Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.
Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.
Maninder Singh Setia
Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be pro...
Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer
The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children's neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725
Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria
Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965
Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.
Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka
The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…
Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self-reported h......INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self...
Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong
This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592
This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…
Langholz, Bryan; Goldstein, Larry
Recent work has extended the methods for the analysis of nested case-control studies to accomodate a broad variety of risk set sampling designs. These results have implications for the design of sampled epidemiologic cohort studies. We describe a model which is a natural extension of the Cox proportional hazards model and may be used to estimate parameters from sampled risk set data. We illustrate how these techniques may be used to solve three diverse design and analysis problems from epidem...
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael;
-interview survey. As part of the national health interview survey programme, three nation-wide surveys were conducted in 1986/1987, 1991 and 1994. The samples in the three cohorts consisted of 23,096 adult Danes ages 16 years and older, and 18,296 (79.2%) were personally interviewed on socio-economic status...... Service Register recorded 980,043 contacts with general practitioners and specialist physicians. For 1943-1996, the Danish cancer Registry contained information about one or more cancer diseases among 1,432 people. A total of 4,334 people in the 1994 cohort were re-interview in 2000. DANCOS allows...... for a wide range of analysis in a historical prospective design of determinants of morbidity and mortality, of health care utilization and of the social effects of ill health. DANCOS also allows studies of methodological issues, including analyzing the characteristics of non-respondents. Udgivelsesdato: 2003...
Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi
Background The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort ...
Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M.; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.
The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants
Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746
Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)
Ramdhan, Mohamad [Indonesia' s Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)
Toba area has complex tectonic setting attracting many earth scientists to study and understand tectonic and geological process or setting. The area is affected by oblique subduction zone, Renun Sumatran fault sub segment and some volcanoes that are near it. The earthquake catalogue provided by BMKG from April, 2009 to December, 2011 must be relocated firstly to get the precise hypocenter. We used catalogue data of P and S phase or P phase only and double-difference method to relocate the earthquakes. The results show hypocenter position enhancement that can be interpreted tectonically. The earthquakes after relocation relating to the Sumatran fault, subduction zone, volcanoes and seismic activities beneath Toba caldera can be mapped clearly. The relocated hypocenters in this study are very important to provide information for seismic hazard assessment and disaster mitigation study.
Toba area has complex tectonic setting attracting many earth scientists to study and understand tectonic and geological process or setting. The area is affected by oblique subduction zone, Renun Sumatran fault sub segment and some volcanoes that are near it. The earthquake catalogue provided by BMKG from April, 2009 to December, 2011 must be relocated firstly to get the precise hypocenter. We used catalogue data of P and S phase or P phase only and double-difference method to relocate the earthquakes. The results show hypocenter position enhancement that can be interpreted tectonically. The earthquakes after relocation relating to the Sumatran fault, subduction zone, volcanoes and seismic activities beneath Toba caldera can be mapped clearly. The relocated hypocenters in this study are very important to provide information for seismic hazard assessment and disaster mitigation study
Zhang Geng-jie; Bai Zhong-Ke
This study used satellite photos of 1985, 1990, 1994, 1999 and 2005 in Pingshuo mining area, for the purpose of researching on the change of Ecosystem Service Value (ESV) in the past 20 years. It calculated the change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of ESV and compared the Sensitivity Index (SI) of ESV coefficient. The result is that, the total ESV of Pingshuo mining area descended from 31270.98×104 Yuan in 1985 to 30348.14×104 Yuan in 1990. When the destroyed land had bee...
Utama, Muhammad Reza July, E-mail: email@example.com [Student of Geophysical Engineering Study Program, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T. [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, ITB (Indonesia)
The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region.
The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region
Major thermal and mineral springs originate along the main Qutur fault zone which aligns along the valley of the same name. The actual outflow sites of these waters arc situated at the valley flanks near the bottom of the valley and are accompanied by remarkable travertine deposits.The local spring outflow location seems to be determined by the intersection of (i) the local sedimentological bedding planes (of a strata of higher hydraulic conductivity) and (ii) minor faults of transversal orientation to the Qutur fault. According to the results of this study it is concluded that in the Khoy geothermal area two water systems are interacting, (i) the recent waters of actual recharge in the high mountain areas as the Almalu Spring Nr. 8 and (ii) the deep thermal and mineral waters within a deep aquifer which is contained within tectonic fault zones (as the Qutur fault). This deep groundwater is influenced by a high influx of CO2 of deep origin and the mixing with a deep seated highly mineralized HCO3 rich formation water. The Qutur River itself is considered in this conceptual model to represent the main natural discharge level. Based on this conceptual model the hot highly mineralized thermal water is ascending to the surface by the buoyancy effect through tectonically induced active fault zones where an interaction with the uprising CO2 also takes place. (author)
WU Wen-bo; YAO Jing; KANG Ting-jun
Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land.
Fang, Shubo; Xiao, Dunin; An, Shuqing
Mid-scale regional ecosecurity, which takes practical ecosecurity issues as its priority, should be viewed as the core of the multi-scale concept of ecosecurity. For urban area, a special region taking ecological infrastructure as its core mission, the construction of regional ecosecurity pattern may provide a good chance to realize its sustainable development. Based on land use analysis, a qualitative and quantitative research on the landscape pattern, ecovalue evaluation, and driving force analysis of social economy could provide an effective approach to construct the ecosecurity pattern in urban area. This study showed that in Lanzhou, the ecosecurity pattern consisted of three parts, i.e., eco-safeguarding system, eco-buffering system and eco-percolating system, among which, eco-buffering system was the decisive part determining ecosecurity pattern construction. The quantitative analysis of urban spatial expansion pattern was taken as the decisive function to determine the security level of the ecosecurity pattern, which was divided into low, middle and high levels. PMID:16515173
Full Text Available This study used satellite photos of 1985, 1990, 1994, 1999 and 2005 in Pingshuo mining area, for the purpose of researching on the change of Ecosystem Service Value (ESV in the past 20 years. It calculated the change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of ESV and compared the Sensitivity Index (SI of ESV coefficient. The result is that, the total ESV of Pingshuo mining area descended from 31270.98×104 Yuan in 1985 to 30348.14×104 Yuan in 1990. When the destroyed land had been reclaimed from 1990, ESV had been raised to 31109.05×104 Yuan in 2005. The change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of destroyed and reclamation land were the first and second highest among the types of land use in mining area. SI of dry land is the highest, while the destroyed land’s is the lowest. It could conclude that the ESV coefficient of mining area is inelastic. Reclamation should be strengthening in mining area in order to recover ecosystem efficiently.
López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G
Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of
Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still a...
Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681
Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo
Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687
Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco
Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…
Schnack, Tine H; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Myrup, Charlotte;
hypospadias in a cohort of 1,201,790 boys born in 1973-2005. Using binomial log-linear regression, they estimated recurrence risk ratios of hypospadias for male twin pairs and first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of a hypospadias case, which were 50.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.2, 75.5), 11...
Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K
Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of ...
Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;
BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn
confidence intervals gave very similar results and a small simulation study showed that the coverage probabilities were close to the 95% nominal level Conclusion: For the three chosen associations the odds ratios were not biased by non-participation. The results are reassuring for studies based on the Danish...... cohort and similar cohorts of pregnant women. The methodology used to compute confidence intervals for the relative odds ratios performed well in the scenarios considered.......Background: Participation rates in large cohort studies have dropped during the last two decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. Methods: The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from...
Tigchelaar, E.F.; Zhernakova, A; Dekens, J.A.M.; Hermes, G.D.A.; Baranska, A.; Mujagic, Z.; M.A. Swertz; Munoz, A.M.; Deelen, P.; Cenit, M. C.; Franke, L; Scholtens, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Wijmenga, C; Feskens, E.J.M.
Purpose: There is a critical need for population-based prospective cohort studies because they follow individuals before the onset of disease, allowing for studies that can identify biomarkers and disease-modifying effects, and thereby contributing to systems epidemiology. Participants: This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of an intensively examined subpopulation of the LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. In this unique subcohort, LifeLines DEEP, we included 1539 part...
Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D
Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major ...
L??pez G??mez, Mar??a Andr??e; Duran Jord??, Xavier, 1974-; Zaballa, Elena; S??nchez Niub??, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G.
PURPOSE: The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and deat...
In traditional (cumulative-incidence) case-control studies, the exposure odds ratio can be used as an estimator of the risk ratio only when the disease under study is rare. The case-cohort study is a recently developed useful modification of the case-control study. This design allows direct estimation of the risk ratio from a fixed cohort, but does not require any rare-disease assumption. This article reviews recent developments in risk ratio estimation procedures for the analysis of case-coh...
Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T
Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943
Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam;
BACKGROUND: Little systematic evidence is available on potential gender differences in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from a real-world cohort. We designed the DEFIB-WOMEN study to examine gender differences on (i) patient reported outcomes (PROs), (ii) procedure- and...... device-related complications, and (iii) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort. METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multi-center, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at...... several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish national registers. The DEFIB-WOMEN cohort is comprised of 1790 (19% women; 343/1790) patients implanted between June 2010 and April 2013...
Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim;
Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study. Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... identified among participants in the Danish cohort study "Diet, Cancer and Health" in which 57,053 50-64 years old persons were included 1993-7. Medical records were retrieved and reviewed by an experienced physician using a detailed standardized form, and information on the diagnostic work-up and presence...
Alasdair Campbell; Igor Rudan
In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies.
Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...
van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Kwakkel, Gert; Bruin, Margje; Lindeman, Eline
Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify factors that are significantly related to depression in chronic stroke patients. Methods. Prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation. A total of 165 first ever stroke patients over 18 years of age were assessed at one and thr
Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B;
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50...
Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.
BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu
Gholam Reza Kheirabadi; Mohamad Reza Maracy
Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in thei...
Rist, Pamela Marie; Kang, Jae Hee Hee; Buring, Julie Elizabeth; Glymour, Maria Lee; Grodstein, Francine; Kurth, Tobias
Objective: To evaluate the association between migraine and cognitive decline among women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women’s Health Study, United States. Participants 6349 women aged 65 or older enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine status at baseline and participated in cognitive testing during follow-up. Participants were classified into four groups: no history of migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and past history of m...
Tsuboya, Toru; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro
Background Although experimental studies have shown that gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has a role in tumor progression, epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between GGT and cancer incidence is limited. The present study investigated the association between GGT and cancer incidence and assessed the role of alcohol consumption in this association. Methods We examined a cohort of 15 031 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years who attended a health checkup in 1995 and were free of cancer at th...
Willis F Buck; Gaspar Paul D
Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty...
Virgilio Galvis; Alejandro Tello; Mary Alejandra Sánchez; Paul Anthony Camacho
We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the...
Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía
Abstract Background: The course of depression from pregnancy to one year postpartum and their risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. This study has two aims: 1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from third trimester of pregnancy to one year after childbirth and 2) to determine gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carr...
Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Kreiner‐Møller, E.; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Stokholm, J.; Pedersen, L.; Bjarnadóttir, E.; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Nilsson, E; Mortensen, L. J.; Olsen, S. F.; Schjørring, S.
Summary Background We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. Objective The aim of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep cl...
Kumar, S.; Hlady, W. G.; Malecki, J M
OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposur...
Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.;
We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. The aim...... of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep clinical phenotyping, exposure assessment, and biobanking. Exposure assessments focus on the human microbiome. Nutritional intervention...... during pregnancy in randomized controlled trials are included in the study to prevent disease and to be able to establish causal relationships. Pregnant women from eastern Denmark were invited during 2008–2010 to a novel unselected ‘COPSAC2010’ cohort. The women visited the clinic during pregnancy weeks...
Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G
Objective To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Design Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Setting Norwegian resource centre. Participants 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Interventions Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors’ situation and personal needs. Main ou...
Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G.; Daling, Janet R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Carter, Joseph J.; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L.; Galloway, Denise A.
The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants...
Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P
Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...
Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello
Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...
Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J
The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be
Pierce , MB; Silverwood, RJ; Nitsch, D.; Adams, JE; Stephen, AM; Nip, W; Macfarlane, P; Wong, A.; Richards, M.; Hardy, R; Kuh, D.; on behalf of the NSHD Scientific and Data Collection Teams
Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, fo...
Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu
Lagrangian approach is applied to study near-surface large-scale transport in the Kuroshio Extension area using a simulation with synthetic particles advected by AVISO altimetric velocity field. A material line technique is applied to find the origin of water masses in cold-core cyclonic rings pinched off from the jet in summer 2011. Tracking and Lagrangian maps provide the evidence of cross-jet transport. Fukushima derived caesium isotopes are used as Lagrangian tracers to study transport and mixing in the area a few months after the March of 2011 tsunami that caused a heavy damage of the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP). Tracking maps are computed to trace the origin of water parcels with measured levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations collected in two R/V cruises in June and July 2011 in the large area of the Northwest Pacific. It is shown that Lagrangian simulation is useful to finding the surface areas that are potentially dangerous due to the risk of radioactive contamination. The results of sim...
Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.
To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including
Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu
Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.
LU Peng; TIAN Yan; YANG Ruixia
Choosing site area,cultural layer thickness,significant relics and significant remains as the variables,we applied cluster analysis to the ancient settlements of four cultural periods,respectively,which were Peiligang,Yangshao,Longshan and Xiashang,in 9000-3000 a BP,around Songshan Mountain.Through application of the SOFM (self-organizing feature map) networks,every type of ancient settlements was classified into different size-grades.By this means,the Peiligang settlements were divided into two grades,Yangshao and Longshan settlements were divided into three grades,respectively,and Xiashang settlements were divided into four grades.The results suggested that the size-grade diversity of ancient settlements was not significant during the Peiligang period in this area.Around the middle-late Yangshao period (5000 a BP),the size-grade diversity of ancient settlements began to appear,a process that continued during the Longshan period and finally matured in the Xiashang period.Moreover,the results reflected the regional differences in cultural characteristics in a particular period,which were mainly represented in that there were three Peiligang cultural systems distributed in different areas.Such differences also existed in the spatial distributive characteristics between the Xia and Shang cultures.Based on the size-grade study of ancient settlements in the Circum-Songshan area,it was found that the SOFM networks method was very suitable for size-grade classification of ancient settlements,since,using this method,adjacent cells would compete and learn from each other,a benefit that reduced the effect on classification by the inaccuracy of site acreages.
Wang, Jie; Xie, Pin-hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-yi; Ye, Cong-lei; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing
As a key role in the acid-deposition and the generation of secondary particle matter (PM), measurement of the concentration of atmospheric ammonia in urban area has been attracting the scientists' interests nowadays. After studying the special absorption features of ammonia in short UV wavelength range, detailed concernful issues were put forward in the present paper. The decision of using xenon lamp as the light source was made after the evaluation of measurement of light spectroscopy. Retrieval wavelength band for NH3 was fixed from 204 to 214 nm and optimal method of deducting other interferential gases was also shown. A home-made open-path DOAS (OP-DOAS) system was set up for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric NH3. The detection limit of such system was calculated with the typical noise level as low as 0.33 microg x m(-3) with the optical path 228 m. Through field experiment in Guangzhou city, such a system can be competent for the online and high time-resolution monitoring of the concentration of atmospheric ammonia. With a significant diurnal variation, the atmospheric ammonia changed from 0.83 to 3.11 microg x m(-3) with the mean value 1.59 microg x m(-3). The representative character of the diurnal variation is that the concentration of NH3 peaks during night while drops to bottom in the daytime. After the error analysis procedure, typical measurement accuracy of such OP-DOAS system was within 10%. PMID:22512193
Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J;
Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... expected number of venous thromboembolism cases among siblings, using population-specific, gender-specific and age-specific incidence rates. Results: We identified 30 179 siblings of 19 599 cases of venous thromboembolism. The incidence among siblings was 2.2 cases per 1000 person-years, representing a...... with pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism has a strong familial component....
Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J;
To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...
Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.;
antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self-reports of...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of...... antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments Udgivelsesdato: 2009...
Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.;
One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an...
NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.
Garg Arun; Hegmann Kurt T; Wertsch Jacqueline J; Kapellusch Jay; Thiese Matthew S; Bloswick Donald; Merryweather Andrew; Sesek Richard; Deckow-Schaefer Gwen; Foster James; Wood Eric; Kendall Richard; Sheng Xiaoming; Holubkov Richard
Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for ...
Gao Bixia; Zhang Luxia; Wang Haiyan; Zhao Minghui
Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences,especially cardiovascular risk and end-stage renal disease.A recent national survey demonstrated that CKD has become a leading health problem in China.There is an urgent need to implement an in-depth investigation of the CKD burden and also to explore underlying mechanisms of CKD progression and it association with adverse consequences.Methods The Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is the first national CKD cohort in China.It will enroll approximately 3 000 pre-dialysis CKD patients aged between 18 and 74 years and follow-up for at least 5 years.Questionnaires,anthropometric measures,laboratory tests,and biomaterials will be collected at baseline and annually.The principal clinical outcomes of the C-STRIDE consist of renal disease events,cardiovascular events,and death.Based on the longitudinal clinical data and biomaterials,the risk factors with CKD progression and other outcomes will be analyzed,and candidate markers and predicted models will be established.Conclusion The C-STRIDE would provide important evidence for underlying mechanisms of CKD progression,valuable information for clinical guidelines,and healthcare policies in China.
Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin
This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302
Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P;
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiologic studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea and celiac...... disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobactor pylori (HP) infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49,475 patients with rosacea, and 4,312,213 general...... population controls were identified using nationwide administrative registers. We established the prevalence of the aforementioned disorders, and used Cox regression to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of new-onset CeD, CD, UC, HP infection, SIBO, and IBS, respectively, in patients with rosacea...
Gergev, Gyurgyinka; Máté, Adrienn; Zimmermann, Alíz; Rárosi, Ferenc; Sztriha, László
The spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities was studied in a cohort of patients in Hungary. A search for etiologies and assessment of the degree of intellectual disability were carried out. The study included 241 (131 boys) patients. Disability occurred without any prenatal, perinatal, and/or neonatal adverse events in 167 patients. They were classified into the following subgroups: genetic syndromes with recognized etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability in association with dysmorphic features but unknown etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability without dysmorphic features and recognized etiology, brain malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, leukoencephalopathies, epileptic syndromes, developmental language impairment, and neuromuscular disorders. Adverse events occurred in 74 children classified into subgroups such as cerebral palsy after delivery preterm or at term, and disabilities without cerebral palsy. The etiology was identified in 66.4%, and genetic diagnosis was found in 19.5%. Classification of neurodevelopmental disorders contribute to etiological diagnosis, proper rehabilitation, and genetic counseling. PMID:24868008
Full Text Available Introduction: With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, more people infected with HIV are living into older age; 22% of adults receiving care in the UK are aged over 50 years . Age influences HIV infection; the likelihood of seroconversion illness, mean CD4 count and time from infection to development of AIDs defining illnesses decreases with increasing age. A UK study estimates that half of HIV infections in persons over 50 years are acquired at an age over 50 . Studies exploring sexual practices in older persons have repeatedly shown that we cannot assume there is no risk of STI and HIV infection [3,4]. Physicians should be alert to risk of HIV even in the older cohort, where nearly half diagnoses are made late . Local audit has demonstrated poor testing rates in the over 50's on the Acute Medical Unit. Late diagnosis (CD4<350 results in poorer outcomes and age confounds further; older late presenters are 2.4 times more likely to die within the first year of diagnosis than younger counterparts . Materials and Methods: A retrospective case notes review was conducted of all patients aged 60 years and over attending HIV clinic in the last 2 years. Outcomes audited included features around diagnosis; age, presentation, missed testing opportunities and CD4 count at diagnosis. Results: Of the current cohort of 442 patients, 34 were over 60 years old (8%. Age at diagnosis in this group ranged from 36 to 80 years, mean 56.6 years. Presentation triggers included opportunistic infections or malignancies (n=10, constitutional symptoms (n=6, diagnosis of another STI (n=4, seroconversion illness (n=2, partner status (n=3. Eight patients were diagnosed through asymptomatic screening at Sexual Health. We identified missed opportunities in five patients who were not tested despite diagnoses or symptoms defined as clinical indicators for HIV. Half of older patients had a CD4 count of <200 at diagnosis. Conclusions: It is imperative
Gholam Reza Kheirabadi
Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.
Newman, Anne B; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A;
Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar...... data included the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the New England Centenarian Study. Diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and peripheral artery disease tended to be less common in LLFS probands and offspring compared to similar aged persons in the other cohorts. Pulse...
Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya
Background Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elas...
Edin-Liljegren, A; S. Hassler; Sjölander, P.; Daerga, L.
Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women) was constructed from national population registers. A twice as large control cohort of non-Sami was...
Firestone, Ridvan; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Merletti, Franco; Pizzi, Costanza; Pivetta, Emanuele; Rusconi, Franca; Richiardi, Lorenzo
Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New...
Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James
The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611
Casasnovas José A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain. Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%. Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index. Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7 years, 27.7 (3.6 kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9 cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048, and 40.8 (11.6 years, 24.4 (3.8 kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9 cm, among females (N = 351. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male, the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least
Kishi, Reiko; KOBAYASHI, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infe...
Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A
The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with
Khong T Yee
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between cerebral palsy in very preterm infants and clinical, histopathologic and microbiological indicators of chorioamnionitis, including the identification of specific micro-organisms in the placenta, was evaluated in a case-cohort study. Methods Children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy at five years of age were identified from amongst participants in a long-term follow-up program of preterm infants. The comparison group was a subcohort of infants randomly selected from all infants enrolled in the program. The placentas were examined histopathologically for chorioamnionitis and funisitis, and the chorioamnionic interface was aseptically swabbed and comprehensively cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeast and genital mycoplasmas. Associations between obstetric and demographic variables, indicators of chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy status were examined by univariate analysis. Results Eighty-two infants with cerebral palsy were compared with the subcohort of 207 infants. Threatened preterm labor was nearly twice as common among the cases as in the subcohort (p E. coli was cultured from the placenta in 6/30 (20% of cases as compared with 4/85 (5% of subcohort (p = 0.01. Group B Streptococcus was more frequent among the cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The association between E. coli in the chorioamnion and cerebral palsy in preterm infants identified in this study requires confirmation in larger multicenter studies which include microbiological study of placentas.
Miura, Kyoko; Green, Adèle C
Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer affecting mostly people of Caucasian origin and is associated with high exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Antioxidants in the diet are thought to prevent UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress and laboratory-based studies have shown that high antioxidant intakes inhibit melanoma development. Corresponding epidemiological evidence is inconsistent, however. We therefore reviewed results from prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether consumption of antioxidant vitamin C, E (tocopherol), and A (retinol), carotenoids and selenium, as food, supplements, or both, or high fruit and vegetable intake, reduce the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. A total of 9 studies (2 cohort, 1 nested case-control, 6 RCTs) were included. Neither antioxidant nutrients, individually or combined, nor fruit and vegetable intake showed any strong and significant associations with melanoma, though the number of relevant studies was limited and several had methodological shortcomings. In particular, melanoma was not a primary disease outcome in any of the RCTs and therefore, none adequately accounted for potential confounding by sun exposure. In conclusion, available evidence is currently inadequate to assess possible beneficial effects of antioxidant intake on melanoma risk. PMID:26147450
As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...
Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post
Cleary, Brian J
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.
O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles
The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274
Willis F Buck
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158
Perez Roberto SGM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable
Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin
Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 ...
Gary Kim Kuan Low
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.
Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R
To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35-80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (kappa = 0.74). Most questionnaire data had kappa > 0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (kappa = 0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107
Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.
Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; Pburnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399
Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van
A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to de
Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic
... history information for respondents enrolled in the Agriculture Health Study. This represents a request to... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection...
Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)
The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.
Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan
AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462～0.7392,P＜0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604～0.8198,P＜0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298～0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.
Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva
élites de posicionamento (GPS para a localização de residências, o uso de coletas de DNA para comparações futuras, as bases de dados institucionais e governamentais são fontes de informações que abreviam, minimizam gastos e dão maior confiabilidade aos estudos de muito longa duração.Tem-se visto antigos trabalhos realizados há décadas sendo submetidos a novas avaliações estatísticas com o desenvolvimento de novas teorias e descobertas. Neste número da revista brasileira em promoção da saúde, acompanhamos o nascimento de uma nova coorte(14, que acompanhará a evolução dos determinantes de saúde de população de uma grande comunidade do Nordeste do Brasil.REFERÊNCIAS1. Morabia A, Guthold R. Wilhelm Weinberg’s 1913Large Retrospective Cohort Study: a rediscovery. Am JEpidemiol. 2007;165(7:727-33.2. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:90.3. Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore Jr. FE. Epidemiologicalapproaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study.Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951;41(3:279-81.4. Fonseca MGU, Peres F, Firmo JOA, Uchoa E.,Percepção de risco: maneiras de pensar e agirno manejo de agrotóxicos. Ciênc saúde coletiva[periódico na Internet]. 2007 Mar [acesso em 2010Maio 26]; 12(1:39-50. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-81232007000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso. doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000100009.5. Victora CG, Barros FC. Cohort profile: the 1982Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. Int J Epidemiol.2006;35(2:237-42.6. Armenian HK (editor. Applications of the case-controlmethod. Epidemiol Rev. 1994;16:1-164.7. Samet JM, Muñoz A. Evolution of the cohort study.Epidemiol Rev. 1998;20(1:1-14.8. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:909. Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM. Tipos de
Gholam Reza Kheirabadi
Full Text Available Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in their third trimester and followed up from the beginning of the study to 6- 8 weeks postpartum. At all, 2156 pregnant women completed the self report questionnaires but 258 were excluded because they were incomplete and final analysis was done with 1898 samples. At the final stage the sample size was decreased to 1291. Results: The prevalence of depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of Post Partum Depression (PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during preg-nancy was 20.1%. Results showed that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy, being housewife and having 3 or more children had significant relation with ante partum depression. Conclusions: Two main risk factors for post partum depression are previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy. It is important to assess these variables during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identifi-cation of women at risk.
Lindblad, Frank; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Hjern, Anders
Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees. The study population consisted of all Swedish residents born in 1985-2000 with Swedish-born parents, divided into 16,134 adoptees, and a comparison population of 1,326,090. ADHD medications were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. The rates of ADHD medication were higher in international adoptees than in the comparison population for both boys (5.3 vs. 1.5% for 10-15-year olds) and girls (2.1 vs. 0.3% for 10-15-year olds). International adoptees from all regions of birth more often consumed ADHD medication compared with the majority population, but the age and sex adjusted odds ratios were particularly high for adoptees from Eastern Europe, Middle East/Africa and Latin America. Adjusting for maternal education and single parenthood increased the odds ratios even further. The risk also increased with higher age at adoption. Adoptees from Eastern Europe have a very high risk for ADHD medication. A structured identification and support programme should be tailored for this group. Adoptees from other regions have a more moderately increased risk, which should be communicated to adoptive parents and to professionals who care for adoptees in their clinical practice. PMID:19543791
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher
Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António
Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084
Liu, Fangfang; Guo, Fangcen; Zhou, Yue; He, Zhonghu; Tian, Xiuyun; Guo, Chuanhai; Ning, Tao; Pan, Yaqi; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been observed repeatedly in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. However, the causal relationship between HPV infection and the onset of ESCC remains unknown. A large cohort study focusing on this topic is being carried out in rural Anyang, China. Methodology/Principal Findings The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study (AECCS) is a population-based prospective endoscopic cohort study designed to investigate the association of HPV infecti...
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren;
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.
Bhautesh Dinesh Jani
Full Text Available To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF in a community cohort.HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled "depressed". We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology. Area under the curve (AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors.425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males were included in the study; 179 (42.1% had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34-3.04 and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13-1.80 for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002 and 27% (p = 0.007 were reclassified correctly, respectively.Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.
Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R
Objective To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Design Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Setting Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. Participants 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). Methods A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. Results 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). Conclusions The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:25416499
Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical binding models have previously been investigated for the energetics of protein complexation (ΔG models and for the influence of mutations on complexation (i.e. differences between wild-type and mutant complexes, ΔΔG models. We construct binding models to directly compare these processes, which have generally been studied separately. Results Although reasonable fit models were found for both ΔG and ΔΔG cases, they differ substantially. In a dataset curated for the absence of mainchain rearrangement upon binding, non-polar area burial is a major determinant of ΔG models. However this ΔG model does not fit well to the data for binding differences upon mutation. Burial of non-polar area is weighted down in fitting of ΔΔG models. These calculations were made with no repacking of sidechains upon complexation, and only minimal packing upon mutation. We investigated the consequences of more extensive packing changes with a modified mean-field packing scheme. Rather than emphasising solvent exposure with relatively extended sidechains, rotamers are selected that exhibit maximal packing with protein. This provides solvent accessible areas for proteins that are much closer to those of experimental structures than the more extended sidechain regime. The new packing scheme increases changes in non-polar burial for mutants compared to wild-type proteins, but does not substantially improve agreement between ΔG and ΔΔG binding models. Conclusion We conclude that solvent accessible area, based on modelled mutant structures, is a poor correlate for ΔΔG upon mutation. A simple volume-based, rather than solvent accessibility-based, model is constructed for ΔG and ΔΔG systems. This shows a more consistent behaviour. We discuss the efficacy of volume, as opposed to area, approaches to describe the energetic consequences of mutations at interfaces. This knowledge can be used to develop simple computational screens for
Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K.; Forman, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B
Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at...
Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K.; Forman, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B
Objective: To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants: 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cance...
Pranjic, Nurka; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ramic, Enisa
Introduction: embarrassed emotional experience may affect the ability to oncology patient effectively cope with cancer, symptoms and treatment. Distress extends a long period, from common, normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems of PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation and the perception of spiritual crisis. The aim of the research is to determine the level of distress and PTSD in cancer patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, cohort study cases from 2011- 2014 were included patients with cancer who are treated under the supervision of his chosen family medicine doctor. Including a factor for the participation of patients in the study is that from the moment of diagnosis of malignant disease passed 14 days-6 months n=39 patients. To achieve the set goals of the research was used instruments of 3 questionnaires: Questionnaire on the clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease, demographic and individual characteristics; questionnaire distress oncology patient–hospital scales of depression and anxiety, HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) and a rapid test for self-assessment of the symptoms of PTSD. Results: Age of patients was 54.63 ± 11:46 years, and the age of the respondents when they were diagnosed with cancer 54.34 ± 11.26 years. The prevalence of distress was a high 76% 82x higher than expected), and PTSD 55%. Predictors of burnout syndrome in cancer patients are all important determinants of malignant disease: the time elapsed since the diagnosis of the disease which determines the clinical status of malignant disease (β=0.280; P=0.001; 95% CI, 0742-2259), discovered metastases (β=0.304; P=0.001; 95% CI -2621 to 0978) and treatments (β=0.160; P=0.031, 95% CI 0050 to 1.060). Conclusion: The problem of distress in cancer patients is widespread and has a high prevalence of 76% in our environment, while still absent intervention and treatment. PMID:27047260
Naresh M Punjabi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the
Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L.
A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the S...
Simon, Steven L; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Hoffman, F Owen; Scholl, Alan E; Stone, Mary B; Thomas, Brian A; Lyon, Joseph L
In the 1980s, individual thyroid doses and uncertainties were estimated for members of a cohort of children identified in 1965 in Utah and Nevada who had potentially been exposed to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. That reconstruction represented the first comprehensive assessment of doses received by the cohort and was the first large effort to assess the uncertainty of dose on an individual person basis. The data on dose and thyroid disease prevalence during different periods were subsequently used in an analysis to determine risks of radiogenic thyroid disease. This cohort has received periodic medical follow-up to observe changes in disease frequency and to reassess the previously reported radiation-related risks, most recently after a Congressional mandate in 1998. In a recent effort to restore the databases and computer codes used to estimate doses in the 1980s, various deficiencies were found in the estimated doses due to improperly operating computer codes, corruption of secondary data files, and lack of quality control procedures. From 2001 through 2004, the dosimetry system was restored and corrected and all doses were recalculated. In addition, two parameter values were updated. While the mean of all doses has not changed significantly, many individual doses have changed by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:16435919
Fiore, Maria; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Liguori, Giorgio; Cicolini, Giancarlo; Capasso, Lorenzo; D'Amario, Claudio; Boccia, Stefania; Siliquini, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo
Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. Design Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. Data Sources Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. Methods Adults (30–75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. Main Outcome Measures Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. Data Synthesis We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. Results Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35–8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). Conclusions Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate
Li, Dongliang; Li, Shuming; Liu, Yingjie; Gao, Yanjie; Yu, Mingrun; Yang, Xueying; Li, Qingchun; Jiang, Shulin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Zhang, Zheng; Yan, Li; Jiang, Guiyan; Xiao, Dong; Pan, Stephen W.; Luo, Fengji
Objectives (1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Baseline and follow-up visits were conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Participants A cohort of 797 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from August to December 2009, with follow-up occurring after 6 and 12 m...
Anne M. J. Gilsing; Schouten, Leo J.; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Weijenberg, Matty P.
To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), ...
Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G David; Schoon, Ingrid
Objective To examine the relation between IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood.Design Prospective cohort study in which IQ was assessed by tests of mental ability at age 10 years and vegetarianism by self-report at age 30 years.Setting Great Britain.Participants 8170 men and women aged 30 years participating in the 1970 British cohort study, a national birth cohort.Main outcome measures Self-reported vegetarianism and type of diet followed.Results 366 (4.5%) participants said they w...
Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; ,
The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the...
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; ,
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Design Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Setting Thailand. Participants The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with tw...
Hashemian, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Khoshnia, Masoud; Brockman, John Douglas; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Abnet, Christian C.; Malekzadeh, Reza
BACKGROUND In the Golestan Cohort Study that was launched to investigate the causes of esophageal cancer, a complete biospecimen bank was established for storage of collected blood, urine, hair, and nail samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of nail samples as a biomarker of selected trace elements status. METHODS Thirty toenail samples were selected randomly from the participants of Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). The samples were cleaned and analyzed for selenium...
Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M. P. G.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Wannet, W. J. B.; Vinje, J.; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van
A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to december 1999. Cases and controls in the case-control study supplied a questionnaire and stool samples. The standardized gastroenteritis incidence was 283 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence rose w...
Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin; ,
Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnair...
Bloor, Michael; Gannon, Maria; Hay, Gordon; Jackson, Graham; Alastair H Leyland; McKeganey, Neil
Objectives To examine the “Scottish effect”—namely, the growing divergence between mortality in Scotland and England that is not explained by national differences in levels of deprivation—and, more specifically, to examine the extent to which the Scottish effect is explained by cross national differences in the prevalence of problem drug use. Design Secondary analysis of cohort study (the DORIS study). Participants 1033 Scottish drug users recruited to the cohort study in 33 drug treatment fa...
Junker, Till; Mujagic, Edin; Hoffmann, Henry; Rosenthal, Rachel; Misteli, Heidi; Zwahlen, Marcel; Oertli, Daniel; Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Widmer, Andreas F; Marti, Walter R; Weber, Walter P
INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients, with significant impact on patient morbidity and health care costs. The Basel SSI Cohort Study was performed to evaluate risk factors and validate current preventive measures for SSI. The objective of the present article was to review the main results of this study and its implications for clinical practice and future research. SUMMARY OF METHODS OF THE BASEL SSI COHORT STUDY...
Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher
Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...
Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF).We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m).The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.62, P pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group.Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27336897
Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Middelburg, Karin J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Objective: To evaluate whether children's cognitive and psychomotor development and behavior at 2 years are affected by ovarian hyperstimulation and the IVF laboratory procedures or subfertility. Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting: University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherl
Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, María Luisa; González, Daniela; Kain, Juliana; Mericq, Verónica; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila
Background Early puberty onset has been related to future chronic disease; however breast bud assessment in large scale population studies is difficult because it requires trained personnel. Thus our aim is to assess the validity of self and maternal breast bud detection, considering girl’s body mass index (BMI) and maternal education. Methods In 2010, 481 girls (mean age = 7.8) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated by a nutritionist trained in breast bud detection. ...
Oliveira, C. M.; M.F. Lima-Costa
The aim of this study was to investigate the cohort differences in physical functioning levels among the older (cohort members born in 1916-1926 and in 1927-1937) participants of the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging. The data came from participants aged 71-81 who took part at baseline in 1997 (n = 491) and in the 11th wave in 2008 (n = 620). The physical functioning variables included the following self-reported measures: activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living and...
Hamre, Harald J.; Anja Glockmann; Michael Fischer; Riley, David S.; Erik Baars; Helmut Kiene
Objective: Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections.Methods: A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged 1 month, treated ...
Petry Andrea; de Souza Denise ER; Kupek Emil
Abstract Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matchi...
Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M
A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared wi...
Rocca, Gregory J. Della; Moylan, Kyle C.; Crist, Brett D.; Volgas, David A.; Stannard, James P.; Mehr, David R.
The objective of this 3-year retrospective, controlled, cohort study is to characterize an interdisciplinary method of managing geriatric patients with hip fracture. All patients aged 65 years or older admitted to a single academic level I trauma center during a 3-year period with an isolated hip fracture were included as participants for this study. Thirty-one geriatric patients with hip fracture were treated with historical methods of care (cohort 1). The comparison group of 115 similar pat...
Calzada-Hernández, Joan; Anton-López, Jordi; Bou-Torrent, Rosa; Iglesias-Jiménez, Estíbaliz; Ricart-Campos, Sílvia; Martín de Carpi, Javier; ,; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Sánchez-Manubens, Judith; Giménez-Roca, Clara; Rozas-Quesada, Librada; Juncosa-Morros, Maria Teresa; Fortuny, Clàudia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni
Background Adult patients receiving anti-TNFα drugs are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB), but studies in pediatric populations are limited, and the best strategy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening in this population remains controversial. We describe the prevalence of LTBI prior to anti-TNFα therapy and the long-term follow-up after biological treatment initiation in a cohort of children and adolescents. Methods Cohort observational study in children and adolescents rece...
Hong Lin; Jin-Hua Leng; Jun-Tao Liu; Jing-He Lang
Background: The effect of endometriosis on obstetric outcomes is still ambiguous. The aim of our study was to determine the association between endometriosis and adverse obstetric outcomes in a cohort of Chinese women. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to compare obstetric outcomes between 249 women with endometriosis and 249 women without endometriosis. All women were nulliparous and achieved singleton pregnancies naturally. Women with endometriosis were diagnosed duri...
Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D. J.; Spiegelman, D; Anderson, K. E.; Buring, J. E.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Harnack, L.; Hankinson, S E; Larsson, S C; Leitzmann, M; McCullough, M.L.; Marshall, J.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.
Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 5...
Sanchez-Villegas, A.; E. Toledo; Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Martin-Moreno, J.M. (J.M.); Tortosa, A.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Angel)
Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary patterns of a Mediterranean cohort and relate them to the observed patterns of beverage consumption. Design: Prospective cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed with a semiquantitative FFQ validated in Spain. A principal components factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and to classify subjects according to their adherence to these patterns. The association between adherence to each dietar...
Hallal, P. C.; Wells, J. C.; Reichert, F. F.; Anselmi, L; Victora, C G
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING: Pelotas, southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 4453 adolescents aged 10-12 years participating in the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study (follow-up rate 87.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sedentary lifestyle (< 300 minutes of physical activity per week) and median physical activity score (minutes per week). RESULTS: The prevalence...
Case-cohort design, an outcome-dependent sampling design for censored survival data, is increasingly used in biomedical research. The development of asymptotic theory for a case-cohort design in the current literature primarily relies on counting process stochastic integrals. Such an approach, however, is rather limited and lacks theoretical justification for outcome-dependent weighted methods due to non-predictability. Instead of stochastic integrals, we derive asymptotic properties for case-cohort studies based on a general Z-estimation theory for semiparametric models with bundled parameters using modern empirical processes. Both the Cox model and the additive hazards model with time-dependent covariates are considered.
Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;
AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...
Fraser, A; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Tilling, K; Boyd, A.; J. Golding; Davey Smith, G.; Henderson, J.; Macleod, J; Molloy, L.; Ness, A; Ring, S.; Nelson, S M; D.A. Lawlor
Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13 761 women (contributing 13 867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years...
Haas, Alex Nogueira; Gaio, Eduardo José; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rios, Fernando Silva; Costa, Ricardo dos Santos Araujo; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Albandar, Jasim; Susin, Cristiano
Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26083520
Alex Nogueira Haas
Full Text Available Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; MacKay, Daniel
Background: Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims: Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ a...
Tsou, Meng-Ting; Tsou, Meng-Wen; Wu, Ming-Ping; Liu, Jin-Tan
Objectives To examine the long term effects of low birth weight on academic achievements in twins and singletons and to determine whether the academic achievement of twins in early adulthood is inferior to that of singletons. Design Cohort study. Setting Taiwanese nationwide register of academic outcome. Participants A cohort of 218 972 singletons and 1687 twins born in Taiwan, 1983-5. Main outcome measure College attendance and test scores in the college joint entrance examinations. Results ...
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana
In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the ch...
Pimperton, H; Blythe, H.; Kreppner, J.; Mahon, H. M.; Stevenson, J.; Terletski, E.; Worsfold, S.; Yuen, H M; Kennedy, C
Objective: To determine whether the benefits of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) seen at age 8 years persist through the second decade. Design: Prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) followed up for 17 years since birth in periods with (or without) UNHS. Setting: Birth cohort of 100 000 in southern England. Participants: 114 teenagers aged 13–19 years, 76 with PCHI and 38 with normal hearing. All had previously ...
Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Estefania Toledo
The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...
Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars J.; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Boyd, Heather A.; Priest, James; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Quertermous, Thomas; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads
Background—Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods and Results—In a national cohort study, we identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes melli...
Mehta, Saurabh; Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Aboud, Said; Urassa, Willy; Villamor, Eduardo; Fawzi, Wafaie W.
Objectives: Vitamin D is an immunomodulator and can alter response to tuberculosis (TB) treatment, though randomised trials have been inconclusive to date. We present one of the first comprehensive analysis of the associations between vitamin D status and TB treatment, T-cell counts and nutritional outcomes by HIV status. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Outpatient clinics in Tanzania. Participants: 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were assessed in a cohort of 677 patients with TB (344 HIV infected) ...
Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774. The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out, 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team.
Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; . .; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Background There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolut...
Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior
Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.
Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung
Purpose Pneumococcal disease leads to renal complications ranging from persistent proteinuria to end-stage renal disease. Studies on the association between pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are scant. This study assessed the relationship between PP and risk of AKI. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study examined data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2011. We identified inpatients with newly diagnosed PP according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. In addition, we selected a comparison cohort from inpatient claims without the diagnosis of PP that was randomly frequency-matched with the PP cohort according to age, sex, index year and comorbidities. We analyzed the risks of AKI by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results A total of 10,069 patients with PP and 10,069 controls were enrolled in this study. After adjustments for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with PP had a 1.11-fold risk of developing AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Conclusion This study indicates that AKI risks are higher in patients with PP compared with the comparison cohort. Careful follow-up observation and aggressive treatment are necessary for patients with PP to reduce the risk of AKI. PMID:27362355
Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian
Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the impact of combination chemotherapy in the combined modality treatment of isolated first locoregional recurrence (LRR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1989, 120 chemotherapy-naive women with isolated LRR as first failure after mastectomy were prospectively identified, uniformly staged, and systematically followed. Treatment consisted of excision if feasible, radical locoregional radiotherapy, and a hormonal maneuver (unless estrogen receptor negative). The initial chemotherapy cohort also received 8 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. This was compared to a subsequent control cohort. Results: For all patients, the 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival ± 95% confidence interval was 42.1 ± 9.2%, and overall survival was 56.8 ± 9.1%. No difference was seen in locoregional control between cohorts. At 5 years, distant recurrence-free survival for chemotherapy and control cohort respectively was 75.4 ± 10.8% and 60.7 ±12.5% (p = 0.33) and overall survival was 81.9% ± 9.6 and 74.3% ± 11.2 (p = 0.24). Univariate analysis showed no prognostic importance for any imbalance between cohorts. Cox modeling confirmed that complete resection was strongly associated with fewer LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.32, p = 0.001) and also with better overall survival (HR 1.82, p = 0.019). Chemotherapy produced a substantial reduction in risk of death (HR 0.72 CI 0.421-1.235, p = 0.23). Conclusions: In this prospective but nonrandomized study of treatment for first LRR, the risk of death in the later control cohort was 1.39 times the risk in the chemotherapy cohort but failed to reach statistical significance. The results justify further study
Bae, Jong-Myon; Lee, Moo-Song; Shin, Myung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Li, Zhong-Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate lung cancer risk of cigarette smoking in Korean men by a 10-yr follow-up prospective cohort study using the primary databases. The number of subjects was 14,272 men, who had full information of smoking habits among participants in the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study (SMCC). Total 125,053 person-years were calculated by determining the number of days from the start of follow-up, January 1, 1993, un...
Brandt, P.A. van den; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.
Objective: Many case-control studies have reported that salt and cured meat intake are positively, and refrigerator use is inversely, associated with stomach cancer risk. In the current prospective study these associations were evaluated. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study consisted of 120,852 me
Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means
Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon
Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…
Mary B Pierce
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. CONCLUSIONS: Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the
Meretoja, Riitta; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
Research indicates significant differences between nurse cohorts in many work-related factors. This study compared nurse competence between three generational cohorts comprising the current nursing workforce. The Nurse Competence Scale was used to collect data for this cross-sectional study from 2052 nurses in a university hospital in Finland. Data were analysed statistically. Significant differences were found between nurse cohorts in their competence. The length of work experience had a significant impact on the development of competence. The oldest cohort, with the longest work experience, had the highest competence scores (70.1 on a visual analogue scale), and the youngest had the lowest (59.0). All cohorts were most competent in patient-related nursing tasks, in maintenance of professional competence and in ethical care. Nurses were weakest in the development of nursing practice and the use of evidence-based knowledge. Targeted interventions in teaching-coaching for different nurse generations are needed to ensure the maintenance of nurse competence and high-quality patient care. PMID:24689751
Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchôa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa
This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937) among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492) and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620). The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively) and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, ...
Ahlehoff, O; Gislason, G H; Charlot, M;
Southern Denmark, Copenhagen; Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02310.x. Objective. The...... magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged =18 years followed from...
Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie;
OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and...... Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours...
Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels
The objective of the study was to determine the long-term mortality and the causes of death in patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis. The authors performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study including all Danish patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis from 1977 through ...
Nybo, Mads; Brusgaard, Klaus; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo
OBJECTIVE: In order to enable clinicians to refer the right persons suspected of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) for mutation screening, a retrospective study was conducted in a Danish FH cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study comprised 643 probands and 395 relatives, of which 421 individuals h...
Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida
Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an instrume
Brink, M.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Pachen, M.M.M.; Smits, K.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Activation of K-ras oncogene has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis, being mutated in 30-60% of the adenocarcinomas. In this study, 737 incident colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, originating from 120 852 men and women (55-69 years at baseline) participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study
Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Richter, Kerry; Halle, Tamara; Le Menestrel, Suzanne; Zaslow, Martha; Greene, Angela Dungee; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela; Bridges, Lisa
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 2000 (ECLS-B) is a study that will assess children's health status and their growth and development in domains that are critical for later school readiness and academic achievement. This paper is one of several that have been prepared in support of ECLS-B design efforts. It is anticipated that…
Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.
The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp
Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D.
Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) regi...
ZHUNUSSOVA T.; Grosche, B; Apsalikov, K.; BELIKHINA T.; Pivina, L.; Muldagaliev, T.
In the paper we have presented the possibilities of prospective cohort study of health status in the radiation exposed population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. It was substantiated the necessity of international cooperation of scientists from Kazakhstan, Europe, Japan and the United States for long-term study of radiation effects for the people and the environment.
Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.
Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin
Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei
Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…
Port, I.G. van de; Kwakkel, G.; Wijk, I. van; Lindeman, E.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to identify clinical determinants able to predict which individuals are susceptible to deterioration of mobility from 1 to 3 years after stroke. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of stroke patients consecutively admitted for inpatient rehabili
Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using sel
Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.
Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity
Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann
The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…
Oostrom, S.H.; Verschuren, M.; Vet, de H.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Picavet, H.S.
Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. We explored long-term associations between physical load exposure and chronic low back pain (LBP) using data from an ongoing population-based cohort study. Summary of Background Data. Physical load in work or daily life is often studied in relation
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G;
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten;
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241...
Gilsing, Anne MJ; Weijenberg, Matty P.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Schouten, Leo J.
Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirme...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS
Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E
We performed a survival analysis to assess the effect of meat consumption and meat type on the risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Between 1995 and 1998 a cohort of 35 372 women was recruited, aged between 35 and 69 years with a wide range of dietary intakes, assessed by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. High consumption of total meat compared with none was associated with premenop...
Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; R. A. Goldbohm
Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer ...
Engström, Gunnar; Janzon, Lars
AimTo investigate whether reduced lung function is a risk factor for developing diabetes. MethodsNon-diabetic men (n = 382) from the population-based cohort 'Men Born in 1914' were examined with spirometry at age 55 years. The cohort was re-examined at 68 years. Diabetes and fasting plasma glucose at follow-up were studied in relation to vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) at baseline. ResultsFifteen men developed diabetes during the follow-up. The ...
Bugianio Massimilian; Cazzoletti Lucia; Locatelli Francesca; Marco Roberto; Carosso Aurelia; Marinoni Alessandra
Abstract Background Few longitudinal data exist on the incidence of asthma in young adults and on the overall mortality risk due to asthma. A 7-year follow-up prospective study was performed to assess the incidence of asthma and mortality from all causes in a cohort of young adults. Methods The life status of a cohort of 6031 subjects, aged 20–44 years, who replied to a respiratory screening questionnaire between 1991 and 1992, was ascertained in 1999. A new questionnaire investigating the hi...
Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brants, H.A.M.; van Klaveren, J.D.; van den Brandt, P.A.
The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (1688 men and 1812 ...
Lorent, Marine; Giral, Magali; Pascual, Manuel; Koller, Michael T.; Steiger, Jürg; Trébern-Launay, Katy; Legendre, Christophe; Kreis, Henri; Mourad, Georges; Garrigue, Valérie; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Kessler, Michèle; Ladrière, Marc; Morelon, Emmanuel; Buron, Fanny; Golshayan, Dela; Foucher, Yohann
After the first year post transplantation, prognostic mortality scores in kidney transplant recipients can be useful for personalizing medical management. We developed a new prognostic score based on 5 parameters and computable at 1-year post transplantation. The outcome was the time between the first anniversary of the transplantation and the patient’s death with a functioning graft. Afterwards, we appraised the prognostic capacities of this score by estimating time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves from two prospective and multicentric European cohorts: the DIVAT (Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2000 and 2012 in 6 French centers; and the STCS (Swiss Transplant Cohort Study) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2008 and 2012 in 6 Swiss centers. We also compared the results with those of two existing scoring systems: one from Spain (Hernandez et al.) and one from the United States (the Recipient Risk Score, RRS, Baskin-Bey et al.). From the DIVAT validation cohort and for a prognostic time at 10 years, the new prognostic score (AUC = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.69, 0.85]) seemed to present significantly higher prognostic capacities than the scoring system proposed by Hernandez et al. (p = 0.04) and tended to perform better than the initial RRS (p = 0.10). By using the Swiss cohort, the RRS and the the new prognostic score had comparable prognostic capacities at 4 years (AUC = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively, p = 0.31). In addition to the current available scores related to the risk to return in dialysis, we recommend to further study the use of the score we propose or the RRS for a more efficient personalized follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. PMID:27152510
Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S
The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n = 1,468. A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n = 783,817. Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Results Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31 and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49 compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20 and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35, but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96 and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4. Conclusions The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women
Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an
Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne M L; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja
The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its anti-oestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in...
Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van
Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice
We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…
Heine-Broring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Jung, A.Y.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Vasen, H.F.; Kampman, E.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHOD
Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Jung, A.Y.; Kampman, E.
Background and Aims: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. Materials and Method
Heine-Broring, Renate C.; Winkels, Renate M.; Botma, Akke; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Jung, Audrey Y.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen
Background and Aims: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. Materials and Method
Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer
Gradus, Jaimie L; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg
Longitudinal outcomes following stress or trauma diagnoses are receiving attention, yet population-based studies are few. The aims of the present cohort study were to examine the cumulative incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders categorized using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and to examine associations of these diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide. Data came from a longitudinal cohort of all Danes who received a diagnosis of reaction to severe stress or adjustment disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code F43.x) between 1995 and 2011, and they were compared with data from a general-population cohort. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to examine traumatic experiences and psychiatric diagnoses during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the associations of the disorders with mortality and suicide. Participants with stress diagnoses had a higher incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses than did the comparison group. Each disorder was associated with a higher rate of all-cause mortality than that seen in the comparison cohort, and strong associations with suicide were found after adjustment. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of stress disorders with a variety of outcomes, and we found that stress diagnoses may have long-lasting and potentially severe consequences. PMID:26243737
Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c
Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Steffen, K.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.
OBJECTIVE:: To describe characteristics of outdoor soccer injury and recovery among Dutch soccer players. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: The 2009-2010 competitive season (33 weeks). PARTICIPANTS:: Four hundred fifty-six Dutch male soccer players of 23 amateur teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUR
de Heus, R.; Mol, B.W.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.; van Geijn, H.P.; Gyselaers, W.J.; Hanssens, M.; Harmark, L.; van Holsbeke, C.D.; Duvekot, J.J.; Schobben, F.F.A.M.; Wolf, Hans; Visser, G.H.A.
Objective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920 consecutive women
R. de Heus; B.W. Mol; J.J.H.M. Erwich; H.P. van Geijn; W.J. Gyselaers; M. Hanssens; L. Härmark; C.D. van Holsbeke; J.J. Duvekot; F.F.A.M. Schobben; H. Wolf; G.H.A. Visser
Objective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920 consecutive women
Heus, R.; Mol, B.W.; Erwich, J.J.; Geijn, van H.; Gyselaers, W.J.; Hanssens, M.; Harmark, L.; Holsbeke, van C.D.; Duvekot, J.J.; Schobben, F.F.; Wolf, de H.; Visser, G.H.A.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: 1920 consecutive w
Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline nonoccupation
Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den
The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal c
Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den
The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were avai
Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include
Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include
M. Weisfelt; D. van de Beek; L. Spanjaard; J. de Gans
Background: Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired ba
Cockerill, Richard G.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.
Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder.
Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Charlot, Mette Gitz;
Objective. The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged...
Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J. M.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Brouwers, Hens A. A.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Achterberg, Peter W.; Merkus, Hans (J) M. W. M.; Bruinse, Hein W.
Objective: To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/ paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in the
Brandt, P.A. van den; Smits, K.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.
Energy-adjusted magnesium intake was nonsignificantly inversely related to risk of colorectal cancer (n=2328) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer that started in 1986 (n=58 279 men and 62 573 women). Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects
Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Purandare, N.; Hardicre, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) predicts subsequent depression in older people. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 2.5 years of follow-up including 96 nondepressed older subjects in primary care. Presence of SCE was measured at baseline by transcrania
Jobsen, Jan Jacobus
A large cohort study on breast cancer was started that included patients treated with breastconserving therapy, from the early start of this treatment in the Twente – Achterhoek region, till today, with more than 3.800 breast-conserving treatments. Recruitment is still continuing. In chapter 2, on f
Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.
STUDY QUESTION: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. SUMMARY ANSWER: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial i
Dros, J.; Maarsingh, O.R.; Beem, L.; Horst, H.E. van der; Riet, G. ter; Schellevis, F.G.; Weert, H.C.P.M. van
Objectives: To investigate the 6-month functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care, to identify important predictors of dizziness-related impairment, and to construct a score to assist risk prediction. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Setting: Twenty-fou
Grove, Erik; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter;
-based cohort study based on linkage of three administrative registries in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals who redeemed at least one prescription of clopidogrel from 1996 to 2008 were included as exposed subjects (n = 77,503). For each exposed subject, three matched controls were randomly selected from...
Barbra Beck; Matthew H. Scheel; Kathleen De Oliveira; Jane Hopp
Purpose: Many physician assistant (PA) programs have recently integrated cultural competency into their curricula. However, there is little evidence of the longitudinal effectiveness of such curricula on culture competency. This study tested whether the amount of exposure to a cultural competency curriculum affected self-assessments of cultural awareness in two cohorts of students. Methods: Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program an...
Full Text Available There is limited evidence regarding intra-observer and inter-observer variations in echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function. This study aimed to assess this reproducibly within a population-based cohort study.Sixty subjects in sinus rhythm were randomly selected among 4th visit participants of the STANISLAS Cohort (Lorraine region, France. This 4th examination systematically included M-mode, 2-dimensional, DTI and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiograms. Reproducibility of variables was studied by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Bland Altman plots.Our population was on average middle-aged (50 ± 14 y, overweight (BMI = 26 ± 6 kg/m2 and non-smoking (87% with a quarter of the participants having self-declared hypertension or treated with anti-hypertensive medication(s. Intra-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which was 0.89 (0.81-0.93. The mean relative intra-observer differences were small and limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow for all considered parameters ( 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for LVEF (ICC = 0.87 and both mitral and pulmonary A wave duration (0.83 and 0.73 respectively. The mean relative inter-observer differences were <5% for all parameters except for pulmonary A wave duration (mean difference = 6.5%. Limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow (<15%, except for mitral A wave duration and velocity (both <20% as well as left ventricular mass and pulmonary A wave duration (both <30%. Intra-observer agreements with regard to the presence and severity of diastolic dysfunction were excellent (Kappa = 0.93 (0.83-1.00 and 0.88 (0.75-0.99, respectively.In this validation study within the STANISLAS cohort, diastolic function echocardiographic parameters were found to be highly reproducible. Diastolic dysfunction consequently appears as a highly effective clinical and research tool.
Lidegaard, Ojvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe
The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of imprinting diseases in children born after IVF with the incidence in naturally conceived children.......The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of imprinting diseases in children born after IVF with the incidence in naturally conceived children....
Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne Schumann; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;
The objective of the study was to examine the role of leisure time physical activity on the risk of developing depression in a large longitudinal setting.......The objective of the study was to examine the role of leisure time physical activity on the risk of developing depression in a large longitudinal setting....
Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung
Purpose Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Methods A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged enterovirus-infected children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. Methods This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted. PMID:27508414
Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.
Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of w...
Crawford, Judith A.; Hargrave, Teresa M; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D; Hall, Geralyn E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H.; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D.; Abraham, Jerrold L.
The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements ...
Background Findings regarding the association between milk consumption and all-cause mortality reported by studies carried out in Western populations have been inconsistent. However, no studies have been conducted in Japan on this issue. The present study aimed to investigate the association of milk drinking with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in Japan. Methods The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. A total of 94 980 Japanese adults aged 40–7...
Amoroso Paul J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment.
AJOY K, MARIA LM, CEBALLOS C ARJUN PD, SUJIT S, HIEU TT
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to highlight differences in pharmacist’s perceptions regarding use of pharmacogenetic information in their professional activities based on their practice settings. A survey was electronically administered using the Survey Monkey to 48 practicing pharmacists in the hospitals and non-hospital study groups which include community pharmacy and managed care around the metro Louisville, Kentucky areaBarring minor deviations, there was overall homogeneity in our pilot study group’s general knowledge, overall confidence in pharmacogenetics and perceptions about possible impact of this emerging field in their profession, regardless of their professional practice environment. Overall low to moderate levels of pharmacists’ confidence in pharmacogenetics and related areas even a decade after completion of Human Genome Project (HGP seems to be a matter of concern.
Cleary, Brian J
Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia
; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...
Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho
Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.
Jansen, N; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T; van den Brandt, P.A.; Kant, I.
Aims: (1) To describe the prevalence of fatigue among employees in different work schedules (day work, three-shift, five-shift, and irregular shift work); (2) to investigate whether different work schedules are related to increasing fatigue over time, while taking into account job title and job characteristics; and (3) to study fatigue among shift workers changing to day work.
Kok, D.E.G.; Roermund, van J.G.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Heijer, den M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.
It has been hypothesized that blood lipid levels might be associated with prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and prost
Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.
Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…
Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;
Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...
Epton Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.
Kim, K.; Park, K.; Won, J.
Sea level variations of the Korean peninsula and surrounding areas in the ranges of 20-40 °N and 110-145 °E were investigated for the purpose of understanding the regional characteristics of the abnormal sea level rise near the Jeju island located in the southern edge of the Korean peninsula. For this study, we used tide gauge (TG) data, Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, and satellite altimeter measurements taken in the study area. We used the data at 194 TG stations. We obtained the TG data from 38 stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) in Korea. We also collected monthly mean sea level observations from 139 and 17 TG stations of Japan and China, respectively. The data of Japan and China are from Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) services. We computed sea level rates using monthly mean sea level measurements, and analyzed spatial-temporal correlation through the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. As the second part of our study, we derived absolute sea level rise rates by correcting the TG data for crustal deformation rates. To obtain the uplift rates in the area, we used continuous measurements at permanent GPS stations located at the TG site. For GPS data processing high-precision GPS data processing program GIPSY-OASIS II was used. To analyze local signatures of crustal deformation, we subtracted the primary EOF mode signal from the GPS height time series. Furthermore, we compared the obtained absolute sea level rates with satellite altimeter measurements. We obtained and analyzed TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeter data provided by AVISO from 1993 to 2010. We found that the absolute sea level rates from geodetic measurements are generally in good agreement with radar altimeter rates.
Owe, Katrine M.; Nystad, Wenche; Bø, Kari
The aims of this study were to describe the level of exercise during pregnancy and to assess factors associated with regular exercise. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 34 508 pregnancies were included in the present study. Data were collected by self-completed questionnaires in gestational weeks 17 and 30, and analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with ...
Sreelakshmi, P. R.; Nair, Sanjeev; Soman, Biju; Alex, Rani; K. Vijayakumar; Kutty, V. Raman
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes is on the rise. Understanding the various outcomes of it is necessary to face this challenge. Objectives: To study the frequency of occurrence of various maternal and fetal outcomes among gestational diabetes patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in rural Kerala, a southern state of India. The study participants were followed up for a period of 4 years, from 2007 to 2011. The participants included 60 women with ges...
Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Falissard, Bruno; Galéra, Cédric; Tremblay, Richard E.; Sylvana M Côté; Boivin, Michel
Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals’ dietary needs) is concurrently associated with children’s psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children’s mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the...
Gallo, V; Vanacore, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Vermeulen, R.; Brayne, C.; Pearce, N.; Wark, PA; Ward, HA; P. Ferrari; Jenab, M; Andersen, PM; P. Wennberg; Wareham, N.; Katzke, V; Kaaks, R
Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected tho...
Vedsted Peter; Hansen Rikke P; Sokolowski Ineta; Søndergaard Jens; Olesen Frede
Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may have serious prognostic consequences, and some patients experience delays lasting several months. However, we have no knowledge whether such delays are associated with general practitioner (GP) characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether GP and practice characteristics are associated with the length of delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods The study was designed as a population-based cohort study. The setting was the Coun...
Taylor, Rachel M.; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A.
Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study ‘Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?’ follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high...
St. John, Philip D.; Montgomery, Patrick R
Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. ...
Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.
Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...
Runeson, Bo; Tidemalm, Dag; Dahlin, Marie; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas
Objective To study the association between method of attempted suicide and risk of subsequent successful suicide. Design Cohort study with follow-up for 21-31 years. Setting Swedish national register linkage study. Participants 48 649 individuals admitted to hospital in 1973-82 after attempted suicide. Main outcome measure Completed suicide, 1973-2003. Multiple Cox regression modelling was conducted for each method at the index (first) attempt, with poisoning as the reference category. Relati...
Agot, Kawango E; Vander Stoep, Ann; Tracy, Melissa; Obare, Billy A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Moses, Stephen; Weiss, Noel S.
Background Widow Inheritance is a widespread cultural practice in sub-Saharan Africa that has been postulated as contributing to risk of HIV transmission. We present baseline results from a study designed to investigate the association between widow inheritance and HIV acquisition. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study to investigate if widow inheritance is a risk practice for HIV infection. Study participants were 1,987 ...
El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n...
Gabel Pernille; Jensen Morten; Andersen Helle; Baelum Jesper; Thulstrup Ane; Bonde Jens; Toft Gunnar
Abstract Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant...
Gholam Reza Kheirabadi; Mohammad Reza Maracy
Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively ne...
Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Kenneth M. Langa; Phillips, John WR; David R Weir
The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition...
Guerra-Pereira, Inês; Vaz, Paula; Faria Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana Cristina; Felino, António
Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective c...
Prentice, P.; Acerini, C. L.; Eleftheriou, A.; Hughes, I A; Ong, K K; Dunger, D B
The Cambridge Baby Growth Study has been supported by the European Union Framework V, the World Cancer Research Foundation International, the Medical Research Council, the NIHR Cambridge Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, the Newlife Foundation for disabled children, the Mothercare Group Foundation, Mead Johnson Nutrition, the Evelyn Trust, the Wellbeing of Women, Diabetes UK and a collaborative research grant from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.
Casasnovas José A; Alcaide Victor; Civeira Fernando; Guallar Eliseo; Ibañez Borja; Borreguero Jesús; Laclaustra Martin; León Montserrat; Peñalvo José; Ordovás José M; Pocovi Miguel; Sanz Ginés; Fuster Valentín
Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to des...
Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao
AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study
Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E.; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.
Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995–2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993–2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999
Petek, Lisa M; Rickard, Amanda M; Budech, Christopher; Poliachik, Sandra L; Shaw, Dennis; Ferguson, Mark R; Tawil, Rabi; Friedman, Seth D; Miller, Daniel G
Measuring the severity and progression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is particularly challenging because muscle weakness progresses over long periods of time and can be sporadic. Biomarkers are essential for measuring disease burden and testing treatment strategies. We utilized the sensitive, specific, high-throughput SomaLogic proteomics platform of 1129 proteins to identify proteins with levels that correlate with FSHD severity in a cross-sectional study of two independent cohorts. We discovered biomarkers that correlate with clinical severity and disease burden measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-eight proteins in the Rochester cohort (n = 48) and 51 proteins in the Seattle cohort (n = 30) had significantly different levels in FSHD-affected individuals when compared with controls (p-value ≤ .005). A subset of these varied by at least 1.5 fold and four biomarkers were significantly elevated in both cohorts. Levels of creatine kinase MM and MB isoforms, carbonic anhydrase III, and troponin I type 2 reliably predicted the disease state and correlated with disease severity. Other novel biomarkers were also discovered that may reveal mechanisms of disease pathology. Assessing the levels of these biomarkers during clinical trials may add significance to other measures of quantifying disease progression or regression. PMID:27185459
Brumme Zabrina L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence indicates that HLA-mediated HIV evolution follows highly stereotypic pathways that result in HLA-associated footprints in HIV at the population level. However, it is not known whether characteristic HLA frequency distributions in different populations have resulted in additional unique footprints. Methods The phylogenetic dependency network model was applied to assess HLA-mediated evolution in datasets of HIV pol sequences from free plasma viruses and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC-integrated proviruses in an immunogenetically unique cohort of Mexican individuals. Our data were compared with data from the IHAC cohort, a large multi-center cohort of individuals from Canada, Australia and the USA. Results Forty three different HLA-HIV codon associations representing 30 HLA-HIV codon pairs were observed in the Mexican cohort (q Conclusion Our data support universal HLA-mediated HIV evolution at the population level, resulting in detectable HLA-associated footprints in the circulating virus. However, it also strongly suggests that unique genetic backgrounds in different HIV-infected populations may influence HIV evolution in a particular direction as particular HLA-HIV codon associations are determined by specific HLA frequency distributions. Our analysis also suggests a dynamic HLA-associated evolution in HIV with fewer HLA-HIV codon associations observed in the proviral compartment, which is likely enriched in early archived HIV sequences, compared to the plasma virus compartment. These results highlight the importance of comparative HIV evolutionary studies in immunologically different populations worldwide.
Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung
Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older adults
Gordon, Max; Rysinska, Agata; Garland, Anne; Rolfson, Ola; Aspberg, Sara; Eisler, Thomas; Garellick, Göran; Stark, André; Hailer, Nils P; Sköldenberg, Olof
Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery.A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n = 270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 7-21).The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events.During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-10.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.06-1.11).Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls. PMID:26871792
Full Text Available Few studies have explored predictors of early childhood anxiety.To determine the prenatal, postnatal, and early life predictors of childhood anxiety by age 5.Population-based, provincial administrative data (N = 19,316 from Manitoba, Canada were used to determine the association between demographic, obstetrical, psychosocial, medical, behavioral, and infant factors on childhood anxiety.Risk factors for childhood anxiety by age 5 included maternal psychological distress from birth to 12 months and 13 months to 5 years post-delivery and an infant 5-minute Apgar score of ≤7. Factors associated with decreased risk included maternal age < 20 years, multiparity, and preterm birth.Identifying predictors of childhood anxiety is a key step to early detection and prevention. Maternal psychological distress is an early, modifiable risk factor. Future research should aim to disentangle early life influences on childhood anxiety occurring in the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods.
Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan
Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.
Objective: To analyze the preliminary experience of radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. Material and methods: The first 17 patients with sporadic Vestibular Schwannomas treated by radiosurgery at our institution are reported. The marginal dose used was 12 to 12.5 Gy. prescribed at the 70 or 80 isodose fine. Patients were controlled at 6, 12 and 24 months with magnetic resonance, audiometric study and clinical examination. Results: In all of the 17 patients treated a decrease tumor enhancement on MR was demonstrated. In 16 patients (94%) a pattern of central tumor necrosis was observed during the firs year Actuarial useful hearing was maintained in 62.5% at 2 year after treatment. Facial nerve function was maintained in all of the 15 patients with normal function at treatment (100%). Trigeminal function was maintained in ah of the 14 patients (100%) with previous normal trigeminal function. The mean time to return to work or normal activities was 11.5 days after treatment. Conclusions: These preliminary results are comparable with results published in the literature and reinforce the demonstrate role of radiosurgery in the management of vestibular schwannomas
Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.
Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330
Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo
This study's objective was to examine residents' attitudes toward and factors associated with an ongoing, real genome cohort study based on a community in Japan. After the genome cohort study's launch in 2007, in November and December 2009, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 2500 randomly sampled residents aged 30-74 years, living in Nagahama, Japan. Responses were received from 1363 people (response rate = 54.5%), of whom 187 respondents had already participated in the study. Although the local government and researchers disseminated information through leaflets and citizen-information papers to every household, sent notices by personalized letter, and held symposia and other meetings, 65.7% of males and 47.2% of females first became aware of the study when they received our questionnaire. Among all respondents, 81.2% of those who knew that the genome cohort study had begun and 68.6% of those who did not know had a positive attitude toward the study. Their attitudes were significantly associated with high health consciousness and the desire for an extensive health check-up. Although for males there were no particular negative aspects of the genome study, for females, positive aspects were associated with participating in community activities and desiring an extensive health check-up. Although promoting a community-based genome cohort study requires huge effort, it is essential to popularize it. Actions are vital both for monitoring public awareness and attitudes at a community level and for keeping communication channels open. PMID:25767212
Marco A Peres; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Ana M. B. Menezes; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G.
The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, rangin...
Tan de Bibiana Jason
Full Text Available Abstract Background Montreal is Canada's second-largest city, where mean annual tuberculosis (TB incidence from 1996 to 2007 was 8.9/100,000. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of TB among homeless persons in Montreal and assess patterns of transmission and sharing of key locations. Methods We reviewed demographic, clinical, and microbiologic data for all active TB cases reported in Montreal from 1996 to 2007 and identified persons who were homeless in the year prior to TB diagnosis. We genotyped all available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping, and used a geographic information system to identify potential locations for transmission between persons with matching isolates. Results There were 20 cases of TB in homeless persons, out of 1823 total reported from 1996-2007. 17/20 were Canadian-born, including 5 Aboriginals. Homeless persons were more likely than non-homeless persons to have pulmonary TB (20/20, smear-positive disease (17/20, odds ratio (OR = 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.7-20, HIV co-infection (12/20, OR = 14, 95%CI: 4.8-40, and a history of substance use. The median duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 61 days for homeless persons vs. 28 days for non-homeless persons (P = 0.022. Eleven homeless persons with TB belonged to genotype-defined clusters (OR = 5.4, 95%CI: 2.2-13, and ten potential locations for transmission were identified, including health care facilities, homeless shelters/drop-in centres, and an Aboriginal community centre. Conclusions TB cases among homeless persons in Montreal raise concerns about delayed diagnosis and ongoing local transmission.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Death rates are notably higher in eastern Finland than in western Finland, and life expectancy of Finnish speakers shorter than that of Swedish speakers. The mortality differences correspond to recent genetic mappings of the population and are prominent for causes of death that are known to be associated with genetic risk factors. Methods Using intergenerational data, we studied the impact of parental birth area on all-cause mortality risks of middle-aged men in Finland 1985-2003, assuming that geographic family origin reflects genetic predisposition to complex disorders. Relative death risks at ages 30-49 years were estimated by parental birth region and ethnicity, according to Cox regressions standardised for own education, family type at childhood, and year of birth. Results The death risk of Finnish speakers born in eastern Finland was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.26 that of Finnish speakers born in western Finland, whereas that of Swedish speakers was only 0.60 (0.52 to 0.71. In Finnish speakers, the effects of own birth area and area of residence disappeared when parental birth area was accounted for. The death risk of persons with at least one parent born in eastern Finland was 1.23 (1.09 to 1.39 that of people with both parents born in western Finland. Conclusions Parental birth area is the driving force behind the regional mortality difference in Finland. The findings highlight and give further support for the potentially important role of genetic risk factors in mortality. Close monitoring of persons' geographic and ethnic ancestry may promote public health and avoid many early deaths.
Harville Emily W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR. Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.08–2.89 and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52. Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population.
One of the most important roles of molecular epidemiology is to investigate gene-environment interactions in order to provide data for personalized risk modification. A case-control study conducted in Aichi showed that an aldehyde dehydrogenase- 2(ALDH2)polymorphism together with cigarette smoking significantly affects the risk of lung cancer. The main purpose of this large-scale genome-cohort study of healthy individuals is to confirm that these factors are associated with the development of diseases and to set optimal thresholds for the environmental factors. The Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort(J-MICC)Study was launched in 2005. It has recruited 100,600 healthy participants up to the end of 2014, and plans to follow them until 2025. Although Japanese genome-cohort studies, including the J-MICC Study, the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective(JPHC)Study, and the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization Study, consist of different research teams with different financial resources, collaboration to standardize the data collection format for successful pooled analysis is being discussed. PMID:25981648
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar illness is associated with significant psychosocial morbidity and health resource utilization. Second generation antipsychotics, used alone or in combination with mood stabilizers are effective in treating acute mania in community settings. This study was designed to compare the change in clinical parameters and resource utilization at one month in a group of patients who required treatment intervention for exacerbation of mania. The clinical response at one year was also evaluated. Methods 496 patients were enrolled at 75 psychiatric practices across Canada. The Olanzapine cohort (n = 287 included patients who had olanzapine added to their medication regimen or the dose of olanzapine increased. The Other cohort (n = 209 had a medication other than olanzapine added or the dose adjusted. Changes from baseline in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory and SF-12 Health Survey were compared at one month using ANCOVA. Categorical variables at one month for health resource utilization, employment status, abuse/dependency, and the number of suicide attempts were compared using Fisher's Exact test. Patients were followed for one year and a subgroup was evaluated. Results At one month, patients in the Olanzapine cohort recorded a mean reduction in the YMRS of 11.5, significantly greater than the mean reduction in the Other cohort of 9.7 (ANCOVA P = 0.002. The Olanzapine cohort was significantly improved compared to the Other cohort on the scales for depression and anxiety and did not experience the deterioration in physical functioning seen in the Other cohort. No significant differences were detected in health-related quality-of-life measures, employment status, drug abuse/dependency, number of suicide attempts, mental functioning, emergency room visits or inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations. In a subgroup treated for 12 months with a single second generation
O'Neill, Lotte; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Vonsild, Maria Cecilie;
admission strategy was also independently associated with dropout for sports science students in a university setting. The study design was a prospective cohort study with a 2 year follow-up. The population was 449 sports science students admitted to a university in the years 2002-2007. The analysis was......-based admission. This result may fit with elements of previous dropout theory, student-environment fit theory and perhaps also with self-efficacy theory....
Pratt D, Piper M, Appleby L, Webb RT, Shaw J.
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been undertaken on suicide in custody, but few on suicide after the release from prison. We undertook a population-based cohort study to investigate suicide rates in recently released prisoners in England and Wales. METHODS: We used the database of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness for England and Wales to identify all individuals who died by suicide or who received an open verdict at the coroner's inques...
Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme
Objectives: To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Study Design: Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Addit...
Wright J Michael; Hoffman Caroline S; Savitz David A
Abstract Background Interpretation of previous associations between water intake and adverse birth outcomes is challenging given that amount and type of water consumed can be non-specific markers of exposure or underlying behavioural characteristics. We examined the relationship between water intake measures and adverse birth outcomes in participants from three study sites in the United States. Methods Using a prospective cohort study, we examined daily intake of bottled, cold tap, total tap,...
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and fr...
McCowan, C.; Shearer, J.; Donnan, P T; Dewar, J.A.; Crilly, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Fahey, T P
Increasing duration of tamoxifen therapy improves survival in women with breast cancer but the impact of adherence to tamoxifen on mortality is unclear. This study investigated whether women prescribed tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer adhered to their prescription and whether adherence influenced survival. A retrospective cohort study of all women with incident breast cancer in the Tayside region of Scotland between 1993 and 2002 was linked to encashed prescription records to calcula...
Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Abenhaim, Lucien; Massol, Jacques; Guillemot, Didier; Avouac, Bernard; Duru, Gerard; Lert, France; Magnier, Anne-Marie; Rossignol, Michel; Rouillon, Frederic; Begaud, Bernard; ,
Background The purpose of the study was to compare utilization of conventional psychotropic drugs among patients seeking care for anxiety and depression disorders (ADDs) from general practitioners (GPs) who strictly prescribe conventional medicines (GP-CM), regularly prescribe homeopathy in a mixed practice (GP-Mx), or are certified homeopathic GPs (GP-Ho). Methods This was one of three epidemiological cohort studies (EPI3) on general practice in France, which included GPs and their patients ...
Almeida-Filho Naomar M; Prado Matildes S; Strina Agostino; Santos Carlos; Santos Letícia M; Bastos Ana; Assis Ana; Santos Darci N; Rodrigues Laura C; Barreto Mauricio L
Abstract Background There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. Methods This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child health and nutritional status, psyc...
Aitken, L.M.; Macfarlane, B.; Chaboyer, W; Schuetz, M.; Joyce, C.; Barnett, A.G.
OBJECTIVES:: This study was designed to examine changes in function over time after injury and to identify factors associated with long-term recovery that may be amenable to change through intervention. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: Intensive care in a tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia. PATIENTS:: Adult (n = 123) admitted to intensive care for treatment of injury. INTERVENTIONS:: Data were collected prior to hospital discharge and 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post injury. D...
Barrett, Aileen; Galvin, Rose; Steinert, Yvonne; Scherpbier, Albert; O’Shaughnessy, Ann; Walsh, Gillian; Horgan, Mary
In 2010, workplace-based assessment (WBA) was formally integrated as a method of formative trainee assessment into 29 basic and higher specialist medical training (BST/HST) programmes in six postgraduate training bodies in Ireland. The aim of this study is to explore how WBA is being implemented and to examine if WBA is being used formatively as originally intended. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and approved by the institution’s Research Ethics Committee. A profile of WBA require...
Ohlson, C G; Hogstedt, C
A cohort study of 1176 Swedish asbestos cement workers did not indicate any asbestos related excess mortality. Possible explanations of the negative outcome are relatively low exposure levels and the predominant use of chrysotile in production. Such a tentative conclusion is supported by a review of five mortality studies of workers exposed to asbestos cement that report considerable differences in relative risks for lung cancer. These differences could be explained by various degrees of cumu...
Stapinski, Lexine A; Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Mahedy, Liam; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo
Background Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has been suggested as one developmental pathway to anxiety disorders. However, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining this relationship. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the association between peer victimization during adolescence and subsequent anxiety diagnoses in adulthood. A secondary aim was to investigate whether victimization increases risk for severe anxiety presentations involving...
Mahande, Michael Johnson; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Masenga, Gileard; Obure, Joseph; Manongi, Rachel; Lie, Rolv Terje
Objective: Preeclampsia occurs in about 4 per cent of pregnancies worldwide, and may have particularly serious consequences for women in Africa. Studies in western countries have shown that women with preeclampsia in one pregnancy have a substantially increased risk of preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies. We estimate the recurrence risks of preeclampsia in data from Northern Tanzania.Methods: A prospective cohort study was designed using 19,811 women who delivered singleton infant...
Tang, Nicole K. Y.; McBeth, John; Jordan, Kelvin P; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Croft, Peter; Wilkie, Ross
Objective. Pain, the most common manifestation of rheumatological conditions, is highly prevalent among older adults, with worse health outcomes found in those with co-morbid insomnia. Proactive prevention of insomnia may reduce the overall disease burden of pain and rheumatological conditions. To inform such development, this study examined the role of pain, physical limitation and reduced social participation in predicting and mediating insomnia onset. Methods. A prospective cohort study wa...
Mohammad Saeed Ahmadi; Shahriar Amirhassani; Jalal Poorolajal
Introduction: Sleep disorder caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy has been implicated as a cause of primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis in children. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on enuresis in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Hamadan City in Western Iran, from April 2010 to December 2011. Ninety-seven children aged 3 to 12 years with adenotonsillar hypertrophy who we...
Laine, Katariina; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Sandvik, Leiv; Staff, Anne Cathrine
Objective To compare the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in two time periods, before and after implementing a training programme for improved perineal support aimed at reducing the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. The secondary aim was to study incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in subgroups defined by risk factors for OASIS. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting University hospital setting in Oslo, Norway. Participants Two...
Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine
Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...
Richard, Stephanie A.; Barrett, Leah J; Richard L. Guerrant; Checkley, William; Miller, Mark A.
Describing the early life associations between infectious disease episodes and growth, cognitive development, and vaccine response in the first 2 years of life is one of the primary goals of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study. To collect high-resolution data during a critical early period of development, field staff visit each study participant at their house twice weekl...
Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva Thors; Saletti, Anja; Bergkvist, Leif
Background & aims: There is an association between malnutrition and mortality. However, it is uncertain whether this association is independent of confounders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether nutritional status, defined according to the three categories in the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) instrument, is an independent predictor of preterm death in people 65 years and older. Methods: This prospective cohort study included individuals aged >= 65 years who we...
Stiby, Alexander I.; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R.; Heron, Jon; Yip, Vikki L.; Macleod, John
Aims To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes. Design Birth cohort study. Setting England. Participants The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables. Measurements The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes...
Smith, Ashley; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Driver, Jane A.; Buring, Julie Elizabeth; Gaziano, John Michael; Kurth, Tobias
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and newly reported Parkinson's disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Our study included 21,841 participants in the Physicians’ Health Study, a cohort of U.S. male physicians. Diabetes and Parkinson's disease were self-reported via questionnaire. We used time-varying Cox regression to calculate adjusted relative risk (RR) for Parkinson's disease. RESULTS—Over 23 years, 556 individuals with Parkinson's disease were identified. Subject...
Abas, Melanie; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Prince, Martin; Gorceag, Viorel I; Trigub, Carolina; Oram, Siân
Background Previous studies have found high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking. No previous research has described risk factors for diagnosed mental disorders in this population. Methods A historical cohort study of women survivors of trafficked women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova and registered for assistance with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Women were approached by IOM so...
Background: This PhD thesis presents the research work of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) funded project (#147022) entitled “Physical activity as a life style component of aggressive decrease of atherosclerotic modifiers (ADAM) in elderly subjects: the SAPALDIA Cohort Study.” The study has been performed against the background that a physically active lifestyle is linked with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD events, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, a...
McMenamin, Una C.; Murray, Liam J; Hughes, Carmel M.; Cardwell, Chris R
Background: Preclinical evidence suggests that statins could delay cancer progression. Previous epidemiological findings have been inconsistent and some have been limited by small sample sizes, as well as certain time-related biases. This study aimed to investigate whether breast cancer patients who were exposed to statins had reduced breast cancer-specific mortality. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 15,140 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients diagnosed from 20...
Anderson, Jana J; Hoath, Sean; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D.; Pell, Jill P.; Mackay, Daniel; Smith, Daniel J
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to influenza in utero and bipolar disorder in adulthood. Using data from a prospective birth cohort, we aimed to test for an association between exposure to gestational influenza and the experience of hypomania assessed in early adulthood.METHODS: We used data on 2957 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The two main outcomes of interest were hypomania, assessed using the Hy...
Charlton, Brittany M; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Björn; Melbye, Mads
Study question Is oral contraceptive use around the time of pregnancy onset associated with an increased risk of major birth defects? Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, data on oral contraceptive use and major birth defects were collected among 880 694 live births from Danish registries between 1997 and 2011. We conservatively assumed that oral contraceptive exposure lasted up to the most recently filled prescription. The main outcome measure was the number of major birth d...
Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha
Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...
Brunekreef Bert; de Jongste Johan C; Scholtens Salome; Boer Jolanda MA; van den Berg Saskia W; Smit Henriette A; Wijga Alet H
Abstract Background Overweight develops gradually as a result of a long term surplus on the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Aim of this study was to quantify the positive energy balance responsible for excess body weight gain (energy gap) in young overweight children. Methods Reported data on weight and height were used of 2190 Dutch children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Accumulated body energy was estimated from the weight gain observed between age 2 a...
León-Muñoz, Luz M.; García-Esquinas, Esther; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
Background There is emerging evidence of the role of certain nutrients as risk factors for frailty. However, people eat food, rather than nutrients, and no previous study has examined the association between dietary patterns empirically derived from food consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 1,872 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60 years recruited between 2008 and 2010. At baseline, food consumption was obtained with a valid...
Zhang, Cuilin; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Ley, Sylvia H; Hu, Frank B
Objective: To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nurses’ Health Study II, United States. Participants: 20 136 singleton live births in 14 437 women without chronic disease. Main outcome measure Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical re...
Zhang, Cuilin; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Ley, Sylvia H; Hu, Frank B
Objective To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, United States. Participants 20 136 singleton live births in 14 437 women without chronic disease. Main outcome measure Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical record...
Ashraf Al-Tarifi; Nabil Abou-Shala; Tamim, Hani M; Rishu, Asgar H.; Yaseen M. Arabi
Aims: There is an uncertainty about what constitutes an optimal level of blood glucose (BG) in critically ill patients. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal BG target for glycemic control in critically ill patients that is associated with survival benefit with the least hypoglycemia risk. Setting and Design: This is a nested cohort study within a randomized control trial conducted in a tertiary care center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ...
Sargent, Randall; Brocklebank, Cynthia; Tam-Tham, Helen; Williamson, Tyler; Quail, Patrick; Turner, Diana; Drummond, Neil
Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant prescribed to 12% of long-term care residents to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolism. This study used indicators to compare warfarin management by pharmacists to usual care. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study comparing a pharmacist-managed warfarin protocol with usual care of qualified warfarin recipients at long-term care facilities (two protocol, one control) in Calgary, Alberta. We compared the proportion of international normalized ratio ...
Fenglian Xu; Marie-Paule Austin; Nicole Reilly; Lisa Hilder; Sullivan, Elizabeth A
Background: Previous research showed that there was a significant increase in psychiatric hospital admission of postpartum mothers. The aim of the current study is to describe the length of hospital stays and patient days for mental and behavioural disorders (MBD) of new mothers in the first year after birth. Method: This was a cohort study based on linked population data between the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and the NSW Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The...
Wu, X; Al-Abedalla, K.; Rastikerdar, E.; Abi Nader, S.; Daniel, N.G.; Nicolau, B.; Tamimi, F.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most widely used drugs for the treatment of depression, have been reported to reduce bone formation and increase the risk of bone fracture. Since osseointegration is influenced by bone metabolism, this study aimed to investigate the association between SSRIs and the risk of failures in osseointegrated implants. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients treated with dental implants from January 2007 to January 2013. A total o...
Nguyen, Cu Dinh; Andersson, Charlotte; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gjesing, Anne; Schjerning Olsen, Anne-Marie; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Büller, Harry; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H.
Objectives Statins may decrease the risk of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE), that is, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) but the effect of statins in preventing recurrent VTE is less clear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the association between statin therapy and risk of recurrent VTE. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. Participants All patients with a hospital diagnosis of VTE in Denmark during 1997–2009 associate...
The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.
Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung
Background The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. Methods We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during th...
Lavery James V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. Methods In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Results Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Conclusions Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1 reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2 foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3 leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.
Hashemian, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Khoshnia, Masoud; Brockman, John Douglas; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Abnet, Christian C; Malekzadeh, Reza
BACKGROUND In the Golestan Cohort Study that was launched to investigate the causes of esophageal cancer, a complete biospecimen bank was established for storage of collected blood, urine, hair, and nail samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of nail samples as a biomarker of selected trace elements status. METHODS Thirty toenail samples were selected randomly from the participants of Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). The samples were cleaned and analyzed for selenium, mercury, chromium, iron, zinc, and scandium by instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed for selected trace elements concentration versus scandium concentration to assess terrestrial contamination. RESULTS The selenium, zinc, and mercury were not correlated with scandium, suggesting they were free from substantial contamination. The high correlations of scandium with iron and chromium suggest that the iron and chromium levels may be compromised by terrestrial contamination. The coefficients of variation for duplicate samples for selenium and zinc were 2.6% and 7.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION The nail samples from Golestan Cohort Study appears to be useable as a biomarker of selenium, zinc, and mercury and could be considered for use in future studies. PMID:26933477
Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other
Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D
Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. Symptomatic parent and nurse swab pairs will be compared for microbe isolation. PMID:27580839
Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hougaard, David M.
controls was sufficient for Luminex analysis. Including all individuals in the cohort yielded no significant differences in chemokine levels in cases versus controls. Logistic regression analyses, performed on individuals diagnosed using ICD-10 only, showed increased risk for ASD with elevated MCP-1......Introduction: Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls. Material and...... Methods A Danish historic birth cohort (HBC) kept at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen was utilized. Using data from Danish nation-wide health registers, a case-control study design of 414 cases and 820 controls was adopted. Levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology...
Andreasen, Lisbeth A; Nilas, Lisbeth; Kjær, Mette M
BACKGROUND: Late complications to bariatric surgery during pregnancy have become an area of concern. Expansion of the uterus and the following displacement of the small intestine may increase the risk of internal herniation. We wanted to estimate the risk and consequences of surgical complications...... during pregnancy in a national cohort of women with a history of gastric bypass surgery. METHODS: A national, register-based cohort study of all Danish women with a history of gastric bypass surgery who had given birth from 2004 to 2010 was conducted. Surgical codes registered during pregnancy and until...... puerperium. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of internal herniation during pregnancy was 1 % in our study. Internal herniation may be a serious complication in pregnant women, and both the diagnosis and treatment requires handling by experienced obstetrical, radiological, and surgical staff....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. Methods The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886–1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969–99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0–4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.5, respectively. There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.3. Conclusion In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.
Yan Lu; Nong Tian; Jie Yin; Yuhua Shi; Zhenping Huang
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration has been shown to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis with prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the association between short or long sleep duration and cancer risk. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed- model. RESULTS: A total of 10 pros...
Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F.; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Fernando C. Barros
Background Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Methodology Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happ...
English Dallas R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linking a cohort study to a state-wide hospital admissions dataset with limited availability of unique identifying variables. Methods A sample of 2000 participants from a cohort study (n = 41 514 was linked to a state-wide hospitalisations dataset in Victoria, Australia using the national health insurance (Medicare number and demographic data as identifying variables. Availability of the health insurance number was limited in both datasets; therefore linkage was undertaken both with and without use of this number and agreement tested between both algorithms. Sensitivity was calculated for a sub-sample of 101 participants with a hospital admission confirmed by medical record review. Results Of the 2000 study participants, 85% were found to have a record in the hospitalisations dataset when the national health insurance number and sex were used as linkage variables and 92% when demographic details only were used. When agreement between the two methods was tested the disagreement fraction was 9%, mainly due to "false positive" links when demographic details only were used. A final algorithm that used multiple combinations of identifying variables resulted in a match proportion of 87%. Sensitivity of this final linkage was 95%. Conclusions High quality record linkage of cohort data with a hospitalisations dataset that has limited identifiers can be achieved using combinations of a national health insurance number and demographic data as identifying variables.
English Dallas R; Sundararajan Vijaya; Kelsall Helen; Tonkin Andrew M; Beauchamp Alison; Sundaresan Lalitha; Wolfe Rory; Turrell Gavin; Giles Graham G; Peeters Anna
Abstract Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linkin...
Buckley, B. S.; Simpson, C.R.; McLernon, D.J.; Murphy, A W; Hannaford, P.C.
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years. DESIGN: Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data. SETTING: 40 primary care practices in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease, 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
Knauth, M; Ries, S.; Pohimann, S.; Kerby, T.; Forsting, M; Daffertshofer, M.; HENNERICI, M; Sartor, K
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of a patient foramen ovale in the pathogenesis of multiple brain lesions acquired by sport divers in the absence of reported decompression symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective double blind cohort study. SETTING: Diving clubs around Heidelberg and departments of neuroradiology and neurology. SUBJECTS: 87 sport divers with a minimum of 160 scuba dives (dives with self contained underwater breathing apparatus). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of multiple brain lesions...
Haskins Amy E; Bertone-Johnson Elizabeth R; Pekow Penelope; Carbone Elena; Fortner Renée T; Chasan-Taber Lisa
Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Western Massach...
Kishaba, Tomoo; Shimaoka, Yousuke; Fukuyama, Hajime; Yoshida, Kyoko; Tanaka, Maki; Yamashiro, Shin; Tamaki, Hitoshi
Objectives Our purpose was to assess the clinical data, predictors of mortality and acute exacerbation (AE) in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) patients. Design Single-centre retrospective cohort study. Setting Teaching hospital in Japan. Participants We identified 93 CPFE patients with high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) through multidisciplinary discussion. Patients who had connective tissue disease, drug-associated interstitial lung disease and occupationally relate...
Bann, D.; Hamer, M.; Parsons, S.; Ploubidis, G. B.; Sullivan, A.
BACKGROUND: Attending private school or a higher-status university is thought to benefit future earnings and occupational opportunities. We examined whether these measures were beneficially related to health and selected health-related behaviours in midlife. METHODS: Data were from up to 9799 participants from the 1970 British birth Cohort Study. The high school attended (private, grammar or state) was ascertained at 16 years, and the university attended reported at 42 years [categorised as e...
Smedley, J.; Egger, P.; Cooper, C.; Coggon, D
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of handling patients and indicators of individual susceptibility on risk of low back pain in nurses. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up by repeated self administered every three months over two years. SETTING: NHS university hospital trust. SUBJECTS: 961 female nurses who had been free from low back pain for at least one month at the time of completing a baseline questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of new low back pain during follow up ...
We look at the influence of personality traits and cognitive ability on both educational attainment and on the wages of individuals in the UK labour market at age 33 using the British Cohort Study. We control for a new cluster of nine personality characteristics, some of which we consider likely to influence labour market outcomes. We find that some personality characteristics have significant influence on the acquisition of educational qualifications, in particular internal and external locu...
Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loïc
Greater consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in several recent meta-analyses. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) have been hypothesized to underlie this association. In this prospective analysis conducted within the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we examined whether greater consumption of total, red, or processed meat was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer among 165,717 participants who completed a detailed food frequency question...
Min-Shan Lu; Qiao-Zhu Chen; Jian-Rong He; Xue-Ling Wei; Jin-Hua Lu; Sheng-Hui Li; Xing-Xuan Wen; Fan-Fan Chan; Nian-Nian Chen; Lan Qiu; Wei-Bi Mai; Rui-Fang Zhang; Cui-Yue Hu; Hui-Min Xia; Xiu Qiu
There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to...
Ni, Michael Y.; Chan, Brandford H. Y.; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Pang, Herbert
Objectives To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). Participants David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each i...
Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko; Mäki, Pirjo; Murray, Graham K; Ridler, Khanum; LAURONEN, ERIKA; Moilanen, Kristiina; Alaräisänen, Antti; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Irene; Ivleva, Elena; TAMMINGA, CAROL; McGrath, John; Koponen, Hannu
This paper updates single risk factors identified by the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study up to the end of year 2001 or age 34. Impaired performance (e.g., delayed motor or intellectual development) or adverse exposures (e.g., pregnancy and birth complications, central nervous system diseases) are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. However, upper social class girls and clever schoolboys also have an increased risk to develop schizophrenia, contraste...
Serjeant, G; A Singhal; Hambleton, I.
AIMS—(1) To investigate the distribution of age at menarche in a representative sample of 99 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease, 69 with sickle cell haemoglobin C (SC) disease, and 100 controls with a normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype followed in a cohort study from birth. (2) To explore the determinants of the age at menarche. METHODS—Children ascertained in a newborn screening programme were followed prospectively from birth to age 18-26.5 years with regular ...
Larney, Sarah; Gisev, Natasa; Farrell, Michael; Dobbins, Timothy; Burns, Lucinda; Gibson, Amy; Kimber, Jo; Degenhardt, Louisa
Objectives To describe deaths in prison among opioid-dependent people, and examine associations between receipt of opioid substitution therapy (OST) and risk of death in prison. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Adult prisons in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Participants 16 715 opioid-dependent people who were received to prison between 2000 and 2012. Interventions Opioid substitution therapy. Primary outcome measures Natural and unnatural (suicide, drug-induced, violent and othe...
M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J
Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...
Cnattingius, Sven; Toh, Sengwee; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia
Objective: To investigate whether pre-eclampsia is more common in first pregnancies solely because fewer affected women, who presumably have a higher risk of recurrence, go on to have subsequent pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants: 763 795 primiparous mothers who had their first births in Sweden, 1987-2004. Main outcome measures: Pre-eclampsia. Results: The risk of pre-eclampsia was 4.1% in the first pregnancy and 1.7% in later ...
Rieder, Florian; Paul, Gisela; Schnoy, Elisabeth; Schleder, Stephan; Wolf, Alexandra; Kamm, Florian; Dirmeier, Andrea; Strauch, Ulrike; Obermeier, Florian; Lopez, Rocio; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Rogler, Gerhard; Klebl, Frank
Background Markers that predict the occurrence of a complicated disease behavior in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can permit a more aggressive therapeutic regimen for patients at risk. The aim of this cohort study was to test the blood levels of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) for the prediction of complicated CD behavior and CD related surgery in an adult patient population. Methods Blood samples of 62 CD patients of the German Inflammatory Bowel Disease-network “Kompetenznetz CED...
Kaiser, Heiko A.; Arbi Ben Abdallah; Nan Lin; Tellor, Bethany R.; Mohammad Helwani; Smith, Jennifer R.; Moon, Marc R.; Avidan, Michael S
Background During 2007 and 2008 it is likely that millions of patients in the US received heparin contaminated (CH) with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, which was associated with anaphylactoid reactions. We tested the hypothesis that CH was associated with serious morbidity, mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following adult cardiac surgery. Methods and Findings We conducted a single center, retrospective, propensity-matched cohort study during th...
Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). R...
Berge, J.; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A.
Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...
Heus, R.; Mol, B. W.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.; van Geijn, H.P.; Gyselaers, W.J.; Hanssens, M.; Harmark, L.; van Holsbeke, C.D.; Duvekot, J.J.; Schobben, F.F.A.M.; Wolf, Hans; Visser, G. H. A.
textabstractObjective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920 consecutive women treated with tocolytics for threatened preterm labour. Main outcome measures Maternal adverse events (those suspected of being causally related to treatment were considered adverse dru...
Fafangel Mario; Učakar Veronika; Vudrag Marko; Berce Ingrid; Kraigher Alenka
Introduction In May of 2012, we investigated a food-borne Clostridium perfringens outbreak in Slovenia involving a single kitchen and five venues, with 477 exposed persons. Methods In order to identify the causative agent, vehicle of infection and source of contamination, we conducted microbiological and environmental investigations and an analytical cohort study (n = 138). Results The case definition in the outbreak was met by 104 persons. Predominant symptoms were diarrhoea, nausea and abdo...
Mommers, M.; Schouten, L J; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer was implemented by annual record linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and a nationwide pathology registry. After 11.3 years of follow-up, data of 252 incident epithelial ovarian cancer case...
Dros, J.; Maarsingh, O.R.; Beem, L.; van der Horst, H.E.; Riet, G. ter; Schellevis, F G; van Weert, H.C.P.M.
Objectives: To investigate the 6-month functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care, to identify important predictors of dizziness-related impairment, and to construct a score to assist risk prediction. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Setting: Twenty-four primary care practices in the Netherlands. Participants: Four hundred seventeen older adults (mean age 78.5, range 65–95, 74% female) presenting consecutively to primary care with dizziness. Meas...
Tuula Oksanen; Ichiro Kawachi; Anne Kouvonen; Soshi Takao; Etsuji Suzuki; Marianna Virtanen; Jaana Pentti; Mika Kivimäki; Jussi Vahtera
OBJECTIVE: To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000-02 (response rate 68%). We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records...
Brophy, S.; Cooksey, R.; Davies, H; Dennis, M.H.; Zhou, S. M.; Siebert, S.
OBJECTIVES: Exercise is reported to improve function for people with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but it is not clear if this effect is causal or if patients with milder disease find it easier to exercise. This study examines the effect of exercise and motivation to exercise on function, while controlling for disease severity. METHODS: Participants who were members of an existing AS cohort were asked about physical activity, motivation to exercise, function, and disease severity. Path anal...
Eskandarian, Rahimeh; Madani, M; R. Ghorbani; Shiyasi, M; Momeni, B.; Hajifathalian, K
Abstract In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity on the risk of future adverse cardiovascular outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In 433 patients, IgA and IgG antibodies to H pylori, along with classic risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, smoking and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) were determined. Short-and long-term follow-up information on adverse outcomes, defined as re...
Tseng, Eva; Ho, Wen-Chao; Lin, Meng-Hung; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hsien-Ho
Background Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality is limited in Asian populations. Methods We conducted a cohort study on the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality using 43,227 individuals in a civil servants health service in Taiwan. Each participant was assigned an exposure level of particulate matter based on their district of residence using air pollution data collected by the Taiwan E...
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
Objective To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children. Design Prospective register based cohort study. Setting Nationwide register based information from Danish National Health Registers cross linked by a unique personal identification number assigned to all citizens in Denmark. Participants All children born in Denmark in 1995-2003 with follow-up in 2012 when the children were...
Cássia Regina Vancini Campanharo; Rodrigo Luiz Vancini; Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira Lopes; Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno; Ruth Ester Assayag Batista; Álvaro Nagib Atallah; Aécio Flávio Teixeira de Góis
AbstractOBJECTIVEIdentifying factors associated to survival after cardiac arrest.METHODAn experience report of a cohort study conducted in a university hospital, with a consecutive sample comprised of 285 patients. Data were collected for a year by trained nurses. The training strategy was conducted through an expository dialogue lecture. Collection monitoring was carried out by nurses via telephone calls, visits to the emergency room and by medical record searches. The neurological status of...
Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; Jerden, Lars; Boeing, Heiner; Sluik, Diewertje; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Spijkerman, Annemieke; de Mesquita, Bas Bueno; Dethlefsen, Claus; Nilsson, Peter; Noethlings, Ute
Objectives: To investigate whether low self-rated health (SRH) is associated with increased mortality in individuals with diabetes. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in four centres (Bilthoven, Heidelberg, Potsdam, Umea) in a subcohort nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Participants: 3257 individuals (mean +/- SD age was 55.8 +/- 7.6 years and 42% women) with confirmed diagnosis of di...
Thorell Eva; Kristiansson Per
Abstract Background Low back pain with onset during pregnancy is common and approximately one out of three women have disabling pain. The pathogenesis of the pain condition is uncertain and there is no information on the role of physical fitness. Whether poorer physical conditioning is a cause or effect of back pain is also disputed and information from prospective studies needed. Methods A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined ...
Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M;
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. RESULTS: Logistic regression...
Sayinzoga, Felix; Bijlmakers, Leon; van Dillen, Jeroen; Mivumbi, Victor; Ngabo, Fidèle; van der Velden, Koos
Objective Presenting the results of 5 years of implementing health facility-based maternal death audits in Rwanda, showing maternal death classification, identification of substandard (care) factors that have contributed to death, and conclusive recommendations for quality improvements in maternal and obstetric care. Design Nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study. Settings All cases of maternal death audited by district hospital-based audit teams between January 2009 and December...
Storgaard Merete; Comstedt Pål; Lassen Annmarie T
Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship t...
Karen Saylors; Tue Ngo Tri; Toan Tran Khanh; Kiet Bach Tuan; Heiman FL Wertheim; Stephen Baker; Hoa Ngo Thi; Bryant, Juliet E
We initiated the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) research program to better understand the epidemiology of disease transmission at the human–animal interface in Vietnamese rural communities and to integrate One Health approaches to disease surveillance. We established a longitudinal community cohort study of individuals with occupational exposure to animals, which involves concurrent targeted sampling from domestic livestock species and follow-up monitoring of human clinic...
Westhoff, John L; Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T.
Objectives To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. Participants 23 995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39 038 climbs, 23 295 ...
Hou, Lina; LI Fei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ou, Zejin; Xu, Dingli; Tan, Wanlong; Dai, Meng
The associations of dietary patterns with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remain unclear. Thereby, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential relations between dietary patterns and CHD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2014 for eligible prospective cohort studies regarding the relationships between common dietary patterns and CHD. Random-effects models were applied to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for the highest versus the lowest category...
Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Li-Chiu; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu
Background Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) binding activities and insulin-sensitizing effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different ARBs with new-onset diabetes mellitus. Methods In the respective cohort, a total of 492,530 subjects who initiated ARB treatment between January 2004 and December 2009 were identified from Taiwan National Health Insurance Database....
Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre
The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Bi...
Murthy S; Mubashir A; BS Kodkany; Mallapur MD
Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited...
Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Hengartner, Heinz; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on childhood cancer and nuclear power plants (NPPs) produced conflicting results. We used a cohort approach to examine whether residence near NPPs was associated with leukaemia or any childhood cancer in Switzerland. METHODS: We computed person-years at risk for children aged 0-15 years born in Switzerland from 1985 to 2009, based on the Swiss censuses 1990 and 2000 and identified cancer cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We geo-coded place...
Meintjes, Graeme; Dunn, Liezl; Coetsee, Marla; Hislop, Michael; Leisegang, Rory; Regensberg, Leon; Maartens, Gary
Background An increasing number of patients in Africa are experiencing virologic failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and those who develop resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) will require third-line ART, but no data on the outcomes of third-line are available from the region. We assessed the virologic outcomes and survival of patients started on salvage ART in a Southern African private sector disease management programme. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study wi...
Gunnarsson, M.; Udumyan, R.; Bahmanyar, S; Nilsagård, Y.; Montgomery, S
Background and purpose Associations with multiple sclerosis (MS) of living conditions in childhood and characteristics in adolescence including physical fitness, cognitive function and psychological stress resilience were investigated. Methods A cohort of male Swedish residents born 1952–1956 who were included in the Swedish Military Conscription Register was used to create a nested case−control study comprising 628 MS cases and 6187 controls matched on birth year, county of reside...
Christopher Vinnard; Anand Gopal; LINKIN, Darren R.; Joel Maslow
Background: our objective was to determine the incidence of toxicity among veterans initiating isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and determine whether advancing age was a risk factor for toxicity. Methods: we performed a retrospective cohort study among all adults initiating isoniazid treatment for LTBI at a Veterans Medical Center from 1999 to 2005. We collected data on patient demographics, co-morbidities, site of initiation, and treatment outcome. Results: 219 pati...
Sampson, E L; White, N.; Leurent, B.; Scott, S; Lord, K; Round, J; Jones, L.
BACKGROUND: Dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals. There are concerns about the quality of care they receive. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) seem to be particularly challenging for hospital staff. AIMS To define the prevalence of BPSD and explore their clinical associations. METHOD: Longitudinal cohort study of 230 people with dementia, aged over 70, admitted to hospital for acute medical illness, and assessed for BPSD at admission and every 4...
Christian Hakulinen; Mirka Hintsanen; Munafò, Marcus R.; Marianna Virtanen; Mika Kivimäki; David Batty, G.; Markus Jokela
Aims: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality and smoking, and test whether sociodemographic factors modify these associations.Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal individual-participant meta-analysis. Setting: Nine cohort studies from Australia, Germany, UK and US. Participants: A total of 79,757 men and women (mean age = 51 years). Measurements: Personality traits of the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousne...
Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Munafò, Marcus R.; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David; Jokela, Markus
Aims: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality and smoking, and test whether sociodemographic factors modify these associations.Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal individual-participant meta-analysis. Setting: Nine cohort studies from Australia, Germany, UK and US. Participants: A total of 79,757 men and women (mean age = 51 years). Measurements: Personality traits of the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousne...
Stinson, Kathryn; Jennings, Karen; Myer, Landon
Objectives Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC) and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using routinely collected clinic data. Three models for ART initiation i...
Hong, Jin-Liern; Christoph R Meier; Sandler, Robert S.; Jick, Susan S; Stürmer, Til
Objective To examine the risk of colorectal cancer after orlistat initiation in the UK population. Design Retrospective matched cohort study. Setting Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from September 1998 to December 2008. Participants 33 625 adults aged 18 years or over who started treatment with orlistat; each orlistat initiator was matched to up to five non-initiators (n=160 347) on age, sex, body mass index, and calendar time. Main outcome measures Associations between o...
Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas
This research estimates models of the importance of conscientiousness for socio-economic outcomes. We use measures of conscientiousness at age 16 to explain adult wages and other outcomes, such as crime, health and savings behaviour. We use several waves from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Our estimates suggest a significant and sizeable correlation between early conscientiousness and adult outcomes. Measurement error is corrected for by applying IV-techniques, errors-in-variables estimators ...
Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Hill, Andrew
Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesity and emotional and behavioural problems in a nationally representative sample of young children. Methods. Data were available from 11 202 children (50% boys) participating in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Height and weight were measured at 3 and 5 years and children defined as obese using IOTF cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). Emotional and behavioural problems were parentally assessed using the Strengt...
Toriola, A T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R; Dalidowitz, L; Linehan, D; Colditz, G
Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer but its association with survival from pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the association of diabetes with survival among pancreatic cancer patients in a prospective cohort-based study where diabetes history was ascertained before pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Methods: We evaluated survival by baseline (1993–2001) self-reported diabetes history (n=62) among 504 participants that developed exocrine...
Menezes Ana; Barros Fernando C.; Golding Jean; Victora Cesar G; Matijasevich Alicia; Araujo Cora L; Smith George
Abstract Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separ...
Engebretsen, Anders Hauge; Myklebust, Grethe; Holme, Ingar Morten K.; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald
This prospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for acute ankle injuries among male soccer players. A total of 508 players representing 31 amateur teams were tested during the 2004 pre-season through a questionnaire on previous injury and function score (foot and ankle outcome score; FAOS), functional tests (balance tests on the floor and a balance mat) and a clinical examination of the ankle. Generalized estimating equations were used in univariate analyses to identify c...
Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet in generating the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Participants: 23 349 men and women, not previously diagnosed with cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes, with documented survival status until June 2008 an...
McMahon, Gearoid M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Tanner, Rikki M.; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S
Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...
Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sundquist, Jan
Objective To determine the risk of people with mental disorders being victims of homicide. Design National cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants Entire adult population (n=7 253 516). Main outcome measures Homicidal death during eight years of follow-up (2001-08); hazard ratios for the association between mental disorders and homicidal death, with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders; potential modifying effect of comorbid substance use. Results 615 homicidal deaths occurred in 54...
Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S. T.; Madsen, I. E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L; Bjorner, J B; Borritz, M; Burr, H; Erbel, R; Ferrie, J E; Fransson, E; Geuskens, G. A.; Hooftman, W. E.; Houtman, I L; Jöckel, K H
BACKGROUND: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. METHODS: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. R...
Helin, Annika; Kinnunen, Tarja Inkeri; Raitanen, Jani; Ahonen, Suvi; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Luoto, Riitta
Objective To investigate the possible association between total daily iron intake during pregnancy, haemoglobin in early pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women at increased risk of GDM. Design A prospective cohort study (based on a cluster-randomised controlled trial, where the intervention and the usual care groups were combined). Setting Primary healthcare maternity clinics in 14 municipalities in south-western Finland. Participants 399 Pregnant women who wer...
Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Chou, Lin-Chung; Liao, Chun-De; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen
Osteoarthritis (OA) and dementia are prevalent causes of disability in geriatric patients. To date, information on the temporal correlation between these progressive diseases and the risk of dementia in patients with OA is limited. This retrospective population-based 4-year cohort study investigated the risk of dementia in patients with OA. We performed a case-control matched analysis by using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. Patients were selected on the basis of Inter...
Bell, J Simon; Lavikainen, Piia; Korhonen, Mikko; Hartikainen, Sirpa
Benzodiazepine discontinuation among community-dwelling older people: a population-based cohort study fax: +358-171-62424 (Bell, J. Simon) (Bell, J. Simon) Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care, University of Eastern Finland - P.O. Box 1627 - 70211 - Kuopio - FINLAND (Bell, J. Simon) Clinical Pharmacology and Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Unit, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland - Kuopio - FINLAND (Bell, J. Simon) ...
Keaney, John J; Groarke, John D; Galvin, Zita; McGorrian, Catherine; McCann, Hugh A; Sugrue, Declan; Keelan, Edward; Galvin, Joseph; Blake, Gavin; Mahon, Niall G.; O’Neill, James
Objective To ascertain whether a name can influence a person’s health, by assessing whether people with the surname “Brady” have an increased prevalence of bradycardia. Design Retrospective, population based cohort study. Setting One university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Participants People with the surname “Brady” in Dublin, determined through use of an online telephone directory. Main outcome measure Prevalence of participants who had pacemakers inserted for bradycardia between 1...
Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Andersen, Jon Traerup; Petersen, Morten; Broedbaek, Kasper; Jensen, Jonas Krogh; Afzal, Shoaib; Gislason, Gunnar H.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen
Objectives To analyse the relation between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and major congenital malformations, with focus on malformations of the heart. Design Register-based retrospective nationwide cohort study, using the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Setting Denmark. Participants Pregnant women in Denmark between 1997 and 2009 and their offspring. Primary outcome measures For each SSRI, ORs for major congenital malformations were estimated using multivariable logistic re...
Bateman, Brian T.; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Gagne, Joshua J.; Polinski, Jennifer M.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Doherty, Michael; Fischer, Michael A.; Rassen, Jeremy A.
Objective: To examine the relation between the type of stress ulcer prophylaxis administered and the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Premier Research Database. Participants:: 21 214 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery between 2004 and 2010; 9830 (46.3%) started proton pump inhibitors and 11 384 (53.7%) started H2 receptor antagonists in the immediate postoperative period. ...
Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J
The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. PMID:11562159
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matching of the two in terms of sex, age and residence. Average follow-up was 3.17 person-years. The outcome measure was infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, defined by testing positive on serologic markers HBsAg or anti-HBC. All blood donors were from the blood bank in Joaçaba, federal state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results The cohorts did not differ significantly regarding sex, age and marital status but the vaccinated cohort had higher mean number of blood donations and higher proportion of those residing in the county capital Joaçaba. Hepatitis B incidences per 1000 person-years were zero among vaccinated and 2,33 among non-vaccinated, resulting in 100% vaccine effectiveness with 95% confidence interval from 30,1% to 100%. The number of vaccinated persons necessary to avoid one HBV infection in blood donors was estimated at 429 with 95% confidence interval from 217 to 21422. Conclusion The results showed very high effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-HBV vaccines in blood donors. Its considerable variation in this study is likely due to the limited follow-up and the influence of confounding factors normally balanced out in efficacy clinical trials.
Ogliari, Giulia; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Muller, Majon;
BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics...... 75+ Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination...... correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure....
Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members....... Adjustment for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or...
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana
In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145
Nørgård, Bente; Hundborg, Heidi H; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius;
OBJECTIVES: CD is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, but existing studies have not assessed the impact of disease activity during pregnancy. We examined the impact of disease activity on birth outcomes: LBW, preterm birth, LBW at term, and CAs. METHODS: All births by CD women...... of clinical details (including disease activity and drug therapy during pregnancy). The exposed cohort (N = 71) constituted pregnancies with low/moderate-high disease activity during pregnancy, and the unexposed cohort (N = 86) those with inactive disease. Logistic regression analyses were used to...... estimate the adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence intervals) for adverse birth outcomes associated with disease activity in CD pregnancies. In subanalysis, we examined the impact of moderate-high activity. RESULTS: In women with disease activity, the adjusted risks of LBW, LBW at term, preterm...
Schouten Nelleke; van Dalen Thijs; Smakman Niels; Elias Sjoerd G; van de Water Cees; Spermon Roan J; Mulder Laurens; Burgmans Ine P J
Abstract Background To describe the rationale and design of an observational cohort study analyzing the effects of endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair on male fertility (MAIN study). Methods and design The MAIN study is an observational cohort study designed to assess fertility after endoscopic TEP hernia repair. The setting is a high-volume single center hospital, specialized in TEP hernia repair. Male patients of 18-60 years of age, with primary, reducible, bilateral ingu...
The, Natalie S.; Adair, Linda S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994–2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11–21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. ...
Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Miller, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; McDonald, Sarah; Morrison, Katherine M; Teo, Koon K; Anand, Sonia S
Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns...
Gandhi, S; Felini, M J; Ndetan, H; Cardarelli, K; Jadhav, S; Faramawi, M; Johnson, E S
We conducted an exploratory study to investigate which exposures (including poultry oncogenic viruses) are associated with brain cancer in poultry workers. A total of 46,819 workers in poultry and nonpoultry plants from the same union were initially followed for mortality. Brain cancer was observed to be in excess among poultry workers. Here we report on a pilot case-cohort study with cases consisting of 26 (55%) of the 47 brain cancer deaths recorded in the cohort, and controls consisting of a random sample of the cohort (n = 124). Exposure information was obtained from telephone interviews, and brain cancer mortality risk estimated by odds ratios. Increased risk of brain cancer was associated with killing chickens, odds ratio (OR) = 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-28.3); working in a shell-fish farm, OR = 13.0 (95% CI, 1.9-84.2); and eating uncooked fish, OR = 8.2 (95% CI, 1.8-37.0). Decreased risks were observed for chicken pox illness, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and measles vaccination, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Killing chickens, an activity associated with the highest occupational exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses, was associated with brain cancer mortality, as were occupational and dietary shellfish exposures. These findings are novel. PMID:24564367
Dellicour, Stephanie; Aol, George; Ouma, Peter; Yan, Nicole; Bigogo, Godfrey; Hamel, Mary J; Burton, Deron C; Oneko, Martina; Breiman, Robert F; Slutsker, Laurence; Feikin, Daniel; Kariuki, Simon; Odhiambo, Frank; Stergachis, Andreas; Laserson, Kayla F; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Desai, Meghna
Objective Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes is important to monitor the impact of public health interventions. Miscarriage is a challenging end point to ascertain and there is scarce information on its rate in low-income countries. The objective was to estimate the background rate and cumulative probability of miscarriage in rural western Kenya. Design This was a population-based prospective cohort. Participants and setting Women of childbearing age were followed prospectively to identify pregnancies and ascertain their outcomes in Siaya County, western Kenya. The cohort study was carried out in 33 adjacent villages under health and demographic surveillance. Outcome measure Miscarriage. Results Between 2011 and 2013, among 5536 women of childbearing age, 1453 pregnancies were detected and 1134 were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability was 18.9%. The weekly miscarriage rate declined steadily with increasing gestation until approximately 20 weeks. Known risk factors for miscarriage such as maternal age, gravidity, occupation, household wealth and HIV infection were confirmed. Conclusions This is the first report of weekly miscarriage rates in a rural African setting in the context of high HIV and malaria prevalence. Future studies should consider the involvement of community health workers to identify the pregnancy cohort of early gestation for better data on the actual number of pregnancies and the assessment of miscarriage. PMID:27084287
Moradi, Tahereh; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ekbom, Anders; Wedrén, Sara; Terry, Paul; Floderus, Birgitta; Lichtenstein, Paul
The epidemiologic association between physical activity and breast cancer has been corroborated in many studies. Some inconsistencies remain, possibly due to variation in life periods for exposure assessment, confounding and undetected effect modification. In our cohort study, we address some of these questions by taking into account physical activity in different periods of life and by investigating effect modification by birth cohort and body mass index (BMI). Altogether 9,539 same-sex twin women aged 42-70 years who answered a questionnaire about their work and leisure-time physical exercise from ages 25 to 50 during 1967 and 1970 were included in our cohort. During follow-up, 506 breast cancer cases occurred through 1997. We used multivariate Cox models to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We found no associations between physical activity and breast cancer overall. Women born between 1901 and 1917 (aged 51-70 at baseline) who reported regular leisure-time activity had a borderline significant 40% lower risk compared with those who reported no activity (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.0; test for trend, p = 0.07). This association appeared to be confined to women with a low BMI after the age of 50 and to women with a high BMI during the premenopausal period. We found no evidence that work activity reduces risk for breast cancer. The importance of physical activity for breast cancer risk seems to depend on birth cohort. The association may be limited to normal-weight postmenopausal women and overweight premenopausal women. PMID:12115590
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.
Borgi, Lea; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C.; Forman, John P.
Objective To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting Healthcare providers in the United States. Participants 62 175 women in Nurses’ Health Study, 88 475 women in Nurses’ Health Study II, and 36 803 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were non-hypertensive at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of hypertension (self repo...
Michael Hartal; Yitshak Kreiss; Nirit Yavnai
Background:Occupation is a significant factor in life, health and well-being. Long-term military service is a unique career path that may influence life expectancy, even after excluding obvious risks such as battlefield mortality. However, it remains unclear what the effects of a military career are on the life trajectory of personnel who retire from service. We aimed to compare life expectancy among retired military personnel (RMP) to their sex- and birth cohort-specific reference populations. Methods:For this historical-cohort study we collected data on sex, year of birth, year of death, time in service, and rank at end of service for 4,862 Israeli RMPs. Data on reference populations were provided by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, by birth decade from 1900 to 1989. We calculated the difference between each individual RMP's age at death and the "expected" age at death, based on sex- and birth cohort-specific means in the reference populations. Results:Overall, 67.9% of RMPs lived longer than average relative to their sex specific birth cohort. This difference in life expectancy was more pronounced among women than among men. There was a significant trend of increasing difference between RMP males and reference males over time (P Conclusions:The mechanism of the protective effect of military service on life expectancy remains unknown, but our findings indicate that it affects men and women differently, with women being more likely to benefit from the protective effect of military service. The healthy worker effect is known to vary from one occupation to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the magnitude of the healthy worker effect among career military servicemen and women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in the UK. Patients generally present to their general practitioner, but the pathway of diagnosis from first symptom to diagnosis has not been mapped. We performed a cohort study of 246 patients with lung cancer in Exeter, Devon UK. All patients had their cancer symptoms, referrals and diagnoses identified and dated using their doctors' records. Results Three main routes to diagnosis emerged. The first was the expected route of outpatient referral; 150 (61% of the cohort of patients took this route, although only 110 (45% of the whole cohort, 73% of those referred to outpatients were referred to a respiratory department. 56 (23% were admitted as an emergency, having previously described a lung cancer symptom to their doctor. 26 patients (11% had no symptom of lung cancer reported before their diagnosis. The interval from first symptom to referral was similar across the different pathways. However, the referral to diagnosis interval was longer in patients misdirected to other outpatient departments (66 days, interquartile range 37,110 than those sent to respiratory clinics (29 days, 17,61 or admitted as an emergency (16 days 8,40; p Conclusion Only a minority of lung cancer patients follow the traditional route to diagnosis. Clinical and research efforts need to consider the alternative routes if they are to maximise their impact on speed of diagnosis.
Breen Alan C; Langworthy Jennifer M
Abstract Background Being able to estimate the likelihood of poor recovery from episodes of back pain is important for care. Studies of psychosocial factors in inception cohorts in general practice and occupational populations have begun to make inroads to these problems. However, no studies have yet investigated this in chiropractic patients. Methods A prospective inception cohort study of patients presenting to a UK chiropractic practice for new episodes of non-specific low back pain (LBP) ...
Sandel Megan T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.
LeGrandeur Jane; Ries Nola M; Caulfield Timothy
Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific cond...
Opgenorth Dawn; Cembrowski George; Holmes Daniel; Zimmerman Deborah; Chan Christopher; Gill John; Klarenbach Scott; Hemmelgarn Brenda; Thadhani Ravi; Bello Aminu K; Sibrian Rafael; Karkhaneh Mohammad; Tiv Sophanny; Wiebe Natasha; Tonelli Marcello
Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factor...
Kjaergaard, H.; Olsen, J.; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard;
BACKGROUND: In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for...... dystocia often do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria. METHODS: A multi-centre population based cohort study with prospectively collected data from 2810...
Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)
Kieboom, J. K.; Verkade, H. J.; Burgerhof, J. G.; Bierens, J. J.; van Rheenen, P. F.; Kneyber, M. C.; Albers, M. J.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia, and to determine distinct criteria for termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in drowned children with hypothermia and absence of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN Nationwide retrospective cohort study. S
Louise Kenny and colleagues conduct a population-based cohort study in Denmark to assess the likelihood of stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following cesarean section compared to women who gave birth by vaginal delivery.
Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte;
BACKGROUND:: We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in HIV-infected individuals METHODS:: This cohort study compared two different cohorts. The prospective population-based nationwide observational Danish HIV Cohort Study was used to compare all ...
Ford, Wesley L.; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna
Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.
Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of
Ran, Heng-Quan; Wang, Jun-Zhou; Sun, Chang-Qin
Background & Objective: The results of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between the coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk were inconsistent. Thus, we performed an update meta-analysis of cohort studies to quantitatively summarize the association between coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We searched CBM (China Biology Medicine disc) and MEDLINE for studies of coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk up to June 2015. A total of 20 cohort studies were identified in this meta-analysis, and we analyzed these studies using random effects model. The dose-response analysis was conducted too. Results: The overall relative risk (RR) for highest coffee consumption versus lowest coffee consumption was 0.75 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.63-0.86). Statistic significant heterogeneity was found among these studies (I2 =37.8%, P for heterogeneity =0.045). The pooled RR for increment of 1 cup/day of coffee consumption was 0.99 (95%CI, 0.96-1.03) for the nine studies, without statistically significant. Conclusions: High coffee consumption is associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. However, the result should be accepted with caution, due to the potential confounder and bias could not be excluded. Further well designed studies are needed to confirm the finding. PMID:27022386
De Groot,, P.A.J.; Haisma, J.A.; Post, M.W.; Asbeck, van, F.W.A.; Woude, van der, C.J.
OBJECTIVE: To determine bias due to loss of participants (attrition bias) in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: A multi-centre prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: A total of 225 individuals with a spinal cord injury from 8 Dutch rehabilitation centres. METHODS: Participants were considered non-participants when no information was collected at the measurement one year after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Using bivariate tests participants and non-participants were compared regarding...
Kuo, Wan-Yin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Chien-Chin
Background High stress levels and shift work probably trigger migraine in healthcare professionals (HCPs). However, the migraine risk differences between HCPs and the general population is unknown. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Physicians (50,226), nurses (122,357), and other HCPs (pharmacists, technicians, dietitians, rehabilitation therapists, social workers, etc.) (45,736) were enrolled for the study cohort,...
Konstantatos, A H; Imberger, G; Angliss, M;
The relationship between ethnicity and early opioid consumption is not well understood. Our prospective cohort study tested whether Chinese patients in Hong Kong require less opioid after major abdominal surgery compared with Caucasian patients in Australia.......The relationship between ethnicity and early opioid consumption is not well understood. Our prospective cohort study tested whether Chinese patients in Hong Kong require less opioid after major abdominal surgery compared with Caucasian patients in Australia....
Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sabroe, Svend;
#ENTITYSTARTX02022;OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;DESIGN: Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. #ENTITYST......#ENTITYSTARTX02022;OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;DESIGN: Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service...
Oh, Kook-Hwan; Park, Sue Kyung; Park, Hayne Cho; Chin, Ho Jun; Chae, Dong Wan; Choi, Kyu Hun; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Lee, Kyubeck; Kim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Wookyung; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Kang, Sun Woo
Background The progression and complications of chronic kidney disease should differ depending on the cause (C), glomerular filtration rate category (G), and albuminuria (A). The KNOW-CKD (KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease), which is a prospective cohort study, enrolls subjects with chronic kidney disease stages 1 to 5 (predialysis). Methods/Design Nine nephrology centers in major university hospitals throughout Korea will enroll approximately 2,450 adult...
Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin
Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...
Steevens, J; Schouten, L J; Verhage, B.A.; Goldbohm, R. A.; van den Brandt, P.A.
In a cohort study, ovarian cancer (280 cases) showed no significant association with tea or coffee, the multivariable rate ratios being 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.00) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.12) per cup per day, respectively. A meta-analysis also produced no significant findings overall, though the cohort studies showed a significant inverse association for tea. © 2007 Cancer Research UK.
Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Sandler, Dale P.
Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. Hazard ratio...
Anne Bukten; Ingunn Olea Lund; Eline Borger Rognli; Marianne Riksheim Stavseth; Philipp Lobmaier; Svetlana Skurtveit; Thomas Clausen; Nikolaj Kunøe
The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The m...
Fondell, Elinor; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; O'Reilly, Éilis J.; Ascherio, Alberto
A recent meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies on early balding (alopecia) revealed single nucleotide polymorphism variants in the region of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP/TDP-43). We therefore explored the association of early-onset alopecia and ALS in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a large cohort of 51,529 US men. In 1992, the participants (then aged 46–81 years) were asked to report their hair line pattern at age 45 y...
p>This thesis presents the results of the prevalence and the incidence of neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and its risk factors in an industrial population based cohort study. The project was completed between 2003 and 2007 in Iran Khodro Car Manufacturing Company (IKCo), the largest car company in Iran and the Middle East. At the beginning of the study, the company employed more than 18,000 people. The four papers are the results of a project that began with a baseline survey o...
Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Ana M. B. Menezes; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi
Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of...
Amigo, Hugo; Lara, Macarena; Bustos, Patricia; Muñoz, Sergio
Background In Chile, indigenous and non-indigenous schoolchildren have the same stature when they begin school but indigenous adults are shorter, indicating the importance of analyzing growth during puberty. The aim of this study was to compare the growth of indigenous and non-indigenous girls during the 36 months after menarche in Chile’s Araucanía Region. Methods A concurrent cohort study was conducted to compare growth in the two ethnic groups, which were comprised of 114 indigenous and 12...
Burgos, Jorge; Eguiguren, Nekane; Quintana, Eider; Cobos, Patricia; del Mar Centeno, Maria; Larrieta, Rosa; Fernández-Llebrez, Luis
Objective: To compare the success rate of external cephalic version (ECV) at term using ritodrine or atosiban as a tocolytic agent. Study design: Prospective cohort study with a sample of 236 pregnant women with a breech presentation at term, from November 2006 to March 2008. Data have been analyzed from the moment the cephalic version is performed until the time of delivery. Results: ECV success rate using ritodrine as a tocolytic agent was 56.8% compared to 31.4% with atosiban. Ritodrine ...
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo;
Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk...... factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with...
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;
hospital with a psychiatric disorder. The prospective cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n=18,146), was used, containing three updated sets of alcohol intake and lifestyle covariates and up to 26 years follow-up. Alcohol intake was measured by self-report while psychiatric disorders were.......31-3.04) compared to women drinking below the sensible drinking limits. For men, the risk functions were slightly U-shaped; thus, a weekly low or moderate alcohol intake seemed to have a protective effect towards developing psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest sex differences in the association between...
O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P
This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047
Brophy, Sinead; Cooksey, Roxanne; Gravenor, Michael B; Mistry, Rupal; Thomas, Non; Lyons, Ronan A; Williams, Rhys
Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own...
Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Jin Won; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Song, Jung Han; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong-Seok
Purpose We previously reported the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to be 3.3% among an elderly Korean urban cohort recruited during 2005-2006. Here, we report a 5-year follow-up study of the previously identified MGUS cohort. Materials and Methods The 680 participants from the initial cohort were followed-up for a median of 5 years. Sera were collected between 2010 and 2011. Two-step screening was performed with standard serum electrophoresis followed b...
Ana Paula Hermont
Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.
Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi
Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this article, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus, we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We, therefore, propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:26692376
Sakamaki, Tsuyako; Hara, Motohiko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo
Background Previous studies on the association between coffee consumption and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided inconsistent results. We examine the risk of SAH from coffee consumption in a Japanese population. Methods Our analyses were based on the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study, a large-scale population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 9941 participants (3868 men and 6073 women; mean age 55 years) with no history of cardiovascular disease or carcinoma were examined. Participants were asked to choose one of five options to indicate their daily coffee consumption: none, less than 1 cup a day, 1–2 cups a day, 3–4 cups a day, or 5 or more cups a day. The incidence of SAH was assessed independently by a diagnostic committee. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjustment for age and sex (HR1) and for additional potential confounders (HR2). Results During 10.7 years of follow-up, SAH occurred in 47 participants. When compared with the participants who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee a day, the HR of SAH was significantly higher in the group who consumed 5 or more cups a day in both models (HR1 4.49; 95% CI, 1.44–14.00; HR2 3.79; 95% CI, 1.19–12.05). Conclusions The present community-based cohort study showed that heavy coffee consumption was associated with an increased incidence of SAH after adjusting for age, sex, and multiple potential cardiovascular confounders. PMID:26460383
Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati
The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend < 0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not met in this cohort. PMID:24661608
Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo
Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of cancer at several sites, but its association with risk of bladder cancer is still controversial. We examined this association by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane register, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases through April 29, 2012. Summary relative risks (SRRs with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of fifteen cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies showed that diabetes was associated with a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23; p<0.001 for heterogeneity; I(2 = 84%. When restricting the analysis to studies that had adjusted for cigarette smoking (n = 6 or more than three confounders (n = 7, the RRs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.18-1.49 and 1.20 (95% CI 1.02-1.42, respectively. There was no significant publication bias (p = 0.62 for Egger's regression asymmetry test. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that diabetes was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. More future studies are warranted to get a better understanding of the association and to provide convincing evidence for clinical practice in bladder cancer prevention.
Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner
Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort…
Anne-Sophie Halkjær Christensen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With high short-term mortality and substantial excess morbidity among survivors, tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term mortality and causes of death in a TBM patient population compared to the background population. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study was conducted enrolling patients notified with TBM in Denmark from 1972-2008 and alive one year after TBM diagnosis. Data was extracted from national registries. From the background population we identified a control cohort of individuals matched on gender and date of birth. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR and analyse causes of death. FINDINGS: A total of 55 TBM patients and 550 individuals from the background population were included in the study. Eighteen patients (32.7% and 107 population controls (19.5% died during the observation period. The overall MRR was 1.79 (95%CI: 1.09-2.95 for TBM patients compared to the population control cohort. TBM patients in the age group 31-60 years at time of diagnosis had the highest relative risk of death (MRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.34-5.34. The TBM patients had a higher risk of death due to infectious disease, but not from other causes of death. CONCLUSION: Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death.
Li, Dongliang; Li, Shuming; Liu, Yingjie; Gao, Yanjie; Yu, Mingrun; Yang, Xueying; Li, Qingchun; Jiang, Shulin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Zhang, Zheng; Yan, Li; Jiang, Guiyan; Xiao, Dong; Pan, Stephen W; Luo, Fengji; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming
Objectives (1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Baseline and follow-up visits were conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Participants A cohort of 797 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from August to December 2009, with follow-up occurring after 6 and 12 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures At baseline and follow-up visits, participants reported sociodemographic and sexual behaviour information, and were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis with whole blood specimens. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Most study participants (86.8%) were retained by the 12-month follow-up. The HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis incidence rates were 8.09 (95% CI 6.92 to 9.26), 5.92 (95% CI 5.44 to 6.40) and 8.06 (95% CI 7.56 to 8.56) cases per 100 person-years, respectively. HIV seroconversion was significantly associated with being 1 male sex partner in the past 6 months, and being syphilis positive or HSV-2 positive. Conclusions The HIV incidence among MSM in Beijing is serious. Interventions and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be combined with HIV control and prevention measures among MSM. PMID:23166133
Comijs Hannie C
Full Text Available Abstract Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO, a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (≥ 60 years at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age
Bélanger, Mathieu; Caissie, Isabelle; Beauchamp, Jacinthe; O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Mancuso, Michelina
Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 st...
Strandheim, Arve; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Gunnell, David; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bentzen, Niels
Objectives: Examining the associations between health and lifestyle factors recorded in the participants’ early teens and development of suicidal thoughts recorded 4 years later. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Settings: All students in the two relevant year classes in Nord-Trøndelag County were invited, 80% attended both waves of data collection. Participants: 2399 secondary school students who participated in the Young-HUNT1 study in 1995–1997 (13–15 yea...
Poorolajal, Jalal; Cheraghi, Zahra; Irani, Amin Doosti; REZAEIAN, Shahab
The quality of reporting of cohort studies published in the most prestigious scientific medical journals was investigated to indicate to what extent the items in the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist are addressed. Six top scientific medical journals with high impact factor were selected including New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, British Medical Journal, Archive of Internal Medicine, and...
Killias, Martin; Haas, Henriette
The role of guns and other weapons in violent acts has often been a subject of debate. The present study is based on a sample of 21,314 valid interviews with 20 year old Swiss men, representing over 70 percent of this cohort. The results show a much higher frequency of violence among owners of handguns and other weapons, but not of rifles. Gun owners also have been injured more often, and they suffer more often from psychiatric symptoms. A considerable proportion of violent gun owners had pre...
Kabat, G C; Miller, A B; M Jain; Rohan, T E
We used data from a large cohort study of Canadian women to assess the association of meat intake and dietary intake of iron and haem iron with risk of endometrial cancer. Among 34 148 women with an intact uterus at baseline and followed for a mean of 16.4 years, we identified 426 incident endometrial cancer cases. Data from a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline were used to calculate intake of all meats, red meat, total dietary iron, iron from meat, haem iron, and non-haem ...
Zhongwei Jia; Xiaojie Huang; Hao Wu; Tong Zhang; Ning Li; Peipei Ding; Yixuan Sun; Zhiying Liu; Feili Wei; Hongwei Zhang; Yanmei Jiao; Yunxia Ji; Yonghong Zhang; Caiping Guo; Wei Li
We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-negative MSM aged 18 years or older between 2007 and 2012 in Beijing, China to measure the rates of incident HIV and identify risk factors for infection. Among 5,800 participants evaluated at enrollment, we identified 486 prevalent cases of HIV (8.4%). Among the 3,625 enrollees who were HIV-negative at enrollment and completed at least one follow-up interview, we identified 440 incident cases of HIV in the follow up period: this constituted an...
Vinberg, Maj; Madsen, Maiken; Breum, Leif;
at a Mood Disorder Clinic. Methods: Patients were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) according to modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Results: Of the 143 patients eligible for participation, 100 patients participated in the study (32% male, mean age 43.6 ± 14.2); the prevalence of MeS was 26......Background: Patients with affective disorder have higher mortality not only because of their affective illness but also because of a higher risk of death from physical illness especially cardiovascular diseases. Aim: To investigate the prevalence in a naturalistic cohort of patient treated...
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Vastrup, Pernille; Wohlfart, Jan;
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia acts as a teratogen in some animals where it can induce resorption of the fetus and fetal death. Fever during pregnancy, especially in the period of embryogenesis, is also suspected as being a risk factor for fetal death in human beings. We did a large cohort study in...... measured body temperature, duration of incident, and gestational age were recorded. Outcomes of pregnancies were identified through linkage with the Civil Registration System and the National Discharge Registry. Cox's regression with time-dependent variables was used to estimate the relative risk of fetal...
Dickerson, A.; Popli, G.K.
We use data from the four sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study of children born at the turn of the 21st century to document the effect that poverty, and in particular persistent poverty, has on their cognitive development in their early years. Using structural equation modelling, we show that children born into poverty have significantly lower test scores at age 3, age 5 and age 7 years, and that continually living in poverty in their early years has a cumulative negative effect on their ...
Whalley, L.J.; Deary, I J
Objectives To test the association between childhood IQ and mortality over the normal human lifespan.Design Longitudinal cohort study.Setting Aberdeen.Subjects All 2792 children in Aberdeen born in 1921 and attending school on 1 June 1932 who sat a mental ability test as part of the Scottish mental survey 1932.Main outcome measure Survival at 1 January 1997.Results 79.9% (2230) of the sample was traced. Childhood mental ability was positively related to survival to age 76 years in women (0.97...
Allard, K. O.; Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.;
OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the effect of the demand-control-support model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and emotional demands on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index. METHODS:: This is a 2-year prospective cohort study of 3224 public sector employees. Measures...... were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. RESULTS:: Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after...
Jung, Chau-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang
There is limited evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and newly diagnostic ASD in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based cohort of 49,073 children age less than 3 years in 2000 that were retrieved from Taiwan National Insurance Research Database and followed up from 2000 through 2010. Inverse distance w...
Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Skov, Lone; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Peter Riis; Jørgensen, Casper Haslund
. The present study investigated the potential association between psoriasis and VTE. Methods and Findings Information from nationwide prospectively recorded registers of hospitalization, drug dispensing from pharmacies, socio-economic data, and causes of death was linked on an individual level. In an...... unselected nationwide cohort, we used multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, concomitant medication, socio-economic data, and calendar year, to assess the risk of VTE associated with psoriasis. A total of 35,138 patients with mild and 3,526 patients with severe...
Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.
Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 particip...
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and from several European men's professional first leagues. Over a varying number of seasons from 2001 to 2009, 57 clubs (2,329 players) were followed prospectively and during this period 78 ACL injuries occurred (five partial). Mean age at ACL injury was lower in women compared to men (20.6 ± 2.2 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5 years, P = 0.0002). Using a Cox regression, the female-to-male hazard ratio (HR) was 2.6 (95% CI 1.4-4.6) in all three cohorts studied and 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3) in the Swedish cohorts; adjusted for age, the HR was reduced to 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.2) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.2), respectively. Match play was associated with a higher ACL injury risk with a match-to-training ratio of 20.8 (95% CI 12.4-34.8) and 45 ACL injuries (58%) occurred due to non-contact mechanisms. Hamstrings grafts were used more often in Sweden than in Europe (67 vs. 34%, P = 0.028), and there were no differences in time to return to play after ACL reconstruction between the cohorts or different grafts. In conclusion, this study showed that the ACL injury incidence in female elite footballers was more than doubled compared to their male counterparts, but also that they were significantly younger at ACL injury than males. These findings suggest that future preventive research primarily should address the young female football player. PMID:20532869
Galea, Jerome T.; Contreras, Carmen; Lecca, Leonid; Shin, Sonya; Lobatón, Raúl; Zhang, Zibiao; Calderón, Roger; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C.
To reduce costs in a large tuberculosis household contact cohort study in Lima, Peru, we replaced laboratory-based HIV testing with home-based rapid testing. We developed a protocol and training course to prepare staff for the new strategy; these included role playing for home-based deployment of the Determine® HIV 1/2 Ag/Ac Combo HIV test. Though the rapid HIV test produced more false-positives, the overall cost per participant tested, refusal rate and time to confirmatory HIV testing were l...
Frederiksen, Henrik Kronholm; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo;
Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk of...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology....
Van Batenburg-Eddes, T; Brion, MJ; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, VWV; Hofman, A; Verhulst, FC; Lawlor, DA; Davey Smith, G.; Tiemeier, H
Background Maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with offspring-attention deficit problems. Aim We explored possible intrauterine effects by comparing maternal and paternal symptoms during pregnancy, by investigating cross-cohort consistency, and by investigating whether parental symptoms in early childhood may explain any observed intrauterine effect. Methods This study was conducted in two cohorts (Generation R, n = 2,280 and ALSPAC, n = 3,442). Pregnant wome...
Fine, Daniel H.; Markowitz, Kenneth; Furgang, David; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri, Cebile; McKiernan, Marie; Gunsolley, John
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is frequently associated with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP); however, longitudinal cohort studies relating A. actinomycetemcomitans to initiation of LAP have not been reported. A periodontal assessment was performed on 1,075 primarily African-American and Hispanic schoolchildren, ages 11 to 17 years. Samples were taken from each child for A. actinomycetemcomitans. A cohort of 96 students was established that included a test group of 38 A. actin...
Shankar-Hari, Manu; Donnelly, Antonia; Pinto, Ruxandra; Salih, Zaid; McKenzie, Cathrine; Terblanche, Marius; Adhikari, Neill KJ
Background In the context of infection, progressive illness resulting in acute organ dysfunction is thought to be secondary to inflammatory response. Our aims were to determine risk factors for progressive illness following infection in a low-risk hospitalised cohort, including the impact of prior stain therapy. Methods We performed a prospective observational cohort study on two adult acute medical wards of a single tertiary academic hospital. We screened drug prescription charts of all adul...
Magnani, C; Terracini, B; Ivaldi, C; Botta, M; Budel, P; Mancini, A; Zanetti, R.
The study investigates mortality from cancer and other diseases in a cohort of wives of asbestos cement workers in Casale Monferrato (northwest Italy). After the exclusion of women with an occupational record in the asbestos cement industry, the cohort comprised 1964 women. Their domestic exposure was estimated according to their husbands' periods of employment in the plant: 1740 had a period of domestic exposure whereas the remaining 224 married an asbestos cement worker only after he defini...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few studies have evaluated the association between Sjogren's syndrome (SS and respiratory failure (RF. Thus, we conducted a retrospective national cohort study to investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome (SS increases the risk of respiratory failure (RF. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 4954 newly diagnosed patients with SS but without a previous diagnosis of RF, and 19816 patients as the comparison cohort from the catastrophic illnesses registry, obtained from the 2000-2005 period. All of the study participants were followed from the index date to December 31, 2011. We analyzed the association between the risk of RF and SS by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of RF showed a 3.21-fold increase in the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort. The adjusted HR of RF was 3.04 for the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort, after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. The HRs of RF for patients with primary SS and secondary SS compared with the comparison cohort were 2.99 and 3.93, respectively (P for trend <.001. The HRs of RF increased as the severity of SS increased, from 2.34 for those with no inpatient care experience to 5.15 for those with inpatient care experience (P for trend <.001. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that clinical physicians should not only consider secondary SS but also primary SS as a critical factor that increases the risk of RF.
Walker, Alex J.; Baldwin, David R; Card, Tim R; Powell, Helen A; Hubbard, Richard B.; Grainge, Matthew J
Background: Venous thromboembolism is a potentially preventable cause of death in people with lung cancer. Identification of those most at risk and high risk periods may provide the opportunity for better targeted intervention. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry data. Our cohort comprised 10,598 people with lung cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 with follow-up continuing to the ...
Winberg, Anna; Christina E West; Strinnholm, Åsa; Nordström, Lisbeth; Hedman, Linnea; Rönmark, Eva
Objectives Knowledge about the prevalence of allergies to foods in childhood and adolescence is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of allergies to milk, egg, cod, and wheat using reported data, clinical examinations, and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges, and to describe the phenotypes of reported food hypersensitivity in a cohort of Swedish schoolchildren. Methods In a population-based cohort of 12-year-old children, the parents of 2612 (96%...
Cheng Kao-Chi; Chen Yu-Lung; Lai Shih-Wei; Mou Chih-Hsin; Tsai Pang-Yao; Sung Fung-Chang
Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more prevalent in Taiwan than in most countries. This population-based cohort study evaluated the dementia risk associated with CKD. Methods Using claims data of 1,000,000 insured residents covered in the universal health insurance of Taiwan, we selected 37049 adults with CKD newly diagnosed from 2000–2006 as the CKD cohort. We also randomly selected 74098 persons free from CKD and other kidney diseases, frequency matched with age, sex and t...
Emdin, Connor A; Anderson, Simon G.; Callender, Thomas; Conrad, Nathalie; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Mohseni, Hamid; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem
Objectives To determine the subgroup specific associations between usual blood pressure and risk of peripheral arterial disease, and to examine the relation between peripheral arterial disease and a range of other types of vascular disease in a large contemporary cohort. Design Cohort study. Setting Linked electronic health records from 1990 to 2013 in the United Kingdom. Participants 4 222 459 people aged 30-90 years, registered at a primary care practice for at least one year and with a blo...
Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, ...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy.......OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...
Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng
Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer.Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglycemic crisis episodes were defined as having poorly controlled diabetes. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013, to determine whether pancreatic cancer was diagnosed. The Cox regression model was applied to compare the adjusted hazards for potential confounders.After controlling for age, sex, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, chronic liver disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, malignancies, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, history of alcohol intoxication, chronic renal insufficiency, biliary tract disease, chronic pancreatitis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and high-dimensional propensity score, the adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.96-3.26) in patients with diabetes. In diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 1.34-9.78).This cohort study reveals a possible relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with a higher possibility of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27311001
González-Martín-Moro, Julio; González-López, Julio José; Gómez-Sanz, Fernando; Zarallo-Gallardo, Jesús; Cobo-Soriano, Rosario
The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of tamsulosin intake on five postoperative cataract surgery complications (toxic anterior segment syndrome, rebound uveitis, retinal detachment, macular edema, and postoperative endophthalmitis). This retrospective cohort study was conducted at University Hospital of Henares. The study included 660-eyes of 660 patients submitted to cataract surgery at the ophthalmology unit of Hospital del Henares (Madrid) between 2 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Extracapsular cataract extraction, combined glaucoma and cataract surgery phacovitrectomy, posterior capsule rupture and zonular damage were considered exclusion criteria. Clinical charts were reviewed during July 2012. Patients were divided in two groups (exposed and non-exposed to tamsulosin). Cumulative incidence of toxic anterior segment syndrome, rebound uveitis, retinal detachment, macular edema and postoperative endophthalmitis were compared in both groups. Rebound uveitis (relative risk [RR] 3.39; confidence interval [CI] 1.63-7.08) and macular edema (RR 4.15; CI 1.06-16.22) were more common in the tamsulosin-exposed group. Retinal detachment had a similar incidence in both groups. We observed no cases of endophthalmitis or toxic anterior segment syndrome in either of the two groups. Tamsulosin exposure in this cohort was associated with a higher risk of rebound uveitis and macular edema but the other three studied postoperative complications had a similar incidence in both groups. PMID:24158613
Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Esplugues, Ana; Iñíguez, Carmen; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran
In July 2012, two simultaneous wildfires burnt a big area in Valencia (Spain), where a birth cohort study (INMA) is being developed. The heavy smoke covered the whole INMA study area for several days. We aimed at evaluating the 2012 Valencia wildfire effects on the health of children enrolled in the INMA-Valencia cohort. Two weeks after the extinction of the wildfires, a phone survey was conducted and finally 460 individuals were enrolled. We considered a wildfire period (12-day interval when they were active) and a control period (12-day interval just before wildfires). Parents were asked about respiratory symptoms experienced during both periods, and during wildfires only about the preventive measures adopted and the perception of exposure, along with individual data collected through the different follow-up surveys of the cohort. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and we included interaction terms for asthma/rhinitis and level of perception of exposure; 82.4 % perceived smoke smell outdoors, 40 % indoors and more than 90 % of the families observed the presence of ash. An adjusted odds ratio of 3.11 [95 % confidence interval 1.62-5.97] for itchy/watery eyes and 3.02 [1.41-6.44] for sore throat was obtained. Significant interaction terms for rhinitis and asthma in itchy/watery eyes and sneezing, and only asthma for sore throat were obtained. Exposure to wildfire smoke was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in this child population, particularly affecting susceptible individuals with asthma or rhinitis. PMID:26215426
Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung
The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20-2.54), and those aged <= 49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38-4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96-3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545
Lagerlund, Magdalena; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sontrop, Jessica M; Zackrisson, Sophia
To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992-2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45-1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05-1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32-1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00-1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11-1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01-1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14-1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14-1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening. PMID:24787378
Gilsing, Anne M J; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P
To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study - Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2-5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47-1.13), 0.80(0.47-1.39), and 0.72(0.52-1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake. PMID:26316135
Cristina Lopez-del Burgo
Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.
Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania
The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997
Lucinda E Saunders
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke
Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T.; Copes, Ray; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Kopp, Alexander; Tu, Jack V.
Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study. Conclusions: Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients. Citation: Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand.Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study.Thailand.The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys.Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall.In 2009, 5608(10% participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%. Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury.Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.
Full Text Available Aims: Despite increasing evidence in the literature regarding the impact of late prematurity on subsequent developmental impairment, the developmental outcome of late preterm infants who undergo major surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the developmental outcome for a cohort of late preterm surgical population.Methods: Late preterm infants with a gestational age from 34-36 weeks inclusive who were enrolled in the state-wide prospective Development After Infant Surgery (DAISy study and who had undergone non-cardiac major surgery within the first ninety days of life were eligible for inclusion. Infants were assessed at one and three years of ages.Results: Forty-six infants were enrolled in the study, of which 38 infants had a complete developmental assessment at one year of age. Of these infants, late preterm infants scored significantly lower than the standardized norms of the assessment on the expressive language and gross motor subscales. At three years of age 26 infants were reassessed: late preterm infants who underwent major surgery only scored significantly lower than the standardized norms on the cognitive subscale (p<0.001.Conclusions: These data provide the evidence that late preterm infants who undergo major non-cardiac surgery are at risk of developmental impairment and consideration should be given to enrolling this cohort in multi-disciplinary developmental follow-up clinics.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.
Gatenby, P A C; Shaw, C; Hine, C; Scholtes, S; Koutra, M; Andrew, H; Hacking, M; Allum, W H
Introduction Enhanced recovery programmes have been established in some areas of elective surgery. This study applied enhanced recovery principles to elective oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery. Methods An enhanced recovery programme for patients undergoing open oesophagogastrectomy, total and subtotal gastrectomy for oesophageal and gastric malignancy was designed. A retrospective cohort study compared length of stay on the critical care unit (CCU), total length of inpatient stay, rates of complications and in-hospital mortality prior to (35 patients) and following (27 patients) implementation. Results In the cohort study, the median total length of stay was reduced by 3 days following oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy. The median length of stay on the CCU remained the same for all patients. The rates of complications and mortality were the same. Conclusions The standardised protocol reduced the median overall length of stay but did not reduce CCU stay. Enhanced recovery principles can be applied to patients undergoing major oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy as long as they have minimal or reversible co-morbidity. PMID:26414360
There are epidemiological databases of some 40 MB available to risk analysis, mainly including databases of cohort follow-up and deaths of 12000 subject for the periods 1979-1986 and 1987-1995, and dosimetric database for 6783 households in 526 hamlets. Because of no strict projection relationship between database of the two periods of 1979-1986 and 1987-1995, the authors developed methods to combine the data of the two periods into one for risk analysis. The first one is to set up a theoretical cohort of 1979-1995 based on record linkage between the two periods. The other method is simply to sum up stratified person-year tables of different periods. It is suggested through extensive analysis of dosimetric data that indoor exposures should be divided further into two parts (exposure received on bed and those received during other indoor activities), outdoor exposure is homogeneous within a hamlet, and occupancy factors are sex-and-age-dependent. Cumulative dose estimates based upon hamlet-specific average of dose rates in bedroom, living room, and outdoor and sex-age-specific occupancy factors are derived for each cohort member. Person-years and number of deaths are tabulated with stratification by sex, attained age, calendar years, and dose. Cancer risks are analyzed for the period of 1979-1990. Conclusion: The epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, have been greatly improved by extensively using database management system and advanced statistical analysis with more attention paid to standardization and systematization of survey data management
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the treatments given, the outcome and the patient- and treatment-system dependent factors affecting treatment outcome in a national two-year cohort of culture-verified extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Finland. Methods Medical records of all cases in 1995 - 1996 were abstracted to assess treatment and outcome, using the European recommendations for outcome monitoring. For risk factor analysis, outcome was divided into three groups: favourable, death and other unfavourable. Predictors of unfavourable outcome were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results In the study cohort of 276 cases, 116 (42.0% were men and 160 (58.0% women. The mean age was 65.7 years. A favourable outcome was achieved in 157/276 (56.9% cases, consisting of those cured (8.0% and treatment completed (48.9%. Death was the outcome in 17.4% (48/276 cases, including cases not treated. Other unfavourable outcomes took place in 45 (16.3% cases. Significant independent risk factors for death in multinomial logistic regression model were male sex, high age, immunosuppression, any other than a pulmonary specialty being responsible at the end of the treatment and other than standard combination of treatment. For other unfavourable treatment outcomes, significant risk factor was treatment with INH + RIF + EMB/SM. Deep site of TB was inversely associated with the risk of other unfavourable outcome. Conclusions The proportion of favourable outcome was far below the goal set by the WHO. Age and comorbidities, playing an important role in treatment success, are not available in routine outcome data. Therefore, comparisons between countries should be made in cohort analyses incorporating data on comorbidities.
Lanza, Amy; Ravaud, Philippe; Riveros, Carolina; Dechartres, Agnes
Background Observational studies are increasingly being used for assessing therapeutic interventions. Case–control studies are generally considered to have greater risk of bias than cohort studies, but we lack evidence of differences in effect estimates between the 2 study types. We aimed to compare estimates between cohort and case–control studies in meta-analyses of observational studies of therapeutic interventions by using a meta-epidemiological study. Methods We used a random sample of meta-analyses of therapeutic interventions published in 2013 that included both cohort and case–control studies assessing a binary outcome. For each meta-analysis, the ratio of estimates (RE) was calculated by comparing the estimate in case–control studies to that in cohort studies. Then, we used random-effects meta-analysis to estimate a combined RE across meta-analyses. An RE < 1 indicated that case–control studies yielded larger estimates than cohort studies. Results The final analysis included 23 meta-analyses: 138 cohort and 133 case–control studies. Treatment effect estimates did not significantly differ between case–control and cohort studies (combined RE 0.97 [95% CI 0.86–1.09]). Heterogeneity was low, with between–meta-analysis variance τ2 = 0.0049. Estimates did not differ between case–control and prospective or retrospective cohort studies (RE = 1.05 [95% CI 0.96–1.15] and RE = 0.99 [95% CI, 0.83–1.19], respectively). Sensitivity analysis of studies reporting adjusted estimates also revealed no significant difference (RE = 1.03 [95% CI 0.91–1.16]). Heterogeneity was also low for these analyses. Conclusion We found no significant difference in treatment effect estimates between case–control and cohort studies assessing therapeutic interventions. PMID:27159025
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling;
PURPOSE: The vast majority of studies investigating the association between social and psychological factors and anxiety disorders have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. The purpose of the study was to investigate in a prospective longitudinal study whether...... social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted to a hospital and receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorders. METHOD: The study population comprised 4,497 members of The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC) who in 1993 answered a mailed questionnaire containing questions...... on a range of social and psychological factors. In 2007, the study population was linked to The Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to obtain information on registration with anxiety disorders. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk of...