminated sex-discriminatory unemployment insurance law provisions, mainly pregnancy and marital or domestic obligation provisions. A table includes coverage of all State unemployment insurance laws and selected characteristics. Other changes covered benefit amounts, qualifying requirements, disqualification and…

  4. Optimal Unemployment Insurance with Monitoring and Sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Fredriksson, P.; Holmlund, B.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the design of optimal unemployment insurance in a search equilibrium framework where search effort among the unemployed is not perfectly observable.We examine to what extent the optimal policy involves monitoring of search effort and benefit sanctions if observed search is deemed

  5. Lowering the Permanent Rate of Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Martin S.

    The first section of the study on lowering the permanent rate of unemployment discusses the effects and limitations of increasing aggregate demand through fiscal and monetary policy and indicates the inability to achieve the desired level of unemployment simply by stimulating demand. Section 2 analyzes the characteristics and structure of our…

  6. Youth Unemployment and Its Educational Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.

    An important part of the strategies for reducing youth unemployment in Australia and the United States is to improve the education and training of young persons, especially those from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. However, this approach fails to recognize that youth unemployment is also caused by the demographic bulge of youth entering the…

  7. VARIABILITY BY SKILL IN CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHEN, MALCOLM S.; GRUBER, WILLIAM H.

    THE STUDY DEMONSTRATED THAT THE RATIO OF UNSKILLED TO SKILLED EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT VARIES FROM THE PEAK TO THE TROUGH OF THE BUSINESS CYCLE. DATA PRIMARILY FROM "EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS AND MONTHLY REPORT ON THE LABOR FORCE," MARCH 1967 WERE USED IN RELATING THE ANNUAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATES FOR CRAFTSMEN AND LABORERS TO BUSINESS CYCLE PEAKS…

  8. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  9. Capital Market and Unemployment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele M. Ilo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the Nigerian capital market affects unemployment in Nigeria with a view to identifying how the market has been able to curtail unemployment over the years or otherwise. It employes annual series data from 1986 to 2012 on unemployment, market capitalization and other data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin. The study adopts the Johansson cointegration vector error correction technique for data analysis. The result shows that unemployment has risen unabatedly since the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP with an average unemployment rate of 8.12 per cent for the period while market capitalization relative to the size the economy is 14.42 per cent. The analysis also shows that while, economic growth significantly curtails unemployment capital market development fails to limit unemployment. The stock market thus has grown over the years at the expense job creation in Nigeria. It is expected that efforts are geared towards efficient capital market development to enhance mobilization of funds for long term investments by firms and propel job creation along the value chain. The government should also focus on developing those labour intensive sectors of the economy while pursuing its economic growth policy.

  10. Tunisia’s Revolution and Youth Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.

  11. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    While examining the macroeconomic effects of increased governmentcontrol of the informal sector, this paper develops a two-sectorgeneral equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining. Workers search for jobs in both the formaland the informal sector. We analyse...... the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...... economy.JEL-codes: H26Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, matching, bargaining,unemployment....

  12. The unhappily unemployed return to work faster

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that job loss is associated with a fall in subjective well-being (SWB). It then looks at how this change in SWB predicts job search and unemployment duration. The findings suggest that those who report feeling hurt by unemployment have shorter unemployment durations. Men who report a loss of SWB are also more likely to look for a job, but women’s job search is not affected by the SWB loss. These findings confirm the theoretical prediction from job search theory: search effort...

  13. Unemployment as a factor of entrepreneurial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Șipoș-Gug

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the nature and direction of the relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurial activity. Our research, using monthly data from Romania (1991-2012, brings evidence to the hypothesis that the relationship is non-linear in regard to the temporal delay factor. From our data it would seem that unemployment and entrepreneurial activity are negatively related on the short term, and positively related on the long term. Based on these results, we propose that the two effects be treated separately, and we propose two predictive models of entrepreneurial activity based on unemployment that follow this distinction.

  14. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András;

    2015-01-01

    significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes......Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...

  15. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    Unemployment insurance schemes include conditions on past employment history as part of the eligibility conditions. This aspect is often neglected in the literature which primarily focuses on benefit levels and benefit duration. In a search-matching framework we show that benefit duration...... and employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show...... that a higher insurance motive captured by more risk aversion implies higher benefit generosity and more lax employment requirements but also shortened benefit duration....

  16. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  17. Education and Youth Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David Lam; Murray Leibbrandt; Cecil Mlatsheni

    2008-01-01

    The problem of high youth unemployment is a global phenomenon. According to an International Labour Office study in 2004, youth (15-24) make up nearly half (47%) of the world's unemployed, 88 million out of 186 million, even though youth are only 25% of the world's working age population. Of the world's 550 million working poor who cannot lift themselves above US $1 per day poverty measure, 150 million are youth. The ILO estimated in 2004 that halving global youth unemployment would increase ...

  18. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  19. Causes and Consequences of Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Wayne

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the state of unemployment in the 1970s among teenagers, some reasons for its existence, the long-term consequences, and the net impact of the teenage experience on joblessness. (RK)

  20. Literacy, CETA, and Unemployment: Coming Up Empty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Gerald; Coppel, Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes low literacy levels among Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) applicants in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Discusses how cutbacks in CETA funding will adversely affect attempts to decrease illiteracy among unemployed, low-income, urban adults. (GC)

  1. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van der Ploeg

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  2. Patterns of unemployment dynamics in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmeier, Daniela; Weber, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the patterns of unemployment dynamics in Germany. To provide a deeper insight into the margins of unemployment adjustment, we employ a structural VAR model and identify the effects of a technology shock as well as two policy shocks. We find that the worker reallocation process varies substantially with the identified shocks. The job finding rate plays a larger role following a technology shock and a monetary policy shock, while the separation rate appears as the dominant ma...

  3. Exports, Unemployment and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Janeba, Eckhard

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the labor market effects of globalization when foreign market entry is costly and risky. With flexible labor markets, a fall in foreign market entry cost tends to generate more income inequality. By contrast, when workers cannot easily switch industries and wages are inflexible in the short run, globalization tends to increase unemployment. In this situation, government unemployment benefits reduce the wages that exporting firm's need to pay workers as risk compensation. Th...

  4. Unemployment dynamics with international capital mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Azariadis, Costas; Pissarides, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    We study the response of domestic unemployment rates to shocks in total factor productivity for economies with high capital mobility and low labour mobility. We show that rapid capital movements across national borders, like those experienced by developed nations in the last twenty years, substantially amplify the impact on the domestic unemployment rate of domestic fluctuations in total factor productivity relative to what would have happened in a closed economy, shorten the duration of the ...

  5. A Note on Estimating Unemployment By Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ide Kearney

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe a range of methods for preparing forecasts of the educational profile of employment in the Irish economy. We use these forecasts to derive a profile of the possible evolution-specific unemployment rates in the next decade. Our results indicate the following: -Changes in the educational composition of the labour force alone imply, ceteris paribus, a fall in the overall unemployment rate of 4.5 percentage points by 2010 compared to 1996. -Underlying structural change i...

  6. Unemployment and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Carroll

    2005-01-01

    Who records the largest drops in life satisfaction when they move into unemployment? Do men experience a larger drop in life satisfaction than women? Do Australians and Americans record a larger drop than Europeans? Using an Australian panel data-set (the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Survey of Australia), this paper finds that the unemployed in Australia report lower life satisfaction than observationally equivalent employed people (holding current income constant). Being currently un...

  7. Does European Unemployment Prop up American Wages?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider trade between a flexible wage America and a rigid real wage Europe. In a benchmark case, a move from autarky to free trade doubles the European unemployment rate, while it raises the American unskilled wage to the high European level. Entry of the unskilled South to world markets raises unemployment in Europe. But Europe's commitment to the high wage completely insulates America from the shock. Immigration to America raises American income, but lowers European income dollar-for-do...

  8. The Consumption Smoothing Benefits of Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    1994-01-01

    Previous research on unemployment insurance (UI) has focused on the costs of the program, in terms of the distorting effects of generous UI benefits on worker and firm behavior. For assessing the optimal size of an unemployment insurance program, however, it is also important to gauge the benefits of increased UI generosity, in terms of smoothing consumption across periods of joblessness. I do so through a reduced form approach which directly measures the effect of legislated variations in UI...

  9. Unemployment Insurance and Job Turnover in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Rebollo Sanz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the potential relationships between the unemployment insurance system and labour market turnover, seeking to further the traditional view that this system has only behavioural consequences for the labour supply side of the labour market. This study assumes the incentives embedded in the unemployment insurance system have a heterogeneous impact, depending on the type of labour market transition (quits versus layoffs and recalls versus new job entr...

  10. Designing a Cheaper and More Effective Unemployment Benefit System

    OpenAIRE

    Melvyn G. Coles

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an equilibrium labour market in which an unemployment benefit system cannot raise the average value of being unemployed in the long run. It proposes an alternative benefit system which pays generous benefit rates when unemployment is high, but pays much lower rates in booms. By targeting unemployment compensation to recessions, when being unemployed is particularly costly, this policy provides insurance equivalent to that provided by the current system. By reducing the va...

  11. Race and the Incidence of Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    2001-01-01

    South Africans unemployment rate is one of the highest in the world, and it has important distributional implications. The paper examines the incidence of unemployment using two national household surveys for the mid-1990s. Both entry to unemployment and the duration of unemployment are examined. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment is estimated: it shows an important role for race, education, age, gender, home-ownership, location, and numerous other variables, all of which have...

  12. Race and the Oncidence of Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    2001-01-01

    South Africa’s unemployment rate is one of the highest in the world, and it has important distributional implications. The paper examines the incidence of unemployment using two national household surveys for the mid-1990s. Both entry to unemployment and the duration of unemployment are examined. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment is estimated: it shows an important role for race, education, age, gender, home-ownership, location, and numerous other variables, all of which have...

  13. Cultures of Unemployment : A Comparative Look at Long-Term Unemployment and Urban Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbersen, Godfried; Schuyt, Kees; Timmer, Jaap; Waarden, van Frans

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980s a team of Dutch sociologists conducted a study on the daily life of unemployed in the Netherlands. They were inspired by the classical work Marienthal: the Sociology of an Unemployed Community first published in 1933. The authors conducted three neighborhood studies to analyze the socia

  14. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affec the inow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became un- employed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic

  15. Community unemployment and immigrants' health in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Forster, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise; Raynault, Marie-France; Douglas Willms, J

    2006-07-01

    This research examines the relationship between community unemployment and the physical and mental health of immigrants in comparison to non-immigrants in Montreal under the hypothesis that high unemployment in the community may generate more negative effects on the health of immigrants than on non-immigrants. Possible gender differences in these associations are also examined. Montreal residents were studied via multilevel analysis, using both individual survey data and neighbourhood data from 49 police districts. Individual-level data were excerpted from a 1998 health survey of Montreal residents, while neighbourhood data originated from survey data collected in the 49 Montreal police districts and the 1996 Canadian Census. The associations between community unemployment and self-rated health, psychological distress and obesity are examined, and hypotheses regarding the modifying mechanisms via which male and female immigrants may run a greater risk of poor health than non-immigrants when living in areas of high unemployment were tested. Between neighbourhoods, variations in the three health outcomes were slight, and differences in health were not associated with differences in community unemployment. The associations between community unemployment and health varied according to immigration status. At the individual level, immigrants do not differ from non-immigrants with respect to the three health indicators, except that second-generation males are slightly heavier. However, when living in areas of high unemployment, immigrants tend to report poor physical and mental health in comparison to non-immigrants. Among first-generation immigrants, community unemployment was associated with psychological distress. Among second-generation immigrants, the probability of obesity and poor self-rated health increased significantly for those living in areas with high unemployment, but these associations reached statistical significance only for men. Findings among first

  16. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline O’Reilly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes in the economic sphere around labor market flexibility, skills attainment, and employer demand, as well as understanding the impact of family legacies affecting increasingly polarized trajectories for young people today. The success of EU policy initiatives and investments will be shaped by the ability of national actors to implement these effectively.

  17. Unemployment and mental health: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzy, D

    1993-07-01

    Existing theoretical explanations of the mental health consequences of unemployment are outlined, critically reviewed and an alternative theory proposed. Theories reviewed include the rehabilitation approach, the stages model, Jahoda's functional model, Warr's vitamin model and Fryer's agency critique. A discussion of the effects of moderating variables--including the quality of work, work commitment and age--is used to assess the usefulness of these theoretical explanations. Most theories are found to deal inadequately with the temporal aspects of unemployment, the relationship between subjective experience and objective location and the complexity of the effects of moderating variables. In response to these inadequacies and in contrast to the predominant empiricist, psychological orientation, a middle range theory is proposed informed by a sociological perspective. The proposed theory conceptualises unemployment as a type of status passage and suggests an explanation of changes in mental health derived from identity theory. PMID:8332923

  18. Factors Effecting Unemployment: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment for India, China and Pakistan for the period 1980 to 2009. The investigation was conducted through co integration, granger causality and regression analysis. The variables selected for the study are unemployment, inflation, gross domestic product, exchange rate and the increasing rate of population. The results of regression analysis showed significant impact of all the variables for all three countries. GDP of Pakistan showed positive relation with the unemployment rate and the reason of that is the poverty level and underutilization of foreign investment. The result of granger causality showed that bidirectional causality does not exist between any of the variable for all three countries. Co integration result explored that long term relationship do exist among the variables for all the models. It is recommended that distribution of income needs to be improved for Pakistan in order to have positive impact of growth on the employment rate.

  19. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. METHODS: Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. RESULTS: States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94. This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31.This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. CONCLUSION: Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Mihaela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.

  1. Long term youth unemployment or disposable workforce?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini; Elisa Grand

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a process which I denote as “young workforce disposal” (YWD). YWD reflects the fact that many young people enter the labor market as dependent employees, at some later time they are dismissed and (presumably) move into never-ending unemployment. Long term unemployment may last two, three, four years, but, in the end, it should lead to re-entry in working activities. If it does not, i.e. if we observe young men separating from their jobs for whatever reason, and, for as lon...

  2. Are Home Owners Really More Unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2006-01-01

    jobs, which is in accordance with the predictions from our theoretical model. The overall hazard rate into employment is higher for homeowners, such that there is a negative correlation between homeownership and unemployment duration. Our empirical findings thus contradict the so-called Oswald......This paper investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...

  3. The Dynamics of Unemployment: Job Loss and Job Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of unemployment in terms of job loss and job search. Compares job loss to the grieving process and job search to burnout. Describes counseling strategies for people at various stages in the unemployment process. (Author)

  4. Measuring the Equilibrium Effects of Unemployment Benefits Dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van Aico; Berg, van den G.J.; Ridder, Geert

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the impact of unemployment benefits and minimum wagesusing an equilibrium search model which allows for dispersion ofbenefits and productivity levels, job-to-job transitions, andstructural and frictional unemployment. The estimation method usesreadily available aggregate data on marginal

  5. Individuals' Unemployment Experiences: Heterogeneity and Business Cycle Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwij, Adriaan S.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines individuals? unemployment experiences from the age of 18 up to the age of 35 using a large panel of administrative records on unemployment related benefit claims of men in the United Kingdom over the past two decades. The main focus is on the extent to which individuals? unemployment experiences are affected by regional and skill differences, i.e. individual heterogeneity, and the business cycle. In particular this study analyses the extent to which repeated unemployment i...

  6. How relevant is monetary policy to explain Mexican unemployment fluctuations?

    OpenAIRE

    Islas-Camargo, Alejandro; Cortez, Willy W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of a monetary policy shock on Mexican unemployment rates. Unlike previous studies we re-estimate unemployment rates so that these alternative rates are comparable to those of the OECD member countries. We find that in response to tightening monetary policy, unemployment increases with a characteristic hump-shaped pattern found in other studies. Our empirical results indicate that unemployment elasticity is low and yet the velocity of adjustment to return t...

  7. Unemployment and Welfare State: What do the Data Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    DING, HONG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between welfare expenditure by government and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 34 OECD countries from 1980 to 2010 and a two-way fixed effect model for panel data subject to endogeneity test and persistence test, the results of the paper suggest that total welfare expenditure as a percentage of GDP has a statistically significant positive impact on unemployment outcomes (total unemployment, long-term unemployment and youth unemployme...

  8. Unemployment in Europe: Young People Affected Much Harder Than Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Brenke, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The crises of the past few years have led to a significant increase in youth unemployment in Europe. This, in turn, has highlighted the long standing phenomenon of well above average youth unemployment. In some countries, the youth unemployment rate reached unprecedented levels, although the rise of unemployment among young people was no more significant than among adults. Furthermore, the media portrayal of young people's situation is sometimes more negative than the reality, failing to take...

  9. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Abbring, Jaap; Berg, Gerard; Ours, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was on the duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exit rate out of unemployment have been investigated. Unlike the partial approach of previous studies this paper takes all elements of unemployment dynamics simultaneously into account. We find that cyclical fluct...

  10. Why Has Unemployment Risen in the New South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Banerjee; Sebastian Galiani; Jim Levinsohn; Zoë McLaren; Ingrid Woolard

    2007-01-01

    We document the rise in unemployment in South Africa since the transition in 1994. We describe the likely causes of this increase and analyze whether the increase in unemployment is due to structural changes in the economy (resulting in a new equilibrium unemployment rate) or to negative shocks (that temporarily have increased unemployment). We conclude the former are more important. Our analysis includes a multinomial logit approach to understanding transitions in individual-level changes in...

  11. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  12. Labor Market Effects of Unemployment Insurance Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, includ

  13. Explaining unemployment trends in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a small macroeconomic model of the Dutch labour market is estimated. The model is used to detect the causes of the rise in unemployment since the early 70s. In contrast to existing empirical work, we treat labour supply as an endogenous variable. This adjustment appears to

  14. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  15. Economic growth, sectoral structure and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts that deal with the relationship between the relative wealth of nations, economic growth, and the sectoral structure of economies. In the first part, the focus is on the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment. I

  16. Search Time, Unemployment, and the Migration Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Ernst P.; Schoening, Niles C.

    1984-01-01

    Unemployed in distressed regions of the United States have been reluctant to move to areas of greater employment opportunities. By establishing a negative correlation between weeks of job search and probability of migration, this study is able to provide a partial explanation for lack of a positive relationship between outmigration rates and…

  17. Public-private partnerships for the unemployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sol

    2010-01-01

    Under new dimensions of individualisation, decentralisation and particularly marketisation, new forms of public-private partnerships between the actors involved in the employment services for the unemployed have emerged. This is because for-profit providers have now entered the arena of welfare to w

  18. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  19. Unemployment Insurance Laws: Changes Enacted during 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runner, Diana

    1982-01-01

    Contains a summary of some significant changes in state unemployment insurance laws during 1981. All states tightened work requirements; most adopted a variety of options to the pension offset provision and a few imposed a one-week waiting period. (Author)

  20. The Credibility Problem in Unemployment Insurance Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIf distortions in the labour market lead to inefficiently high unemployment, and policy makers cannot enter into a binding policy commitment before nominal wages are set, excessive inflation may result due to a credibility problem. This is the famous Kydland&Prescott - Barro&Gordon infla

  1. Comment: Unemployment Theories and Disadvantaged Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Al

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that policies tolerating higher levels of joblessness for workers generally, and for disadvantaged workers in particular, are based on tenuous job search rationales and inflation expectationist fears. The old weapons of fiscal and monetary stimulation to stabilize income and unemployment are required, together with new strategies to…

  2. A perspective of South African unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Basdevant, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Based on stylized facts on South Africa, this article provides a simple theoretical framework to analyze the relations between reducing working time, unemployment, education and growth. It is flexible enough to provide some main macro-economic implications of work sharing, especially in terms of education and growth.

  3. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  4. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  5. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  6. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  7. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...

  8. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  9. Is Longer Unemployment Rewarded with Longer Job Tenure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro

    This paper examines whether or not a prolonged unemployment period can raise the quality of job matching after unemployment. We focus on job tenure as an indicator of a good quality job match after unemployment. We match two sets of Japanese administrative data compiled by the public employment s...

  10. The Impact of Unemployment Insurance Benefits on Reemployment Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Paul L.; Kingston, Jerry L.

    1976-01-01

    A study shows that reemployment success--as measured by earnings of workers in a 1-year period following a spell of unemployment--was positively related to higher weekly unemployment insurance payments and longer periods of unemployment compensation. (Editor/HD)

  11. Nonmonetary Eligibility in State Unemployment Insurance Programs: Law and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Walter; And Others

    A study examined the various laws and practices in six states regarding nonmonetary eligibility for state unemployment insurance programs and assessed the effects of these laws and policies on the states' ability to identify and reject unemployment insurance claimants who fail to meet the requirements. Eligibility for unemployment insurance in all…

  12. How Changes in Financial Incentives Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how changes in the two key parameters of unemployment insurance - the benefit replacement rate (RR) and the potential duration of benefits (PBD) - affect the duration of unemployment.In 1989, the Austrian government made unemployment insurance more generous by changing, simultaneo

  13. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  14. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  15. New Insights on Unemployment Duration and Post Unemployment Earnings in Germany: Censored Box-Cox Quantile Regression at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzenberger, Bernd; Wilke, Ralf A.

    2007-01-01

    In light of nonstationary search theory (van den Berg, 1990), this paper estimates the effects of benefit entitlement periods and the size of unemployment benefits on unemployment durations and post-unemployment earnings in West Germany. For the unemployment duration, we estimate censored Box-Cox quantile regression, which is robust with respect to the specification of the unobserved error distribution and avoids the common proportional hazard assumption. Our results suggest that the length o...

  16. Unemployment and crime: Experimental evidence of the causal effects of intensified ALMPs on crime rates among unemployed individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Hald Andersen

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigate the extent to which levels of welfare benefits reduce crime among the unemployed. This paper expands this literature by testing whether the intensity of other welfare programs aimed at the unemployed affects their criminal activity, using evidence from a Danish social experiment that randomly assigned active labor market programs (ALMPs) of different levels of intensity to newly unemployed individuals.

  17. The Effects of Benefits, Incentives, and Sanctions on Youth Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...... the effects of the implementation of the YUP. We investigate the effects on the duration of unemployment spells and on the transition rates from unemployment to schooling and employment. We find that the YUP has been successful through a combination of three effects: an announcement effect, a direct programme...

  18. The unemployed mid-career adult: stressors and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Ribton-Turner

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of unemployment in South Africa is of national concern yet the experience of being unemployed is little understood; not enough is known about the unemployed condition in South Africa. In this study eight unemployed mid-career adults who had been out of work for longer than six months were interviewed in order to explore their lived experience. A qualitative methodology was used and from the extensive interview data, using qualitative content analysis, themes relating to the unemployed condition emerged. Results support, to a large degree, the existing literature and studies on the stressors impacting on the unemployed. This study offers additional insight into the support structures available for the unemployed adult.

  19. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    1998-01-01

    from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...... length thereof) and other labour market statuses during the years preceding the first admission. This allows us to study whether unemployment as a risk factor differs between age groups, men and women, and single and married persons, and whether education and earnings have a moderating effect...... illness. The data base for our analyses has been constructed by merging two large Danish longitudinal data sets. The first is a panel of approximately 240.000 individuals which corresponds to 5 per cent of the Danish population aged 16-74, and contains detailed year-by-year information about...

  20. Conditional Patterns of Unemployment Dynamics in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmeier, Daniela; Weber, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the conditional patterns of unemployment dynamics in Germany. We employ a structural VAR model and identify a technology shock and two policy shocks by using standard restrictions. Interestingly, the worker reallocation process varies substantially with the identified shocks. The job finding rate plays a larger role after a technology shock and a monetary policy shock, while the separation rate appears as the dominant margin after a fiscal policy shock. Technology shocks ar...

  1. Capital Export, Unemployment, and Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Gunther G

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses capital export controls under majority voting. It is shown that individuals vote according to their factor endowment ratio. An individual’s optimal restriction is tighter, the lower their capital-labour ratio and the larger the country; it is also tighter if unemployment prevails. If there is illegal immigration, however, results are dramatically reversed: the conflict of interests collapses and all individuals favour unrestricted capital export until immigration is elimin...

  2. Youth employment and unemployment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Dev, S.; M. Venkatanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Increase in the share of youth population due to demographic `dividend' or the `youth bulge' seems to be one of the sources of future economic growth in India. Although with increase in school and college enrolment rates, the proportion of youth in the labour force has been declining, their high proportions in the labour force indicate that the problem of youth unemployment and underemployment would remain a serious policy issue for many more years to come in India. In this context, this pape...

  3. On Monetary Policy, Unemployment, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    ROSAS MARTINEZ, Victor H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Recognizing the possible relation between investments, economic growth and unemployment, and how there is not an established impact of an unlikely productive project failure on the secondly mentioned variables, we address such relation and asses theoretically the effect of different instruments of monetary policy on the mentioned macroeconomic indicators. To do this we build upon two models of economic growth considering the role of entrepreneurs, risk takers, and a monetary authori...

  4. Hidden Unemployment and Older Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A number of policy reforms have recently been announced by the Commonwealth government to encourage greater labour force participation by older people in the context of an ageing society. These policy reforms are generally supply side in orientation such as the removal of the Mature Age Allowance, or restrictions to the Disability Support Pension. In this paper it is argued that these pensions have historically been used to accommodate otherwise unemployed older male workers. A number of meth...

  5. From mass unemployment to mass underemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Pugliese

    2007-01-01

    The article brings into focus the changes that have taken place in Italy and Europe in the last twenty years. In Italy unemployment rates have decreased in the last 12 years while the political orientation of the government has changed several times. The article underlines that a decline in job quality and increase in insecure employment are also to be seen in all the countries due to labour policies aiming at greater flexibility. Within this framework the immigrant labour force is playing an...

  6. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the unobserved individual heterogeneity and the initial condition and that the degree of state dependence is overstated if we do not address this problem. The results show that an individual who was ...

  7. Credit and Unemployment: Do Institutions Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Donatella; Vaubourg, Anne-Gaël

    2010-01-01

    we analyse the relationship between firms' access to credit and unemployment in the second section. The third section is dedicated to the literature on institutional and legal determinants of the access to credit. In the fourth section, we both complete and moderate the view developed in the second section, stressing the complex interactions that exist between financial arrangements and labour market institutions. The final section concludes.

  8. Institutions and unemployment: Do interactions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Isolated effects of labor and product market institutions as well as the interaction between both aforementioned categories on unemployment have been extensively discussed in the empirical literature. However, interaction effects between individual labor market institutions have been widely neglected, mainly due to the infeasibility to correctly specify the model. In this paper, a model averaging approach is adopted to show that considering institutional interactions can improve the explanato...

  9. The Dynamic Correlation Between Growth and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Tripier

    2002-01-01

    We apply the measure of dynamic correlation developed by Croux, Forni and Reichlin (2001) [A measure of comovement for economic variables: theory and empirics. Review of Economics and Statistics 83, 232-241] to the relation between the quarterly rates of unemployment and labor productivity growth for the post-war United-States economy. The application of the dynamic correlation reveals that these variables are strongly related, but in a different manner according to the frequencies considered...

  10. Unemployment and the Demand for Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchflower, David G.; Robert Crouchley; Saul Estrin; Andrew Oswald

    1990-01-01

    Why do people join open-shop unions when they would receive union wage rates even if they were not members? Why are unionization rates so low in the south-east of England? To address these questions, which we treat as interrelated, the paper considers the idea that unions offer insurance against victimization and arbitrary dismissal. Consistent with our theoretical approach, we find that union density is greatest, ceteris paribus, within establishments in areas of high unemployment.

  11. Labor market reforms and unemployment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Fabrice; Robin, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contribution of labor market reforms to unemployment dynamics in nine OECD countries (Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States). We build and estimate a dynamic stochastic search-matching model with heterogeneous workers, where aggregate shocks to productivity fuel up the cycle, and unanticipated policy interventions shift structural parameters and displace the long-term equilibrium. We show that the he...

  12. Growth, Employment and Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Hodge

    2009-01-01

    The high rate of unemployment in South Africa stands out in an otherwise vastly improved set of macroeconomic fundamentals compared to the situation in the early 1990s. One might be tempted to argue that by this single indicator alone, government policies such as GEAR have been a failure. This paper explains why jumping to such a conclusion would be a mistake and focuses on the relationship between economic growth and employment and shows how estimates of the employment coefficient have chang...

  13. Wage subsidies to combat unemployment and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Justine; Edwards, Lawrence; Pauw, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Wage or employment subsidies have been used in both developed and developing countries to raise employment levels. Various advisers to the South African government have endorsed wage subsidies as a policy measure to deal with this countrys massive unemployment problem. This paper takes stock of the international literature and conducts an economywide macro-micro analysis to obtain insights into wage subsidy design and implementation issues facing developing countries. It also investigates whe...

  14. The Private Sector's Role in limiting unemployment in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M.M.A. Aliqah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to define unemployment, and private sector, to know more about both, and to study the role of the private sector in limiting unemployment in Jordan in special. In a particular year the level of unemployment is determined by the level of aggregate demand for the goods and services which a country produces .if demand higher this reduces unemployment so the demand side approach to unemployment .so to expand demand through higher budget deficits and lower interest rates. But unfortunately unemployment cannot be reduced indefinitely by expand demand .for eventually the economy will run into bottle necks and labor shortage that point employers will increasingly raise wages to attract labor and there will all be increased union demands for higher wages .so demand will have to stop rising-either of its own or through policy action. Thus our ability to reduce unemployment is limited by the labor shortages which begin to appear as unemployment falls are features of the “supply-side of the economy and it is they which determine how unemployment can fall without creating inflationary pressures while demand management is important the key issue for employment policy is how reduce the level of unemployment at which inflationary pressures appear.

  15. Associations of smoking prevalence with individual and area level social cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, J.; Eberly, L.; Ding, Y.; Hargreaves, M.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To discover if area level social cohesion, neighbourhood safety, and home safety are associated with current cigarette smoking among adults after adjustment for concentrations of poverty and low education.

  16. Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs? A comparison between the unemployed, inactive and wage-earners

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Pernilla; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    In many countries unemployed people are helped to become self-employed. Self-employment, however, does not necessarily lead to success. Many leave self-employment after a short period and the economic outcome varies greatly. It is important to learn more about the economic outcome for unemployed who become self-employed. In the first part of the paper we analyse who became self-employed in the period from 1999 to 2002 of Swedish-born men aged 20 to 60 years who were either wage-earners, unemp...

  17. COMPONENTS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT ANALYSIS IN CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Enea-SMARANDACHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment is a permanent phenomenon in majority countries of the world, either with advanced economies, either in course of developed economies, and the implications and the consequences are more complexes, so that, practically, the fight with unemployment becomes a fundamental objective for the economy politics. In context, the authors proposed to set apart essentially components for unemployment analyse with the scope of identification the measures and the instruments of counteracted.

  18. Golden parachutes: Changing the experience of unemployment for managers

    OpenAIRE

    Anya M Johnson, Paul R Jackson

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables —financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner — on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After using qualitative research to explore managers' experiences during unemployment, we used the themes that emerged from this first study to conduct a su...

  19. Urban youth unemployment and human capital development in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This is a study on the main causes of urban youth unemployment in Iran. It argues that, based upon structural and classical explanations of unemployment, urban youth unemployment in Iran is caused by deficiencies in human capital development. Based in the two approaches to human capital development, the study uses empirical findings obtained through interviews, surveys and statistics in Iran to discuss earlier studies on the phenomenon, and to see whether investments in human capital developm...

  20. Occupational change and mobility among employed and unemployed job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Labour Force Survey to show that employed and unemployed job seekers in Great Britain originate from different occupations and find jobs in different occupations. We find substantial differences in occupational mobility between job seekers: employed job seekers are most likely to move to occupations paying higher average wages relative to their previous occupation, while unemployed job seekers are most likely to move to lower paying occupations. Employed and unemployed jo...

  1. Labor Market Dynamics in Tunisia: The Issue of Youth Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Stampini, Marco; Verdier-Chouchane, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of the youth labor market in Tunisia using unique labor force survey data from 2005 to 2007 that include a longitudinal component. It first shows that sustained economic growth will reduce youth unemployment over the next few years. Second, forecasts indicate that the growth of private sector services has the highest potential to reduce youth unemployment. Third, the analysis of labor market characteristics reveals that young graduates experience long unemploy...

  2. A social net? Internet and social media use during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Feuls, Miriam; Fieseler, Christian; Suphan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many people who are unemployed tend to experience forms of psychological and social losses, including a weakened time structure, diminished social contacts, an absence of collective purpose, falling status, and inactivity. This article focuses on the experience of diminished social contacts and addresses whether social media help the unemployed maintain their relationships. Based on qualitative interviews with unemployed individuals, the article identifies various types of social supp...

  3. The Redistributive Role of Minimum Wage Legislation and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Marceau; Robin Boadway

    1991-01-01

    The use of unemployment insurance and minimum wages as instruments for redistributing income are analyzed. The government is assumed to be able to implement an optimal income tax in an economy consisting of two ability-types of persons. The effect of introducing a minimum wage which induces involuntary unemployment combined with unemployment insurance is considered. Social welfare can be improved despite the possible revenue costs to the government if the policy causes a self-selection constr...

  4. Basic income and unemployment in a unionized economy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Linden, Bruno

    1997-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model of a unionized economy to analyze the impact of unconditional basic income schemes on unemployment. Starting from a given level of the unemployment benefits, two reforms are envisaged : one where these benefits are replaced by a higher unconditional grant (the full basic income) and another where the income of the unemployed remains unchanged (the partial basic income). Assuming a proportional tax on earnings and a balanced budget of the...

  5. Wage, Productivity and Unemployment Microeconomics Theory and Macroeconomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, Weshah

    2014-01-01

    We confront microeconomic theory with macroeconomic data. Unemployment results from two main micro-level decisions of workers and firms. Most of the efficiency wage and bargaining theories predict that over the business cycle, unemployment falls below its natural rate when the worker’s real wage exceeds the reservation wage. However, these theories have weak empirical support. Firm’s decision predicts that when the worker’s real wage exceeds the marginal product of labor, unemployment increas...

  6. Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The job search literature suggests that on-the-job search reduces the probability of unemployed people finding a job. However, there is little evidence that employed and unemployed job seekers are similar or apply for the same jobs. We compare employed and unemployed job seekers in terms of their individual characteristics, preferences over working hours, job-search strategies and employment histories, and identify how any differences vary over the business cycle. We find systematic differenc...

  7. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: Perspectives from the banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Faith Oluwajodu; Derick Blaauw; Lorraine Greyling; Kleynhans, Ewert P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduat...

  8. Unemployment and wages in South Africa: A spatial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    1999-01-01

    A large amount of recent evidence finds a negative relationship between local unemployment and wages in OECD countries, a relationship christened a ‘wage curve’. This contradicts the conventional model of the labour market in which high unemployment regions have higher wages to compensate for search and other costs. This paper discovers a wage curve in South Africa, a country with several times the typical unemployment rate of OECD countries. The wage curve elasticity in South Africa is simil...

  9. Book review: Unemployment in Africa: A psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Joannides

    2005-01-01

    Title: Unemployment In an African country: a psychological perspective By: Webster Gonzo and Ilse Elisabeth Plattner Publishers: University of Namibia Press, 2003 Unemployment in an African country is a concisely written and well-structured book, which investigates the psychological impact of unemployment on Namibia’s ‘street unemployed’. This term refers to the large population of men who wait alongside the roads and at traffic intersections, in the hope of being offered causal employment. E...

  10. The Relationship Between Unemployment and Earnings Inequality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment and earnings inequality have moved closely together in South Africa in recent years, suggesting that there may not be a trade-off between them as the literature generally suggests. This article explores the relationship between unemployment and earnings inequality in South Africa, specifically investigating the extent to which changes in unemployment can account for changes in earnings inequality. Decomposing overall income inequality by factor source shows the overwhelming impor...

  11. The Link between Unemployment and Returns to Education: Evidence from 14 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernhard A.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…

  12. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to claim... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits...

  13. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any day... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for...

  14. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  15. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  16. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy. Labour market policy has two options available. First, only the medium-term and long-term unemployed MLTU) placed by the PES are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a MLTU. We show that under both regimes equilibrium unemployment is increasing...

  17. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  18. A profile of UK unemployment: regional versus demographic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Sessions, J G

    1997-06-01

    "This paper profiles the incidence of unemployment in the [United Kingdom] over the period 1985-91 using data derived from the British Social Attitudes Survey. The approach of the paper is to quantify the differential probabilities of unemployment faced by particular groups within the population, focusing in particular on the relative effects of demographic and regional influences. Our results indicate that, even after controlling for a plethora of demographic characteristics, regional disparities in unemployment risk are prevalent, with individuals in Northern Ireland, Wales, the North and West Midlands of England facing a higher chance of unemployment ceteris paribus." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293417

  19. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." PMID:12341287

  20. Spanish unemployment persistence and the ladder effect

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Fabrice; Fonseca, Raquel; Munoz, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to examine unemployment persistence in Spain by the soûcalled ''ladder'' effect. This arises when highly-skilled workers who do not find a job matching their skills accept jobs which previously were occupied by less qualified staff. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model, in which two types of workers ù characterised by their level of formal education ù coexist on the labour market. Highly educated workers are then assumed to compete with lowûskilled workers, generatin...

  1. Unemployment and Right-Wing Extremist Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Zweimüller, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Right-wing extremism is a serious problem in many societies. A prominent hypothesis states that unemployment plays a crucial role for the occurrence of right-wing extremist crime. In this paper we empirically test this hypothesis. We use a previously not used data set which includes all officially recorded right-wing criminal acts in Germany. These data are recorded by the German Federal Criminal Police Office on a monthly and state level basis. Our main finding is that there is in fact a sig...

  2. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Viasu

    2014-01-01

    One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the a...

  3. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  4. Does an increase in unemployment income lead to longer unemployment spells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toomet, Ott-Siim

    2005-01-01

    Danish unemployment assistance depends on age; it increases by 70% when unemployedindividuals turn 25. This feature is used to identify the impact of income on theunemployment-to-employment hazard rate. A mixed proportional hazard frameworkbased on a 10% representative Danish registry data set is...

  5. The Work Disincentive Effects of Unemployment Insurance. Studies in Unemployment Insurance and Related Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munts, Raymond; Garfinkel, Irwin

    In estimating the relationship between the reward for working and work efforts, the authors use cross section studies, social experiments, and studies of related transfer programs, such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Old Age Insurance. From the available empirical evidence, they conclude that the Unemployment Insurance system does…

  6. Are searching and non-searching unemployment distinct states when unemployment is high? The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    2000-01-01

    Broadly and narrowly measured unemployment rates differ very markedly in certain countries, and the measure chosen to be the ‘official’ unemployment rate affects perceptions about the extent of the problem. The appropriate measure of the unemployment rate depends on whether jobless persons who say they want work but who are not actively searching should be regarded as part of the labour force. This paper examines whether the non-searching-unemployed state is distinct from the searc...

  7. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051): Extension Without Change AGENCY... ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and.... Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) Activities, is a monthly...

  8. 77 FR 57595 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment... written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training... accordance with the same terms and conditions of the paying state's unemployment insurance law which apply...

  9. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and State Income and Eligibility... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and Eligibility... comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200...

  10. Migration and unemployment in an efficiency wage model of a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney

    2005-01-01

    International migration affects equilibrium unemployment in a small open economy characterised by efficiency wages. Immigration into employment reduces unemployment rates, and immigration into unemployment increases them. The effect of emigration depends on its impact on the aggregate job turnover rate.

  11. 76 FR 19467 - Mueller Steam Specialty Formerly Known As Core Industries Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported Through Watts Regulator, Watts Water... separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Core Industries and Watts Regulator... whose unemployment Insurance (UI) wages are reported through Watts Regulator, Watts Water...

  12. 77 FR 44678 - Lawson Software, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Were Reported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Lawson Software, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... Software, Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages were reported through Lawson... Software, Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages were reported through...

  13. 77 FR 54927 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Benefit Accuracy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance... written comments to Andrew Spisak, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Room S-4524, Employment and Training... UI benefit payments in three programs: State UI, Unemployment Compensation for Federal...

  14. 75 FR 34170 - Circuit Science, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Circuit Science, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... subject firm had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the... workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Circuit, Plymouth, Minnesota,...

  15. 77 FR 59669 - Comment Request for Information Collection; Unemployment Insurance (UI) Title XII Advances and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection; Unemployment Insurance (UI..., Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200... changes. Title: Unemployment Insurance (UI) Title XII Advances and Voluntary Repayment Process. OMB...

  16. 78 FR 68865 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Alaska, Mississippi, and Wisconsin in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation... Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Frances...

  17. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through...

  18. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Hoover Universal, Greenfield, OH; Amended... their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account, under the name Hoover..., Inc., Automotive Experience Division, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages...

  19. 78 FR 59374 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Alaska, Mississippi, and Wisconsin in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation... Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Frances...

  20. Quarterly U.S. unemployment: cycles, seasons and asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents three stylized facts for the quarterly unemployment rate in the United States. Firstly, unemployment is asymmetric over the business cycle, i.e. it rises sharply in recessions and it falls slowly in expansions. Secondly, its seasonal fluctuations are not constant acr

  1. Censored latent effects autoregression, with an application to US unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractA new time series model is proposed to describe observed asymmetries in postwar unemployment data. We assume that recession periods, when unemployment increases rapidly, are caused by unobserved positive shocks. The generating mechanism of these latent shocks is a censored regression mod

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Danacica; Raluca Mazilescu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze characteristics of long-term unemployment spells in Romania and to estimate the effect of factors influencing long-term unemployment spells. The study period is in between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2010. 468159 long-term spells registered in the specified period at the National Agency of Employment are analyzed.

  3. The Experience of Unemployment for University Graduates: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, William A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reported results of exploratory, descriptive study of unemployment experience for 12 university graduates under age 25. Analysis of interview data suggested that experience of unemployment could be divided into initial vacation period and downward trend. Participant reactions were marked by fluctuations of emotion and reduction in self-confidence…

  4. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1...

  5. Incentive Effects of Unemployment Insurance Savings Accounts : Evidence from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartley, G.R.; van Ours, J.C.; Vodopivec, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of job-finding rates of unemployment benefit recipients under the Chilean program. This is a unique, innovative program that combines social insurance through a solidarity fund (SF) with self-insurance in the form of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISAs

  6. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  7. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  8. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Abbring, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was onthe duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exitrate out of u

  9. Business Cycles and Compositional Variation in U.S. Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Abbring (Jaap); G.J. van den Berg (Gerard); J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was on the duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exit

  10. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  11. Golden Parachutes: Changing the Experience of Unemployment for Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anya M.; Jackson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables--financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner--on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After…

  12. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fi

  13. The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, th

  14. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  15. The Minimum Level of Unemployment and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Frank C.

    This study focuses on the role of the federal government in reducing persistent joblessness that prevails at relatively high levels even during periods of high employment or prosperity ("structural unemployment"). While the problem of cyclincal joblessness dominates public policy discussion at the present time, structural unemployment is being…

  16. The Netherlands: social partners' involvement in unemployment benefit regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Knegt

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002 the role of social partners in the Dutch unemployment benefit system has been reduced to an advisory one in the development phase of unemployment benefit (UB) programmes. There is no involvement any more of social partners in the implementation, management and monitoring phases of UB prog

  17. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance on Seasonal Fluctuations in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Terrence C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines state differences in seasonal variations in employment to see if these differences are linked to state differences in experience-rating strength (balance between unemployment insurance taxes and expected benefit payments). Results suggest that experience-rated unemployment insurance taxes are effective in stablizing employment. (MF)

  18. Unemployment Insurance. Maintaining the Foundation of Economic Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 18 essays on unemployment insurance (UI) and employment and training programs. Part 1, "Historical Perspective," contains the following papers: "Reflections on Wisconsin and Unemployment Insurance" (Wilbur J. Cohen); "Outstanding Ideas Form UI's Foundation" (Richard Wagner); "One State's Experience: 1939"…

  19. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance on the Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John M.; Gilley, Otis W.

    1979-01-01

    Differences in the value of unemployment insurance benefits alter the extent of job search activities by current recipients, according to this study, but differences in expected value of future unemployment benefits do not appear to affect the search process of those not currently eligible for payments. (MF)

  20. Reported vs. Actual Job Search by Unemployment Insurance Claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Robert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares self-reported job search contacts of unemployment insurance recipients with independently verified job-search contacts. The separate equations estimated for reported and actual job contacts suggest that systematic misreporting may distort the conclusions. Some implications of the findings for reported unemployment rates also are explored.…

  1. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Edén Lena; Andersson Ingemar H; Axelsson Lars; Ejlertsson Göran

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the r...

  2. On the spike in hazard rates at unemployment benefit expiration: The signalling hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Decreuse, Bruno; Kazbakova, Elvira

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the signalling hypothesis, whereby potential employers use the duration of unemployment as a signal as to the productivity of applicants. We suggest that the quality of sucha signal is very low when the unemployed receive unemployment benefits: individuals have good reasons to remain unemployed. Conversely, the signal becomes much more efficient once benefitshave elapsed: skilled workers should not stay unemployed in such cases. Therefore, the potential duration of unemployment ben...

  3. Analysis of the Evolution of Unemployment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the existing situation of the labour market, from the unemployment standpoint. The present article begins by reviewing the literature and goes on to analyse the evolution of unemployment in Romania. The present study indicates that unemployment is higher among men than among women. This phenomenon has become apparent after the economic crisis, when the fields most affected were production and constructions in which most employees are male. It is predicted that the large number of unemployed individuals will not be diminished, even after the end of the crisis. Even if the economy returns to normal and consumers begin using consumer goods again, this increase will only be able to absorb a small fraction of the unemployed.

  4. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs. (author)

  5. The Relationship of Unemployment and Depression with History of Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Walid, M Sami; Zaytseva, Nadezhda

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic back pain is a known risk factor for unemployment, disability, and depression. This paper discusses the interaction of unemployment, depression, and history of prior spine surgery.

  6. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bonney; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Lawrence Bott; Stephen E J Andersen; Peter Caputi; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI obje...

  7. UNEMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN CROATIA: PERSPECTIVE OF UNEMPLOYED YOUTH AT RISK OR WITH BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivex Koller-Trbović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this paper is to provide insight into perspective of unemployed youth at risk or with potential risks in enviroment, aboutstatus and experiance of being unemployed. Krounauer model of social excluasion was taken as the base for interpretation of riskfactors related to unemployment. Mentioned model is defi ned with six dimesions: exclusion from labour market, economic exclusion,social isolation, institutional exclusion, spatial and cultural exclusion. Five focus groups with 19 unemployed youth (age from 18 to27 years from 4 cities in Croatia and from two types of institutions (croatian employment service and center for social welfare havebeen conducted. Results implicate that unemployment represents important factor for integration and independence of youth, andrelevant risk factor especially for economical exclusion. However, result shows that unemployment does not lead to social isolation asthird key dimesion in social exclusion model. These results are, to some extant, similar to results in other countries in EU, especiallyin south-east European countries (Italy, Spain, Greecee where research results show that unemployment do not neccessarily leads tosocial exclusion due to the strong family and friends support. Results can be used for the creation of public strategies in coping withrisk of (longterm youth unemployment and also with risk of their social exclusion.

  8. Promotion of autonomous employment among unemployed youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga González Morales

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of the enterprising spirit and the support to the entrepreneurship and to self-employed are lines of performance that the European Commission recommends to the members states to help the young men and unemployed adults to look for a professional exit in the field of the autonomous employment. This work analyzes one of the lines of performance as for support to the creation of employment: the evolution of the number of beneficiaries taken refuge in the program of support to the autonomous Spanish employment during the period of 1998-2002, with special reference to the implication of the 25-year-old minor young men in the same one.

  9. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Viasu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the average skill level of domestic employed labor differs from the average skill level of migrant labor, but the two kinds of labor grow at the same constant rate. We prove that the immigration process could have both positive and negative effects on consumption, human capital and physical capital, depending on the skill level of the migrant labor. The numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  10. Self Service Technologies: A Cause of Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otekhile Cathy-Austin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-service technologies (SSTs are fast changing the conventional way of transacting business by business organisations. The rapid innovation of self-service technologies and its adoption and usages in all facets of human systems is acclaimed to be fast rendering low skilled workers jobless. The major sectors of the economy in advanced economies have reached their peaks and can no longer provide new employment due to an increase in the productivity growth rate as a result of technology advances. These SSTs have in no small measure brought about an increase in productivity growth rate, cost reduction and anincrease in the speed of service delivery to customers. This paper examines if self-service technologies truly are the cause of persistent unemployment through a study of the long term metamorphosis of the major economic sectors in advanced economies. This study revealed that the SSTs presents both risks and opportunities.

  11. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  12. Facing Unemployment(1)——Help Themselves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    On January lst, 1995, the Chinese people reluctantly, but inevitably, saw the legal confirmation of a word which had long been abolished: unemployment. Despite the many P.R.C Labor Law regulations established to minimize unemployment and protect laborers, the law realizes that unemployment is once again a fact in China. Since the beginning of China’s economic reform, the monopoly of the state planned economy has been challenged by the entrance of a new market economy in China. China’s economy is experiencing rapid development. However, unemployment is rising as many enterprises try to streamline their labor force. Some enterprises have become bankrupt throughout this period of competition. For the first time in their lives, laborers are faced with unemployment. A statistic of the Ministry of Labor showed that there were 4.803 million unemployed laborers by the third quarter of 1995. Among the unemployed, who represent 2.8 percent of China’s labor force, many are women. Statistics show that the increasing rat

  13. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  14. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: Perspectives from the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Oluwajodu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is experiencing growth in its graduate labour force, but graduateunemployment is rising with the overall unemployment rate. Graduate unemployment isproblematic, because it wastes scarce human capital, which is detrimental to the economy inthe long run.Research purpose: This study explores the perceived causes of graduate unemployment fromthe perspective of the South African banking sector.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted various studies on graduateunemployment in South Africa and across the globe, but few studies have beenconducted on the causes of graduate unemployment. There appear to be some gaps in theliterature; therefore, other problems and solutions to graduate unemployment have to beexploredResearch approach, design and method: The researchers followed a survey design. Questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used as research instruments to identify theperceived causes of graduate unemployment in the banking sector of South Africa. Researchparticipants were unemployed graduates, recently employed graduates and graduaterecruitment managers in the banking sector.Main findings: The study shows that several factors are perceived to be the causes of graduateunemployment in the South African banking sector. These include: skills, institution attendedby graduate and differences in expectations from employers and graduates.Practical/managerial application: The findings have implications for educational institutionsand companies that are encouraged to consider possible solutions to resolving the causes ofgraduate unemployment.Contribution/value-add: This study is one of the first papers to investigate the causes ofgraduate unemployment in the South African banking sector. It provides a rich platform forfurther studies and replication in other sectors, especially within the African context.

  15. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN ROMANIA IN JANUARY – MARCH 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae-Cristian JUSCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment appears to be an imbalance in the national labor market , as determined by the size and duration to a number of issues on the definition, causes, manifestations and possibilities for mitigation . Unemployment is influenced by demographic features , socio-economic and cultural developments that determine its time. Knowing them is important to establish mechanisms for balancing supply and demand on the labor market. This paper aims to make an analysis of the evolution and characteristics of unemployment in Romania in the period January-March 2016 .

  16. The Effect of Receiving Supplementary UI Benefits on Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael

    We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplemen­tary unemployment insurance beneits in the Danish labour market. Following the "timing-of-events" approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time work on the hazard rate out of unemployment insurance beneit receipt. We fin...... evidence of a negative lock-in effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across individ­uals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative for others (e.g. young workers).  ...

  17. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration...

  18. Is Deregulation Necessary? The Effects of Employment Protection on Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Avdagic

    2013-01-01

    Using new data, the paper examines the effect of employment protection legislation (EPL) on aggregate and youth unemployment in advanced OECD economies and in Central and Eastern Europe during 1980–2009. The analysis assesses both the direct and indirect effects of EPL on levels of unemployment, as well as the short-term and long-term effects of changes in EPL on changes in unemployment. The results offer no clear support for the argument that EPL is a cause of either aggregate or youth unemp...

  19. The Canadian Unemployment Insurance Generosity: Reflections from a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Samir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment compensation system is at the centre of the current economic and political debate in many Western countries which, under the effects of the increase in public debt, must decide the level of their unemployment insurance while taking into account its impact on the performance of the labour market. In this article, we compare the generosity of such public policy in France and in Canada, while focusing on the experience of central and eastern Europe. By building a composite index, we show that the French unemployment insurance is more generous only in pecuniary terms, and not in its qualitative dimension.

  20. Perspectives on Unemployment from a General Equilibrium Search Model

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Don; Kam, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Australia has experienced a varied track record on unemployment. For the third quarter of the 20th century unemployment averaged 2.0 per cent. This is bracketed by average unemployment rates of 8.6 and 7.4 per cent in the second and fourth quarter centuries. Explanations of this phenomenon vary. In this paper we explore supply side explanations using a model developed by Ljungqvist and Sargent (LS). We adapt the LS model to the Australian tax and welfare system and calibrate it to the Austral...

  1. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...

  2. Do Relationships Between Environmental Attributes and Recreational Walking Vary According to Area-Level Socioeconomic Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Natasha J. Howard; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Daniel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1...

  3. 76 FR 18260 - Announcement Regarding Pennsylvania Triggering “Off” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public Law 111-92 which... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a...

  4. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  5. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  6. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  7. 76 FR 18259 - Announcement Regarding Delaware Triggering “on” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public Law 111-92 which... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  9. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  10. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  11. The effect of unemployment on household composition and doubling up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Emily E

    2014-12-01

    "Doubling up" (sharing living arrangements) with family and friends is one way in which individuals and families can cope with job loss, but relatively little research has examined the extent to which people use coresidence to weather a spell of unemployment. This project uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to provide evidence on the relationship between household composition and unemployment across working ages, focusing on differences in behavior by educational attainment. Using the SIPP panels, I find that individuals who become unemployed are three times more likely to move in with other people. Moving into shared living arrangements in response to unemployment is not evenly spread across the distribution of educational attainment: it is most prevalent among individuals with less than a high school diploma and those with at least some college. PMID:25421522

  12. Routine health check-ups of unemployed in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterdahl, T

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 all the 273 long-term unemployed in the municipality Lillesand, Norway were invited to participate in a proactive health care program. 229 were included in the program, consisting of a medical examination by a general practitioner, councelling, personal support and referrals. The job-loss aroused lots of negative emotions, mostly defensive feelings and resignations, which are likely to reduce self-esteem and coping ability. The prevalence of somatoform symptoms and anxiety was twice as high as in the normal population, and for depression the prevalence was three times higher. 24% of the unemployed were referred to further examination. Invitation to a health examination may be the ticket of entry for revealing some of the concealed morbidity among long-term unemployed. Health check-ups of unemployed will probably be very cost-effective PMID:10197474

  13. The Measurement of Persistence and Hysteresis in Aggregate Unemployment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ossama Mikhail; Curtis J. Eberwein; Jagdish Handa

    2003-01-01

    There exists no consensus regarding the definition and the measure of persistence. We aim to spark research interests to address the lack of a standard definition. This paper reviews this issue and proposes an informal definition to unemployment persistence.

  14. A social work study to measure the effect of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is believed as one of most important issues in today's economy around the world. The recent economic turmoil in European countries, for instance, has created some troubles such as increase in rate of depression, divorce, etc. In this paper, we present a social study work in one of regions of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire among 80 experts who live in the region and tries to understand whether there is a correlation between unemployment and rubbery, immigration, drug addiction and non-value jobs. The survey uses Pearson correlation to test four hypotheses and the results indicate that although there is no strong correlation between unemployment and rubbery and immigration but there is a strong evidence to believe that unemployment can increase drug addiction and non-value added jobs.

  15. Youth Unemployment: Can Voc Ed Do Anything about It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dean

    1977-01-01

    Emphasizing five variables of particular importance to vocational education, the article describes the youth unemployment problem, what is currently being done to combat it, what vocational education can do to help, and what the government can do to help. (BM)

  16. [Informal employment, unemployment and underemployment: a matter of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, Juan C; Riaño-Casallas, Martha I; Benavides-Piracón, John A

    2012-06-01

    Unemployment and underemployment are problems that have been studied from the economy and politics points of view. Although public health has taken an approach to this problem, it has been mainly disciplinary, since it has focused on the health effects of the unemployed and underemployed but it has failed to propose alternatives from the public policy to solve this problem. The purpose of this essay is to examine the unemployment as an economic, social and health problem of the population. According to records of diagnosis, we review this situation (which requires different strategies at various levels) including different groups involved and their organizations, the State, companies, trade unions and employers unions, not just people unemployed and underemployed. PMID:23258753

  17. Changes in physical health among participants in a multidisciplinary health programme for long-term unemployed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuring Merel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between poor health and unemployment is well established. Health promotion among unemployed persons may improve their health. The aims of this study were to investigate characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs in a multidisciplinary health promotion programme for long-term unemployed persons with health complaints, to evaluate changes in physical health among participants, and to investigate determinants of improvement in physical health. Methods A longitudinal, non-controlled design was used. The programme consisted of two weekly exercise sessions and one weekly cognitive session during 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were body mass index, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and low back and hamstring flexibility. Potential determinants of change in physical health were demographic variables, psychological variables (self-esteem, mastery, and kinesiophobia, and self-perceived health. Results The initial response was 73% and 252 persons had complete data collection at baseline. In total, 36 subjects were lost during follow-up. Participants were predominantly low educated, long-term unemployed, and in poor health. Participation in the programme was not influenced by demographic and psychological factors or by self-reported health. Drop-outs were younger and had a lower body mass index at baseline than subjects who completed the programme. At post-test, participants' cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and flexibility had increased by 6.8%–51.0%, whereas diastolic and systolic blood pressures had decreased by 2.2%–2.5%. The effect sizes ranges from 0.17–0.68. Conclusion Participants with the poorest physical health benefited most from the programme and gender differences in improvement were observed. Physical health of unemployed persons with health complaints improved after participation in this health promotion programme, but not

  18. Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee-Ryan, Frances; Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie R; Kinicki, Angelo J

    2005-01-01

    The authors used theoretical models to organize the diverse unemployment literature, and meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the impact of unemployment on worker well-being across 104 empirical studies with 437 effect sizes. Unemployed individuals had lower psychological and physical well-being than did their employed counterparts. Unemployment duration and sample type (school leaver vs. mature unemployed) moderated the relationship between mental health and unemployment, but the current unemployment rate and the amount of unemployment benefits did not. Within unemployed samples, work-role centrality, coping resources (personal, social, financial, and time structure), cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies displayed stronger relationships with mental health than did human capital or demographic variables. The authors identify gaps in the literature and propose directions for future unemployment research. PMID:15641890

  19. Determinants of Unemployment In Pakistan: A Statistical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Mahmood; Amjid Ali; Noureen Akhtar; Muhammad Iqbal; Sadia Qamar; Hafiz Zafar Nazir; Nasir Abbas; Iram Sana

    2014-01-01

    The current study has been designed to investigate the relationship between unemployment and the different factors having impact on unemployment directly or indirectly. The basic purpose of the study is to check that either their effects are significant or insignificant. At first, normality, independence, homoscedasticity and autocorrelation are checked. Stepwise regression with forward selection technique is utilized for the model selection. Model selection criteria used is to select a best ...

  20. Book review: Unemployment in Africa: A psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Joannides

    2005-01-01

    Authors: Webster Gonzo and Ilse Elisabeth Plattner Publishers: University of Namibia Press Year: 2003 Reviewed For: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology Unemployment in an African country is a concisely written and well-structured book, which investigates the psychological impact of unemployment on Namibia’s ‘street unemployed’. This term refers to the large population of men who wait alongside the roads and at traffic intersections, in the hope of being offered caus...

  1. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze characteristics of long-term unemployment spells in Romania and to estimate the effect of factors influencing long-term unemployment spells. The study period is in between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2010. 468159 long-term spells registered in the specified period at the National Agency of Employment are analyzed.

  3. Fixed-term contracts and unemployment: an efficiency wage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guell, Maia

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980s, many European countries introduced fixed-term contracts to fight high and persistent levels of unemployment. Although these contracts have been widely used, unemployment has remained about the same after fifteen years. This paper builds a theoretical model to reconcile these facts. We analyse the labour market effect of the introduction of fixed-term contracts and the firm''s choice of contracts are studied. Permanent contracts are the standard way to offer incentives, but f...

  4. Unemployment insurance savings accounts in Latin America: Overview and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Ana M.; Riddell, W. Craig

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment protection systems that exist in most Latin American economies are generally considered inadequate in terms of providing insurance to workers. They may also encourage stratified labor markets and impose barriers to the employee’s mobility and the firm's adjustment to changing labor market conditions. In addition, some of these systems involve high administrative and monitoring costs and may create additional adverse effects that induce higher unemployment rates and longer dur...

  5. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR COMPILING THE ILO UNEMPLOYMENT WITH MONTHLY PERIODICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PISICĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for deriving the monthly unemployment statistics directly from the quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS results by econometric modeling meets the requirements of insuring the information on short-term needed for employment policies, aiming to achieve the objectives of Europe 2020. Estimated monthly data series according to the methodology allow assessment of short-term trends in unemployment measured according to the criteria of the International Labour Organisation (ILO in terms of comparability with European statistics.

  6. Crime, deterrence and unemployment in Greece: a panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saridakis, George; Spengler, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically examines the relationship between crime, deterrence and unemployment in Greece. A regional dataset over the period 1991-1998 was collected and analyzed. Our econometric methodology follows the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator applied to dynamic models of panel data. The results show that property crimes are significantly deterred by higher clear-up rates. Also for property crime rates, the results indicate that unemployment increases crime. For violent crim...

  7. Agro-manufactured Export Prices, Wages and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2008-01-01

    This article estimates the impacts of world agricultural trade liberalization on wages and unemployment in Argentina in the presence of individual labor supply responses and adjustment costs in labor demand. After a 10% increase in agro-manufactured export prices, I find that: (a) the employment probability would increase by 1.36 percentage points, matched by a decline in the unemployment probability of 0.75 percentage points and an increase in labor market participation of 0.61 percentage po...

  8. Structural change and regional disparities in (un)employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewig, Oliver; Blien, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in economics is the explanation of unemployment. Doing so "modern mainstream macroeconomics" frequently refers to institutional structures in the individual countries (e.g. Layard, Nickell & Jackman 1991, 2006; Carlin & Soskice 2006). However, unemployment within states varies as much as between these countries. In Germany, for example, there are regions in which even during the crisis virtual full employment prevails (e.g. Munich Area) and others which face a deep labou...

  9. Unemployment, labor market transitions, and residual wage dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzenberger, Bernd; Garloff, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: It is commonplace in the debate on Germany's labor market problems to argue that high unemployment and low wage dispersion are related. This paper analyses the relationship between unemployment and residual wage dispersion for individuals with comparable attributes. In the conventional neoclassical point of view, wages are determined by the marginal product of the workers. Accordingly, increases in union minimum wages result in a decline of residual wage dispersion and higher unempl...

  10. The OECD’s thinking on the governing of unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Based on Foucault's notion of governmentality and problematisation, I analyse the problematisations, causal assumptions and policy recommendations found in the documents of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning labour market issues. The article shows that......, since the mid-1970s, the OECD's strategies on employment have consistently evolved around the problematisation of 'structural unemployment'. Demand management and other ways of tackling unemployment have been dismissed in favour of interventions seeking to stimulate the self-governing capacities...

  11. UNEMPLOYMENT AND HYSTERESIS: A NONLINEAR UNOBSERVED COMPONENTS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Pérez Alon; Silvestro Di Sanzo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find a possible hysteresis effect on unemployment rate series from Italy, France and the United States. We propose a definition of hysteresis taken from Physics which allows for nonlinearities. To test for the presence of hysteresis we use a nonlinear unobserved components model for unemployment series. The estimation methodology used can be assimilated into a threshold autoregressive representation in the framework of a Kalman filter. To derive an appropriate p-va...

  12. Hiring Practices, Duration Dependence, and Long-Term Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pilossoph; Gregor Jarosch

    2014-01-01

    We develop an equilibrium search model of the labor market in which firms cannot observe worker quality prior to interviewing. Upon meeting an applicant, firms can interview workers at a cost to learn their type. Less productive workers are more likely to be turned away after an interview so that, on average, they are also unemployed for longer. In equilibrium, firms use the information contained in unemployment duration to screen workers before deciding whether or not to interview them. Thus...

  13. On Migration and Unemployment: Evidence from Italian Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the unemployment rate on the decision to migrate among recent Italian graduates. A fixed-effects approach is used to avoid potential omitted variable problems. This method allows us to account for unobservable location-specific characteristics that are likely to be correlated with the unemployment rate and the probability that an individual migrates. The empirical results highlight the importance of controlling for location-specific effects and show that lowe...

  14. Unemployment, Underemployment, and Employment Opportunities: Results from a Correspondence Audit

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Nunley; Adam Pugh; Nicholas Romero; Richard Alan Seals, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We use data from a résumé audit to estimate the impact of unemployment and underemployment on the employment prospects facing recent college graduates. We find no statistical evidence of negative duration dependence associated with unemployment spells for recent college graduates. Alternatively, college graduates who are underemployed have callback rates that are 30 percent lower than that for applicants who are adequately employed. The adverse effects of underemployment are robust across cit...

  15. Should the Specificity of Human Capital Affect Unemployment Insurance Generosity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdan, Ophélie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the argument whereby the more specific the human capital of the workforce is, the less such individuals can expect to receive in benefits if and when they experience unemployment. We present a theoretical model for understanding how the composition of human capital determines the level of unemployment benefits. This model shows that, depending on the scenario chosen for the management of the insurance fund, the proportion of individuals with specific human capital can le...

  16. Monitoring and Optimal Income Taxation with Involuntary Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Boadway, Robin; Cuff, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the role of monitoring as an instrument to improve the redistributive and insurance properties of an optimal tax-transfer system. Workers of different skills can choose to participate in job search or to become voluntarily unemployed. Labour markets exist for jobs of each skill level, and workers can search for a job of their own skill or mimic workers of lesser skill. The government implements a nonlinear income tax and makes transfers to the unemployed. The government ran...

  17. Unemployment Accounts and Employment Incentives over the Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lontzek, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The major goal in this thesis is to explore the potential impact of an unemployment account system on individuals' employment incentives. This thesis consists of three parts. In the first part (Chapter 2) we identify the extent of the intrapersonal income redistribution, which is inherent in the German tax-benefit system. Disentangling the income redistribution in this way shows that the extent of intrapersonal income redistribution in Germany is indeed very high. In particular, unemployment ...

  18. Factors affecting the motivation of unemployed for education

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2003-01-01

    The present study tested how well Ajzen in Fishbein's (1980) Theory of reasoned action (TRA) predicted educational intentions and aspiration of the unemployed, who were enrolled in governmental funded educational programs. Study also explores the role of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) as the third independent determinant of intention within the theory of reasoned action and its impact on motivation for further education. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 326 unemployed person...

  19. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Olivier; Avinash Govindjee

    2015-01-01

    The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act), introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015). Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days), the increas...

  20. Homeownership and Unemployment: The Roles of Leverage and Public Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Flatau; Matt Forbes; Patric H. Hendershott

    2003-01-01

    Oswald hypothesizes that regions and countries with high homeownership rates will experience higher natural rates of unemployment and that rising homeownership in OECD countries since the 1960s provides a key explanation for the rise in the natural rate of unemployment over the same time period. Recent tests of the Oswald thesis have found the opposite. This study differs from earlier ones both by considering different states of ownership (degrees of leverage) and types of tenancy (private, p...

  1. Labour Market Institutions and Unemployment: Does Finance Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Rault; Anne-Gaël Vaubourg

    2012-01-01

    We explore whether finance influences the impact of labour market institutions on unemployment. Using a data set of 18 OECD countries over 1980–2004, we estimate a panel Vector AutoRegressive model. We check whether causalities from labour market variables to unemployment are affected by financial factors. In Belgium, Italy, Australia, Japan and Spain, accounting for financial indicators mitigates the benefits of labour market flexibility or makes it harmful to employment. In Austria, Canada,...

  2. The Challenge of South Africa to Reduce Its High Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Mellet

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment rate in South Africa has been in excess of 20% for many years. Various questions can be asked about policies and probable solutions to reduce unemployment. What is wrong with South African macroeconomic policies or is it rather what is wrong with economic and political coordination of policies? What is the probability of millions of South African inhabitants to rise out of poverty? Certain policies for example ASGISA have good foundations, but the main problem in South Africa...

  3. Youth unemployment, firm size and reservation wages in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Neil A.; Roberts, Gareth A.

    2010-01-01

    Youth unemployment in South Africa is high. We investigate whether one of the reasons may be that the wages young people want or need are above those that they could reasonably expect to earn given their characteristics. Unlike previous work on the relationship between reservation wages and unemployment we differentiate between wages in different sizes of firms. Larger firms pay more and thus, even if reservation wages are similar to average predicted wages they may be above wages that young ...

  4. Graduate unemployment in South Africa: A much exaggerated problem

    OpenAIRE

    Servaas van der Berg; Hendrik van Broekhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Increasing reference in the media and public discussions to high and rising levels of graduate unemployment in the South African labour market has raised concern about the functionality of South Africa’s higher education system and the employability of the graduates that it produces. While such references are generally premised on the findings of a handful of published research studies that have made reference to rising graduate unemployment, the results of those studies are subject to a numb...

  5. The labour market and the problem of unemployment in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pengryn, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis studies the situation of the Russian labor market; in particular, it examines the problems of the unemployment in the country. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the society had to accept new behavioral rules of the market economy. Those changes had a great influence on the labor market specifics. In order to assist to the unemployed people, government of the country created Federal Employment Agencies and started to develop employment policies. Furthermore, the...

  6. The Causal Impact of Fear of Unemployment on Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, Arndt; Tauchmann, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of job insecurity on psychological health. We extend the group of people being affected to employees who have insecure jobs to account for a broader measure of the mental health consequences of potential unemployment. Using panel data with staff reductions in the company as an exogenous source of job insecurity, we find that an increase in fear of unemployment substantially decreases the mental health status of employees. Quantile regression results yield particularly st...

  7. The Determinants of Unemployment Duration by Gender in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Virve Ollikainen

    2003-01-01

    This paper models unemployment durations for men and women in Finland using a nationally representative data set from 1997. We begin with a baseline model where durations are modelled using a single risk discrete time hazard model. These estimations are extended to a piecewise constant hazard model and to a competing risks model. The results indicate that young children as well as foreign citizenship have a prolonging effect on female unemployment periods. Education appears as a highly positi...

  8. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  9. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Methods: Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. Results: A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11–20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. Conclusions: The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual′s characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  10. Are there Regional Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Nattavudh Powdthavee

    2003-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non- pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, we show that individuals’ reported well-being levels are inversely related to unemployment for South African adults as to be expected in richer countries. Reported well-being levels are shown to be associated...

  11. Anspruchslohn und Arbeitslosigkeit in Deutschland (Reservation wage and unemployment in Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Björn

    2003-01-01

    For the integration of unemployed persons into the first labour market, the reservation wage of the unemployed plays an important role. It is the wage level from which the unemployed person is prepared to accept a job offer. The paper examines the level and the determinants of reservation wages ascertained in the socio-economic panel (GSOEP 2000). Reservation wages in Germany are on average above wages before unemployment and very high in international comparison. It seems that unemployed tak...

  12. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  13. Unemployment as a Psycho-Social Stressor during Economic Recession. Well-being in employed vs. unemployed workers in Iceland.

    OpenAIRE

    Klargaard, Sólja Katrina, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    The level of deprivation of latent and manifest functions of employment (Jahoda, 1981) during economic recession and high local unemployment was explored with resulting health-related outcomes. Strain and stress factors in employed vs. unemployed workers were compared, with age as a constant (35-45 years). Results indicated no significant group-differences on latent deprivation, quality of sleep, circadian rhythm, napping or depression; on the other hand, manifest or financial deprivation and...

  14. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Vleugels; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Yannick Griep; Hans De Witte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment), attitudes (employment commitment), and behaviour (job search intensity). Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people’s experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypo...

  15. Do Alternative Base Periods Increase Unemployment Insurance Receipt among Low-Educated Unemployed Workers? National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #12-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould-Werth, Alix; Shaefer, H. Luke

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment Insurance (UI) is the major social insurance program that protects against lost earnings resulting from involuntary unemployment. Existing literature finds that low-earning unemployed workers experience difficulty accessing UI benefits. The most prominent policy reform designed to increase rates of monetary eligibility, and thus UI…

  16. Shortening the Potential Duration of Unemployment Benefits does not affect the Quality of Post-Unemployed Jobs : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Vodopivec, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates how the potential duration of unemployment benefits affects the quality of post-unemployment jobs.It takes advantage of a natural experiment introduced by a change in Slovenia's unemployment insurance law that substantially reduced the potential benefit duration.Although this

  17. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  18. Predicting fuel poverty at a small-area level in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a series of models for predicting the incidence of fuel poverty in England at a small-area level and examines the adequacy of the modelled results in informing our understanding of the geography of fuel poverty. This paper summarises the development of alternative approaches to model specification based upon different approaches to the treatment of household income. Since 2003 small-area fuel poverty estimates have been widely used to inform affordable warmth policies and local targeting of fuel poverty programs. Whilst improvements in data sources and methods in recent years provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial distribution of fuel poverty, these analyses suggest that our understanding of the incidence and spatial distribution of fuel poverty is highly sensitive to the way in which household incomes are measured. - Highlights: → The proposed models estimate fuel poverty incidence at a small-area level. → This is necessary in order to accurately target local fuel poverty interventions. → Fuel poverty estimates are highly sensitive to differences in income measurement. → Fewer children and more pensioners are fuel poor using EHCS income measures. → More children and fewer pensioners are fuel poor using HBAI income measures.

  19. Migration in the Face of Unemployment and Unemployment Risk: a Case Study of Temporal and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stefanie A. Kley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs an elaborated model of migration decision-making and behaviour to analyse the influence of individually experienced unemployment and unemployment risk. Following a contrast group design, respondents from two cities in Germany with different levels of economic prosperity are compared using event history data from a tailor-made panel study. According to a micro-economic approach to migration it is expected that respondents living in an economically deprived city are more likely to decide in favour of migration and actually move compared to those living in a prosperous city because they often perceive opportunities as better elsewhere than at their current place of residence. Moreover, perceiving a risk of becoming unemployed in the near future might trigger migration decision-making more in a deprived city because difficulties to find a new job at the place of residence are anticipated. On the other hand, the new household economics approach and the theory of social networks stress the importance of the meso level. Individuals seldom decide in favour or against migration solely; the family rather makes joint decisions. Former research revealed that for unemployed people social networks are a major source for social support and are therefore especially important. There is evidence that in deprived regions social networks deter individuals stronger from moving than in others. These theoretical considerations and findings lead to the expectation that once people are unemployed they seldom leave deprived regions, what is at odds with the expectations from micro-economic theory. The analyses reveal that the perceived risk of becoming unemployed indeed triggers migration decision-making, but exclusively in the deprived city, whereas people who are already unemployed do not consider or plan leaving the city more often than employed people. Nevertheless, having a partner, children and family at the place of residence might outweigh

  20. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010. PMID:27073716

  1. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010.

  2. 中国失业问题的简便测量%A Shortcut to Measure Unemployment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊祖辕; 喻东

    2004-01-01

    There are different data about Chinese unemployment rate and unemployment quantity in China at present. So it leads to the difficulty for reducing unemployment rate. This paper adopts feasible method and consults available statistical materials to calculate Chinese unemployment rate and unemployment quantity.

  3. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehn, Taran [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.B. 8131 Dep, 0033 Oslo (Norway); Gomez-Plana, Antonio G. [Public University of Navarre, Department of Economics, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Kverndokk, Snorre [Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2009-07-15

    This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs. (author)

  4. The Normative Impact of Unemployment Insurance : A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Tabin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate on classification instruments for social security regimes opened by Esping-Andersen (1990 usually neglects the examination of the normative impact of the welfare state. This article focus on this latter through an analysis of systems of protection against unemployment in 11 of the European countries included in the database known as the Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC.We show in this article that unemployment insurance only recognize legal, authorized and declared salaried employees who have resided in the country for a set period of time, which confirms the close link between social policy and nationality, with some foreign workers being excluded from the circle of beneficiaries because of these norms. Unemployment insurance also always considers jobs as rare social goods - workers are expected to hold on to them, but they are declined differently along a person’s life course. The dominance of the male employment norm and the complete lack of consideration given to domestic labour by unemployment insurance contribute to structuring gendered roles as separate and hierarchically organized. Disparities between countries, whether related to contextual differences or to the history of the local welfare state, do not weaken these arguments since they are not founded upon fundamentally different conceptions of unemployment.

  5. Unemployment among Mexican immigrant men in the United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high unemployment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men - both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor.

  6. Profiling - Predicting Long-Term Unemployment at the Individual Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Soukup

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Labour market policy encourages both the preventive and proactive approaches in order to avoid negative impacts. Unfortunately, a large number of evaluation studies show that active intervention is helpful only if it is targeted according to the prevailing situation and needs of claimants. The first step in the targeting process is to determine in advance which claimant has a significant probability of becoming long-term unemployed and just how high the risk is.
    This paper deals with the predicting of long-term unemployment at the individual level. In contrast with research carried out elsewhere, the paper stresses the theory behind the statistical model. As far as the Czech Republic is concerned it has been shown that a model computed using only data from the official unemployment register is correct in 78% of cases, i.e. 20 percentage points more than the result obtained by means of the constant or risk group approaches.

  7. Youth, work, unemployment and identity: An social psychological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena del Carmen Gallardo Góngora

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis aims to study some of the aspects of the work of young unemployed Chileans. This was done through the analysis of their “centrality” by taking into account the influence of values and concepts they have about work, in the process of their identity construction. The research was divided into two different sections. The first one is the theoretical framework, which consists of studies and analysis from a  social  psychological perspective in relation to the phenomena that come up from the main purpose of the study. For example, youth as a psychosocial phenomenon; work as meaning, centrality and psychosocial functions; Identity under a psychosocial approach as well as psychosocial effects due to the unemployment they suffer. The second section of the research is the qualitative analysis, which considers work factors regarding to young unemployed Chileans as well as the influence of such factors in the process of their identity construction.

  8. Instability of capitalism inflation, unemployment, and business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Mouhammed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the instability of capitalism defined as a condition under which capitalism creates inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. Great economists such as Marx, Veblen, and Schumpeter have examined this problem, concluding that capitalist instability will transform capitalism. A model is developed in this paper to investigate instability, and the finding is that the basic causebehind instability is the conflict on income share: wages and profits. The fluctuations in the share of profits create inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. This generalization has been verified by using data from the American economy for the 1970s, 1980s, and the 1990s. Over this period, the paper concludes, whenthe profit share is high, moderate inflation and employment were generated, and when profit share is low, inflation, unemployment, and business cycles have appeared.

  9. Book review: Unemployment in Africa: A psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Joannides

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Unemployment In an African country: a psychological perspective By: Webster Gonzo and Ilse Elisabeth Plattner Publishers: University of Namibia Press, 2003 Unemployment in an African country is a concisely written and well-structured book, which investigates the psychological impact of unemployment on Namibia’s ‘street unemployed’. This term refers to the large population of men who wait alongside the roads and at traffic intersections, in the hope of being offered causal employment. Essentially the books seeks to understand and evaluate the psychological experience of these men, in relation to several theoretical perspectives and with regards to the investigative research that was carried out by the authors.

  10. Job Loss and Unemployment Research from 1994 to 1998: A Review and Recommendations for Research and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Kathy A.

    1999-01-01

    This review of research on unemployment examines the prevalence of job loss, meaning of unemployment, individual outcomes, coping, effects on families, reemployment issues, and interventions. The article suggests additional research needed to understand the unemployment experience. Lists 91 references. (SK)

  11. Structural change and regional disparities in (un)employment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Ludewig; Uwe Blien

    2011-01-01

    One of the key issues in economics is the explanation of unemployment. Doing so “modern mainstream macroeconomics” frequently refers to institutional structures in the individual countries (e.g. Layard, Nickell & Jackman 1991, 2006; Carlin & Soskice 2006). However, unemployment within states varies as much as between these countries. In Germany, for example, there are regions in which even during the crisis virtual full employment prevails (e.g. Munich Area) and others which face a de...

  12. Not Working At Work: Loafing, Unemployment and Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Michael C.; Genadek, Katie R.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) 2003-12, we estimate time spent by workers in non-work while on the job. Non-work time is substantial and varies positively with the local unemployment rate. While the average time spent by workers in non-work conditional on any positive non-work rises with the unemployment rate, the fraction of workers who report time in non-work varies pro-cyclically, declining in recessions. These results are consistent with a model in which heterogeneous workers a...

  13. How do institutions affect structural unemployment in times of crises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furceri Davide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of economic crises on structural unemployment using an Autoregressive Distributed Lags model and accounting for the role of institutional settings on an unbalanced panel of 30 OECD economies from 1960 to 2006. We found that downturns have, on average, a significant positive impact on the level of structural unemployment rate. The maximum impact varies with the severity of the downturn. Institutions (such as employment protection legislation, average replacement ratio and product market regulation influence both the extent of the initial shock and the adjustment pattern in the aftermath of an economic downturn.

  14. The Analysis of Unemployment Degree using Econometrics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bugudui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the shown material I will analyze the evolution of the unemployment rate registered in the time period during January 1. 2001 and March 30. 2007 by using the Box Jenkins model. The model is based on the ARIMA processes and with its help a large number of time series met in economy can be pattern. The steps that have to be follow are shown to transform a time series and then they have to be covered, in the single case shown by the registered unemployment rate and ending with a prognoses for a future period.

  15. The Patterns of Unemployment and the Geography of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    During the last few decades in the academic field, the debate has increased on the effects of social geography on the opportunities of socioeconomic integration. On one hand, it has been discussed how the contents of the urban structure and social geography affect not only the way people interact...... system, labor markets, education and training, the research has shown the role played by place of residence in shaping individual outcomes such as unemployment. In the context of this debate the importance of territory of residence with respect to the problem of unemployment has been highlighted...

  16. Particularities of youth unemployment and the labour market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela RÎMBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.

  17. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. PMID:25201049

  18. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Labor signed the annual certifications under the Federal...

  19. 75 FR 28070 - Comment Request for Information Collection: “Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Request for Information Collection: ``Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation... Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and.... ADDRESSEE: Submit written comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of...

  20. 78 FR 51211 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Frances Perkins Bldg. Room S- 4524... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Louisiana, Maine, New Jersey, West Virginia and the Virgin Islands in...

  1. 75 FR 22630 - Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Biomedical Dynamics Corporation... unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Biomedical Dynamics Corporation, including on-site leased... Employment and Training Administration Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc., Including Workers Whose...

  2. 75 FR 20387 - Contech Castings, LLC, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Contech Castings, LLC, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... subject firm had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under...

  3. 78 FR 19735 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding a change in eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) claimants..., Employment and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW... Employment and Training Administration. Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for...

  4. 76 FR 27366 - Blue Heron Paper Company, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Barrett Business Services... Employment and Training Administration Blue Heron Paper Company, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Barrett Business Services, Inc., Oregon City, OR;...

  5. 78 FR 38074 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding a change in eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) claimants... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio,...

  6. A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrell Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, associations between geographic remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage, and colorectal cancer (CRC survival show that survival rates are lowest among residents of geographically remote regions and those living in disadvantaged areas. At present we know very little about the reasons for these inequalities, hence our capacity to intervene to reduce the inequalities is limited. Methods/Design This study, the first of its type in Australia, examines the association between CRC survival and key area- and individual-level factors. Specifically, we will use a multilevel framework to investigate the possible determinants of area- and individual-level inequalities in CRC survival and quantify the relative contribution of geographic remoteness, socioeconomic and demographic factors, disease stage, and access to diagnostic and treatment services, to these inequalities. The multilevel analysis will be based on survival data relating to people diagnosed with CRC in Queensland between 1996 and 2005 (n = 22,723 from the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR, area-level data from other data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and individual-level data from the QCR (including extracting stage from pathology records and Queensland Hospitals. For a subset of this period (2003 and 2004 we will utilise more detailed, individual-level data (n = 1,966 covering a greater range of risk factors from a concurrent research study. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residence to treatment centres. The analyses will be conducted using a multilevel Cox proportional hazards model with Level 1 comprising individual-level factors (e.g. occupation and level 2 area-level indicators of remoteness and area socioeconomic disadvantage. Discussion This study focuses on the health inequalities for rural and disadvantaged populations that have often been documented but poorly

  7. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2013-10-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent-child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood.

  8. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN INDUSTRIAL SECTOR OF AZARBAYJAN-E-SHARGI

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasan Kheiravar; Mohammad Hasan Qazvini

    2012-01-01

    Employment is one of the core requirements of society, and unemployment is the origin of many economic, social, and cultural anomalies. Therefore, the necessity of investigating the current status of unemployment in Azarbayjan-e-Shargi province as well as the heavy responsibility of the central government and local officials to generate employment and alleviate unemployment, come into prominence. Accordingly, entrepreneurship as a key tool for creating jobs and reducing unemployment rate take...

  9. Unemployment compensation in Germany: provisions and institutional changes since the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Wörz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Social protection in case of unemployment has always been a particularly contentious issue. This paper focuses on institutional changes in the unemployment compensation system in Germany since the 1980s. It starts with a description of key features and the structure of the unemployment insurance system. The paper goes on to show how insurance coverage, benefit generosity (in terms of amount and duration of benefits), and eligibility requirements for drawing on unemployment benefits have evolv...

  10. Unemployment in reforming countries: Causes, fiscal impacts and the success of transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Treier, Volker

    1999-01-01

    The paper addresses and summarizes the role of unemployment in the transformation process from an economic system with a dominant state sector to a system with a dominant private sector. After reviewing the basic facts and some of the main explanations why unemployment is high during transition in countries of Central and Eastern Europe the role of unemployment and the fiscal problems due to unemployment is discussed within a model of economies of transition. The model highlights the ambivale...

  11. What is the relationship between unemployment and rape? Evidence from a panel of European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the relationship between unemployment and rape in a panel of European regions. Results show that rape and unemployment are positively associated. Results are robust using alternative dependent variables, namely (i) the count of rape; (ii) the rape rate per 100,000 people. When applying gender-specific measures, only female unemployment appears to explain the positive association. Yet, the main findings are confirmed when using youth unemployment. Interestingly,...

  12. Time-Varying Equilibrium Rates of Unemployment: An Analysis with Australian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dixon; John Freebairn; G. C. Lim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore a new approach to understanding the evolution of the unemployment rate in Australia. Specifically, we use gross worker flows data to explore the consequences of assuming that there is no unique equilibrium rate of unemployment but rather a continuum of stochastic equilibrium rates which reflect the movement of the entry and exit rates over time. It is shown that the stochastic equilibrium unemployment rate and the observed unemployment rate are very closely related an...

  13. Graduate Unemployment in the Face of Skills Shortages: A Labour Market Paradox.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalie Pauw; Morné Oosthuizen; Carlene van der Westhuizen

    2006-01-01

    There is consensus among analysts that South Africa’s unemployment is structural in the sense that the unemployed generally possess lower skills than what is required in the marketplace. In the context of increasing demand for skilled workers due to technical progress and the need to become more competitive globally, graduate unemployment would be expected to fall. This paper investigates the nature of graduate unemployment in South Africa since 1995, finding that labour force and employment ...

  14. Sticking to the Facts: Official and Unofficial Stories about Poverty and Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Meth

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The major cause of poverty is unemployment. This paper looks at aspects of the way government responds to claims that are made, chiefly by academics, about poverty and unemployment. Official statistics on poverty and unemployment enjoy little favour among senior politicians and civil servants. ‘Unofficial’ poverty and unemployment statistics, by contrast, are seized upon with enthusiasm if they contradict the gloomy picture created by numbers that suggest (with monotonous regularity...

  15. The Relationship between Net Migration and Unemployment: The Role of Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baumann; Justin Svec; Francis Sanzari

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of unemployment on migration. In a theoretical model, we show that unemployment, per se, does not affect migration. Rather, migration only occurs when unemployment shocks force residents to update their expectations of the area’s unemployment rate. Once these expectations change, migration reallocates labor to bring the economy back to equilibrium. Testing this theory, we devise an empirical strategy using state-level data in the US from 2000 to 2010. We estimat...

  16. Reform of Unemployment Compensation in Germany : A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis Using Register Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sokbae; Wilke, Ralf A.

    2005-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that an extension of the maximum length of entitlement for unemployment benefits increases the duration of unemployment. Empirical results for the reform of the unemployment compensation system in Germany during the 1980s are less clear. The analysis in this paper is motivated by the controversial empirical findings and by recent developments in econometrics for partial identification. We use extensive administrative data with the drawback that registered unemployment...

  17. INCIDENCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION IN THE OLTENIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author analyzes how identified factors influence the incidence and duration of unemployment spells in the Oltenia Region. The statistical data were obtained from the National Agency for Employment and the analyzed period is 1st January 2008-31st December 2010.

  18. INCIDENCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT DURATION IN THE OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes how identified factors influence the incidence and duration of unemployment spells in the Oltenia Region. The statistical data were obtained from the National Agency for Employment and the analyzed period is 1st January 2008-31st December 2010.

  19. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  20. Youth unemployment rate and impact of financial crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhry, Misbah Tanveer; Marelli, Enrico; Signorelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of financial crises on the youth unemployment rate (YUR). The authors consider different types of financial crises (systemic banking crises, non-systemic banking crises, currency crises and debt crises) and different groups of countries, ac

  1. The Unemployment Numbers Is the Message. Occasional Paper No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Sar A.

    United States economic courses of action--and inaction--are increasingly being based on the employment and unemployment figures put out monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Yet, the basic statistical concepts that are still used were fashioned during the Great Depression and do not take into account the very different conditions we…

  2. Do flexible labor markets indeed reduce unemployment? A robustness check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickell et al. (2005) have frequently been cited as empirical evidence that labor market rigidities cause high unemployment. We find that their model is not robust. Leaving their database unchanged and changing three details in their estimation procedure, it turns out that several policy-relevant co

  3. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  4. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  5. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  6. Unemployment and Underemployment: A Narrative Analysis about Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…

  7. Unemployment and Labor Market Institutions : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The development of the unemployment rate di¤ers substantially between OECD countries.In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions.In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which

  8. Predictors of job search behavior among employed and unemployed people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk); R.W.B. Blonk (Roland)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated job search behavior and its predictors among employed and unemployed people. Ajzen’s (1985) theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to predict job search intention and behavior in both groups. In addition, we examined the indirect effects of several other variab

  9. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. 625.8 Section 625.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Secretary. (d) IBPP. The “Interstate Benefit Payment Plan” shall apply, where appropriate, to an...

  10. Lifetime Labor Supply in a Search Model of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); D.P. Broer (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the age-dependency of participation and unemployment by integrating job search with intertemporal optimizing behavior of finitely-lived households. We find that search frictions and tax rates distort the decisions of older workers to a much larger extent than that

  11. Lifetime labor supply in a search model of unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); D.P. Broer (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the age-dependency of participation and unemployment by integrating job search with intertemporal optimizing behavior of finitely-lived households. We find that search frictions and tax rates distort the decisions of older workers to a much larger extent than that

  12. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative...

  13. Personal Initiative at Work and When Facing Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Annika; Andersson, Kin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Learning at work generalises through socialisation into behaviours away from the workplace. The aim of this study is to give empirical evidence of a positive relationship between job design, self-efficacy, competence efficacy and personal initiative at work, and proactive job search while under notice of redundancy and in unemployment.…

  14. Assessment on the Unemployment Policies under the Coalition Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解瑶

    2014-01-01

    This paper tentatively discusses the unemployment policies under the Coalition government through the comparison with its predecessors. It is found that its workfare and supply-side policies are based upon the previous government policies and the results of the government are yet satisfying.

  15. Is labour market training a curse for the unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Skipper, Lars

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 a social experiment was conducted in Denmark, where unemployed applicants for classroom training were randomised into treatment and control groups. The data are contaminated by the presence of no-shows and crossovers, biasing the traditional experimental estimator. We interpret our experi...

  16. An Empirical Model of Employed Search, Unemployed Search, and Nonsearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lawrence M.; Low, Stuart A.

    1984-01-01

    The 1969-1971 National Longitudinal Surveys data on young men were used to study the employed worker's choice among employed search, unemployed search, and not searching for a new job. The principal results are that current wages, seniority, collective bargaining coverage, employment outside construction, and employment by government are each…

  17. Unemployment Insurance in the One-Stop System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Jeffrey; Dickinson, Katherine P.; Fedrau, Ruth; Lazarin, Melissa

    To assess the current connections between the Unemployment Insurance (UI) and One-Stop (OS) systems, case studies were conducted of eight states and eight local areas. Findings indicated the major factor that influenced UI's role in the OS design was whether the state took initial claims by telephone or in-person; UI played differing roles in…

  18. How Changes in Benefits Entitlement Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Vodopivec, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the disincentive effects of the potential duration of unemployment insurance (UI) benefits.The disincentive effects are identified by exploiting changes in the UI system in Slovenia, which involved substantial reductions in the potential benefit duration and had characteristi

  19. State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with…

  20. Fair unemployment compensation and the target for egalitarian concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Cappelen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make people more equal, what should we make them more equal in? For example, should it be resources, such as income, or should it be subjective well-being, such as preference satisfaction? The aim of this article is to critically examine the two main answers to this question within a luck egalitarian moral framework, which is a framework that aims to eliminate inequalities caused by non-responsibility factors, while preserving inequalities due to responsibility factors. I argue that the arguments typically presented in favor of equalizing incomes rather than subjective well-being are weak and that within a luck egalitarian moral framework the claim that resources and not welfare should be considered the appropriate basis for interpersonal comparisons is in need of justification.The question of what society should equalize is applied to the issue of what should be the fair level of unemployment insurance compensation: Should we only compensate the involuntary unemployed for the income loss associated with unemployment, or also for the non-pecuniary costs associated with unemployment? The answer to this question, I argue, depends on where the cut between responsibility factors and non-responsibility factors is drawn.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1765

  1. Institutional Effectiveness and Unemployment Insurance Data. AACC White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, Robert T.

    This paper describes the value of using unemployment insurance (UI) wage data for measuring college graduates' success in employment and discusses how some colleges are using the data within the limitations of their states. Although colleges have always been able to produce limited outcome data such as graduate placement reports, other potentially…

  2. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  3. Coping Mechanisms of Unemployed African Men with Dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Pauline; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the efficiency of the coping mechanisms of 82 unemployed African men with dependents. Results revealed significant relationships between perceived stress and stressful life events, as well as between perceived stress and four groups of coping mechanisms, the strongest relationships being reported for stressful life events, psychological…

  4. Unemployment, Social Support, Individual Resources, and Job Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebarska, Katarzyna; Moser, Klaus; Gunnesch-Luca, George

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between the social support received by unemployed individuals (N = 104) and their job search behavior. A moderated mediation model demonstrated that the effect of social support on job search behaviors was mediated by self-esteem but only if adequacy of social support was perceived as low. In addition, the…

  5. Using State Unemployment Insurance Data to Track Student Postsecondary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Ruth Curran; Boccanfuso, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of data about student performance, secondary school educators have had difficulty accessing data on their former students' post-high school employment and earnings in the formal economy. This article describes how one community used state unemployment insurance data, merged with student record data, to investigate the…

  6. 77 FR 35061 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 Program and the Federal-State Extended Benefits Program AGENCY: Employment and...'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State Extended... total unemployment rate in Connecticut fell below the 8.0% rate required to remain ``on'' in a...

  7. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  8. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  9. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  10. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

  11. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  12. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed...

  13. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  14. 77 FR 31879 - Comment Request for Information Collection for 1205-0179: Unemployment Compensation for Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for 1205-0179: Unemployment... collection of data about Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees which expires August 31, 2012. DATES... 30, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment...

  15. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  16. 76 FR 77260 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Evaluation of the Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Evaluation of the Unemployment Compensation Provisions of the... major challenges for the U.S. system of unemployment compensation (UC). For example, sharply increasing lengths of unemployment spells prompted Federal legislation that extended the potential duration of...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined in section...

  19. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  20. 77 FR 35062 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 Program and the Federal-State Extended Benefits Program AGENCY: Employment and...'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State Extended..., i.e., having their current three month average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate be...

  1. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  2. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24)...

  3. 77 FR 21811 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB) Program AGENCY... triggering ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) program and the Federal State... unemployment rate (TUR trigger) for Texas fell below the 8.5% threshold to remain ``on'' Tier Four of the...

  4. Risk and Nostalgia: The Problem of Education and Youth Unemployment in Australia--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…

  5. Higher Education and Unemployment: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis of the Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Ekrem; Tugcu, Can Tansel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the short and the long-term relations between higher education and unemployment in Turkey for the period 1960-2007. It chooses the recently developed ARDL cointegration and Granger causality of Dolado and Lutkepohl (1996) methods. While the proxy of unemployment is total unemployment rate, higher education graduates were…

  6. 77 FR 7604 - Notice Requesting Public Comment on Two Proposed Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Spisak, U.S. Department of Labor, ETA/Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room... issued a ``call to action'' in Unemployment Insurance Program Letter (UIPL) No. 19-11 to ensure that UI... be based on the ETA 227 and ETA 227 EUC data for the CY. Per the Unemployment Insurance...

  7. 78 FR 39773 - Monta Vista Software, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported Through Trinet HR Corporation, Arlington..., LLC, A Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages, are... Cavium, Inc. had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account...

  8. 75 FR 26793 - Fypon, Ltd., Parkersburg, WV, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Leased Workers From Job1 USA, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid Through... subject firm had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the... workers of Fypon, Ltd, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through...

  9. 78 FR 12655 - Federal-State Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program; Data Exchange Standardization as Required by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 619 RIN 1205-AB64 Federal-State Unemployment Insurance (UI... work group established by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), for Unemployment Insurance (UI... are discussed in detail below. \\1\\ The Department's Office of Unemployment Insurance uses the...

  10. 76 FR 9052 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Unemployment Insurance (UI) Facilitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Request for Information Collection for the Unemployment Insurance (UI) Facilitation of Claimant... set annually for each state. The ALPs take into account the state's total unemployment rate and the... notably by the economic conditions in the state, as measured by the total unemployment rate, and...

  11. 77 FR 4368 - ArcelorMittal, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration ArcelorMittal, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Based on these findings, the Department is amending this certification to include workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages...

  12. 77 FR 59986 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Insurance (UI) Claimants in New York in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the...: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding a change in eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) claimants... Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Frances Perkins Bldg. Room S-...

  13. 76 FR 4725 - Hewlett Packard Company Application Services Division Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Universal Music Group; Fishers, IN..., Applications Services Division had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax... unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Universal Music Group, Fishers, Indiana, who...

  14. 77 FR 37714 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance... Unemployment Insurance (OUI) within ETA which uses them to: Monitor cash flows into and out of the UTF to... responses. III. Current Actions Type of Review: Extension without changes. Title: Unemployment Insurance...

  15. Employability among the Long-Term Unemployed: A Futile Quest or Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment bears many negative consequences for both individuals and societies. Particularly the long-term unemployed face poor chances of finding reemployment, and many recommendations issued in the regular unemployment literature may not apply to them. Therefore, the current study investigates whether employability (Fugate et al., 2004) may…

  16. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  17. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelaher Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.

  18. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  19. Leaving Unemployment for Self-employment : A Discrete Duration Analysis of Determinants and Stability of Self-employment among Former Unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Reize, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants and the success of self-employment among former unemployed. Self-employment has become an important re-employment opportunity during the last decade due to increasing subsidies. The econometric analysis is carried out using discrete hazard rate models on 14 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel, covering the period from 1983 to 1996. I do not find any effects of unemployment duration on the transition from unemployment to selfemployment. Moreover, un...

  20. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. PMID:26094617

  1. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time.

  2. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  3. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act, introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015. Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days, the increase of the rate of maternity benefits of a (female contributor's earnings, the adjustment of the accrual rate of a contributor's duration of benefits from 1 day for every 6 days of employment to 1 day for every 5 days of employment, and some attempt to provide for employment retention and the re-entry of unemployed contributors into the labour market. And yet, despite these important contributions to the development of unemployment insurance in South Africa, several matters appearing from the Bill point towards inconsistent, inadequate and inappropriate treatment of core elements of the unemployment insurance system. Recommendations have been made to address these matters, which among others relate to: •\tThe insufficient alignment of the UIA with ILO, UN and SADC standards in key areas of concern; •\tUnclear or absent provisions in relation to the coverage and/or application of the UIA in relation to public servants, migrant workers, and the self- and informally employed; •\tInadequate provision for employment promotion, the prevention, combating and reduction of unemployment, and reintegration into employment; •\tInappropriate provisions relating to benefit rates and periods, among others concerning the Minister's power to set/amend the Income Replacement Rate and to vary the benefit period by regulation; •\tInconsistent and discriminatory provisions requiring a 13-week qualifying period for accessing maternity benefits; •\tInappropriate provisions

  4. Did the recent unemployment boom in the Netherlands affect crime rates? Evidence from a 2005-2012 panel data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Bisschop

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses municipality-level unemployment rates during 2005-2012 to identify the effect of unemployment on different crime rates. The fixed effects regression finds evidence for a relationship between unemployment and burglary. For every ten percent increase of the unemployment rate, burglary

  5. 76 FR 14102 - Announcement Regarding the Virgin Islands Triggering “Off” Tier Three of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Three of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration... of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public... program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department...

  6. 76 FR 44611 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” of Tiers Three and Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration... of the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program. Public law 111-312 extended provisions in... program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department...

  7. 76 FR 48904 - Announcement Regarding the Virgin Islands Triggering “on” Tier Three of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration... of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public law 111-312 extended provisions in public... program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department...

  8. 77 FR 7604 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Alaska AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) program for Alaska. Public law 112-78 extended provisions in Public Law... for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department...

  9. 76 FR 73685 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Indiana, the Virgin Islands, West Virginia, and Wyoming... Notice of a Change in Status of the payable periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states....

  10. 75 FR 69134 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “off” of Tiers Three and Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration... of the Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) program. Public Law 111-205 extended provisions in... program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department...

  11. 75 FR 69133 - Announcement Regarding the Virgin Islands Triggering “on” to Tier Three of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Three of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration... Three of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-205 extended provisions in... program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department...

  12. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien Hagedoorn

    Full Text Available Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in lung cancer mortality.

  13. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  14. Selection of area-level variables from administrative data: an intersectional approach to the study of place and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry

    2010-05-01

    Given data limitations, neighborhood effects scholarship relies heavily on administrative data to measure area-level constructs. We provide new evidence to guide the selection of indicators from routinely collected sources, focusing on effects on early child development. Informed by an analytic paradigm attuned to the intersection of race, class, and sex, along with population-level data in British Columbia, Canada, our findings signal the need for greater precision when choosing variables in place of the now dominant approaches for measuring constructs like income/wealth, employment, family structure and race/ethnicity. We also provide new evidence about which area-level variables associate with the different domains of child development, as well as how area-level associations vary across urban and rural contexts. PMID:20089438

  15. Assessing the experience of unemployment and its associated coping strategies: Grasping context-specific details using Photovoice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griep, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant contributions made by previous unemployment studies, we aim to further unravel the complex reality of being unemployed. To do so, we introduce Photovoice to grasp the experience of unemployment and its coping strategies from the perspective of the unemployed. We used a phenomenological approach to analyze the photographical data from this Photovoice project. Participants mainly conveyed financial problems associated with unemployment. In terms of coping strategies, participants mainly relied on emotion-focused strategies in which they combined personal and social resources to offset the negative effects of unemployment. Our findings supported and expounded the latent deprivation and agency restriction theory used in unemployment research.

  16. An economists’ Manifesto on unemployment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MODIGLIANI

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this Manifesto, we make a set of proposals to fight unemployment in the EU. We believe that the European unemployment problem needs to be attacked on two fronts: through a broad spectrum of supply-side policies and the demand management policy. The expansion of aggregate demand is necessary to increase both investment and employment. However, unless supply-side measures are also taken, demand expansion can result in more inflation instead of more employment, because of the mismatch between the demand and supply of labour. What is important to stress is that both demand and supply-side policies must be adopted together by all European countries, in order both to avoid beggar-thy-neighbor problems and, at the same time, to catch all the possible complementary effects of these policies.

  17. An economists' manifesto on unemployment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MODIGLIANI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Manifesto, we make a set of proposals to fight unemployment in the EU. We believe that the European unemployment problem needs to be attacked on two fronts: through a broad spectrum of supply-side policies and the demand management policy. The expansion of aggregate demand is necessary to increase both investment and employment. However, unless supply-side measures are also taken, demand expansion can result in more inflation instead of more employment, because of the mismatch between the demand and supply of labour. What is important to stress is that both demand and supply-side policies must be adopted together by all European countries, in order both to avoid beggar-thy-neighbor problems and, at the same time, to catch all the possible complementary effects of these policies.

  18. POVERTY, UNEMPLOYMENT AND GROWTH IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Olasupo Akewushola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified crucial factors influencing the growth and development of entrepreneurship activity and specific role of entrepreneurship activity at ameliorating the burden of poverty, among people in Lagos State, Nigeria. It addresses specific causal factors, indices of poverty and unemployment and proffered panacea to the identified problems. The choice of Lagos State was purposive because of its disposition as the commercial nucleus centre of the country. A multistage sampling procedure was adopted to get a sample size of 250 respondents. Descriptive statistics (such as frequency counts, percentages and means were used to summarise and describe the data. The findings reveal that entrepreneurial activities absorbs unemployed labour and reduces the dependency ratio of working class. It was also evident that optimum positive derivatives of entrepreneurship was not realized because of inherent problems of non-availability of accessible credit facilities and lack of multi-functional continuum of support to entrepreneurs.

  19. Types of individualisation in conditions of risk of youth unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Macháček

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of long-term youth unemployment in the Slovak Republic is considered to be a problem that can be solved by adopting a new intergenerational social contract. Youth policy after 1993 allowed young people to respond adequately to the challenges of modernization of the three sectors in the new literacy: language, computer and civil. There has been no response from the state policy to the new civilization challenge, which is the result of long-term unemployment: Gaining the ability to work. The author justifies the need for the development of specific program transition (transition from school to work. It should start with projects encouraging parents to engage their children in domestic work and community service in the village, we could go on with a wide range of small jobs for pupils and students during secondary school education and could culminate in restoring experienced apprenticed mobility of graduates in the area of unified Europe.

  20. [Unemployment and ill health--or the other way around?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, S

    1992-01-01

    In response to a recent article in Nord Med (No 11/91) this paper raises a critique of the reanalysis of two Nordic studies on the effects of unemployment on health: The model based on varying relationships between vocational ability and job requirement does not invalidate earlier findings. However, the interpretation of measurements of health in individual based follow-up studies warrants a discussion, as well as the external validity of their findings. Unemployment has been shown to affect health related behaviour, like consultation rates, referrals, sick leave and disability pension, in well controlled studies. These effects are of importance to the individuals and the health- and social services, regardless of their relation to disease in a biomedical sense. PMID:1734428

  1. Unemployment benefit and severance pay for cooperative member workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sanz Santaolalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analysis and detailed description of the conditions for unemployment benefits as well as the requirements for worker members of associated cooperatives who are covered by the General Scheme of the Social Security System and for partners in other types of cooperatives. It also examines the benefits in case of termination of activity for worker members of associated work cooperatives which have chosen the Special Scheme for Self-Employed Workers. It offers a list of the requirements and ways in which each of the cases must be verified to determine eligibility for unemployment benefits, either due to a worker member’s termination of contract or the cooperative’s temporary or partial cessation of activities. The study also examines conditions regulating cessation of activity. Lastly, recommendations on improving regulation are included.Received : 14.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  2. Book review: Unemployment in Africa: A psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Joannides

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Authors: Webster Gonzo and Ilse Elisabeth Plattner Publishers: University of Namibia Press Year: 2003 Reviewed For: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology Unemployment in an African country is a concisely written and well-structured book, which investigates the psychological impact of unemployment on Namibia’s ‘street unemployed’. This term refers to the large population of men who wait alongside the roads and at traffic intersections, in the hope of being offered causal employment. Essentially the books seeks to understand and evaluate the psychological experience of these men, in relation to several theoretical perspectives and with regards to the investigative research that was carried out by the authors.

  3. THE DETERMINATS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pall Katalin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among other aspects, the 2007-2009 financial and economic crisis had an impact on the Romanian labor force, too. The aim of this article is to analyze the macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment rate in Romania, using an econometric model. We use the GDP, net and gross wage, monetary policy rate, inflation rate, budget deficit, average RON/EUR exchange rate, export and import values to estimate the model. The analyzed period is 2000-2009.

  4. The unemployment volatility puzzle: the role of the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Relying on the non-negligible role played by the underground economy in the labour market fluctuations, this paper extends the standard matching model à la Mortensen-Pissarides by introducing an underground sector along with an endogenous sector choice for both entrepreneurs and workers. These modifications improve the quantitative properties of the standard matching model, thus providing a possible explanation for the unemployment volatility puzzle.

  5. Unemployment, Growth, and Complementarities between Innovation and Knowledge Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hetze, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between endogenous growth and unemployment. It provides knowledge diffusion as the link between innovation-based growth through creative destruction and the labor market outcome. Three dimensions of knowledge are considered: human capital (general skills), know-how gained through learning-byusing, and codified knowledge accumulated by research activities. Output growth is driven by innovations. However, the implementation of technological progress into a v...

  6. Crime, Inequality and Unemployment in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Dongxu; Wu, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A model of crime is developed based on principles from the existing literature with some original insight. The implications of the model are that income inequality and unemployment are important explanatory variables for crimes motivated by economic gain, but do not offer much explanatory power for other types of crime. A panel data of UK regions over the years from 2002 to 2007 is then used to test these predictions. The empirical results strongly support the hypothesis t...

  7. Inefficient equilibrium unemployment in a duocentric economy with matching frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Etienne; Paola L. Montero Ledezma; Van Der Linden, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This article examines unemployment disparities and efficiency in a densely populated economy with two job centers and workers distributed between them. We introduce commuting costs and search-matching frictions to deal with the spatial mismatch between workers and firms. In equilibrium, there exists a unique threshold location where job-seekers are indifferent between job centers. In a decentralized economy job-seekers do not internalize a composition externality they impose on all the unempl...

  8. Price, Income & Unemployment Effects on Greek Professional Football

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliki Avgerinou; Stefanos Giakoumatos

    2009-01-01

    Based on data of 26 Greek professional football clubs of Division A’ and B’ for 16 seasons (1991/92-2006/07), we investigate the effect of sporting and economic variables on the attendance in Greek football stadia. Price, income and unemployment are found to be statistically significant in the small Greek football market, while controlling for classic sporting determinants of demand such as success, entertainment and promotion/relegation. We include two more dummy variables; one for the new s...

  9. Unemployment among Graduate Nurses in Malaysia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini Arumugam; Xavier Thayalan; Laura Christ Dass; Mahendran Maniam

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural communication skills are essential for nurses as they are at the fore front in public and private hospitals, physicians’ offices, clinics and other outpatient care facilities. Indeed nurses provide the human touch for patients seeking medical advice at a particular medical centre before consulting a physician. Recently, the Ministry of Higher Education has released statistics on unemployment among nurses - about 8000 nursing graduates have not secured jobs. As such, a ...

  10. Migration, unemployment, and skill downgrading : a specific-factors approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vallizadeh, Ehsan; Muysken, Joan; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the impact of the skill composition of migration flows on the host country's labor market in a specific factors two-sector model with heterogeneous labor (low-, medium-, and highly-skilled) and price- and wage-setting behavior. The low- and medium-skilled labor markets are characterized by frictions due to wage bargaining. Moreover, we assume skill downgrading of unemployed medium-skilled workers into low-skilled labor supply. Endogenous benefits create an interdependency...

  11. A social work study to measure the effect of unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Allahyar Arabmomeni; Gholamreza Tajbakhsh; Faezeh Taghipour

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment is believed as one of most important issues in today's economy around the world. The recent economic turmoil in European countries, for instance, has created some troubles such as increase in rate of depression, divorce, etc. In this paper, we present a social study work in one of regions of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire among 80 experts who live in the region and tries to understand whether there is a correlation between unemploym...

  12. Migration, unemployment, and skill downgrading: Specific-factors approch

    OpenAIRE

    Vallizadeh, Ehsan; Muysken, Joan; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the skill composition of migration flows on the host country's labor market in a specific factors two-sector model with heterogeneous labor (low-, medium-, and highly-skilled) and price- and wage-setting behavior. The low- and medium-skilled labor markets are characterized by frictions due to wage bargaining. Moreover, we assume skill downgrading of unemployed medium-skilled workers into low-skilled labor supply. Endogenous benefits create an interdependency ...

  13. Very recent African immigrants and unemployment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshni, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...

  14. Unemployment and inflation in Ireland: 1926-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Lydon, Reamonn; Stuart, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the overarching view in the literature has been that a Phillips curve relationship did not exist in Ireland prior to the 1979 exchange rate break with Sterling. It was argued that, as a small open economy, prices were determined externally. To test this relationship, we study the determination of inflation between 1926 and 2012, a longer sample period than any previously used. We find that the difference between unemployment and the NAIRU is a significant determinant of infla...

  15. Unemployment Traps: Do Financial Dis-incentives Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Smith, Nina

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance of financial dis-incentives for workers in Denmark. Based on a panel survey which is merged to a number of administrative registers it is possible to calculate precise measures of the economic incentives for labour force participants between employment in a full time job and being on unemployment insurance benefits and considering also the fixed costs of work. The results indicate large dis-incentives effects for some groups, especially low paid women. In 19...

  16. Self-employment as an alternative to unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen R. Rissman

    2003-01-01

    Data from the NLSY show that more than a quarter of all younger men experience some period of self- employment. Many of them return to wage work. This paper analyzes a simple model of job search and self- employment where self- employment provides an alternative source of income for unemployed workers. Self- employment is distinct from wage sector employment in two important respects. First, self- employment is a low-income, low- variation alternative to wage work. Second, once a worker enter...

  17. Labor Courts, Nomination Bias, and Unemployment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Helge; Neugart, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Labor courts play an important role in determining the effective level of labor market regulation in Germany, but their application of law may not be even-handed. Based on a simple theoretical model and a new panel data set, we identify a nomination bias in labor court activity - that is, court activity varies systematically with the political leaning of the government that has appointed judges. In an extension, we find a significant positive relation between labor court activity and unemploy...

  18. Local unemployment and the earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn

    2002-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of immigrants and natives are affected differently by macroeconomic conditions. In particular, we show that earnings of immigrants in Norway from outside the OECD area are more sensitive to local labour market conditions than are earnings of natives. Failure to account for such differences may bias estimates when periods of rising or declining unemployment are important to identify assimilation effects on immigrant earnings. We show that this is the case for Norway: An ...

  19. Unemployment as a Destructive Factor in Family Education

    OpenAIRE

    ANNA MARZEC-TARASIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland s one of the main factors causing problems in the process of upbringing. It is also the main reason for constant growth of poverty and process of marginalization of many families in Polish society. Family is a basic and irreplaceable environment for a child. It is not child's choice what sort of family she/he was born into, however family situation and environment started to influence a child, from very beginning. Well functioning family, where the social...

  20. ESF funded training for unemployed women: policy aims and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Brine, Jacky

    1993-01-01

    The European Social Fund (ESF) provides funding for vocational training projects for unemployed women aged over 25. This research traces the development of ESF policies and interpretations from within the European Commission and the British government from 1958 to 1993. The position of women within the European and British labour markets provides the basis of the evaluation of the ESF's aim to increase employability through training linked to the needs of the labour market. The study is b...