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Sample records for area treated effluent

  1. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  2. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  3. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  4. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.

    2000-05-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

  5. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  6. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  7. Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

  8. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation

  9. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water

  10. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  11. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  12. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of El Paso and the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines.

  13. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  14. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  15. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  16. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  17. BIOLOGICAL TREATING TECHNOLOGY TO REMOVE PHENOLS IN FCCU EFFLUENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Baesd on the survey in 1997 fiscal year, we have been making a further survey and study together with 中国石油(Petro China) at Liaohe Refinery since 1998 fiscal year, aiming at the transfer of Japanese waste water treating technologies to China.   Scope is as follows:   (1) Demonstration of a new waste water treating technology, a kind of biological treating methods (Fluidized bed biological treatment), to eliminate phenols in FCCU effluent.   (2) Recommendation of eliminating pollutant and reducing total effluent by improving the operation.    1 Fluidized bed biological treatment 1.1 What is fluidized bed biological treatment   Fluidized bed biological treatment is the process to treat waste water as follows:   (1) To put biologically inert granular matters (fluidized carrier) into an aeration tank;   (2) Homogeneously and entirely to fluidize the particles in the tank to form highly active biofilm on the surface of each particle;   (3) To contact organic substances with these microorganisms to purify the waste water.   The surface area of the particle per unit volume is about ten times as large as that in conventional biofilm treatment process. In addition, no blockade of the filler (carrier) may be caused. Accordingly, volumetric loading of the aeration tank can be improved to attain highly efficient treatment.

  18. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  19. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  20. Cytotoxicity assays to evaluate tannery effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, N; Moraes, J P; Klauck, C R; Gehlen, G; Rodrigues, M A S; Ziulkoski, A L

    2015-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) is used to increase the treatment efficiency of effluents however, it is necessary to compare the toxicity of treated and untreated effluents to evaluate if the decontamination process does not cause any biological harm. Cultured cells have been previously used to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of various compounds. Hence, the aim of this work was to assess the applicability of cytotoxicity assays to evaluate the toxicity related to the AOP treatment. Samples of an industrial effluent were collected after their treatment by a conventional method. Cytotoxicity of standard and AOP treated effluents was assessed in CRIB and HEp-2 cell line using the MTT and neutral red assays. We observed decrease at cell viability in the both assays (50% MTT and 13% NRU) when cells were exposed to the AOP treatment in the highest concentration. Thus, cytotoxic assays in cultured cells can be explored as an useful method to evaluate toxicity as well as to optimize effluents treatment process. PMID:26628242

  1. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  2. Constructed wetlands to help recovery of effluent dominated streams: application to ozonated and non ozonated treated effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzanotte, V; Canobbio, S; Malpei, F.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the results of comparative trials carried out at demonstrative and pilot scale using constructed wetlands for the final polishing of treated effluents (ozonated and non ozonated) which are discharged into a small stream, often dry, whose flow is chiefly made of the effluents themselves. The effluents fed to experimental constructed wetlands had comparable quality for the chief parameters. The removal percent was higher in the case of ozonated effluents for total ...

  3. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  4. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft2) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  5. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  6. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  7. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  8. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  9. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  10. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca de Souza Maselli; Luis Augusto Visani de Luna; Joice de Oliveira Palmeira; Sandro Babosa; Luiz Alberto Beijo; Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro; Fábio Kummrow

    2013-01-01

    Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced) followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated s...

  11. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Pui Wah; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Meenakshisundaram Nachiappan; Balaraman Varadaraj

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water....

  12. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Souza Maselli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process. Five samplings campaigns were performed from October 2011 to July 2012. The raw effluent samples showed high acute and chronic toxicity (acute: fourth sampling with EC50 - 48-h of <0.001% and chronic: third sampling with IC50 - 7-d of <0.0001%. The chemically treated effluent samples were the most toxic with EC50 - 48-h between <0.001 and 0.1% and IC50 - 7-d between 0.00001 and 0.0001%. This increase in toxicity is probably related to the use of aluminum sulfate as flocculating agent. The biological treatment led to a small reduction in toxicity of the effluents. The selected ecotoxicological tests were adequate for detecting the effluent toxicity and useful for evaluating the efficiency of the steps of the effluent treatment. Improvements in the industrial wastewater treatment system should be implemented in order to reduce the observed toxicity of the final effluent.

  13. Ultraviolet, chlorine and ozone disinfection of some enteroviruses in drinking water and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A

    1997-01-01

    The inactivation efficiency of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone were determined for poliovirus type 3, Coxsackievirus type B4 and Hepatitis A virus in drinking water and treated effluent. Ultraviolet was more efficient than the other two disinfectants at wave length 254 nm where no infective virus was detected after 4 min of UV irradiation in both drinking water and treated effluent. Inactivation by chlorine dose more than 25 mg/L was sufficient for studied viruses in both drinking water and treated effluent. Also virus-seeded drinking water was exposed to ozone for 18 min at ozone rate of 319 mg/L/h to obtain the maximum inactivation of PV3, CoxB4 and HAV but about 20 min of ozone exposure was needed for treated effluent. Physico-chemical parameters were measured before and after disinfection assay. No significant changes were observed.

  14. Nile tilapia culture on domestic effluent treated in stabilization ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Matheus Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance and filet quality of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus culture in effluent stabilization lagoons was tested at the densities of 3 fish/m2 (T3, 7 fish/m2 (T2 and 7 fish/m2 in clean water + diet (T1 with 3 repetitions in tanks of 2.57m2 and 0.60m of water column with supplemental aeration. Fish culture in clean water plus diet (T1 presented the highest growth. The higher density T3 (7/m2 compared to T2 (3/m2 did not result in any difference of total production (p > 0.05 but this was compensated by the increased individual fish growth rate at lower density. The conditions that sustain fish survival culture with ETE effluent were attested by the high survival (> 90% under both treatments, but only 10% of the water samples from T2 and T3 N-total ammonium was favorable for fish growth (< 2.0mg/L. The rearing system improved the effluent quality, reducing the total organic nitrogen and the solids in suspension. The faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the effluent and fish were verified to be within the standards laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  15. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  16. On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be

  17. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%. S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl− in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.

  18. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi; Anderson, Bruce C.; Brent Wootton; Lloyd Rozema

    2016-01-01

    The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination) in gravel and wood-chi...

  19. Nile tilapia culture on domestic effluent treated in stabilization ponds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clovis Matheus Pereira; Flavio Rubens Lapolli

    2009-01-01

    The performance and filet quality of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in effluent stabilization lagoons was tested at the densities of 3 fish/m2 (T3), 7 fish/m2 (T2) and 7 fish/m2 in clean water + diet (T1) with 3 repetitions in tanks of 2.57m2 and 0.60m of water column with supplemental aeration. Fish culture in clean water plus diet (T1) presented the highest growth. The higher density T3 (7/m2) compared to T2 (3/m2) did not result in any difference of total production (p > 0.05) bu...

  20. Evaluation of Fluidized Bed Reactor in treating Dyeing effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poongoth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyeing industries one of the complicated industries which use many chemicals like dyes, starch, acids, alkalis, surfactants and refractory organics for their process. As it is a wet process it requires more amount of water ranging 65-104 L/Kg of product and it discharges 52-95 L/Kg of product as wastewater. The COD, BOD,TDS, Colour and SS are the major pollutants from these industries to the receiving streams. Biological treatment is employed mostly when compared to the physicochemical treatment. More sludge, toxic bye products and cost for the treatment are the reasons for not employing the physiochemical treatment processes. Biological treatments like aerobic and anaerobic processes overcome the disadvantages of physicochemical treatment. The present study evaluates the Aerobic Fluidized bed Reactor for the treatment of Dyeing effluent. It has been observed through this study that 89% colour removal and 83.3% COD removal were achieved.

  1. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Onur Can [Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkey); Böcük, Harun, E-mail: hbocuk@anadolu.edu.tr [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey); Yakar, Anıl [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l{sup −1} to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg{sup −1} B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg{sup −1} B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg{sup −1} whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg{sup −1} B during the research period.

  2. Effect of treated tannery effluent with domestic wastewater and amendments on growth and yield of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagathjothi, N; Amanullah, M Mohamed; Muthukrishnan, P

    2013-11-15

    Pot culture and field experiments were carried out at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Dindigul during kharif 2011-12 to investigate the influence of irrigation of treated tannery effluent along with domestic wastewater on growth, yield attributes and yield of cotton. The pot culture was in a factorial completely randomized design and field experiment laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that the mixing proportion of 25% Treated Tannery Effluent (TTE)+75% domestic wastewater (DWW) application recorded taller plants, higher dry matter production, number of sympodial branches plant(-1), number of fruiting points plant(-1), number of bolls plant(-1) and seed cotton yield with yield reduction of 15.28 and 16.11% compared to normal water irrigation under pot culture and field experiment, respectively. Regarding amendments, gypsum application registered higher seed cotton yield followed by VAM. PMID:24511705

  3. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Shengbing, E-mail: heshengbing@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 DongChuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xue Gang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  4. Irrigational impact of untreated and treated brewery-distillery effluent on seed germination of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuradha; Malaviya, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Current study presents the effect of irrigation with different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of untreated and treated brewery-distillery effluent on germination behaviour of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. var. Pusa Basanti). The 100% untreated effluent showed acidic pH (4.80) and higher values of BOD (1500.00 mg l(-1)), COD (4000.00 mg l(-1)), chloride (1742.20 mg l(-1)), TSS (900.00 mg l(-1)) as compared to that of treated effluent. Tagetes seeds were exposed to different concentrations of effluent and the results revealed maximum values of germination parameters viz., percent germination, peak value, germination value, germination index, speed of germination and vigour index at 20% untreated and 60% treated effluent concentrations, whereas the values for negative germination parameters viz., delay index, germination period and percent inhibition were minimum at 20% untreated and 60% treated effluent concentrations.

  5. E. coli Regrowth in a Constructed Wetland Receiving Treated Sewage Effluent: A Threat to Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are used throughout the world to filter toxins from treated wastewater and to increase wildlife habitat. Bird and mammal excretions result in background levels of enteric bacteria in any natural wetland, but regrowth of bacteria in wastewater effluent can further increase microb...

  6. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent. PMID:22319874

  7. Vermitreatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewaters and Nutrient Bioassay of Treated Effluents for Reuse as Irrigation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharda Dhadse

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was undertaken to study the low cost efficient treatment system for the treatment of high organically polluted industrial wastewater. The herbal and bulk drug pharmaceutical industry wastewaters were characterized and treated by vermifilter units and the treated effluents were assessed for its toxicity or nutrient enrichment by algal assay procedure to explore the feasibility of use of treated effluents for the agriculture. Both the raw wastewaters were observed to be high strength organic wastewaters with very high COD and BOD5 with dark yellow color. Results of study established vermitechnology as the low cost efficient method for the treatment of herbal and bulk drug pharmaceutical wastewaters. Significant observations were recorded with respect to reduction of color, heavy metals and pollutants, and stabilization of organic waste. The algal growth potential studies were carried out by using Scenedesmus bijugatus. The significant enhancement of algal growth in algal growth potential test indicated the value addition to the effluents during vermifiltration process in terms of nutrients and growth promoting factors. The effluents from low organic loading (0.8 kg COD/m3.d unit complied with the Indian standard for irrigation water while the effluents from higher organic loading (3.2 kg COD/m3 .d required further treatment for polishing. Vermifilter system was, thus, proved to be suitable for the treatment of organically polluted industrial effluents, for their value addition and making them suitable for further recycling and reuse in agriculture as aerial spray or a liquid manure to increase the productivity of crop.

  8. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  9. Submerged aerated bio-filter (SAB)--a post treatment option for UASB effluent treating sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Padigala; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Kazmi, A A; Mehrotra, Indu

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents exploratory results of the performance of submerged aerated bio-filter (SAB-1.5 L) for the post treatment of UASB effluent treating sewage in order to bring the effluent quality in compliance with discharge standards. The study was carried out in three stages with varied dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 0 to 2.0, 2.0 to 4.0, 4.0 to 6.0 and > 6.0 mg/L. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) were maintained 0.67 h & 0.1 m3/ m2 x h respectively in all stage of study. The performance in terms of BOD removal efficiency was increased with increase in DO levels. Results revealed that the average BOD and SS removal efficiencies in phases 3 and 4 were 51.3 and 59.5% and 58.8 and 67.5% respectively. Significant ammonical nitrogen (NH4-N) removal of 60% was observed in phase 4. The BOD and SS in phases 3 and 4 were reduced to well below the effluent disposal standards. The SAB at DO ≥ 4 mg/L can be considered a viable alternative for the post treatment of effluent from UASB treating domestic wastewater.

  10. Potential of domestic sewage effluent treated as a source of water and nutrients in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Cuba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative sources of water for agriculture makes the use of treated sewage sludge an important strategy for achieving sustainability. This study evaluated the feasibility of reusing treated sewage effluent as alternative source of water and nutrients for the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Center for Agricultural Sciences - UFSCar, in Araras, SP. The cultivation took place from February to March 2014. The hydroponic system used was the Nutrient Film Technique, and included three treatments: 1 water supply and mineral fertilizers (TA; 2 use of effluent treated and complemented with mineral fertilizers based on results of previous chemical analysis (TRA; and 3 use of treated effluent (TR. The applied experimental design was four randomly distributed blocks. We evaluated the fresh weight, nutritional status, the microbiological quality of the culture, and the amount of mineral fertilizers used in the treatments. The fresh weights were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Only the TR treatment showed a significant difference in the evaluated variables, as symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in plants and significant reduction in fresh weights (p <0.01 were found. There was no detectable presence of Escherichia coli in any treatment, and it was possible to use less of some fertilizers in the TRA treatment compared to TA.

  11. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. PMID:27450127

  12. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  13. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  14. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline.

  15. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

  16. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary-treated Delhi municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Saxena, S. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Centre for Conservation of Blue Green Algae

    2005-07-01

    Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N biofertiliser and has other applications as green manure, animal feed and biofilter. Secondary-treated municipal wastewaters were collected from Wazirabad sewage treatment plant in New Delhi during all four seasons and tested for reactive P and heavy metal content. The reactive P levels in effluents ranged between 1-2 ppm and levels of heavy metals like Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn were well below permissible limits. A. microphylla was grown in sewage effluents and its dilutions prepared with tapwater. It showed good growth potential on sewage effluents. Doubling times during September and December months compared well with those on Espinase and Watanabe (E and W) medium and tapwater. Dried Azolla biomass produced on sewage waters did not show presence of toxic heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb. However, levels of P in dried biomass cultivated on sewage effluents were lower as compared to those from E and W medium and tapwater. The biomass produced can be used for inoculating paddy fields or for other applications and polished wastewaters can be recycled for irrigation purposes. (author)

  17. Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

  18. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  19. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  20. Reuse of Textile Dyeing Effluents Treated with Coupled Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Buscio; María García-Jiménez; Mercè Vilaseca; Victor López-Grimau; Martí Crespi; Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán

    2016-01-01

    The reactive dye Cibacron Yellow S-3R was selected to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofiltration membranes with electrochemical processes to treat textile wastewater. Synthetic dyeing effluents were treated by means of two nanofiltration membranes, Hydracore10 and Hydracore50. Up to 98% of dye removal was achieved. The influence of salt concentration and pH on membrane treatment was studied. The best dye removal yield was achieved at pH 3 in the presence of 60 g/L of NaCl. After the...

  1. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  2. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS)

  3. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalinee Naidoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines.

  4. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  5. Study on pH increment of treated effluent during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pH increment of a treated effluent during storage was a concern since it violates one of the water quality parameter when discharging to the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the root cause of the increase. It was hypothesized that the main cause of the increase of the pH in the holding pond was mainly due to the growth of algae through photosynthesis process with the present of sunlight. The study verified this assumption and several proposals to mitigate the situations have been suggested. Among others, it included using chemical solution to destroy the algae, control the growth of algae using the bacteria as recommended such as Aqua Clear freeze-dried bacteria and enzymes and to build the cover for the pond to prevent the sunlight from reaching the effluent

  6. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

  7. The application of ceramic membranes for treating effluent water from closed-circuit fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonisławska Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the possibility of using a two-stage filtration system with ceramic membranes: a 3-tube module with 1.0 kDa cut-off (1st stage and a one-tube module with 0.45 kDa cut-off (2nd stage for treating effluent water from a juvenile African catfish aquaculture. The study revealed that during the 1st filtration stage of the effluent water, the highest degrees of retention were obtained with respect to: suspended solids SS (rejection coefficient RI=100%, turbidity (RI=99.40%, total iron (RI=89.20%, BOD5 (RI=76.0%, nitrite nitrogen (RI=62.30%, and CODCr (RI=41.74%. The 2nd filtration stage resulted in a lower reduction degree of the tested indicators in comparison to the 1st filtration stage. At the 2nd stage, the highest values of the rejection coefficient were noted in for the total iron content (RIV=100%, CODCr (RIV=59.52%; RV=64.28%, RVI=63.49% and turbidity (RIV and RV = 45.0%, RVI=50.0%. The obtained results indicate that ceramic membranes (with 1.0 and 0.45 kDa cut-offs may be used in recirculation aquaculture systems as one of the stages of effluent water treatment.

  8. Reuse of Textile Dyeing Effluents Treated with Coupled Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buscio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactive dye Cibacron Yellow S-3R was selected to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofiltration membranes with electrochemical processes to treat textile wastewater. Synthetic dyeing effluents were treated by means of two nanofiltration membranes, Hydracore10 and Hydracore50. Up to 98% of dye removal was achieved. The influence of salt concentration and pH on membrane treatment was studied. The best dye removal yield was achieved at pH 3 in the presence of 60 g/L of NaCl. After the membrane filtration, the concentrate containing high dye concentration was treated by means of an electrochemical process at three different current densities: 33, 83, and 166 mA/cm2. Results showed a lineal relationship between treatment time and applied current density. Both permeates and electrochemically-decoloured effluents were reused in new dyeing processes (100% of permeate and 70% of decoloured concentrates. Dyed fabrics were evaluated with respect to original dyeing. Colour differences were found to be into the acceptance range.

  9. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) System Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility Operator Training Station (TEDF OTS) is a computer based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS). It consists of PC compatible computers and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) designed to emulate the responses of various plant components connected to or under the control of the CCS. The system trains operators by simulating the normal operation but also has the ability to force failures of different equipment allowing the operator to react and observe the events. The paper describes organization, responsibilities, system configuration management activities, software, and action plans for fully utilizing the simulation program.

  10. Simulation of Groundwater Mound Resulting from Proposed Artificial Recharge of Treated Sewage Effluent Case study – Gaza waste water treatment plant, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Aish, Adnan Mousa

    2010-01-01

    Mounding of the groundwater table beneath recharge sources is of concern as the raised water table approaches closely to near-surface facilities or features. The shape and height of the mound depend on several factors including the recharge rate, hydraulic conductivity and thickness of the aquifer. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the suitability of the study area for a rapid infiltration system of treated wastewater effluent without causing excessive mounding of the water table. A ...

  11. Performance of hybrid constructed wetland systems for treating septic tank effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Li-hua; LIU Wen; ZHU Xi-zhen; MA Mei; HUANG Xi-hua; XIA Yan-yang

    2006-01-01

    The integrated wetland systems were constructed by combining horizontal-flow and vertical-flow bed, and their purification efficiencies for septic tank effluent were detected when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 1 d, 3 d, 5 d under different seasons.The results showed that the removal efficiencies of the organics, phosphorus were steady in the hybrid systems, but the removal efficiency of total nitrogen was not steady due to high total nitrogen concentration in the septic tank effluent. The average removal rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) were 89%, 87%, 83%, and 86% in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively, and it was up to 88%, 85%, 73%, and 74% for BOD5 (5 d biochemical oxygen demand) removal rate in four seasons. The average removal rates of TP (total phosphorous) could reach up to 97%, 98%, 95%, 98% in four seasons, but the removal rate of TN (total nitrogen)was very low. The results of this study also indicated that the capability of purification was the worst in winter. Cultivating with plants could improve the treated effluent quality from the hybrid systems. The results of the operation of the horizontal-flow and vertical-flow cells (hybrid systems) showed that the removal efficiencies of the organics, TP and TN in horizontal-flow and vertical-flow cells were improved significantly with the extension of HRT under the same season. The removal rate of 3 d HRT was obviously higher than that of 1 d HRT, and the removal rate of 5 d HRT was better than that of 3 d HRT, but the removal efficiency was not very obvious with the increment of HRT. Therefore, 3 d HRT might be recommended in the actual operation of the hybrid systems for economic and technical reasons.

  12. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  13. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced. PMID:26270209

  14. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  15. Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Fernando Henrique; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Manenti, Diego Ricieri; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mora, Nora Diaz

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 33 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The oPtimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 20 g H2O2 L(-1) and pH3, for 120 min UV irradiation time. Reactor operating parameter (ROP) effects on the removal of chemical oxygen demand, colour, turbidity, total suspended solids and total volatile solids were evaluated, suggesting that a broad range of ROP values are also suitable to give results very near to those of the photo-Fenton experiments under optimal conditions. Based on the low calculated median lethal dose (LD50) values from a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test, we suggest that recalcitrant substances are present in treated TIE samples. A possible cause of the high toxicity level could partly be attributed to the nitrate concentration, which was not completely abated by the photo-Fenton process. Apart from this, the photo-Fenton process can be used as a part of an industrial effluent treatment system in order to abate high organic pollutant loads. PMID:23837315

  16. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  17. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  18. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  19. Chemical composition of Clarias Lazera (cuv and val., 1840) as an indicator of fish raising in treated sewage effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is one of the pioneer studies dealing with the possibility of growing fish in treated sewage water in Sudan. Khartoum sewage treatment plant - Green Belt area - was the main study site for this work, where fish was some how introduced to the canal which receives water from the last stage of treatment. Fish have reached large sizes and numbers, they are highly consumed by people of the area and widely marketed in the nearby localities. So this study aimed to discuss the potential health associated with the utilization of such fish for food, throwing light, on the advantages and disadvantages of fish culture in treated sewage effluent. The research was directed towards the study of the chemical composition of Clarias lazera (Cuv. and Val., 1840) (Garmout fish) being the only fish species in the area during the course of this study . Fish samples were collected from the Green Belt and the White Nile at the vicinity of Jebel Aulia reservoir which was taken as a control area for (April 1995 - April 1996). Basic biology was studies for each specimen, the concentrations of some of the hazardous and potentially hazardous heavy metals were investigated in the flesh of 30, randomly selected fish samples from both study sites, beside the major chemical body constituents : fats, proteins, moisture and ash in all specimens, to determine the quality of the flesh> Data obtained was analyzed, trying to correlate fish chemical composition to the surrounding environment. Treated sewage-fish showed higher weights and lengths than natural water-fish from the White Nile. Most of the hazardous metals investigated in the muscle tissues of treated sewage-fish were found to be of insignificant variation from that of natural water-fish (Mercury and Lead). They were found to be at lower levels than what is recommended by the International Agencies human consumption. The essential micronutrients for fish like Copper, Ferric (Iron) and Zinc showed significantly higher levels

  20. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  1. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations

  2. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization.

  3. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:19639268

  4. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-01

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents. PMID:26587690

  5. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  6. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  7. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  8. Contribution of different effluent organic matter fractions to membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of treated domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, effluent organic matter (EfOM) in treated domestic wastewater was separated into hydrophobic neutrals, colloids, hydrophobic acids, transphilic acids and neutrals and hydrophilic compounds. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was identified. Further characterization was conducted with respect to molecular size and hydrophobicity. Each isolated fraction was dosed into salt solution to identify its fouling potential in ultrafiltration (UF) using a hydrophilized polyethersulfone membrane. The results show that each kind of EfOM leads to irreversible fouling. At similar delivered DOC load to the membrane, colloids present the highest fouling effect in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The hydrophobic organics show much lower reversibility than the biopolymers present. However, as they are of much smaller size than the membrane pore opening, they cannot lead to such severe fouling as biopolymers do. In all of the isolated fractions, hydrophilics show the lowest fouling potential. For either colloids or hydrophobic substances, increasing their content in feedwater leads to worse fouling. The co-effect between biopolymers and other EfOM fractions has also been identified as one of the mechanisms contributing to UF fouling in filtering EfOM-containing waters. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  9. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. PMID:27544264

  10. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions.

  11. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

  12. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species. PMID:14510202

  13. Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Albin; Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Gibert, Janine; Martin, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463 K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were used to get information about the toxicity impact of the starting effluents and of the treated solutions. Under the operating conditions, complex organic compounds are mostly oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, along with short-chain carboxylic acids. Bioassays were found as a complement to chemical analyses for ensuring the toxicological impact on the ecosystem. In spite of a large decrease of TOC, the solutions of end products were all more toxic to Daphnia magna than the starting effluents by factors ranging from 2 to 33. This observation is attributed to the synergistic effects of acetic acid and salts present in the solutions. On the other hand, toxicity reduction with respect to Vibrio fischeri was achieved: detoxification factors greater than unity were measured for end-product solutions treated in the presence of the Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst, suggesting the absence of cumulative effect for this bacteria, or a lower sensitivity to the organic acids and salts. Bleach plant effluents treated by the CWAO process over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst were completely biodegradable. PMID:14675640

  14. Aquifer storage and recovery of treated sewage effluent in the middle east

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Treated sewage effluent (TSE) is becoming a critical resource in arid parts of the world. The high costs of desalinated potablewater and the depletion of fresh groundwater resources necessitate increased use of TSE as an important component of water resource management throughout the Middle East. TSE can replace potable-quality water in irrigation, with the latter becoming too valuable a resource to use for irrigation purposes. In urban regions of theMiddle East and North Africa, excess TSE is often available because of seasonal variations in demand and supply or that the development of reuse infrastructure has not kept pace with population growth, concomitant water use and TSE generation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) technology provides an opportunity to store large volumes of TSE for later beneficial use. Natural attenuation processes that occur during underground storage in an ASR system can also act to improve the quality of stored water and thus provide an opportunity to \\'polish\\' already high-quality TSE. Aquifers containing brackish water or those depleted from over-pumping are present throughout much of the Middle East. These aquifers could potentially be used as storage zones for ASR systems. However, currently available hydrogeologic data are insufficient for assessment of potential system performance. Other key design issues are the selection of ASR system locations and storage zones so that TSE will not enter potable water supplies, and ensuring that the ASR systems will be readily integrated into existing or planned sewage treatment, TSE transmission and reuse infrastructure. © King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2010.

  15. Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c and C(14 : 0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) ( = DSM 25520(T) = NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

  16. Characterization of secondary treated effluents for tertiary membrane filtration and water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of water quality from three different secondary effluents on low pressure membrane fouling. Effluent organic matter (EfOM) has been reported by previous studies as responsible for membrane fouling. However, the contribution of the different components of EfOM to membrane fouling is still not well understood. In order to improve and optimize treatment processes, characterization and quantification of the organic matter are important. The characterization methods used in this study are liquid chromatography coupled with an organic detector (LC-OCD) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM). A bench-scale hollow fibre membrane system was used to identify the type of fouling depending on the feed water quality. Results showed no measurable dissolved organic carbon removal by the membranes for the three secondary effluents. Biopolymers and humic-like substances found in different proportions in the three effluents were partially retained by the membranes and were identified to contribute significantly to the flux decline of the low pressure membranes. The observed fouling was determined to be reversible by hydraulic backwashing for two effluents and only by chemical cleaning for the third effluent. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  17. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria))

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  18. Impact of ozonation on ecotoxicity and endocrine activity of tertiary treated wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Dominik; Schaar, Heidemarie; Bartel, Cordula; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Miller, Ingrid; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Grillitsch, Britta

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary wastewater treatment plant effluent before and after ozonation (0.6-1.1g O₃/g DOC) was tested for aquatic ecotoxicity in a battery of standardised microbioassays with green algae, daphnids, and zebrafish eggs. In addition, unconjugated estrogen and 17β-hydroxyandrogen immunoreactive substances were quantified by means of enzyme immunoassays, and endocrine effects were analysed in a 21-day fish screening assay with adult male and female medaka (Oryzias latipes). Ozonation decreased estrogen-immunoreactivity by 97.7±1.2% and, to a lesser extent, androgen-immunoreactivity by 56.3±16.5%. None of the short-term exposure ecotoxicity tests revealed any adverse effects of the tertiary effluent, neither before nor after the ozonation step. Similarly in the fish screening assay, reproductive fitness parameters showed no effects attributed to micropollutants, and no detrimental effects of the effluents were observed. Based on the presented screening, ozonation effectively reduced steroid hormone levels in the wastewater treatment plant effluent without increasing the effluent's ecotoxicity. PMID:22551818

  19. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  20. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r=-0.97 between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r=0.95 with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  1. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs.

  2. Silage effluent management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  3. Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2014-08-01

    A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium. PMID:24804625

  4. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  5. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  6. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sangchul, E-mail: sangchul.hwang@upr.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Martinez, Diana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Perez, Priscilla [Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Rinaldi, Carlos [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2011-12-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP{sub Fe-surf}) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that {approx}8.7% of ENP{sub Fe-surf} applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP{sub Fe-surf} was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP{sub Fe-surf} deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05) with respect to soluble chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and apparent color. This implied that ENP{sub Fe-surf} would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them. - Highlights: > Surfactant-coated engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (ENP{sub Fe-surf}) were assessed. > Effluent quality was analyzed from a sequencing batch reactor with ENP{sub Fe-surf}. > {approx}8.7% of ENP{sub Fe-surf} applied was present in the effluent. > ENP{sub Fe-surf} significantly (p < 0.05) deteriorated the effluent water quality. > Stable fraction of ENP{sub Fe-surf} will be introduced into environmental receptors. - Stable presence of surfactant-coated engineered iron oxides nanoparticles deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

  7. Performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte Spartina alterniflora treating mariculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Treger Zydowicz Sousa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical flow constructed wetlands, planted with and without Spartina alterniflora, were tested for the treatment of mariculture wastewater. Wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte produced reductions of 89 and 71% for inorganic solids, 82 and 96% for organic solids, 51 and 63% for total nitrogen, 82 and 92% for ammoniacal nitrogen, 64 and 59% for orthophosphate, and 81 and 89% for turbidity, respectively. Wetlands with S. alterniflora showed denitrification tendencies, while wetlands without S. alterniflora had higher oxygen levels leading to nitrification. The results suggest the fundamental role of oxygen controlling the purification processes as well as the potential of constructed wetlands to treat mariculture effluents.

  8. Bioaccumulation of aluminum by Lemna gibba L. from secondary treated municipal wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obek, Erdal; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2011-02-01

    In this study, Lemna gibba as a sample aquatic plant was used to remove Al from a municipal secondary waste water effluence. Lemna gibba was acclimatized to the effluent in situ. The concentration of Al in the plant samples was examined for 7 days. Lemna gibba accumulated 500 μg Al g⁻¹ on the first day and reached saturation level with an increase of 100 μg g⁻¹ on the second day. The results indicated that Lemna gibba can be used as an effective aquatic plant at low costs for the treatment of municipal secondary waste water effluent. It was also noted that the plant should be harvested every 2 days for obtaining maximum efficiency. PMID:21253699

  9. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  10. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  11. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized

  12. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges.

  13. Treatment of cosmetic effluent in different configurations of ceramic UF membrane based bioreactor: Toxicity evaluation of the untreated and treated wastewater using catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Sarkar, Sandeep; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-03-01

    Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse. PMID:26714296

  14. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Wang; Qaisar Mahmood; Jiang-Ping Qiu; Yin-Sheng Li; Yoon-Seong Chang; Li-Na Chi; Xu-Dong Li

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and...

  15. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yejian; YAN Li; QIAO Xiangli; CHI Lina; NIU Xiangjun; MEI Zhijian; ZHANG Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.

  16. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.

  17. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water. PMID:18575108

  18. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyawali, Yamini [TERI University, 10, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070 (India); Balakrishnan, Malini, E-mail: malinib@teri.res.in [TERI University, 10, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070 (India); Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Darbari Seth Block, India Habitat Center, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India)

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8 L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 {mu}m nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m{sup 2} filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  19. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8 L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 μm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m2 filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m-3 d-1. PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  20. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 microm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m(2) filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m(-3)d(-1). PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh. PMID:19467782

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs

  2. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  3. STUDY ON TREATING ALKALI EXTRACTION -STAGE EFFLUENT FOR COLOR REMOVAL BY MICRO-ELECTROLYSIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianying Xiao; Zhonghao Chen; Yuancai Chen

    2004-01-01

    The micro-electrolysis technology was applied in the decolorizing treatment of bleaching E-stage effluent and the influencing factors were discussed in this paper. The initial pH and the retention time were main factors influencing the color removal rate, in addition, adding air and enough pH for neutralization were necessary for the treatment. The test showed that the decolorizing result was efficient by micro-electrolysis treatment when adding air, initial pH was 3, 20 minutes of reaction time, the final pH10 for neutralization. The color removal rate was up to 90%. The chance of ultraviolet absorption spectrum also demonstrated the mechanism of color removal in the wastewater treatment.

  4. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems. PMID:26333200

  5. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

  6. Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Mice exposed to mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent for 90 days. • Hepatic transcriptomic alterations were analyzed by digital gene expression. • Serum metabolomic alterations were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. • The water samples induced disruption of lipid metabolism and hepatotoxicity. • Omics approaches are valuable to evaluate the complicated toxicity of wastewater. - Abstract: Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE.

  7. Changes in water quality of treated sewage effluents by their receiving environments in Tablas de Daimiel National Park, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramos, David; Sánchez-Emeterio, Gema; Florín Beltrán, Máximo

    2016-04-01

    The Tablas de Daimiel National Park (TDNP), a floodplain wetland located in the Upper Guadiana Basin (central Spain), receives pollution from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging their treated sewage effluents (TSEs) to tributary channels to the wetland. The TSEs suffer transformations on their way to the TDNP, but the water quality is controlled only at the point of discharge. In this work, we analyse the change in water quality of the TSE from four urban WWTPs in the surroundings of the TDNP (Alcázar de San Juan, Daimiel, Manzanares and Villarrubia de los Ojos towns). The water samples were taken at the outlet of the plants and in the receiving environments, to analyse the water quality transformation of the TSE. The different discharge configurations of each WWTP have been related with the water quality transformation of their TSE, to interpret the influence of the hydro-geomorphology in the improvement or deterioration of the water quality of TSE. We found that the discharge of TSE into slow flow channels with macrophyte vegetation facilitates water self-purification but, with time, the accumulation of sludge in the beds of the effluents tends to be the cause of the deterioration of the water quality. PMID:25982982

  8. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p BOD₅ and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed.

  9. Effect of feed strategy on methane production and performance of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Giovanna; Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different feeding times (2, 4 and 6 h) and applied volumetric organic loads (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating effluent from biodiesel production. Polyurethane foam cubes were used as inert support in the reactor, and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. The effect of feeding time on reactor performance showed to be more pronounced at higher values of applied volumetric organic loads (AVOLs). Highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved at AVOL of 4.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1) were 87 % at 4-h feeding against 84 % at 2-h and 6-h feeding. At AVOL of 6.0 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved with 4-h and 6-h feeding were 84 %, against 71 % at 2-h feeding. At AVOL of 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), organic material removal efficiency achieved with 4-h feeding was 77 %. Hence, longer feeding times favored minimization of total volatile acids concentration during the cycle as well as in the effluent, guaranteeing process stability and safety. PMID:22373928

  10. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  11. Effect of organic load on the performance and methane production of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Roberto Antonio; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Canto, Catarina Simone Andrade; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Currently, there is an increasing demand for the production of biodiesel and, consequently, there will be an increasing need to treat wastewaters resulting from the production process of this biofuel. The main objective of this work was, therefore, to investigate the effect of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) on the efficiency, stability, and methane production of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor applied to the treatment of effluent from biodiesel production. As inert support, polyurethane foam cubes were used in the reactor and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. Increase in AVOL resulted in a drop in organic matter removal efficiency and increase in total volatile acids in the effluent. AVOLs of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) resulted in removal efficiencies of 92%, 81%, 67%, and 50%, for effluent filtered samples, and 91%, 80%, 63%, and 47%, for non-filtered samples, respectively, whereas total volatile acids concentrations in the effluent amounted to 42, 145, 386 and 729 mg HAc L(-1), respectively. Moreover, on increasing AVOL from 1.5 to 4.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) methane production increased from 29.5 to 55.5 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1). However, this production dropped to 36.0 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1) when AVOL was increased to 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1), likely due to the higher concentration of volatile acids in the reactor. Despite the higher concentration of volatile acids at the highest AVOL, alkalinity supplementation to the influent, in the form of sodium bicarbonate, at a ratio of 0.5-1.3 g NaHCO(3) g COD (fed) (-1) , was sufficient to maintain the pH near neutral and guarantee process stability during reactor operation. PMID:21494753

  12. Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

    2014-06-15

    Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data.

  13. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejovwokoghene C. Odjadjare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  14. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  15. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  16. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-30

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).

  17. Hyporheic Zone Management: Nitrate Removal from Treated Wastewater Effluent using an Engineered Hyporheic Zone as a Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M.; Herzog, S.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor within streambed sediments. The dynamic interface of streamwater and groundwater creates a diverse microbial community that has potential to provide substantial contaminant removal. However, insufficient water exchange between the stream and the HZ is often a limiting factor for improved streamwater quality. Modular subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) modifications with the addition of organic carbon substrates have been proposed as a means to increase hyporheic exchange and enhance natural water treatment via denitrification. Subsurface K modification flow paths are well understood from previous computer modeling and tracer testing studies, but treatment capabilities have yet to be tested in physical systems. This research applied chemical and molecular biological techniques to investigate nitrate removal and microbial community structure in a bench-scale stream simulation with subsurface K and carbon modifications. The system received treated wastewater effluent containing soluble nitrogen primarily in the form of nitrate at concentrations fluctuating from 4-7mg/L. To gain insight into denitrification potential and relative microbial activity along hyporheic flow paths, profiles of nitrate fate, total bacterial presence and the density of the denitrification genes (nirS and nirK) were quantified spatially. Nitrate tests showed a decrease from ~7mg/L in the influent to less than 1mg/L along hyporheic flowpaths. This was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA copies (representative of total bacterial biomass) from approximately 200000 gene copies in the influent zone to 630000 gene copies in the effluent zone. Also, the bacterial communities had a greater presence in the upper 6cm of the sediment layer with nirS amplifying 4-5 cycles earlier than nirK in the PCR analysis. The nirS gene concentration was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the effluent zone than the carbon modified zone, suggesting that leached

  18. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  19. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ejovwokoghene C. Odjadjare; Ademola O. Olaniran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, re...

  20. Acute effects of chlorpyryphos-ethyl and secondary treated effluents on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in Carcinus maenas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihene Ghedira; Jamel Jebali; Zied Bouraoui; Mohamed Banni; Lassaad Chouba; Hamadi Boussetta

    2009-01-01

    The acute effects of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Dursban(r)) and the secondary treated industrial/urban effluent (STIUE) exposure on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities in hepatopancreas and gills of Mediterranean crab Carcinus maenas were investigated. After 2 d of exposure to chlorpyriphos-ethyl, the AChE activity was inhibited in both organs at concentrations of 3.12 and 7.82 μg/L, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only at higher concentration 7.82 μg/L of commercial preparation Dursban(r). The exposure of crabs to Dursban(r) (3.12 μg/L) showed a significant decrement of AChE activity at 24 and 48 h, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only after 24 h and no inhibition for both enzymes was observed after 72 h. Moreover, a significant repression of AChE activity was observed in both organs of C. maenas exposed to 5% of STIUE. Our experiments indicated that the measurement of AChE activity in gills and hepatopancreas of C. meanas would be useful biomarker of organophosphorous (OP) and of neurotoxic effects of STIUE in Tunisia.

  1. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal. PMID:23508150

  2. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal.

  3. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    was used as compared to in-situ-formed monochloramine. Adjustment of biocide dose to maintain monochloramine residual above 3mg/L is needed to achieve successful biological growth control in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal effluent as the only source of makeup water.

  4. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  5. Process and device for treating a liquid effluent coming from an industrial facility such as nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid effluent from a nuclear power reactor is heated in a heat exchanger to boil off some of its water content and the remaining liquid is fed into the top of a reactor together with gaseous or liquid fuel which is burned therein, producing a mixture of hot gas and dry oxidized solid particles which are separated in a cyclone. The hot gas is fed from the top of cyclone through the heat exchanger and discharged via a filter. The upper part of the heat exchanger is connected to the top of the reactor to recycle any non condensable gases and combust any organic fraction in the liquid effluent

  6. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W.D.; Gallagher, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physico-chemical factors affecting the E.coli removal in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) treating UASB effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafwik, A.; Klapwijk, A.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; El-Gohary, F.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The removal mechanism of E coli from UASB effluent using a Rotating Biological Contractor (RBC) has been investigated. Preliminary batch experiments in a RBC indicate a first-order removal kinetics. Variation in the dissolved oxygen concentration and E coli counts over the depth of the RBC has been

  8. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  9. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo trademark ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance

  10. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site, The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents originating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The Filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically unproved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance. (author)

  11. Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuyet D. Bui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC, from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF. Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN, Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N, Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Phosphorus (TP, Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable

  12. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; ROCA, ENRIQUE

    2013-01-01

    International audience The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that t...

  13. Whole-body monitor, hand-feet monitor, gaseous effluent, area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following gaseous (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) effluents monitoring equipment developed by INVAP may be installed in any nuclear facility with a ventilation system that expels air through a chimney. Should the facility fail to have such a ventilation system - hence the extraction chimney - INVAP can offer an alternative system: a portable gaseous-effluent measuring equipment which can be installed, for example, in the hall of the reactor. Basically, the system consists of forcing, by means of an aspiration pump, a known and fixed air flow fraction from the chimney (or the hall) and to retain the aerosols continuously in a glass microfiber filter. Aerosols are thus measured according to a specially-designed geometry which confronts the filter with the plastic scintillator. The gas thus obtained is free from aerosols. It then passes through a carbon-activated filter which retains iodine. This filter has a coaxial geometry, lodging inside an INa (Tl) gamma radiation-sensitive scintillator. Both scintillators are optically coupled to their respective photomultipliers. Their pulses are processed with a load preamplifier and a discriminating amplifier in order to store them in counters to be periodically read by the intelligent controller. Actual monitoring will be carried out by means of independent measuring channels for iodine and aerosols, with each channel featuring remote reading and alarms (for instance, at the Control Room). Data thus acquired will be processed by an intelligent controller (INVAP Mod. SAPP-09) which will perform the following functions: - Calculation and unit conversion in order to inform in a TRC total and incremental activity released by the installation during a pre-set period established by the operator. - Calculation, including statistical errors, to determine whether incremental alarm values and pre-set totals are adequate or whether they have been exceeded, providing the results. - Process-control operations (counting failure

  14. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  15. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of Chlorella sorokiniana for treating dairy farm effluent and lipid enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hena, S; Fatihah, N; Tabassum, S; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production.

  17. Water resource recovery by means of microalgae cultivation in outdoor photobioreactors using the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor fed with pre-treated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruela, Alexandre; Murgui, Mónica; Gómez-Gil, Tao; Durán, Freddy; Robles, Ángel; Ruano, María Victoria; Ferrer, José; Seco, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of assessing the potential of microalgae cultivation for water resource recovery (WRR), the performance of three 0.55m(3) flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs) was evaluated in terms of nutrient removal rate (NRR) and biomass production. The PBRs were operated outdoor (at ambient temperature and light intensity) using as growth media the nutrient-rich effluent from an AnMBR fed with pre-treated sewage. Solar irradiance was the most determining factor affecting NRR. Biomass productivity was significantly affected by temperatures below 20°C. The maximum biomass productivity (52.3mgVSS·L(-1)·d(-1)) and NRR (5.84mgNH4-N·L(-1)·d(-1) and 0.85mgPO4-P·L(-1)·d(-1)) were achieved at solar irradiance of 395μE·m(-2)·s(-1), temperature of 25.5°C, and HRT of 8days. Under these conditions, it was possible to comply with effluent nutrient standards (European Directive 91/271/CEE) when the nutrient content in the influent was in the range of 40-50mgN·L(-1) and 6-7mg P·L(-1). PMID:27394990

  18. Coupling in vitro and in vivo neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we utilize in vivo and in vitro approaches to study whether real world effluents released in the Maumee River (Toledo, OH) Area of Concern (AOC) contain neuroactive substances that may impair fish reproduction and behavior. Our approaches help extend the concept of endocrine...

  19. Study on the adsorption characteristics of modified semi-coke used for treating biologically treated effluent from coking wastewater%改性兰炭对焦化废水生化出水的吸附特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 刘尚超; 张垒; 付本全

    2012-01-01

    Semi-coke that has been modified with steam at high temperature is used for the static adsorption of TOC in biochemically treated effluent from coking wastewater. The effects of influencing factors, such as adsorption time, pH,adsorbent dosage,particle size,etc.,on the treatment efficiency are investigated. The results show that after adding 20 g/L 1 -2 mm of modified semi-coke to wastewater whose pH is 4, at room temperature and adsorption time 30 min,the TOC removing rate of biochemically treated effluent from the coking wastewater is more than 60%. The concentration and variety of the organisms in samples after the adsorption process have decreased greatly.%利用水蒸气高温改性后的兰炭静态吸附焦化废水生化出水中的TOC,考察了吸附时间、pH、吸附剂用量、粒径等因素对处理效果的影响.结果表明,向废水(pH=4)中投加20 g/L改性兰炭(粒径1~2 mm),室温下吸附30 min后,对焦化废水生化出水的TOC去除率在60%以上.吸附后水样中的有机物浓度和种类都大幅下降.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a baffled pond with attached growth: treating anaerobic effluent under the Sahelian climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, D A; Andrianisa, H A; Konaté, Y; Ndiaye, A; Maïga, A H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and understand the zero-level detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the outlet of an improved waste stabilization pond. Wastewaters were collected from the International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) campus and were subjected to biological treatment. The system included two-stage Anaerobic Reactors followed by a Baffled Pond (AR-BP) with recycled plastic media as a medium for attached growth and a control pond (CP). Three vertical baffles were installed, giving four compartments in the baffled pond (BP). The research was conducted on the pilot scale from March to July 2014, by monitoring E. coli, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll-a in each compartment and at different depths. The results show that E. coli concentrations were lower in top layers of all compartments with an undetectable level in the last compartment up to 0.60 m deep. E. coli mean removal efficiencies and decay rates were achieved by significant difference in BP (4.5 log-units, 9.1 day(-1)) and CP (1.1 log-units, 1.1 day(-1)). Higher values of pH (≥9), temperature (≥32°C), DO (≥ 8 mg/L) and chlorophyll-a (≥ 1000 µg/L) were observed at the surface of BP, whereas lower values were shown at the bottom. Sedimentation combined with the synergetic effects of the physicochemical parameters and environmental factors would be responsible for the inactivation of E. coli in BP. It was concluded that the AR-BP could be applied as an alternative low-cost wastewater treatment technology for developing countries and recommended for reuse of their effluent for restricted peri-urban irrigation. PMID:26496019

  1. Integrated management of liquid effluents at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster session illustrates the integrated approach that the Hanford Site has taken in managing high-priority liquid effluent streams. These waste waters are produced from a variety of process- and utility-related sources. The Hanford Site approach to management of liquid effluents focusses on eliminating the source, reusing where possible, and treating and disposing of the water that cannot be eliminated or recycled prior to disposal. Thirteen of the high-priority waste water streams have been or will be eliminated by the end of 1995. Some of these streams have been eliminated as the result of shutting down the associated operation. However, the elimination of other streams has been the result of process modifications, equipment substitutions, or recycling. Several of the waste water streams will receive treatment at the individual generating facility before being discharged into a new industrial sewer (the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility). The industrial sewer will collect treated streams from various plants in the 200 Areas and dispose of the clean effluent at two uncontaminated new 20,235-square meter (5-acre) ponds permitted by Washington State. Finally, condensate from the 200 Areas tank waste evaporator and waste water from operations in the 300 Area will be treated at two end-of-the-pipe treatment facilities. The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will treat condensate (a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (1)-listed waste) from the tank waste evaporator, thereby allowing the waste to be delisted prior to disposal. The treated effluent will be pumped to a state-approved land disposal site selected to maximize the migration time to the river. This disposal site allows for the decay of tritium, which will be present in the condensate but cannot be removed using current technologies

  2. The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

    2012-11-01

    An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ΦX174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

  3. Characteristics of granular sludge developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge fixed-film bioreactor treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinatizadeh, A A L; Mohamed, A R; Mashitah, M D; Abdullah, A Z; Hasnain Isa, M

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, characteristics of the granular sludge (including physical characteristics under stable conditions and process shocks arising from suspended solid overload, soluble organic overload, and high temperature; biological activity; and sludge kinetic evaluation in a batch experiment) developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed-film reactor for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was investigated. The main aim of this work was to provide suitable understanding of POME anaerobic digestion using such a granular sludge reactor, particularly with respect to granule structure at various operating conditions. The morphological changes in granular sludge resulting from various operational conditions was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. It was shown that the developed granules consisted of densely packed rod- (Methanosaeta-like microorganism; predominant) and cocci- (Methanosarsina) shaped microorganisms. Methanosaeta aggregates functioned as nucleation centers that initiated granule development of POME-degrading granules. Under the suspended solid overload condition, most of the granules were covered with a thin layer of fiberlike suspended solids, so that the granule color changed to brown and the sludge volume index also increased to 24.5 from 12 to 15 mL/g, which caused a large amount of sludge washout. Some of the granules were disintegrated because of an acidified environment, which originated from acidogenesis of high influent organic load (29 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L d). At 60 degrees C, the rate of biomass washout increased, as a result of disintegration of the outer layer of the granules. In the biological activity test, approximately 95% COD removal was achieved within 72 hours, with an initial COD removal rate of 3.5 g COD/L d. During POME digestion, 275 mg calcium carbonate/L bicarbonate alkalinity was produced per 1000 mg COD(removed)/ L. A consecutive reaction kinetic

  4. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation Bioreactor, in almost all cases. From the different combinations tested, municipal wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed. PMID:26255127

  5. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) UV/H2O2) and k (Fenton) < k (solar irradiation) < k (photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed.

  6. Effect of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of UASB reactors treating dairy effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, N M; Rodrigues, A A; Arroja, L M; Capela, I F

    2007-02-01

    Recent environmental concerns have prompted a re-evaluation of conventional management strategies and refueled the search of innovative waste management practices. In this sense, the anaerobic digestion of both fat and the remaining complex organic matter present in dairy wastewaters is attractive, although the continuous operation of high rate anaerobic processes treating this type of wastewaters causes the failure of the process. This work accesses the influence of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of mesophilic UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater, in order to allow the biological degradation to catch up with adsorption phenomenon. During the experiments, two UASB reactors were subject to three organic loading rates, ranging from 6 to 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), with the same daily load applied to both reactors, each one with a different non-feeding period. Both reactors showed good COD removal efficiencies (87-92%). A material balance for COD in the reactors during the feeding and non-feeding periods showed the importance of the feedless period, which allowed the biomass to degrade substrate that was accumulated during the feeding period. The reactor with the longest non-feeding period had a better performance, which resulted in a higher methane production and adsorption capacity for the same organic load applied with a consequent less accumulation of substrate into the biomass. In addition, both reactors had a stable operation for the organic load of 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), which is higher than the maximum applicable load reported in literature for continuous systems (3-6 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1)).

  7. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  8. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  9. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  10. Effect of solids retention time on membrane fouling intensity in two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annop, S; Sridang, P; Puetpaiboon, U; Grasmick, A

    2014-01-01

    Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs) treating palm oil mill effluent were analysed in terms of membrane fouling dynamics when working at three different sludge retention times (SRTs of 15, 30 and 60 d). The average permeate flux was fixed at 2.4 L x m(-2) x h(-1). During operation, the membrane was regenerated by using two steps: membrane wiping during each experiment as soon as trans-membrane pressure reached 125-130 mbars, and complete membrane cleaning including backwash and chemical cleaning at the end of each experiment when analysing the membrane surface and foulant material. Whatever the SRT, the cake formation was the dominant effect on membrane fouling dynamics. The concentration of suspended solids in the SAnMBRs, depending on the SRT, was then a determining criterion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that fouled membrane surfaces were covered with a cake layer containing organic and inorganic elements whose concentrations were higher when working at a higher SRT; the higher concentrations of such elements gave to the cake layer a denser and more compact structure. In these experiments, the soluble fractions played a secondary role because of the dominant effect of cake layer structuring. PMID:25145221

  11. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  12. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  13. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  14. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 103 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  15. Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

    2009-04-01

    Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting. PMID:19081715

  16. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Swanson, S.M. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Marchant, T. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada))

    1994-09-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

  17. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  18. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  19. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: A two-dimensional flow cell study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  20. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum. This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents.

  1. Enhancing the decolorizing and degradation ability of bacterial consortium isolated from textile effluent affected area and its application on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashid; Sharif, Faiza; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  2. Estimating nitrogen and phosphorus saturation point for Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and Salvinia molesta Mitchell in mesocosms used to treating aquaculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the growth of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and Salvinia molesta Mitchell in tanks used for treating aquaculture effluent and compare the results with literature data in order to estimate the nutrients saturation point. METHODS: An experiment with six rectangular fiberglass tanks were separated in two treatments, inflow and outflow (higher and lower nutrient concentration, and the two macrophytes above cited was carried out during 50 days. A floating quadrat with 0.25 m² of E. crassipes and S. molesta at inflow and outflow of the tanks was collected weekly for fresh mass measurement. At the beginning and end of the experiment samples of macrophytes were oven-dried at 60 ºC until constant weight to determine the dry mass. Dry mass of plants was estimated by a simple linear regression analysis between fresh mass and dry mass (DM. RESULTS: The N and P concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the inflow (mean of 0.66 mg L-1 and 233.6 mg L-1, respectively than in the outflow of the tanks (mean of 0.38 mg L-1 and 174.7 mg L-1, respectively. However, no significantly different plant growth was observed for either higher or lower concentration. For both higher and lower nutrient concentrations, the biomass gain for E. crassipes was, respectively, 428.5 and 402.7 g DM.m². For S. molesta, biomass gain was 135.2 and 143.1 g DM.m², in the higher and lower concentrations, respectively. Others studies reported high growth of E. crassipes and S. molesta in concentrations of nitrogen (0.14 - 0.18 mg L-1 and phosphorus (14.2 - 77.0 mg L-1 lower than this study. CONCLUSION: The comparison of E. crassipes and S. molesta growth in this study with others allow us to assume that the saturation point of E. crassipes should be 0.26 mg L-1 of nitrogen and 77 mg L-1 of phosphorus and for S. molesta below 0.19 mg L-1 of nitrogen and 15.1 mg L-1 of phosphorus.

  3. Geochemical and hydrologic characterization of the effluent draining from U12e, U12n, and U12t tunnels, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-05-01

    The objective of the Tunnel Effluent Characterization Project at the Nevada Test Site was to characterize the tunnel effluents in terms of rate of discharge, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, turbidity, and aqueous chemistry. The parameters were monitored for one year to identify hazardous constituents within the effluent and to characterize temporal variations.

  4. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E; Berninger, Jason P; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Basu, Niladri

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24-42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24-54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences.

  5. In vitro assessment of retinoic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity of treated effluent from 39 wastewater-treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

    2011-11-01

    This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia, in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity of the dissolved phase using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays. More than 90% of the effluents examined in this study elicited RAR activity (<0.5-198 ng/l a-t-RA equivalents [EQ]). All of the effluents had AhR activity (16-279 ng/l βNF EQ). Notwithstanding the paucity of comparative data, on the whole, the levels of RAR and AhR activity observed in this pilot survey of Victorian WWTP effluents were greater than those recently reported internationally. One assumption commonly made is that WWTP discharges will be diluted significantly in the receiving environment, further decreasing the potential risk of the discharges. Making this assumption may not be appropriate for some of Victoria's more ephemeral waterways or where effluent is discharged to an enclosed water body, such as a lake or terminal wetland. However, even where WWTP discharges represent all of the environmental flow in the warmer months, the observed RAR and AhR activity (as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] EQ, respectively) was still significantly lower than the concentrations of RA, and 2,3,7,8-TCCD known to cause developmental malformations in fish larvae after short-term exposure to these chemicals. Of perhaps greater concern, WWTP effluent can contain significant suspended solids (essentially biosolids), which may be a considerable sink for some hormonally active, hydrophobic compounds, and which may in turn increase the long-term exposure risk for aquatic fauna. Further studies of the nuclear and AhR activity of WWTP effluent suspended

  6. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  7. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  8. ifferential Gene Expression in Zebrafish (Danio rerio Following Exposure to Gaseous Diffusion Plant Effluent and Effluent Receiving Stream Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben F. Brammell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The expression of six genes known to serve as bioindicators of environmental stress were examined using real-time quantitative PCR in liver tissue extracted from zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton exposed to effluent and effluent containing stream water associated with the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP. Approach: The PGDP, the only active uranium enrichment facility in the US, is located in western Kentucky and discharges treated effluents into several surrounding streams. Environmentally relevant concentrations of several heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs can be found in effluents emerging from the plant as well as in receiving streams. Fish were exposed in the laboratory to water from both effluents and downstream areas as well as to water from an upstream reference site. Expression of six genes known to be altered by metal and/or PCB exposure was quantified at both 7 and 14 day time points. Results: Transcription of the biomarker enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 was significantly elevated in fish exposed to one plant effluent at both the 7 (16 fold and 14 (10 fold day time points. Sediment PCB levels from this site were the highest observed in the study, indicating PCBs may be contributing to the elevated CYP1A1 mRNA. Additionally, catalase, an enzyme responsible for hydrogen peroxide detoxification and known to be impacted by metal contamination, demonstrated significant alterations in expression in the effluent containing the highest concentrations of most metals observed in this study. Interestingly, despite the presence of metal levels consistent with the induction of metallothionein in other studies, no metallothionein induction was observed. All other stress biomarker encoding genes were likewise unaffected by effluent water exposure. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results indicate that contaminant levels observed in this system altered transcription of catalase and CYP1A1 but failed to

  9. Treated wastewater irrigation effect on soil,crop and environment: Wastewater recycling in the loess area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Loess Plateau in Dongzhi,China,to test the feasibility of using secondary treatment sewage effluent and to determine whether the water quality would then meet the recommended irrigation norm.Seven crops,including celery,wheat,maize,millet,apples,rapeseed and yellow beans,were tested in the study.Physical and chemical properties of the soil,crop yield and quality and leachate at different soil depths were measured.In most cases,the quality of the crops that made use of treated sewage was not distinctively different from those that did not use treated sewage.However,yields for the former were much higher than they were for the latter.Leachates at different soil depths were analyzed and the results did not show alarming levels of constituents.For a period of approximately 14 months.the treated sewage irrigation had no significant effect on the loess soil and no cases of illness resulting from contact with the treated sewage were reported.With treated sewage irrigation,a slight increase in the organic content of the soil was observed.

  10. Hydrogeochemical transport modeling of the infiltration of tertiary treated wastewater in a dune area, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Wallis, I.; Van Houtte, E.; Van RANST, E.

    2013-01-01

    Managed artificial recharge (MAR) is a well-established practice for augmentation of depleted groundwater resources or for environmental benefit. At the St-André MAR site in the Belgian dune area, groundwater resources are optimised through re-use of highly treated wastewater by means of infiltration ponds. The very high quality of the infiltration water sets this system apart from other MAR systems. The low total dissolved solid (TDS) content in the infiltration water (less than 50 mg/L) com...

  11. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Leonardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter

  12. Simultaneous nutrient removal, optimised CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production by Chlorogonium sp. grown in secondary treated non-sterile saline sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Kwan, Ka Ki; Chan, King Ming; Huang, Guocheng; Yip, Ho Yin; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-10-30

    The phycoremediation process has great potential for effectively addressing environmental pollution. To explore the capabilities of simultaneous algal nutrient removal, CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production from spent water resources, a Chlorogonium sp. isolated from a tilapia pond in Hong Kong was grown in non-sterile saline sewage effluent for a bioremediation study. With high removal efficiencies of NH3-N (88.35±14.39%), NO3(-)-N (85.39±14.96%), TN (93.34±6.47%) and PO4(3-)-P (91.80±17.44%), Chlorogonium sp. achieved a CO2 consumption rate of 58.96 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was optimised by the response surface methodology. Under optimised conditions, the lipid content of the algal biomass reached 24.26±2.67%. Overall, the isolated Chlorogonium sp. showed promising potential in the simultaneous purification of saline sewage effluent in terms of tertiary treatment and CO2 sequestration while delivering feedstock for potential biofuel production in a waste-recycling manner.

  13. Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata; Reducao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes industriais e domesticos tratados por irradiacao com feixe de eletrons, avaliada com as especies Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2001-07-01

    Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

  14. Variation in the area of islets of langerhans in sodium cyclamate treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the effects of sodium cyclamate on islets of langerhans in rats pancreas. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Duration of study: Anatomy Department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from March to May 2014. Material and Methods: Twenty male and twenty female Sprauge dawley rats weighing 175-205 gms were used in the experiment. Half male and half female rats were randomly divided in two groups (control group C and experimental group E, n=20 animals in each group). Group C served as control group in which rats were given normal diet. Group E served as experimental group and was given sodium cyclamate 60mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for two months. Animals were dissected. Pancreas was examined and weighed. Slides were made after processing the organ for histological study. Area of islets of langerhans was calculated by image j software. Results were analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: The mean weight of pancreas in control and experimental group was 0.75 gm (SD ± 0.094) and 0.805 gm (SD ± 0.068) respectively. It was significantly higher (p = 0.043) in experimental group. The area of islet of langerhans in control and experimental group was 15285.40 µm2 (IQR: 9881.08 - 23001.35) and 33213.50 µm2 (IQR: 21258.05-45879.18) respectively. There was an increase in area in experimental group (p = 0.014). Conclusion: Sodium cyclamate affects the histomorphology of endocrine pancreas by increasing the area of islets of langerhans in treated group. (author)

  15. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent.

  16. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential

  17. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI and Pb(II by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmed Baig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI and lead (Pb(II by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS. For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI and Pb(II were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, were 96%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI and Pb(II at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

  18. Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2012-04-15

    This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 μg L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

  19. Qualidade da água de um córrego sob influência de efluente tratado de abate bovino Water quality of a stream under influence of cattle slaughter treated effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Thebaldi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As agroindústrias figuram entre as maiores fontes poluidoras das águas no Brasil, em função da grande quantidade de resíduos produzidos, contendo substâncias orgânicas, nutrientes, sólidos, óleos e graxas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito do lançamento de efluente de abate de bovinos sobre a qualidade da água do Córrego Jurubatuba, em Anápolis, GO. As amostras de efluente e a água foram obtidas em seis diferentes dias e em quatro posições, em relação ao ponto de lançamento: P1 - na saída do efluente tratado, antes do lançamento no córrego; P2 - 50 m à montante do ponto de descarga; P3 - 50 m à jusante do ponto de descarga e P4 - 120 m à jusante do ponto de descarga. Analisaram-se as concentrações de OD, DBO, DQO, amônia, nitrito e nitrato. Os valores de DBO em todos os pontos de coleta no Córrego Jurubatuba foram superiores aos padrões descritos na Resolução do CONAMA nº 357/2005 para cursos de água da classe 2. O lançamento de efluente no Córrego Jurubatuba elevou os valores de DBO e DQO no ponto P3, enquanto no ponto P4 foi semelhante aos valores obtidos antes do lançamento de efluente. As concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido, amônia, nitrito e nitrato, não sofreram alterações significativas no córrego.Agroindustrial systems are among the largest sources of water pollution in Brazil, due to the large amount of waste produced, containing organic substances, nutrients, solids, oils and fats. This study aimed to analyze the effect of release of cattle slaughter treated effluent on the water quality of the Jurubatuba Stream in the municipality of Anápolis, GO. The effluent and stream water samples were obtained at six different days and at four positions in relation to the point of discharge: P1 - the discharge of the treated wastewater, before launching it into the stream; P2 - upstream, 50 m away from the discharge point; P3 - downstream, 50 m away from the discharge point; and P4

  20. Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra

    2009-07-15

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N=1318 mg/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O+NaHPO(4).7H(2)O, and MgO+85% H(3)PO(4) were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg(2+):NH(4)(+)-N:PO(4)(3-)-P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from 4.45 to 11. Preliminary test results indicated that maximum NH(4)(+)-N removal, as well as maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions, were obtained as 85.4%, 53.3% and 49.8% at pH 9.0 with the addition of MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), respectively. The paired experimental data obtained from batch studies were statistically evaluated by a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and a two-sample t-test. Based on the previous results, another batch experiments were then performed at pH 9.0 using MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4) for different molar ratios applied as overdose (1.2:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 1:1:1.2, 1:1:1.5) and underdose (0.5:1:1, 0.8:1:1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:0.8). In the final step, the fertility of the MAP precipitate as struvite was also tested on the growth of three test plants including purslane (Portulaca oleracea), garden cress (Lepidum sativum) and grass (Lolium perenne). Findings of this experimental study clearly confirmed the recovering of NH(4)(+)-N from UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation, and also the application of recovered MAP sludge as a valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:19097699

  1. 炼油厂酸性水罐排放气恶臭治理技术工业应用%Application of Odor Treatment Technology in Treating Effluent Gas From Sour Water Tanks in Refineries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 廖昌建; 刘忠生; 戴金玲

    2013-01-01

    Successful application of "the diesel low temperature critical absorption and lye desulfurization " odor treatment technology in treating effluent gas from sour water tanks was introduced. The rate of oil gas recovery was as high as 95%. Treated gas can be in full compliance with the emission limit of Emission standard of air pollutant for bulk gasoline terminals and Emission standards for odor pollutants. The amount of oil and gas recovery can reach more than 300 t/a, this technology has obvious economic benefit and social benefit.%  全面介绍了“柴油低温临界吸收-碱液脱硫”恶臭治理技术在某炼油厂酸性水罐排放气治理上的成功应用。装置的油气回收率高达95%。排放气经过治理后完全符合《储油库大气污染物排放标准》和《恶臭污染物排放标准》污染物排放限值的要求。装置年回收油气量可达300 t以上,该技术具有明显的经济效益和社会效益。

  2. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of domestic wastewater treated through pilot-scale constructed wetland of Adana-Karaisalı with dominant Mediterranean climate in irrigation of marigold (Tagetes erecta, commonly used over urban landscapes. Experiments were carried out between the dates May-November 2008 for 7 months with fresh water and treated wastewater. Plant growth parameters (plant height, plant diameter, number of branches and flowering parameters (number of flowers, flower diameter, flower pedicle thickness were monitored in monthly basis. Results revealed positive impacts of treated wastewater irrigations on plant growth during the initial 5 months between May-September but negative impacts in October and November. Similarly, treated wastewater irrigations had positive impacts on flowering parameters during the initial 3 months but had negative impacts during the subsequent 4 months. Such a case indicated shortened visual efficiencies of marigold. Therefore, treated wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource in irrigation of annual flowers, but better results can be attained by mixing treated wastewater with fresh water at certain ratios.

  3. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of ...

  4. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  6. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  7. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

  8. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    KAUST Repository

    Reifel, Kristen M.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100mgm-3 and densities between 100 and 2000cellsmL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of waste stabilization ponds effluent efficiency on the growth and nutritive characteristics of cluster beans (cyamopsis tetragonoloba l.) taub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Asian countries including Pakistan are facing chronic shortage of water supply which is anticipated to be aggravated in future. These countries are agribased where the continued water supply is crucial for sustainable economy. One of the possible alternatives to overcome the problems of water scarcity is the used of treated wastewater which is gaining much importance even in the western world. The treated wastewater can be used as a liquid fertilizer which could provide dual benefits both in terms of saving of fresh water as well as inorganic fertilizers. The potential of treated effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth and nutritive quality of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) Taub. was investigated under field conditions. Treated effluent significantly increased fresh weight of leaves and stems. Dry weight of stem was also significantly higher with the treatment of WSP effluent as compared to the use of basal fertilizer and fresh water. Fresh and dry fruit weights, number of seeds per fruit and fruit length were also significantly increased in WSP effluent treatment as compared to other two treatments. Treatment with WSP effluent also improved the nutritive characteristics such as crude proteins and total carbohydrates. However, total fat and ash content percentage of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba remained unaltered. The application of WSP effluent also increased NPK and organic matter content of the soil after harvesting the crop which would be helpful for succeeding crop. The study demonstrated that treated effluent can be successfully used for unrestricted irrigation in the water deficient areas of Pakistan thereby saving huge quantities of fresh water. (author)

  10. Effluent Zero Release Concept——The Brazilian Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Carlos Mierzwa; Sandra Mara Garcia Bello; Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity is pushing the government, industries and researchers to the development of new strategies for water and wastewater management. An approach aimed at the optimization of the water use and minimization of effluent generation was developed at the Centro Experimental ARAMAR (CEA), a nuclear research facility, located in the State of Sao Paulo,Brazil. Bench scale tests followed by a pilot plant treating effluents from some nuclear research facilities have shown the results leading to the conclusion that the effluent zero release concept is feasible. Based on the gathered data, a project of an integrated effluent treatment system focusing on water recovery and environmental effluent release reduction has been developed.

  11. Clinical Observation of Vascular Dementia Treated by Surrounding-acupuncture of the CT-located Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Xin; FENG Bi-fang; RONG Li; YANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical effect of "Surrounding Needling Technigue through CT Location" in treating vascular dementia. Method Fifty cases of vascular dementia were randomly divided into surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups, 25 cases in each group,and were given surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture respectively. Results The effective rates in surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups were 88% and 60% respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups, P < 0.01.Conclusion Therapeutic effect of surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location in treating vascular dementia was satisfactory, and better than that of routine acupuncture.

  12. Effects of pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microbiota activity of an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating pigmanure effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moterani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic processes used for treating wastewater have been often applied mainly for optimizing treatment systems. Among many of these systems, the UASB is one of the most successfully used. This type of reactor presents a good condition for microorganisms development, and therefore, for organic matter degradation. As a result, the goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of parameters, such as: temperature, pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microorganisms consortia, acclimatized in an UASB reactor, and simultaneously, observing the sludge morphology through a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, in order to identify the response of the bacteria consortia under this environmental circumstances. The biomass operated under a mesophilic temperature, varying from 190C to 210C. The maximum concentration of volatile acids was 100 mg L-1, and the volumetric organic loading rate was 59 kgCOD m-3d-1. The total alkalinity concentration values were between 2500 and 5550 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average pH value of the sludge was 7.3. Under these conditions it was observed the development of a well acclimatized granular biomass, composed mainly of filamentous bacteria.

  13. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  14. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for ...

  15. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  16. An algorithm for treating flat areas and depressions in digital elevation models using linear interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are essential to hydrological applications and have been widely used to calculate a variety of useful topographic characteristics, e.g., slope, flow direction, flow accumulation area, stream channel network, topographic index, and others. Excep...

  17. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Faissal AZIZ; Farissi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. ...

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy for treating schizophrenia: a chart review of patients from two catchment areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Pedersen, Ida Hageman;

    2011-01-01

    To examine disease and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined charts from 79 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 55), persistent delusional disorders (n = 7), and schizoaffective disorders (n = 17) between 2003...... and 2008. We recorded age, sex, indication for ECT, number of ECT sessions, ECT series, outcome, maintenance ECT, use of antipsychotics, duration of illness, and duration of the current exacerbation. All patients were taking antipsychotics at the time of enrolment in the study. Acute ECT included 2...

  19. IMPACT OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS ON SOIL AND VEGETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Singh Mandloi; Shatrughan Prasad Singh; Deepak Davar

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution poses a great health hazard to human beings, animals and plants. Pollution has also adverse effects on the land, water and its living and nonliving components. Industrial effluents, containing organic and inorganic compounds have strong influence on the development of growth of crop plants. The treated effluent was collected from OPM paper mill from its outlet. Thephysicochemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found...

  20. STUDY ON THE REUSE OF ZAMYAD FACTORY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT IN IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Massoudinejad, M. Manshouri, A.R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the population increase in the cities and also the increase of per capita water consumption in these societies, the use of treated effluents for the green area irrigation has been taken into consideration. Human ever–increasing needs to green area in municipal societies and on the other hand the limitations in water supplies cause a new review in wastewater reuse. Also making use of treated effluents in irrigation has some limitations including clogging of the soil porosities, increasing of the chemicals and toxic substances to plants and increasing the probability of groundwater pollution. In this research, considering the indicators using recognition of the effluent’s quality, at the first stage compound samples of domestic wastewater treatment effluents of Zamyad Factory were taken. The samples were tested from the viewpoint of quality. Results showed that the indicator of Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Sodium Percentage, amounts of chloride, and electrical conductivity comparing to Food and Agriculture Organization and Department of the Environment of Iran standards were higher than the standard levels. Also parameters such as TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, anions and cations were in standard levels. Results also showed that the increase of some of the undesirable parameters was not related to the operation of wastewater treatment plant. Therefore, in order to make the standard effluent, different methods may be proposed and the most practical and economical one is dilution by using 50% mixing with raw water.

  1. Distribution of zinc in vineyard areas treated with zinc containing phytopharmaceuticals:

    OpenAIRE

    Kerin, Danimir; Weingerl, Vesna

    2000-01-01

    Zinc concentration in vineyard soil is, in general, increased markedly by the long term application of zinc containing fungicides. The most significant source of Zn are nowadays dithiocarbamate based fungicides, e.g. Antracol. The concentration of total zinc and EDTA and ammonium lactate (AL) extractable Zn in soils are evaluated together with the concentration of Zn in different inorganic fertilizers and in fungicides. the results of the study indicate in the observed vineyard areas a long t...

  2. Intention to treat survival following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma within a donor service area

    OpenAIRE

    Charpentier, Kevin P.; Lee Cheah, Yee; Machan, Jason T.; Miner, Tom; Morrissey, Paul; Monaco, Anthony,

    2008-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the impact of wait times on patient survival following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a single donor service area. Patients and methods. Patients listed in the New England Organ Bank (NEOB) from 1996 to 2005 for liver transplantation with a diagnosis of HCC were identified from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. The following data were extracted: date of listing, date removed from the wait list, indication for wai...

  3. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  4. Efficacy of finasteride for treating patients with androgenetic alopecia who are pileous in other areas: A pilot study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Inadomi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA involves androgen-dependent hair loss and finasteride is an established treatment for the disease. However, reports of the influence of finasteride on hair growth in other areas of the body are lacking. Aims: To investigate the effects of finasteride on hair, including the head and other areas of the body. Materials and Methods: Based on whether AGA patients felt they were pileous in areas other than the head, they were divided into Group A (pileous or Group B (not pileous. Finasteride (1 mg/day was prescribed for both groups for at least 6 months, after which patients were asked to estimate the medicine′s effects and any changes of their hair growth. Results and Conclusions: A total of 18 out of 37 patients were placed in Group A and 19 of them were in Group B, suggesting that about half of AGA patients in Japan are pileous in other parts of the body. Oral finasteride was effective (excellent or good in 22 out of 37 (59.5% patients overall, in 16 out of 18 (88.9% patients in Group A, and in 6 out of 19 (31.6% patients in Group B. None of the patients reported that oral finasteride had any effect on their hair growth other than on their head. Finasteride is more effective for treating AGA patients who are pileous in other areas of the body.

  5. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater. PMID:27533873

  6. Monitoring release of pharmaceutical compounds: occurrence and environmental risk assessment of two WWTP effluents and their receiving bodies in the Po Valley, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aukidy, M; Verlicchi, P; Jelic, A; Petrovic, M; Barcelò, D

    2012-11-01

    This study describes an investigation on the occurrence of 27 pharmaceutical compounds, belonging to different classes, in the effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies in the sensitive area of the Po Valley (northern Italy). These canals were monitored upstream and downstream of the effluent discharge points in order to evaluate the effluent impact on the quality of surface waters, commonly used for irrigation. An environmental risk assessment was also conducted by calculating the risk quotient, i.e. the ratio between measured concentration and predicted no effect concentration. Collected data show that, although average values of the selected compounds were in general higher in the effluent than in the surface waters, some compounds not detected in the WWTP effluent were detected in the receiving water (upstream as well as downstream), indicating that sources other than treated effluents are present as contaminations during extraction and analysis have to be excluded. The most critical compounds for the environment were found to be the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin and azithromycin. The study shows that the potential toxicological effects of persistent micropollutants can be mitigated to some extent by a high dilution capacity, i.e. a high average flow rate in the receiving water body with respect to the effluent. PMID:22967493

  7. Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Abhay Raj; Sharad Kumar; Izharul Haq; Mahadeo Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrati...

  8. In situ electrocatalytic oxidation of acid violet 12 dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2006-08-21

    Electrochemical treatment of organic pollutants is a promising treatment technique for substances which are recalcitrant to biodegradation. Experiments were carried out to treat acid violet 12 dye house effluent using electrochemical technique for removal color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating conditions. Ruthenium/lead/tin oxide coated titanium and stainless steel were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The influence of effluent initial concentration, pH, supporting electrolyte and the electrode material on rate of degradation has been critically examined. The results indicate that the electrochemical method can be used to treat dye house effluents. PMID:16730894

  9. Clinical efficacy of artificial skin combined with vacuum sealing drainage in treating large-area skin defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jin; GUO Wei-chun; YU Ling; ZHAO Sheng-hao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of artificial skin combined with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in treating large-area skin defects.Methods: Totally 18 patients with skin defects, treated with artificial skin combined with VSD from September 2008to May 2009 in our hospital, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. There were 15 males and 3 females, aged 7-66years, 34.3 years on average. Among them, 10 cases had skin laceration caused by traffic accidents (7 with open fractures), 1 mangled injury, 1 blast injury, 1 stump infection combined with skin defects after amputation and 5 heel ulcers.Results: All skin grafts in 16 cases survived after being controlled by VSD for one time. For the rest 2 patients,one with skin avulsion on the left foot was given median thickness skin grafts after three times of VSD, the other with open fractures in the left tibia and fibula caused by a traffic accident was given free flap transplantation. Skin grafts of both patients survived, with normal color and rich blood supply.Conclusion: Skin grafting in conjunction with artificial skin and VSD is much more effective than traditional dressing treatment and worth wide application in clinic.

  10. Characteristics of small areas with high rates of hospital-treated self-harm: deprived, fragmented and urban or just close to hospital? A national registry study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, I B

    2014-10-15

    Previous research has shown an inconsistent relationship between the spatial distribution of hospital treated self-harm and area-level factors such as deprivation and social fragmentation. However, many of these studies have been confined to urban centres, with few focusing on rural settings and even fewer studies carried out at a national level. Furthermore, no previous research has investigated if travel time to hospital services can explain the area-level variation in the incidence of hospital treated self-harm.

  11. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  12. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  13. Agricultural use of treated sewage effluents: agronomic and environmental implications and perspectives for Brazil Uso agrícola dos efluentes de tratamento de esgoto: implicações agronômico-ambientais e perspectivas para o Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel Ferreira da Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies worldwide the use of treated sewage effluents (TSE as water and nutrient sources in agricultural irrigation have been introduced as a viable alternative for wastewater destination in the environment. Considering agronomic and environmental aspects the objectives of this review were: (i to present an overview of TSE irrigation on different agro-systems (annual crops, orchards, forests and forages; and (ii to show the principal changes on chemical, physical and microbiological soil characteristics after TSE application. Various studies have revealed that the nutrient supply only by TSE irrigation was not sufficient to meet plant nutrient requirements resulting in yield decreases. The problem could be solved by an adapted effluent/fertilizer management. Moreover, TSE could generally substitute efficiently freshwater for irrigation. Regarding soil quality conditions, TSE irrigation affected mainly: (i total soil carbon and nitrogen, and mineral nitrogen in soil solution; (ii microbial activity, composition of microbial communities and their function; (iii exchangeable calcium and magnesium; (iv salinity, sodicity, clay dispersion and hydraulic conductivity. Other soil parameters considered in this review (e.g. heavy metals did not present significant changes over short and medium terms. Due to the often observed accumulation of sodium and nitrogen losses (leaching, volatilization and denitrification after TSE irrigation, the monitoring of these components is of crucial importance for a sustainable use. Finally, further studies on the technical-economical-environmental viability of TSE irrigation are required to establish reliable recommendations for TSE use particularly in Brazilian agro-systems.O uso dos efluentes de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs como fonte d'água e nutrientes na agricultura (via irrigação tem sido, em diversos locais, uma alternativa viável para a disposição das águas residuárias no ambiente. Os objetivos

  14. Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Laurenson, S; Luo, J; Sukias, J

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed.

  15. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  16. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  17. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (Pwetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients. PMID:25627602

  18. In vitro and immunological assessment of the estrogenic activity and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and ethinyl estradiol in treated effluent from 45 wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

    2010-04-01

    The project was conducted between May 2006 and September 2007, and involved the collection of effluent samples from 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The 45 WWTPs included 16 lagoon-based plants and 29 with activated sludge-based processes. Permission was obtained from all the relevant water authorities to collect samples of final effluent at point of discharge to the environment, whether that was to a creek, a river, the ocean, or the land. Samples were collected on two occasions, namely, in August 2006 (winter) and late February-early March 2007 (summer), and subjected to a number of biological and chemical analyses, including toxicity tests, measurement of hormonal (estrogenic) activity using yeast-based bioassays, and measurement of specific hormonal concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Almost all of the effluents examined showed estrogenic activity: in winter, no activity to 73 ng/l 17beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ); and in summer, no activity to 20 ng/l EEQ. On the whole, the levels of estrogenic activity observed were comparable with the range recently reported in Australia and New Zealand using human estrogen receptor-based assays ("not detected" to approximately 10 ng/l EEQ). The low/no bioassay response was confirmed by the chemical assessment of estradiol, estrone, and ethinyl estradiol concentrations by ELISA, which returned concentrations of these compounds for the most part below 10 ng/l. PMID:20130850

  19. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  20. 77 FR 22061 - FTA Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program: Allocation of Funding Caps for Treating Fuel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... for Treating Fuel and Electric Utility Costs for Vehicle Propulsion as a Capital Maintenance Expense... treat fuel costs for vehicle operations, including utility costs for the propulsion of electrical... Appropriations Act, 2012, permits FTA to treat fuel costs for vehicle operations, including utility costs for...

  1. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  2. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  3. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  4. Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajamohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM h, at 320 C.

  5. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtei Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs. Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  6. REUSE OF DAIRY WASTEWATER TREATED BY MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR AND NANOFILTRATION: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Andrade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of membrane bioreactors (MBR followed by nanofiltration (NF for dairy wastewater treatment in order to reuse the treated effluent. It was observed that the MBR efficiently removed the organic matter and color of the feed effluent; however, due to the high concentration of dissolved solids in the permeate, it was necessary to use nanofiltration as a polishing step. The final treated effluent could be reused in the industry for cooling, steam generation and cleaning of external areas. A preliminary economic analysis showed the feasibility of the proposed system. The internal rate of return was greater than or equal to 32% when membrane lifespan was at least 2 years and the depreciation time was 15 years. The total cost of the proposed treatment system ranged from R$ 9.99/m3 to R$ 6.82/m3, depending on membrane lifespan.

  7. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents

  8. Uso de lagoa aerada facultativa como polimento do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo UASB no tratamento de dejetos de suínos em escala laboratorial The efficiency of an aerated pond used for treating the effluent of an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating swine manure in a lab-scale system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro do Carmo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As atividades agroindustriais têm se voltado não somente para o aumento da produtividade, mas também para a conservação do meio ambiente. A suinocultura é, sem dúvida, uma das atividades agroindustriais mais poluidoras, principalmente no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver e operar uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF em escala de bancada (laboratorial, e como polimento de um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB, visando a tratar os dejetos de suínos com máxima eficiência e custo mínimo. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia (LAADEG da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, sendo composto por um tanque de acidificação e equalização (TAE, um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB e uma lagoa aerada facultativa (LAF para polimento. As análises fisico-químicas realizadas foram: pH, DBO5, DQO T, Sólidos Totais (fixos e voláteis, Temperatura, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Alcalinidade e Acidez Total. A unidade LAF mostrou uma eficiência média de 83 e 42% de DQO T e Nitrogênio Total, respectivamente. O sistema proporcionou remoção média de 93, 84 e 85% de DQO T, DBO5 e Sólidos Totais Voláteis, respectivamente.Nowadays the agro-industry activities have not only focused its direction to the production increasing, but also, to the environmental preservation. The swine production is amo doubt, an activity, which can be considered, one of the most pollutants, mainly in the Minas Gerais State (BRAZIL. Therefore, this research aimed at developing and operating an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, followed by an Aerobic Facultative Pound (AFP (Lab-Scale, with the objective of treating the liquid effluent originated from swine with the maximum efficiency and lower costs. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Water Analysis of the Engineering Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system was assembled with an

  9. Physically Enhanced Integrated Constructed Wetland for Treating Effluent from Sewage Treatment Plant%物理强化复合人工湿地处理污水厂尾水实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正芳; 张继彪; 郑正; 周培国; 郑宾国

    2013-01-01

    The principle of physically enhanced integrated constructed wetland process and its application to advanced treatment of effluent from WWTP were introduced. The results showed that this process had advantages of low investment, excellent treatment effect, simple operation and low maintenance cost. The high removal efficiencies of NH3 - N, TN and TP were achieved. After the operation for one year, the effluent indexes met the first level A criteria specified in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant ( GB 18918 -2002).%介绍了物理强化复合人工湿地的工艺原理及在深度处理污水厂尾水工程中的应用.运行结果表明:该工艺投资少,处理效果好,操作简单,维护成本低.系统对氨氮、总氮、总磷有较好的处理效果,经过一年多的运行,各项出水指标均稳定达到《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》(GB 18918-2002)的一级A标准.

  10. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  11. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    OpenAIRE

    Yadavalli, Rajasri; Heggers, Goutham Rao Venkata Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dai...

  12. Performance of the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii as indicator of stress imposed by textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fidalgo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile plants consume large volumes of water and produce a great amount of wastewaters, which can be important sources of toxic discharges in receiving environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of textile effluents on the freshwater shrimp A. desmarestii. A whole effluent toxicity test procedure was used to determine the aggregate toxicity of three samples taken before and after wastewater treatment in a textile mill. The following LC50 − 48 h values (%, v/v were calculated: Untreated effluent −29% effluent (sample 1, 22% effluent (sample 2, and 47% (sample 3; Treated effluent −73% effluent (sample 1, 74% effluent (sample 2, and > 100% (sample 3. Based upon acute toxicity units (TUa = 100/LC50, untreated effluent varied from toxic in samples 1 and 3 (2.00 ≤ TUa ≤ 4.00 to very toxic in sample 2 (TUa > 4.0, whereas treated effluent varied from no toxic in sample 3 to moderately toxic in samples 1 and 2 (1.33 ≤ TUa ≤ 1.99. Despite some limitations and constraints related to innate variability of industrial effluents, our results suggested that A. desmarestii can be a promising and potential test organism for assessing toxicity of complex chemical mixtures.

  13. A Conceptual Model For Effluent-Dependent Riverine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. T.; Meyerhoff, R. D.; Osterkamp, W. R.; Smith, E. L.; Hawkins, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP) is a multi-year, EPA-funded scientific endeavor directed by the Pima County, Wastewater Management Department in southern Arizona and focussed upon several interconnected ecological questions. These questions are crucial to water quality management in the arid and semi arid western US. A key component has been the ecological, hydrological and geomorphological investigation of habitat created by the discharge of treated effluent into ephemeral streams. Such environments are fundamentally different from the dry streams or rivers they displace; however, they are clearly not the perennial streams they superficially resemble. Under Arizona State regulations, such streams can bear the use designation of "Effluent Dependent Waters," or EDWs. Before this investigation, a hydrological/ecological conceptual model for these unique ecosystems had not been published. We have constructed one for general review that is designed to direct future work in the WQRP. The project investigated ten representative, yet contrasting EDW sites distributed throughout arid areas of the western US, to gather both historical and reconnaissance level field data, including in-stream and riparian, habitat and morphometric fluvial data. In most cases, the cross sectional area of the prior channel is oversized relative to the discharge of the introduced effluent. Where bed control is absent, the channels are incised downstream of the discharge point, further suggesting a disequilibrium between the channel and the regulated effluent flow. Several of the studied stream systems primarily convey storm water and are aggradational, exhibiting braided or anastomizing channels, high energy bedforms, and spatially dynamic interfluves. Active channels are formed in response to individual storm events and can be highly dynamic in both location and cross-sectional morphology. This poses a geomorphological challenge in the selection of a discharge point. We

  14. Metal Contamination In Plants Due To Tannery Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Farhad Ali; Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher; Md Mahamudul Hasan; Md. Aminul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes the determination of heavy metals named Chromium Lead and Cadmium deposited in soil as well as in the plants and vegetables due to the tanning industries of the area of Hazaribagh Dhaka. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents which get mixed with the soil water of rivers and canals in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that was collected from the land adjacent to the canals which bear untreated tannery effluents. The s...

  15. Catch, Treat and Release with Limited Removal Red Desert Complex Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (Lost Creek, Stewart Creek, Green Mountain, Crooks Mountain, Antelope Hills)

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    2011-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to disclose and analyze the environmental consequences of a "Catch, Treat and Release (CTR)" of wild horses in the Red Desert Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA) Complex. In addition to the proposed action of a CTR gather, removal of wild horses outside identified HMAs within the project area will also be conducted. The HMAs included in this complex are Lost Creek, Stewart Creek, Green Mountain, Crooks Mountain and Antelope Hills (See A...

  16. Integrating effluent management

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses a closed recycle shrimp farm in Thailand which integrates effluent management. The closed recycle system can reduce risk of heavy metals, pesticides, ammonia, and other toxic particles coming in with water from natural sources by reducing the quantity of water brought to the farm.

  17. Curing conditions Influence on Some Engineering Properties of Lime-treated expansive Clayey Soil from Mosul Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhel E. AbdulKhader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the effect of varying curing conditions, namely temperature ( 10o to 60odegrees Celsius and curing period (2 to 90 days on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS and hydraulic conductivity of lime treated clayey soil selected from Mosul city. The soil was treated with (2,4 and 6% hydrated lime. Test results showed that the UCS was increased with the increase of curing temperature especially at low curing period. On the other hand, hydraulic conductivity in treated soil has increased with temperature compared with that of untreated soil but not with a constant trend. Finally, leaching of treated soil has led to a decline in hydraulic conductivity with time, while the rate of decreasing was found to be more with samples exposed to higher temperature.      

  18. CURING CONDITIONS INFLUENCE ON SOME ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF LIME-TREATED EXPANSIVE CLAYEY SOIL FROM MOSUL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhael I. Abdulkader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This aim of the present work is to study the effect of varying curing conditions namely temperature that was studied within rang from 10o to 60odegrees Celsius. Curing period between two to ninety days was also studied for the unconfined compressive strength (UCS & hydraulic conductivity of lime treated clayey soil selected for Mosul city. The soil was treated with (2,4 and 6% hydrated lime. Test Results showed that the UCS was increased with curing temperature increase especially at lower curing period. On the other hand, hydraulic conductivity of treated soil has increased with temperature compared with that of untreated soil but not with  constant trend. Finally, leaching of treated soil has led to a decline in hydraulic conductivity with time, while the rate of decreasing was found to be more with samples exposed to higher temperature effect.        

  19. Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doannio Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night. Methods PermaNet 2.0® and Olyset® were distributed in 455 compounds at the beginning of the rainy season. The community was educated on the effectiveness of nets in reducing malaria and on how to use them. To assess motivation, qualitative tools were used: one hundred people were interviewed, two hundred houses were observed directly and two houses were monitored monthly throughout one year. Results The motivation for the use of bednets decreased after less than a year. Inhabitants' conception of malaria and the inconvenience of using bednets in small houses were the major reasons. Acceptance that ITNs were useful in reducing malaria was moderated by the fact that mosquitoes were considered to be only one of several factors which caused malaria. The appropriate and routine use of ITNs was adversely affected by the functional organization of the houses, which changed as between day and night. Bednets were not used when the perceived benefits of reduction in mosquito nuisance and of malaria were considered not to be worth the inconvenience of daily use. Conclusion In

  20. Modification of UHMWPE membrane with a PE/clay/PE-G-MA nano composite film to treat oily effluents; Modificacao de membrana de PEUAPM com filme nanocomposito de PEAD/argila/PE-G-MA para o tratamento de efluentes oleosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Suelem S.L.; Silva, Caio M.B.; Leal, Tania L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Costa, Anna R.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], e-mail: tanlucleal@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Interest in techniques of surface modification is evinced by the large number of studies in recent decades. In this work the internal surfaces of polymeric membranes of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were modified by impregnation of HDPE/organoclay/PE-g-MA nanocomposite film. The addition of PE-g-MA aims to increase polymer/clay interaction and to control and/or modify surface characteristics of UHMWPE membranes, such as permeability and pore size, so as to make the membranes more efficient and/or appropriate for effluent treatment, more specifically in the treatment of oil contaminated water. The films were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their performance (permeate flux and selectivity) were measured using distilled water and an oil in water dispersion. (author)

  1. Effects of sewage effluents on water quality in tropical streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Nieves, Débora; McDowell, William H; Potter, Jody D; Martínez, Gustavo; Ortiz-Zayas, Jorge R

    2014-11-01

    Increased urbanization in many tropical regions has led to an increase in centralized treatment of sewage effluents. Research regarding the effects of these wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the ecology of tropical streams is sparse, so we examined the effects of WWTPs on stream water quality on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations, discharge, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm were measured upstream from the WWTP effluent, at the WWTP effluent, and below the WWTP effluent. All parameters measured (except DO) were significantly affected by discharge of WWTP effluent to the stream. The values of SUVA at 254 nm were typically lower (<2.5 m mg L) in WWTP effluents than those measured upstream of the WWTP, suggesting that WWTP effluents are contributing labile carbon fractions to receiving streams, thus changing the chemical composition of dissolved organic carbon in downstream reaches. Effluents from WWTP contributed on average 24% to the stream flow at our tropical streams. More than 40% of the nutrient loads in receiving streams came from WWTP effluents, with the effects on NO-N and PO-P loads being the greatest. The effect of WWTPs on nutrient loads was significantly larger than the effect of flow due to the elevated nutrient concentrations in treated effluents. Our results demonstrate that inputs from WWTPs to streams contribute substantially to changes in water quality, potentially affecting downstream ecosystems. Our findings highlight the need to establish nutrient criteria for tropical streams to minimize degradation of downstream water quality of the receiving streams. PMID:25602222

  2. The potential of a salt-tolerant plant (Distichlis spicata cv. NyPa Forage) to treat effluent from inland saline aquaculture and provide livestock feed on salt-affected farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C

    2013-02-15

    Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle. PMID:23333515

  3. The potential of a salt-tolerant plant (Distichlis spicata cv. NyPa Forage) to treat effluent from inland saline aquaculture and provide livestock feed on salt-affected farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C

    2013-02-15

    Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle.

  4. The use of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food to treat malnutrition in a rural area during a food crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the international community declared a famine in Malawi in January 2006, emergency food aid reached only populations with pre-existing health care services. To treat the widespread childhood malnutrition in Machinga district, a rural area lacking health care facilities, in February 2006 five ou...

  5. Memory deficit in Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Costa E Silva, Bianca; de Almeida, Sabrina Ferreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; da Silva Castro, André Luis; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that tannery effluents constitute highly toxic pollutants whose effects in humans represent public health problems in several countries, studies involving experimental mammalian models are rare. In this context, the objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the exposure to tannery effluent on the memory of male and female Swiss mice. Animals of each sex were distributed into two experimental groups: the control group, in which the animals received only drinking water and the effluent group, in which the mice received 1% of gross tannery effluent diluted in water. The animals were exposed to the effluent by gavage, oral dosing, for 15days, ensuring the administration of 0.1mL of liquid (water or effluent)/10g of body weight/day. On the 14th and 15th experimental days the animals were submitted to the object recognition test. It was observed that the new object recognition indices calculated for the animals exposed to the effluent (males and females) were significantly lower than those obtained with the control group. The exposure to tannery effluent caused memory deficit in Swiss mice in a similar way for both sexes, reinforcing previous findings that these pollutants affect the central nervous system. It contributes to the knowledge in the area by attesting harmful effects to the cognition of such animals. PMID:27063058

  6. Reduction of spleen size in a child with Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS treated outside the Brazilian endemic area of malaria with only one course of quinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical picture, treatment and evolution of a child with hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly treated outside the endemic area of malaria. The patient presented gross splenomegaly, proceeded from an area where malaria is endemic, showed increased immunoglobulins levels, high antimalarial antibody titres and hepatic sinusoidal lymphocytosis. The child did not return to an area where malaria is endemic and showed a favorable response to only one course of quinine. The response of this patient to limited antimalarial therapy suggests the importance of reinfection with malaria in the development and maintenance of this syndrome.

  7. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds.

  9. Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS): evaluation of a solar concentrator device; Desinfeccao de efluentes com tratamento terciario utilizando energia solar (SODIS): avaliacao do uso do dispositivo para concentracao dos raios solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp; Silva, Marcelo Jacomini Moreira da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Saneamento e Ambiente]. E-mail: pater@agr.unicamp.br

    2005-01-15

    Besides being an available natural resource, the solar energy is very applicable in places with few recourses and low money resources, because there aren't either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost (commercial materials can be reused). To make this job we re-used PET bottles half painted black with the variables: 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours of heat exposition and we also used a concentrator of rays of sunshine. The affluent control parameters were turbidity, apparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. These last three were evaluated before and after the disinfection process (effluent parameters). To assess the bacteria reactivation we kept the water in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a very common situation in Brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the heat exposition from 6 to 4 hours, without harm the SODIS efficiency. Using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain, besides SODIS, the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS), which stops the re-growth of bacteria with a 70 deg C water temperature. We also observed that when the sky is cloudy the incidence of solar radiation and, therefore, the SODIS efficiency decrease, even if the water temperature is higher during the disinfection. Although, this factor doesn't mean a significant influence statistically. (author)

  10. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  11. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  13. Responds of soil enzfyme activities of degraded coastal saline wetlands to irrigation with treated paper mill effluent%造纸废水灌溉对滨海退化盐碱湿地土壤酶活性的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏孟婧; 苗颖; 陆兆华; 谢国莉; 裴定宇

    2012-01-01

    经生物塘处理后的造纸废水矿化度低,有机物质含量高,可用来改善滨海盐碱土壤.研究了不同量(每次灌溉深度为5、10、15和20 cm)处理后的造纸废水灌溉对土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶、脱氢酶和过氧化氢酶活性的影响,通过酶活性的变化来反映对土壤改良的效果并寻求最佳灌溉量.结果表明:5种土壤酶上层(0-10 cm)和中层土壤(10-20 cm)的活性大于下层土壤(20-30 cm),造纸废水灌溉没有改变土壤酶活性在不同土层的分布规律;灌溉造纸废水对土壤脲酶和磷酸酶活性的提高主要发生在表层土壤,而对蔗糖酶、脱氢酶以及过氧化氢酶活性的提高主要发生在上层和中层土壤;20 cm灌溉对下层土壤酶活性的提高最明显.5种酶活性均受温度降雨等因素影响,最大值出现在8月份.总体上,灌溉量的增加能提高酶活性的增加程度,最佳灌溉量为20 cm,土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和脱氢酶相对对照分别提高了70.0%、30.9%、56.2%、135.2%和20.84%.酶活性与土壤盐碱度和微生物代谢商(qCO2)显著负相关,与速效磷和微生物量碳显著正相关,与有机质和速效氮相关性不显著.%Yellow River Delta, which is surrounded by Bohai Sea to the north and Laizhou Bay to the east, is one of the three largest deltas in China. However, large amounts of water and salts that were brought by penetration of water in the Yellow River and encroachment of sea water resulted in the rise of groundwater level and salinization. Under the influence of strong evaporation, the soil degraded into saline soil. Currently, up to around 1670 km of land have turned into saline soil in the Yellow River Delta. Thus, it is urgent to ameliorate the saline soil for the assurance of ecological security and coordinated development of economy and ecology. Treated paper mill effluent was low in salinity and high in organic matter, and could be used to restore saline soil

  14. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  15. Relationship between Real Contact Area and Adhesion Force of Plasma-Treated Rubber Sheets Against Stainless-Steel Ball

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Hyoung; Nitta, Isami; UMEHARA, Noritsugu; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Mamoru; Hasegawa, Mitsuru

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion force between a chloride-isobutene-isoprene rubber (CIIR) and stainless steel ball was studied in this paper. In order to decrease the adhesion force, the CIIR rubber was treated with high-density microwave plasma employing oxygen and argon gases. The experimental results showed that the adhesion force decreases with increasing treatment time and microwave power following both oxygen and argon plasma treatments. In addition, optical measurements revealed that the real contact are...

  16. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  17. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent

  18. Effect of Flow Rate and Disc Area Increment on the Efficiency of Rotating Biological Contactor for Treating Greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of greywater treatment through RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is related to many factors including rotational speed of disc, surface area of the media, thickness of biological film; quality and flow rate of influent. The plastic media provides surface for biological slime. The slime is rotated alternatively into the settled wastewater and then into atmosphere to provide aerobic conditions for the microorganisms. In this study the performance of RBC is investigated at different flow rates and disk areas of media by introducing additional discs on the shaft of RBC. Initially efficiency of the RBC was observed on six flow rates at the disc area of 9.78m2. Furthermore optimized three flow rates were used to augment the disk area. The efficiency of RBC system was improved significantly at disk area of 11.76m2 and flow rate of 20 L/h. Under these conditions the removal of BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and TSS (Total Suspended Solid was observed 83, 57 and 90% respectively

  19. Effect of flow rate and disc area increment on the efficiency of rotating biological contactor for treating greywater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of greywater treatment through RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor) is related to many factors including rotational speed of disc, surface area of the media, thickness of biological film; quality and flow rate of influent. The plastic media provides surface for biological slime. The slime is rotated alternatively into the settled wastewater and then into atmosphere to provide aerobic conditions for the microorganisms. In this study the performance of RBC is investigated at different flow rates and disk areas of media by introducing additional discs on the shaft of RBC. Initially efficiency of the RBC was observed on six flow rates at the disc area of 9.78m/sup 2/. Furthermore optimized three flow rates were used to augment the disk area. The efficiency of RBC system was improved significantly at disk area of 11.76m/sup 2/ and flow rate of 20 L/h. Under these conditions the removal of BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) was observed 83, 57 and 90% respectively. (author)

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of dye effluent by titanium dioxide pillar pellets in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-cang; ZOU Lin-da; Eric Hu

    2004-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation(PCO) process is an effective way to deal with organic pollutants in wastewater which could be difficult to be degraded by conventional biological treatment methods. Normally the TiO2 powder in nanometre size range was directly used as photocatalyst for dye degradation in wastewater. However the titanium dioxide powder was arduous to be recovered from the solution after treatment. In this application, a new form of TiO2(i. e. pillar pellets ranging from 2.5 to 5.3 mm long and with a diameter of 3.7 mm) was used and investigated for photocatalytic degradation of textile dye effluent. A test system was built with a flat plate reactor(FPR) and UV light source(blacklight and solar simulator as light source respectively) for investigating the effectiveness of the new form of TiO2. It was found that the photocatalytic process under this configuration could efficiently remove colours from textile dyeing effluent. Comparing with the TiO2 powder, the pellet was very easy to recovered from the treated solution and can be reused in multiple times without the significant change on the photocatalytic property. The results also showed that to achieve the same photocatalytic performance, the FPR area by pellets was about 91% smaller than required by TiO2 powder. At least TiO2 pellet could be used as an alternative form of photocatalyst in applications for textile effluent treatment process, also other wastewater treatment processes.

  1. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxicity of textile effluents using Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the raw (EB and treated (ET effluents of two textile mills located in south of Minas Gerais State that have their effluents treated at the same Effluent Treatment Plant was investigated using the Allium cepa test system. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the root elongation and mitotic index (MI endpoints and the genotoxicity was assessed by de determination of chromosome aberrations (CA.The effluent samples were tested at the concentrations 0 (ultrapure water, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % (v/v. A Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 30 seeds was used. The effluent samples in almost all tested concentrations promoted an increase in root elongation compared to the negative control and this effect was probably related to nutrients levels and organic matter in effluent samples. A lower MI at all concentrations of ET compared to EB. The highest MI was observed at 100% (v/v concentration of both effluents. The highest rates of CA occurred at concentrations 75% (v/v of EB and 100% (v/v of both effluents. The effluent samples showed no cytotoxic effect, but cell division occurred disorderly, leading to increase rate of AC, revealing a genetoxic effect. Improvements in the wastewater treatment are needed to reduce environmental impacts.

  2. Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of effluent from a pharmacy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Mendes de Oliveira Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical, textile and food industry bear much of the responsibility for environmental pollution. In order to appropriately treat and mitigate the effects of pharmaceutical effluent, it is necessary to study it in order to determine its physical and chemical composition. In this work, the physicochemical characteristics of a pharmaceutical effluent were studied, to include the concentration of phenolic compounds, heavy metals, total phosphorus, nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The in vivo micronucleus test was performed in mice, for investigation and possible genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the effluent from the pharmaceutical hub in Anápolis - Goiás. In all samples, only the phenolics showed concentrations above the values established by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011. The high concentrations of total phenols and synergy between metals found in wastewater can be linked to mutagenicity and genotoxicity found in the effluent, since the results of the micronucleus test indicated higher micronucleus formation when the mice were exposed to the effluent. The results of the study highlighted the necessity of characterizing these effluents in order to determine an appropriate treatment.

  3. Application of waste stabilization pond's effluent on cultivation of roses (rosa damascena mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the use of Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) effluent for irrigation and also aims to compare the efficiency of effluent with the Hoagland solution. Results revealed that the number of flowers, size of flower and the petals per flower increased by the use of both Hoagland solution and treated effluent while the height of plant and the fresh weight of flowers were increased significantly by the Hoagland solution only. Moreover, the leaves showed high concentration of reducing and non-reducing sugars as compared to flowers whereas, only the leaves of plants which were treated by the ponds effluent had low content of reducing sugars as compared to leaves of untreated plants serving as controls. The variation in chlorophyll content was similar to that of reducing and non-reducing sugars. In addition, leaves of plants that were treated by pond's effluent showed highest concentration of total phenol content. It is concluded that treated effluent is as effective as Hoagland for the irrigation of rose. Additionally, the use of treated effluent for irrigation reduces the demand of fresh water and the use of inorganic fertilizers for the commercial production of roses. (author)

  4. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  5. Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Hey, Gerly; Rodríguez Vega, Sergio;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes.Secondary effluents from six Swedish...

  6. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels

  7. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available, the effluent limitations for TOC shall be established at a ratio of 2.2 to 1 to the applicable... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated...

  8. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  9. Toxicity assessment of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry by bioassay tests in Trigonella foenumgracum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Narendra; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Dwivedi, Neetu; Singh, D P; Barman, S C

    2014-11-01

    A rapid bioassay test was conducted to study heavy metal accumulation and biochemical changes in Trigonella foenumgracum (methi) irrigated with 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry at 60 days after sowing. Total metal concentration in effluent samples was: Cr = 0.12 effluent followed by a decrease at higher concentration as compared to their respective control.An enhanced lipid peroxidation in the treated plants was observed, which was evident by increased level of antioxidants: proline, cysteine, malondialdehyde and ascorbic acid content. The treated plants accumulated metals in the following order: Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd in the roots and shoots. PMID:25522513

  10. Characterization of organic pollutants in bio-treated effluents of dyeing and textile wastewater and removal behavior during magnesium sulfate coagulation process%印染废水生化出水中有机污染物特性及在硫酸镁混凝过程中的去除行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李暮; 钱飞跃; 李欣珏; 李新; 孙贤波; 刘勇弟

    2012-01-01

    以某印染废水二级生化出水为研究对象,考察了生化出水中有机污染物中各组分含量、分子量分布特点等特性,以及各类有机物在硫酸镁混凝处理过程中的去除行为.实验结果表明,该印染废水的生化出水溶解性有机物的主要成分是疏水性物质,以溶解性有机碳(DOC)表征时占总DOC的78%,其中非酸疏水物质约占46%,而以UV254表征时约占总55%,以美国染料生产协会色度值(ADMI7.6)表征时为97%,其中以非酸疏水物质的贡献最大,达到66%,并且非酸疏水物质中不饱和双键或芳香环有机物的含量较高.生化出水中的DOC主要集中在小于1000 D的有机物上,占37%.在硫酸镁的最佳混凝条件下,可以有效地去除由大分子量的非酸疏水物质引起的色度,而对小分子量的有机物也有一定的去除效果.%In this paper,experiments were performed to characterize the bio-treated effluents from a dyeing and textile wastewater treatment plant by tandem resin fractionation and molecular weight distribution.And the removals of its major organic constituents by magnesium sulfate coagulation treatment were studied.The results show that the hydrophobic organic fractions are the largest group in this bio-treated effluent,accounting for 78% in term of DOC(Dissolved Organic Carbon).And non-acid hydrophobics account for 46%.Hydrophobics are also the major contributor to the color of this effluent,accounting for 97% of the total ADMI7.6(American Dye manufacture Institute)value,and non-acid hydrophobics account for 66%.Non-acid hydrophobics have higher aromatic carbon contents than other organic fractions.Organic compounds of very small molecular weight(〈1000 D) were the largest fraction(37% of DOC) of the total dissolved organic matters.Under the optimized condition of magnesium sulfate coagulation process,nearly all of the large molecular weight organic fractions and a major portion of non

  11. A novel test method to determine the filter material service life of decentralized systems treating runoff from traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Dierschke, Martina; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the development and application of technical decentralized filter systems for the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. However, there are still many uncertainties regarding the service life and the performance of filter materials that are employed in decentralized treatment systems. These filter media are designed to prevent the transport of pollutants into the environment. A novel pilot-scale test method was developed to determine - within a few days - the service lives and long-term removal efficiencies for dissolved heavy metals in stormwater treatment systems. The proposed method consists of several steps including preloading the filter media in a pilot-scale model with copper and zinc by a load of n-1 years of the estimated service life (n). Subsequently, three representative rain events are simulated to evaluate the long-term performance by dissolved copper and zinc during the last year of application. The presented results, which verified the applicability of this method, were obtained for three filter channel systems and six filter shaft systems. The performance of the evaluated systems varied largely for both tested heavy metals and during all three simulated rain events. A validation of the pilot-scale assessment method with field measurements was also performed for two systems. Findings of this study suggest that this novel method does provide a standardized and accurate estimation of service intervals of decentralized treatment systems employing various filter materials. The method also provides regulatory authorities, designers, and operators with an objective basis for performance assessment and supports stormwater managers to make decisions for the installation of such decentralized treatment systems. PMID:27179341

  12. Comparison between Microscopic and Endoscopic Approaches for Evaluation of Anatomic Areas in Surgically Treated Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Goodarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The diagnostic value of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for viewing different structures of middle ear has been widely assessed however, no published study is available for comparing the diagnostic value of them in chronic otitis media patients. The present study conducted to compare diagnostic value of these two procedures for as-sessment of middle ear normal structures and possible defects in these patients. Materials & Methods: In a prospective descriptive analytical study, fifty eight consecutive pa-tients older than 15 years who suffered from chronic otitis media and were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy were included into the study and underwent operation. After entering the middle ear by post auricular incision and elevation of a tym-panomeatal flap, and prior to surgery , the middle ear was first examined by an operating mi-croscope in different bed and microscope positions and by performing gentle maneuvers on the head and then was reevaluated using a rigid 0 & 30 degree sinoscope. The visible areas of middle ear were separately noted. Results: Structures of epitympanum, posterior mesotympanum, and hypotympanum structures were more visible using endoscope compared with microscope(P0.05. Conclusion: Endoscopic and microscopic procedures had similar diagnostic values to view ossicular chain mobility and reflexes of round window as well as to detect ossicular chain erosions, but different anatomical parts and more hidden pits of the middle ear such as epitympanum, posterior mesotympanum, and hypotympanum are more visible by an endoscopic tool.In case of pathologic conditions, endoscopic approach is recommended for better observation and adequate evaluation of the location before and after the removal of the lesion. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:95-100

  13. High Species C Human Adenovirus Genome Copy Numbers in the Treated Water Supply of a Neotropical Area of the Central-West Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hugo D; Fongaro, Gislaine; Garcíazapata, Marco T A; Melo, Arthur T O; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; de Faria, Karla M S; Anunciação, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    There is little information about the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV) in drinking water in Neotropical regions. Thus, the present study sought to conduct quantification and molecular characterization of HAdVs detected in treated water samples from an area of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. Between August and November 2012, samples were collected from four treated water reservoirs and their respective sites along the water distribution network of the city of Goiânia, for a total of 80 samples. All samples were concentrated and analyzed by qPCR, and selected samples were sequenced. Overall, 76.6 (10(0)-10(9) GC mL(-1)) and 37.5% (10(1)-10(8) GC mL(-1)) of samples drawn from reservoirs and their distribution sites, respectively, were positive for virus by qPCR. All samples selected for sequencing were characterized as species C human adenovirus. Such high HAdV counts have in treated water samples. This finding merits special attention, particularly from the sanitation authorities, because the high number of GC mL(-1) may be an indicative of risk to human health.

  14. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  15. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  16. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD AND BARK EXTRACTIVES AND THEIR TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE TMP EFFLUENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaokunZhang; MohiniSain

    2004-01-01

    Wood extractives in model TMP effluents and bio-treated TMP mill effluent were extracted, isolated with liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed with GC/MS following sylilation. Acute and chronic toxicity of the effluent samples were tested with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood and bark extractives are responsible for the toxicity of the TMP effluent to aquatic life. Resin and fatty acids have a dominating contribution to acute toxicity. Removal of them from the effluent cannot deplete all toxicants, some neutral extractives such as phytosterols, are still chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood bark has a dramatic impact on acute toxicity of the TMP effluent. Only 5% of spruce bark addition can increase acute toxicity by 38.4%. However, it has a reverse trend for chronic toxicity, which indicates that some neutral wood extractives may play important role in chronic toxicity of the TMP effluent as well. Successful control of the debarking process and debark effluents is essential for achieving high-quality effluent treatment.

  18. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. PMID:25176279

  19. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Delgado Queissada; Flávio Teixeira da Silva; Juliana Sundfeld Penido; Carolina Dell'Aquila Siqueira; Tereza Cristina Brazil de Paiva

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this pur...

  20. Toxicity of effluents emitted by the diesel engines vehicles; Toxicite des effluents emis par les vehicules a moteur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcon, St.

    1998-04-29

    The exhaust gases of diesel engine vehicles are atmospheric pollutants. They are characterised by a gaseous phase and a particulate phase. The diesel particulates are composed of a nucleus formed with elementary carbon, forming aggregates that absorb the organic by-products at their surface. A first part treats the effluents of diesel engine vehicles: their characteristics, the factors influencing the diesel emissions, the noxiousness of the gaseous phase, the kinetics and the metabolism of the particulate phase and analysis methods. A second part tackles the experimental toxicity of diesel effluents on insisting on the nature of exposures, the mutagenicity, the carcinogenicity, the effects on the reproduction function and immuno-toxicity. A third part is devoted to the toxicity for man with epidemiology data and some studies under controlled exposures. Then, a fourth part, explains the toxicity mechanisms and the action modes of diesel effluents on the carcinogen effects and on respiratory diseases. (N.C.)

  1. Geographical/Ecological Differentials in Insecticide-Treated Net Use among Under-Five Children in Somolu Local Government Area, Lagos State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oreoluwa O; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Awolola, Taiwo S

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control efforts currently lay emphasis on reducing transmission by limiting human-vector contact. More studies have been carried out on mosquito avoidance practices in the rural areas, leaving the urban areas understudied. This study was conducted to identify knowledge of malaria transmission and to investigate geographical/ecological differentials in the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among caregivers of under-fives in Somolu Local Government Area, Lagos State. A household survey was conducted by interviewing 394 female caregivers of under-fives selected using the WHO Lot Quality Technique from communities stratified based on level of planning and drainage. The mean age of the respondents was 33.6 ± 7.7 years. Malaria transmission was attributed mostly to mosquito bites in all strata: S1 (58.3%), S2 (56.1%) and S3 (61.4%). Mosquito net was mentioned as a preventive measure by: 59.3% (S1), 80.7% (S2) and 64.3% (S3). Ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets was: 76.0% (S1), 75.4% (S2) and 68.6% (S3), and of these, 73.1% (S1), 70.7% (S2) and 72.4% (S3) reported that their child slept under the net the night before the survey. There is a need to reinforce education on transmission and ownership of ITNs especially among caregivers in unplanned, poorly drained communities.

  2. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H2O2 reaction achieve titania microspheres. → Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. → Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. → The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m2/g. → The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 μm in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 oC possessed a surface area of 45.4 m2/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  3. The endocrine-disrupting effect and other physiological responses of municipal effluent on the clam Ruditapes decussatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani-Chaari, Sawssan; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Tremolet, Gauthier; Kellner, Kristell; Geffard, Alain; Minier, Christophe; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-12-01

    In order to document the potential endocrine disrupting and toxic effect of the municipal wastewater effluents discharged into the Sfax coastal area (South of Tunisia), specimens of clam R. decussatus were collected from a reference site and were in vivo exposed to treated sewage effluent for 30 days. To this end, estrogenic and androgenic activities were measured in the gills to assess potential accumulation and regulation of active compounds. After effluent exposure androgenic activity in organic extracts increased up to fivefold compared to controls and remained elevated, while estrogenic activity was not significantly affected by exposure. As a consequence, remarkable disruptions in the gametogenesis activity, glycogen content, and Vitellogenin-like protein levels in male clams were observed. A parallel analysis of heavy metals in clam tissues was determined. A significant uptake of Ni, Zn, and Pb in soft tissues of exposed clams was observed. The significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as a function of exposure time implies that clams have been exposed to an oxidative stress probably due to the presence of high metal concentrations in sewage effluent. Correlation analysis has revealed a statistically significant and positive relationship between MDA levels and metal concentrations in clams' tissues. The acetylcholinesterase activity was not significantly affected by exposure. Altogether, these results showed that a short-term exposure to a mixture of chemical compounds released by the Sfax wastewater treatment plant induce adverse physiological and reproductive effects in R. decussatus. Further studies are underway in order to evaluate its long-term impacts on aquatic wildlife in the gulf of Gabes area. PMID:26278908

  4. Petroleum refinery secondary effluent polishing using freezing processes--toxicity and organic contaminant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Smith, D W; Habib, M

    2008-06-01

    A petroleum refinery secondary effluent was treated using two freezing techniques--spray freezing and unidirectional downward freezing (UDF). The freezing processes were effective to remove toxicity and total organic carbon (TOC)- and chemical oxygen demand (COD)-causing materials in the effluent. Agitation of the liquid during UDF significantly improved the impurity separation efficiency; 85 to 96% removal of TOC and COD was achieved without any pretreatment and freezing only 70% of the feed water. The treatment efficiency of the spray freezing was at the same level as that of UDF without mixing. The spray ice with longer storage time released more contaminants with early meltwater. The initial contaminant concentration of the feed water and the freezing temperatures (-10 degrees C and -25 degrees C) had no significant influence on the treatment efficiency. A small fluctuation in effluent TOC concentration caused a dramatic change in effluent toxicity (Microtox). The effective concentration (EC20) (Microtox) was effective in detecting effluent toxicity. PMID:18686927

  5. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  6. Serological based monitoring of a cohort of patients with chronic Chagas disease treated with benznidazole in a highly endemic area of northern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niborski, Leticia L; Grippo, Vanina; Lafón, Sonia O; Levitus, Gabriela; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Ramirez, Juan C; Burgos, Juan M; Bisio, Margarita; Juiz, Natalia A; Ayala, Vilma; Coppede, María; Herrera, Verónica; López, Crescencia; Contreras, Ana; Gómez, Karina A; Elean, Juan C; Mujica, Hugo D; Schijman, Alejandro G; Levin, Mariano J; Longhi, Silvia A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate well-documented diagnostic antigens, named B13, 1F8 and JL7 recombinant proteins, as potential markers of seroconversion in treated chagasic patients. Prospective study, involving 203 patients treated with benznidazole, was conducted from endemic areas of northern Argentina. Follow-up was possible in 107 out of them and blood samples were taken for serology and PCR assays before and 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after treatment initiation. Reactivity against Trypanosoma cruzi lysate and recombinant antigens was measured by ELISA. The rate of decrease of antibody titers showed nonlinear kinetics with an abrupt drop within the first three months after initiation of treatment for all studied antigens, followed by a plateau displaying a low decay until the end of follow-up. At this point, anti-B13, anti-1F8 and anti-JL7 titers were relatively close to the cut-off line, while anti-T. cruzi antibodies still remained positive. At baseline, 60.8% (45/74) of analysed patients tested positive for parasite DNA by PCR and during the follow-up period in 34 out of 45 positive samples (75.5%) could not be detected T. cruzi DNA. Our results suggest that these antigens might be useful as early markers for monitoring antiparasitic treatment in chronic Chagas disease. PMID:27223650

  7. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, N.; Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening.

  8. Research on the removal of radium from uranium effluent by air-aeration hydrated manganese hydroxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the acidic leaching uranium process, pyrolusite or manganese oxide (MnO2) powder is often used as an oxidizer. In the processed effluent, manganese ion present as a contaminant in addition to U, Ra, Th, As, Zn, Cu, F, SO42-, etc. Manganese ion content is about 100∼200 mg/1 in effluent. In this case, a new process technique can be developed to treat the effluent using the Mn2+ present in the effluent. The approach is as follows: The effluent is neutralized by lime milk to pH about 11. As a result, most contaminants are precipitated to meet the uranium effluent discharge standards (U, Th, Mn, SO42- etc.), but radium is still present in the effluent. In this process, manganese ion forms manganese hydroxide Mn(OH)2. The manganese hydroxide is easily to oxide to form MnO(OH)2 by air aeration. This hydrated manganese hydroxide complex can then be used to adsorb radium in effluent. The experiments show: (1) Effluent pH, manganese concentration in effluent, and aeration strength and time etc. influence the radium removal efficiency. Under the test conditions, when manganese in effluent is between 100∼300 mg/l, and pH is over 10.5, radium can be reduced to lower 1.11 Bq/1 in the processed effluent. Higher contents of impurity elements such as aluminum, silicon and magnesium in the effluent affect the removal efficiency; (2) Under the experimental conditions, the lime precipitation air-aeration formed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge is stable. There is no obvious release of radium from the adsorbed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge; (3) The current experiments show that hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge has a very good re-adsorption ability for removal of radium from uranium effluent. Some experimental parameters have been measured. (author)

  9. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive.

  10. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: A comparison of different sewage treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuklev, Filip, E-mail: filip.cuklev@neuro.gu.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Lina, E-mail: lina.gunnarsson@fysiologi.gu.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Cvijovic, Marija, E-mail: marija.cvijovic@chalmers.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kristiansson, Erik, E-mail: erik.kristiansson@chalmers.se [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rutgersson, Carolin [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Bjoerlenius, Berndt, E-mail: berndtb@kth.se [Stockholm Water Company, Vaermdoevaegen 23, SE-131 55 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, D.G. Joakim, E-mail: joakim.larsson@fysiologi.gu.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Livers of trout exposed to different sewage effluents were analysed by microarray. Black

  11. Normal water irrigation as an alternative to effluent irrigation in improving rice grain yield and properties of a paper mill effluent affected soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, D; Hazarika, S

    2010-07-01

    Rice crop (var. Luit) was grown under controlled conditions in paper mill effluent contaminated soil and irrigated with undiluted paper mill effluent as well as normal water and compared the results against a control treatment consisting of similar unaffected soil irrigated with normal water. The effluent was alkaline (pH 7.5), containing high soluble salts (EC 2.93 dS m(-1)), chloride (600 mg L(-1)) and total dissolved solids (1875 mg L(-1)). At maximum tillering (MT) stage effluent irrigation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the leaf numbers per hill and leaf area by 19.8 and 36.4 %, respectively. Tiller number and maximum root length were reduced by 19.3% and 12.5%, respectively at fifty percent flowering (FF) stage. Effluent irrigated crop recorded significant reduction in the dry matter production (17.5-24.9%) and grain yield (19%). Unfilled grain was increased by 10.7%. Higher concentration of sodium, calcium and magnesium in the effluent irrigated soil affected K uptake. Available soil P was lowest while available N, K, S and exchangeable and water soluble Na, K, Ca, Mg were highest in effluent irrigated soil. Chloride content found to increase (3-7 folds) while microbial biomass carbon reduced (10-37%). The adverse effect of the paper mill effluent on the crop as well as on the affected soil could be reduced significantly through normal water irrigation. PMID:21391395

  12. Bioremediation of metal-rich effluents: could the invasive bivalve work as a biofilter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Inês Correia; Costa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Joana Luísa

    2014-09-01

    Industrial effluents are important sources of contamination of water and sediments, frequently causing serious damage at different levels of biological organization. Management and treatment of harmful industrial wastes is thus a major concern. Metal-bearing effluents, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), are particularly problematic because metals can easily bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify across the trophic chain. Several solutions have been proposed to treat AMD, including active methods involving the addition of neutralizing agents and passive techniques that use natural energy sources for remediation. However, increasing environmental and economic requirements lead the constant search for more sustainable solutions. The present study explores the possibility of using , an invasive freshwater bivalve, as a bioremediation tool using AMD as a model, metal-bearing effluent. The study compares untreated and biotreated effluents at two dilution levels (4 and 10% v/v) following two distinct approaches: (i) chemical characterization of the metal concentrations in water complemented by determination of the accumulation in the clams' soft tissues and shells; and (ii) ecotoxicity assessment using standard organisms (the bacterium , the microalgae , and the cladoceran ). Significant removal of metals from water was recorded for both effluent dilutions, with higher purification levels found for the 4% effluent. The environmental toxicity of the effluents generally decreased after the treatment with the clams. Thus, this study provides evidence for the suitability of as a bioremediator for metal-bearing effluents, especially if the treatment can be materialized in a multistage configuration system. PMID:25603239

  13. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Krasner, Stuart W.

    2009-11-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  15. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A, followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1 with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.

  16. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-11-27

    During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

  17. Effects of exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles in freshwater mussels in the presence of municipal effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, C; M Pilote; P Turcotte; André, C.; F Gagné

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) nanoparticles are used in the production of transparent sunscreens and cosmetics, which are released into surface waters and municipal wastewater effluent. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicity of nano-ZnO in the presence of municipal effluents to freshwater mussels Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed for 21 days at 15 o C to nano-ZnO and ZnCl2 in the presence of 10 % dilution of primary-treated municipal effluent. After the exposure ...

  18. Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

    2012-07-01

    Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L⁻¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

  19. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells

  20. Proteomic identification of non-erythrocytic alpha-spectrin-1 down-regulation in the pre-optic area of neonatally estradiol-17β treated female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that sexually dimorphic brain regions, which are critical for reproductive physiology and behavior, are organized by steroid hormones during the first 2 weeks after birth in the rodents. In our recent observation, neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β (E2) in the female rat revealed increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) level, sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN)-pre-optic area (POA) size and down-regulation of synaptogenesis related genes in POA in the adult stage. In the present study, using the same animal model, the protein profile of control and neonatally E2-treated POA was compared by 1D-SDS-PAGE, and the protein that shows a change in abundance was identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Results indicated that there was a single protein band, which was down-regulation in E2-treated POA and it was identified as spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTAN1). Consistently, the down-regulation of SPTAN1 expression was also confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The SPTAN1 was identified as a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in stabilization of the plasma membrane and organizes intracellular organelles, and it has been implicated in cellular functions including DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. The evidence shows that any mutation in spectrins causes impairment of synaptogenesis and other neurological disorders. Also, protein-protein interaction analysis of SPTAN1 revealed a strong association with proteins such as kirrel, actinin, alpha 4 (ACTN4) and vinculin (VCL) which are implicated in sexual behavior, masculinization and defeminization. Our results indicate that SPTAN1 expression in the developing rat brain is sexually dimorphic, and we suggest that this gene may mediate E2-17β-induced masculinization and defeminization, and disrupted reproductive function in the adult stage. PMID:27166725

  1. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Pannocchia; Antonella Mangiavillano; Valeria Prigione; Pietro Giansanti; Valeria Tigini; Giovanna Cristina Varese

    2010-01-01

    Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. ele...

  2. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, Liquid effluent transfer systems, subproject W-506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for providing liquid effluent lines for routing waste from two Private Contractor (PC) facilities to existing storage, treatment, and disposal facilities in the 200-East Area

  3. Amélioration de la qualité microbiologique des effluents secondaires par stockage en bassins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trad-Rais M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological quality improvement of secondary effluent by reservoir storage. Storing secondary effluents is of particular interest for water resource management. It constitutes further treatment which reduces the microbial contamination of water to a level where it can be used for the irrigation of all crops, without restriction. The storage of treated wastewater takes place during the winter, ensuring that such a resource is not lost and enabling a larger area to be irrigated during the dry season, thereby increasing agricultural production. Storage trials in reservoirs were conducted in north-eastern Tunisia. Their objective was to determine the length and conditions of secondary effluent decontamination as well as the impact of seasonal storage on water quality. The results indicate that the decontamination of effluents slows down with increased reservoir depth. For a depth of less than 150 cm, a reduction of fecal coliforms in the order of 3 log units is attained in 3 days when the average temperature of the water ranges from 22 to 25 degrees C; when this temperature is between 25.5 and 28 degrees C, the same reduction takes 8 days. Below 20 degrees C, decontamination is considerably reduced: for a mean water temperature ranging from 12.5 to 18 degrees C, the reduction of fecal coliforms reaches 3 log units only after a retention time of 17 days in the reservoir. Seasonal storage from 2 to 7 months does not affect the bacteriological quality of water: after decontamination, no proliferation of bacterial indicators occurs during storage.

  4. Effluent Tenascin-C Levels Reflect Peritoneal Deterioration in Peritoneal Dialysis: MAJOR IN PD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hirahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal deterioration causing structural changes and functional decline is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this study was to explore effluent biomarkers reflecting peritoneal deterioration. In an animal study, rats were intraperitoneally administered with PD fluids adding 20 mM methylglyoxal (MGO or 20 mM formaldehyde (FA every day for 21 days. In the MGO-treated rats, tenascin-C (TN-C levels in the peritoneal effluents were remarkably high and a cluster of TN-C-positive mesothelial cells with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- like change excessively proliferated at the peritoneal surface, but not in the FA-treated rats. Effluent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels increased in both the MGO- and FA-treated rats. In a clinical study at 18 centers between 2006 and 2013, effluent TN-C and MMP-2 levels were quantified in 182 PD patients with end-stage renal disease. Peritoneal function was estimated using the peritoneal equilibration test (PET. From the PET results, the D/P Cr ratio was correlated with effluent levels of TN-C (ρ = 0.57, p<0.001 and MMP-2 (ρ = 0.73, p<0.001. We suggest that TN-C in the effluents may be a diagnostic marker for peritoneal deterioration with EMT-like change in mesothelial cells in PD.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the efferent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  6. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltration as technique for effluent reclamation.

  7. The conditions for industrial effluent discharges to the municipal sewerage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial waste waters of an urban area are jointly treated with municipal sewage waters. The operation of the municipal sewage treatment plant depends substantially on the quality and quantity of industrial waste water conducted to the treatment plant for joint treatment and drainage. In order to guarantee the normal run of the plant a number of normative documents have been worked out regulating the discharge of industrial effluents to the municipal sewer network. Detailed requirements for individual industrial enterprises have been elaborated on the grounds of these documents by the local bodies of Water Supply and Sewage Management. The local requirements are coordinated with the institutions for the regulation of water utilisation and water conservation under the USSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Conservation and the Ministry of Fisheries and are confirmed by local municipal authorities. Control over the implementation of obligations is exercised by Water Supply and Sewerage Management authorities. The discharges of industrial effluents to municipal sewer network have to meet both general and specific requirements

  8. Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation : A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Nelliyat, Prakash

    2006-01-01

    Industrial disposal of effluents on land and the subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands – is a relatively new area of research. The environmental and socioeconomic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domestic sewage based irrigation practices, at least for a developing country like India. The disposal of effluents on land has become a regular practice for some industries. Industries located in Mettupalaya...

  9. The impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles in freshwater mussels exposed to municipal effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO are used in the production of transparent sunscreens and cosmetics, which are released into the environment through municipal effluents. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicity of nano-ZnO to freshwater mussels (Elliptio complanata in the presence of municipal effluents. Mussels were exposed for 21 days at 15 o C to 1 and 10 µg/L nanoZnO, and ZnCl2 in the presence of a physico-chemically treated municipal effluent (3 and 10 % v/v. After the exposure period and a 24 h depuration step, mussels were analyzed for free Zn in gills, metallothioneins (MT, oxidative stress (production of malondialdehyde (MDA during lipid peroxidation, gonad alkali-labile phosphate (ALP levels and genotoxicity. Gill MT levels were increased at 10 µg/L nano-ZnO and ZnCl2 and in the presence of the municipal effluent. MT levels were positively correlated with free Zn in gills and negatively correlated with MDA levels, indicating its involvement in the prevention of oxidative stress. However, MDA levels were significantly related to DNA damage in gills, indicating that MT induction did not prevent oxidative-mediated damage in cells. Gonad ALP levels were increased by exposure to ZnCl2 and to the highest concentration of municipal effluent. DNA strand breaks were increased in mussels treated to nano-ZnO indepentely of municipal effluent. Multivariate discriminant function analysis revealed that control mussels differed from mussels exposed to the municipal effluent and from those exposed to nano-ZnO or ZnCl2 alone. When the municipal effluent was added, changes in MDA, MT and labile Zn were produced and formed another cluster, suggesting a change in the toxicity of the municipal effluent in the presence of nano-ZnO.

  10. Incineration of Pre-Treated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW for Energy Co-Generation in a Non-Densely Populated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The planning actions in municipal solid waste (MSW management must follow strategies aimed at obtaining economies of scale. At the regional basin, a proper feasibility analysis of treatment and disposal plants should be based on the collection and analysis of data available on production rate and technological characteristics of waste. Considering the regulations constraint, the energy recovery is limited by the creation of small or medium-sized incineration plants, while separated collection strongly influences the heating value of the residual MSW. Moreover, separated collection of organic fraction in non-densely populated area is burdensome and difficult to manage. The paper shows the results of the analysis carried out to evaluate the potential energy recovery using a combined cycle for the incineration of mechanically pre-treated MSW in Basilicata, a non-densely populated region in Southern Italy. In order to focalize the role of sieving as pre-treatment, the evaluation on the MSW sieved fraction heating value was presented. Co-generative (heat and power production plant was compared to other MSW management solutions (e.g., direct landfilling, also considering the environmental impact in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  11. Performance evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant of Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksinh Chavda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is among the most polluting of the food industries in regard to its large water consumption. Dairy is one of the major industries causing water pollution. Considering the increased milk demand, the dairy industry in India is expected to grow rapidly and have the waste generation and related environmental problems are also assumed increased importance. Poorly treated wastewater with high level of pollutants caused by poor design, operation or treatment systems creates major environmental problems when discharged to the surface land or water. Various operations in a dairy industry may include pasteurization, cream, cheese, milk powder etc. Considering the above stated implications an attempt has been made in the present project to evaluate one of the Effluent Treatment Plant for dairy waste. Samples are collected from three points; Collection tank (CT, primary clarifier (PC and Secondary clarifier (SC to evaluate the performance of Effluent Treatment Plant. Parameters analyzed for evaluation of performance of Effluent Treatment Plant are pH, TDS, TSS, COD, and BOD at 200C The pH, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD removal efficiency of Effluent Treatment Plant were 26.14 %, 33.30 %, 93.85 %, 94.19 % and 98.19 % respectively.

  12. Physicochemical Analysis and Microbial Diversity of Yamuna Water and Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution has arisen as a serious environmental concern to the present world after industrialization of human societies. It has severely affected our air, soil and water sources. Looking to its global, national, regional and local dimensions, it is now imperative to check it at each and every level. In the present study, 8 samples (3 Yamuna water samples, 3 tannery effluent samples and 2 textile effluent samples, were collected from different sites of Yamuna and exit points of textile and tannery Industries. Water and effluent samples were analysed for various physicochemical parameters (pH, TDS, hardness, chloride and BOD using conventional methods. Afterwards these samples were utilized for isolation of the native bacterial species. All the samples were showing higher than the standard values for TDS (500mg/l, hardness (80-100 mg/l, chloride (250mg/l and BOD (30mg/l. It was observed that the tannery effluents were showing maximum TDS values(1190-1240mg/l, followed by textile effluents (1190 and 1210mg/l and Yamuna water (530-1180mg/l.Similarly, in case of chloride content, highest concentration range(828.8-1598mg/lwas shown by tannery effluents. pH value was nearly neutral for Yamuna water, slightly acidic in case of textile effluents and more acidic for tannery samples. Highest range of hardness values were observed for the tannery effluents (860-880mg/l followed by textile effluents (760 and 860mg/l. The BOD values were nearly similar for all the samples with maximum values being observed for tannery effluents (42-48 mg/l. Thus it can be inferred that all the samples were highly polluted and need to be treated by suitable methods. There were 11 cultures purified, that could be employed in bioremediation purposes.

  13. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

  14. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  15. Bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent by biosorbents derived from freshwater macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T Kidgell

    Full Text Available Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent.

  16. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. PMID:26686478

  17. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent.

  18. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL's sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL's outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE's purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives

  19. Research on the removal of radium from uranium effluent by air-aeration hydrated manganese hydroxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the acidic leaching uranium process, pyrolusite or manganese oxide (MnO2) powder is often used as an oxidizer. In the resulting effluent, manganese ion is present as a contaminant in addition to U, Ra, Th, As, Zn, Cu, F-, SO42-, etc. Manganese ion content is about 100∼200 mg/l in effluent. In this case, a new process technique can be developed to treat the effluent using the Mn2+ present in the effluent. The approach is as follows: The effluent is neutralized by lime milk to pH about 11. As a result, most contaminants are precipitated to meet the uranium effluent discharge standards (U, Th, Mn, SO42- etc), but radium is still present in the effluent. In this process, manganese ion forms manganese hydroxide Mn(OH)2. The manganese hydroxide is easily oxidized to form MnO(OH)2 by air aeration. This hydrated manganese hydroxide complex can then be used to adsorb radium in effluent. The experiments show: (1) Effluent pH, manganese concentration in effluent, and aeration strength and time etc. influence the radium removal efficiency. Under the test conditions, when manganese in effluent is between 100∼300 mg/l, and pH is over 10.5, radium can be reduced to lower than 1.11 Bq/l in the processed effluent. Higher contents of impurity elements such as aluminum, silicon and magnesium in the effluent affect the removal efficiency, (2) Under the experimental conditions, the lime precipitation-air aeration formed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge is stable. There is no obvious release of radium from the adsorbed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge, (3) the current experiments show that hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge has very good re-adsorption ability for removal of radium from uranium effluent. Some experimental parameters have been measured, (4) Compared with other process methods, such as neutralizing effluent without aeration; or neutralization with barium chloride addition at pH 5, 8, and 11, the removal of radium from uranium effluent

  20. Evaluation of Municipal Effluent Toxicity Using Higher Plants and Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available   Toxicity of Kaunas municipal effluent was evaluated using bioassays with aquatic invertebrates and terrestrial higher plants. Toxicity tests were performed on samples of both untreated and mechanically and biologically treated wastewater. Wastewater toxicity was assessed using seed germination and short-term early seedling growth tests of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and acute microcrustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus (24 h assays. Undiluted untreated wastewater was severely toxic to T.platyurus and led to death of all exposed organisms. Twofold decrease in wastewater concentration in the solution (from 100 % to 50 % led to sharp transition between extremely toxic to medium toxic to tested organisms. In four and more times diluted wastewater only 10-20 % of the total exposed T. platyurus died. Measured endpoints in higher plants tests were: seed germination, root length, shoot height and total biomass. Raw sewage was slightly toxic (0.6 TU to the root growth of lettuce, but mechanically and biologically treated effluents exhibited no adverse effects or even started to stimulate the growth. The growth of shoots and total biomass were stimulated due to exposure to effluents. Stimulation effect was determined by sufficiently high concentrations of nutrients. 

  1. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author)

  3. Yields, Quality and Metal Accumulation of Chinese Cabbage Irrigated with Diary Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Linxian Liao; Wangwei Cai; Xiaohou Shao; Junyi Tan

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the short-term effects of wastewater (dairy effluent) and EM treated wastewater on cabbage quality (vitamin C, nitrate), yield, Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) uptakes and heavy metals (i.e., Hg, Pb and Cd) accumulation in Cabbage, field experiments were conducted with the following irrigation treatments: Clean Water (CW), Waste Water (WW), Reclaimed Water-EM treated wastewater (RW), Clear Water-wastewater rotation (C/W) and clear water-treated wastewater rotation (C/...

  4. Reutilização de efluente de tingimentos de fibras acrílicas pós-tratamento fotoeletroquímico Reuse of a effluent from the dyeing of acrylic fabrics after photoelectrochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On a laboratory scale effluents were produced from bichromic dyeing of acrylic fabrics with the basic dyes Blue Astrazon FGGL 300% and Yellow Gold Astrazon GL 200%. The residual dyeing baths were subjected to a photoelectrochemical treatment and reused in a second dyeing process. In the reutilization study, dyeings with treated effluent were compared with standard dyeings with distilled water. The results of dyeings using 100% of treated effluent were unsatisfactory, but the substitution of 10 to 30% of the treated effluent by distilled water resulted in reduced and more acceptable values for difference in colour intensity (ΔE between 1.86 and 0.3.

  5. Biosorption Potential of Trichoderma gamsii Biomass for Removal of Cr(VI) from Electroplating Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Haresh Keharia; Kavita, B.

    2012-01-01

    The potential use of acid-treated biomass of Trichoderma gamsii to remove hexavalent chromium ions from electroplating industrial effluent was evaluated. Electroplating industrial effluent contaminated with 5000 mg/L of Cr(VI) ions, collected from industrial estate of Gujarat, India, was mixed with acid-treated biomass of T. gamsii at biomass dose of 10 mg/mL. Effect of contact time and initial Cr(VI) ions was studied. The biosorption of Cr(VI) ions attained equilibrium at time interval of 24...

  6. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  7. Efluente de esgoto doméstico tratado e reutilizado como fonte hídrica alternativa para a produção de cana-de-açúcar Reuse of treated domestic sewage effluent as an alternative water source for the production of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cley A. S. de Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Com base no consumo hídrico excessivo na produção agrícola e da expansão do cultivo da cana-de-açúcar impulsionada pela crescente demanda de etanol, tem-se questionado em relação a um uso mais racional da água de irrigação e ao reúso de água na produção agrícola. Desta forma objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos do reúso de efluente de esgoto doméstico tratado na irrigação da cana-de-açúcar. O estudo foi conduzido no Centro de Pesquisa sobre Tratamento e Reúso de Águas Residuárias, em Aquiraz, CE. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas avaliaram-se os efeitos de dois tipos de água (água potável e esgoto doméstico tratado; e nas subparcelas se alocaram cinco lâminas de irrigação baseadas em percentuais da evaporação medida em um tanque do tipo classe A (ECA. Concluiu-se que a água residuária proporcionou o maior potencial produtivo de colmos (272,1 Mg ha-1 e a maior densidade de plantas (126.000 plantas ha-1. O aumento das lâminas de irrigação proporcionou incrementos no potencial produtivo e na densidade de plantas, independente do tipo de água.With the excessive consumption of water in agricultural production, and the expansion of the cultivation of sugarcane due to growing demand for ethanol, in this context, a rational use of water for irrigation and use of wastewater in agricultural production has been raised. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reuse of treated domestic sewage effluent for irrigation of sugarcane. The study was conducted at the Research Center on Treatment and Reuse of Wastewater, in Aquiraz, CE. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with four replications. In the plots were evaluated the effects of two types of water (well water and treated domestic sewage; in the subplots five irrigation water depths were

  8. The effects of bleach plant effluent recycle in kraft mill green liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, B.M.; Uloth, V.C. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dorris, G.M. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada); Stafford, E. C.

    1995-12-31

    A new approach to reducing or eliminating effluent flows from a kraft mill through process changes and by recycling, was presented. A closed system experiment was conducted in which bleach plant effluents and green liquors were used to simulate effluent recycling to the recausticizing area in place of fresh water. Results showed that with current levels of water use, acid effluents from bleaching of softwood pulp could be recycled to the recausticizing area if a 5-18 per cent loss in causticizing efficiency and a 10 per cent decrease in the lime mud settling rate was tolerable. High levels of sodium chloride did not always reduce causticizing efficiency. It was found that bleach plant water usage was very high in the plants studied. New ways to minimize water use in the plant must be found if a significant degree of closure is to be achieved. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Evaluation of bone marrow irradiation by area under the curve of blood counts measurements in hemodialyzed patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with 131Iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The administration of 131I is a well established treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Uncommon situations, such as DTC in patients on hemodialysis (HD), can generate logistic problems with personnel and disposables materials, as well as with suitable calculation of the activity to be administered, in order to avoid excessive irradiation to critical organs such as bone marrow, due to excretion impairment. Objectives: To estimate the risk of bone marrow irradiation in patients with DTC and end stage renal disease (ESRD) in HD, requiring radioiodine ablation therapy, and to make radiation safety considerations during HD. Methods: 2 patients (p) with ESRD in HD with DTC with indication of post surgical 131I ablation of the thyroid remnant were submitted. An interdisciplinary approach between Nuclear Medicine, Endocrinology and Nephrology departments was addressed. Both patients received a 3.7GBq dose of 131I. Extended high flux HD was performed 24 hours after therapeutic dose (dialysis flow 800ml/min and blood flow 400ml/min during 6 hours). External exposition was measured with a portable monitor at 1 meter distance from the p and serial blood count teams of the inlet and outlet blood lines of the HD blood circuit were obtained; chip monitors were used by the Nephrology personnel in order to measure their external exposition. At the end of the procedure, residual activity of the HD machine, dialyser and lines were measured with a portable monitor. In order to evaluate the bone marrow irradiation, the radionuclide clearance, the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated, taking into account the different values of the effective half life described in the literature. Results: In the 2 p, 94 and 90% of the 131I dose had been removed at the end of the first HD session respectively (76% and 66% in the first hour of HD). A parallel reduction was observed in the external dosimetry. The effective intradialysis 131I T 1/2 was 1.4 and 1.8 hours. Conclusions

  10. Can constructed wetlands treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture? Review of guidelines and examples in South Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrnić, Stevo; Mancini, Maurizio L

    2016-01-01

    South Europe is one of the areas negatively affected by climate change. Issues with water shortage are already visible, and are likely to increase. Since agriculture is the biggest freshwater consumer, it is important to find new water sources that could mitigate the climate change impact. In order to overcome problems and protect the environment, a better approach towards wastewater management is needed. That includes an increase in the volume of wastewater that is treated and a paradigm shift towards a more sustainable system where wastewater is actually considered as a resource. This study evaluates the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs) to treat domestic wastewater and produce effluent that will be suitable for reuse in agriculture. In South Europe, four countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) have national standards that regulate wastewater reuse in agriculture. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are based on CWs in these four countries were analysed and their effluents compared with the quality needed for reuse. In general, it was found that CWs have trouble reaching the strictest standards, especially regarding microbiological parameters. However, their effluents are found to be suitable for reuse in areas that do not require water of the highest quality. PMID:27232397

  11. Can constructed wetlands treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture? Review of guidelines and examples in South Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrnić, Stevo; Mancini, Maurizio L

    2016-01-01

    South Europe is one of the areas negatively affected by climate change. Issues with water shortage are already visible, and are likely to increase. Since agriculture is the biggest freshwater consumer, it is important to find new water sources that could mitigate the climate change impact. In order to overcome problems and protect the environment, a better approach towards wastewater management is needed. That includes an increase in the volume of wastewater that is treated and a paradigm shift towards a more sustainable system where wastewater is actually considered as a resource. This study evaluates the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs) to treat domestic wastewater and produce effluent that will be suitable for reuse in agriculture. In South Europe, four countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) have national standards that regulate wastewater reuse in agriculture. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are based on CWs in these four countries were analysed and their effluents compared with the quality needed for reuse. In general, it was found that CWs have trouble reaching the strictest standards, especially regarding microbiological parameters. However, their effluents are found to be suitable for reuse in areas that do not require water of the highest quality.

  12. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent. PMID:21794980

  13. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

  14. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  15. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  16. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Ming, E-mail: msewjm@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Xiao-Mei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction achieve titania microspheres. {yields} Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. {yields} Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. {yields} The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 {mu}m in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 {sup o}C possessed a surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  17. Desenvolvimento e operação de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento dos efluentes da suinocultura em escala laboratorial Development and operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure in laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade suinícola vem, desde meados da década de 70, sendo uma das mais poluidoras atividades agroindustriais no Estado de Minas Gerais. Sendo assim, objetivou-se desenvolver um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket visando tratar os dejetos produzidos com máxima eficiência dentro de um tempo e com custo reduzidos. Para tanto um experimento em escala laboratorial foi projetado e monitorado no Laboratório de Análise de Água do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (LAADEG, sendo composto por um Tanque de Acidificação e Equalização (TAE, um Reator Anaeróbio de Manta de Lodo e uma Lagoa Aerada Facultativa (LAF, o qual foi alimentado com fluxo contínuo. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: DQO, DBO5, Sólidos Totais (Fixos e Voláteis, Temperatura, pH, Nitrogênio, Fósforo, Acidez e Alcalinidade Total. O sistema proporcionou eficiência de remoção média de 93% de DQO, 84% de DBO5 e 85% de Sólidos Totais Voláteis, demonstrando adequada adaptação aos diversos tempos de detenção hidráulica adotados (55, 40, 30, 25, 18 e 15 horas. Os parâmetros adotados na partida do reator UASB foram: COV: 1,11kgDQO.m-3.d-1, COB: 0,019 kgDBO5.kgSVT-1.d-1 e TDH: 55h.The swine production, since 70th , is one of the most pollutant agro-industrial activities in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, aiming at treating the effluent generated within a maximum efficiency and minimum time and cost. Therefore, a lab-scale reactor was built up and monitored in the laboratory of Engineering Department at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The system consisted of an Acidification and Equalization Tank (AET, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB, and an Aerated Facultative Pond (AFP. The system was fed continuously. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: COD, BOD5, Total

  18. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  19. Comportamento do girassol quando cultivado em área tratada com o herbicida 2,4-D¹ Sunflower behavior when cultivated in 2,4-D treated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.P. Gazziero

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o período adequado de semeadura da cultura do girassol (Helianthus annuus, em relação à aplicação de 2,4-D, foi realizado um experimento em condições de campo da área experimental da Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR, durante o ano agrícola 1995/96. Os tratamentos estabelecidos foram doses do herbicida 2,4-D (0,0, 536 e 1.005 g e.a. ha-1 e épocas de semeadura da cultura. Dessa forma, a semeadura foi realizada um dia antes da aplicação do produto (-1 dia, no dia da aplicação (0 dia e a 1, 4, 7, 10 e 13 dias depois da aplicação do herbicida. Os resultados indicaram que o girassol sofreu injúrias mais severas nas três primeiras épocas de semeadura (-1, 0 e 1. Aumentando o tempo entre a aplicação das doses do herbicida e a semeadura do girassol, observaram-se menores danos causados à cultura. O experimento permitiu concluir que áreas tratadas com o 2,4-D nas doses de 536 e 1.005 g e.a. ha-1 podem ser cultivadas com girassol, desde que se mantenha um intervalo mínimo de quatro dias entre a aplicação do herbicida e a sua semeadura.A field assay was carried out at the "Embrapa Soja", an experimental station in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, to evaluate the adequate timing for sunflower sowing combined with 2.4-D, during the growing season of 1995/96. The treatments consisted of three rates of 2.4-D herbicide (0.0, 536 and 1,005 g a.e. ha-1 and seven periods of sunflower sowing: -1 day (sunflower sowing was conducted one day before herbicide application; 0 day (sunflower sowing and herbicide application were conducted at the same day and sunflower sowing at one, four, seven, 10 and 13 days after herbicide application. The results showed that sunflower growth was reduced mainly when sowing occurred at a time close to the 2.4-D application. Reduced herbicide damage on sunflower plants was observed when a longer period was kept between sowing time and herbicide application. It was concluded that areas treated

  20. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongjun, E-mail: hjlin@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Lu, Xiaofeng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The first study to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. {yields} The study revealed that most organics in the secondary effluent were low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by PAC-MBR process. {yields} The study suggested that the action of biomass and the PAC is mutual and synergistic. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  1. Removal of coloured compounds from textile industry effluents by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Hassemer, Maria Eliza; Carvalho-Pinto, Catia Regina S; Matias, William Gerson; Lapolli, Flávio Rubens

    2011-12-01

    This study has investigated the reduction in coloured substances and toxic compounds present in textile industry effluent by the use of an advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant, activated by ultraviolet radiation. The investigation was carried out on industrial effluents, both raw and after biological treatment, using different concentrations of H2O2 in a photochemical reactor equipped with a 250 W high-pressure mercury vapour lamp. The results showed that after 60 minutes of ultraviolet irradiation a H2O2 concentration of 500 mg L(-1) was able to remove approximately 73% of the coloured compounds present in raw effluent and 96% of those present in biologically treated effluent. Additionally, post-treatment toxicity tests performed using the microcrustacean Daphnia magna showed a significant effective reduction in the acute toxicity of the raw effluent. In tests carried out with treatment at a concentration of 750 and 1000 mg L(-1) H2O2, analysis of the frequency ofmicronuclei in erythrocytes of Tilapia cf rendalli exposed to treated effluent samples confirmed that there were no mutagenic effects on the fish. Together, these results indicate that the oxidation process offers a good alternative for the removal of colour and toxicity from textile industry effluent. PMID:22439575

  2. Impact evaluation of the liquid effluent disposal of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in fluvial waters and sediments, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao do impacto do descarte de efluentes liquidos da Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC) sobre aguas e sedimentos fluviais, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Carla Maria; Camaz, Fernando Ribeiro; Jorge, Fabricio Goncalves [PETROBRAS/REDUC, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the contribution of the liquid effluents of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in the water and sediment contamination in the estuarine Iguacu-Sarapui system, a tributary of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since 2002 is being conducted a quarterly monitoring of some parameters in water, river sediments and treated liquid effluent, such as: pH, suspended solids, total sedimented solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, oil and grease (O and G), phenols, sulfide, ammonia, metals and metalloids (V, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Se , Co, Fe, Mn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coprostanol and cholesterol (indicators of domestic wastes). The obtained results show that the effluents meet the legal standards and the treated liquid effluents from REDUC in the estuarine system have little or no impact on river water quality. The higher levels of contaminants detected in water and sediments samples are directly related to untreated domestic sewage from urban areas. (author)

  3. Assembly, start and operation of an activated sludge reactor for the industrial effluents treatment: physico chemical and biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Assalin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although of the immense available bibliography regarding the activated sludge process, little it is found in relation to the basic procedure to be adopted to implant, to activate and to monitor a reactor of activated sludge in laboratory scales. This article describes the assembly, departure and operation of an activated sludge system, operating in continuous process, at a laboratory scale, to study effluents treatments, using as example, Kraft E1 pulp mill effluent. Factors as biodegradability of the effluent to be treated, stationary state of the reactor, conventional operation parameters as physical chemistry and biological parameters are presented.

  4. Passive secondary biological treatment systems reduce estrogens in dairy shed effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Jennifer B; Northcott, Grant L; Tremblay, Louis A

    2010-10-01

    Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were collected from the systems and analyzed for free estrogens, conjugated estrogens and total estrogenic activity using E-Screen assay. Both systems showed increases of up to 8000% in aqueous free estrogens and estrogenic activity after anaerobic treatment, followed by decreases after aerobic treatment (36-83%). The complete systems decreased total steroid estrogen concentrations by 50-100% and estrogen activity by 62-100%, with little difference between systems. Removal rates were lower in winter for both systems. Final effluents from the advanced pond system contained total estrogens at <15-1400 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.2-43 ng/L. Final effluent from the two-pond system contained total estrogens at <15-300 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.3-25 ng/L. At times the final effluent EEQs exceeded guideline values for protection of freshwater fish and suggest further treatment may be required.

  5. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States)], E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 (United States); Shockley, Johnette [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States); Hoagland, Kyle [UNL Water Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0995 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent.

  6. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  7. The biorotor system for posttreatment of anaerobically treated domestic sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the evaluation of the applicability of biorotor system for post-treatment (polishing) of different effluent qualities of an UASB reactor treating raw domestic sewage, with emphasis on the elimination of various COD fractions, ammonia and E.Coli.The removal mechanism of E.Coli from UASB effluent using a RBC has been investigated. The results obtained revealed that an adsorption process and sedimentation comprise the most important removal mechanism of E.Coli in the biofil...

  8. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  9. Evaluation of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent quality for agricultural irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A Baghapour; Simin Nasseri; Babak Djahed

    2013-01-01

    Background Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters w...

  10. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  11. 324/327 facilities environmental effluent specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These effluent technical specifications address requirements for the 324/327 facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent technical specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  12. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  13. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltr

  14. 40 CFR 420.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  15. Critical review of the proposed irrigation and effluent standards for Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kekem, van A.J.; Roest, C.W.J.; Salm, van der C.

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Bonaire’s coral reef is declining which is caused by the high loads of nutrients that reach the sea. A waste water treatment plant is planned to treat the waste water of all hotels and other premises of Kralendijk’s coastal zone. The effluent is to be used for irrigation. The soils in

  16. Treatment and utilization of septic tank effluent using vertical-flow constructed wetlands and vegetable hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Hua; Luo, Shi-Ming; Zhu, Xi-Zhen; Liu, Ying-Hu

    2003-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands is a typical ecological sanitation system for sewage treatment. The removal rates for COD, BOD5, SS, TN, and TP were 60%, 80%, 74%, 49% and 79%, respectively, when septic tank effluent was treated by vertical flow filter. So the concentration of COD and BOD5 in the treated effluent could meet the quality standard for irrigation water. After that the treated effluent was used for hydroponic cultivation of water spinach and romaine lettuce, the removal efficiencies of the whole system for COD, BOD5, SS, TN and TP were 71.4%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 86.3%, and 87.4%, respectively. And it could meet the integrated wastewater discharge standard for secondary biological treatment plant. It was found that using treated effluent for hydroponic cultivation of vegetables could reduce the nitrate content in vegetables. The removal rates for total bacteria and coliform index by using vertical flow bed system with cinder substrate were 80%-90% and 85%-96%, respectively.

  17. Treatment and utilization of septic tank effluent using vertical-flow constructed wetlands and vegetable hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands is a typical ecological sanitation system for sewage treatment. The removal rates for COD, BOD5, SS, TN, and TP were 60%, 80%, 74%, 49% and 79%, respectively, when septic tank effluent was treated by vertical flow filter. So the concentration of COD and BOD5 in the treated effluent could meet the quality standard for irrigation water. After that the treated effluent was used for hydroponic cultivation of water spinach and romaine lettuce, the removal efficiencies of the whole system for COD, BOD5, SS, TN and TP were 71.4%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 86.3%, and 87.4%, respectively. And it could meet the integrated wastewater discharge standard for secondary biological treatment plant. It was found that using treated effluent for hydroponic cultivation of vegetables could reduce the nitrate content in vegetables. The removal rates for total bacteria and coliform index by using vertical flow bed system with cinder substrate were 80%-90% and 85%-96%, respectively.

  18. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  19. Effluent treatment process in molasses-based distillery industries: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distillery effluent is a contaminated stream with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 45,000 to 75,000 mg/l and low pH values of between 4.3 and 5.3. Different processes covering aerobic, anaerobic as well as physico-chemical methods which have been employed to this effluent has been given in this review paper. Among the different methods available, it was found that 'An Inverse Anaerobic Fluidization' to be a better choice for treating effluent from molasses-based distillery industries using an inverse anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor (IAFBR). This technology has been widely applied as an effective step in removing 80-85% of the COD in the effluent stream. Therefore, in this review, attention has been paid to highlight in respect of fluidization phenomena, process performance, stability of the system, operating parameters, configuration of inverse anaerobic fluidization and suitable carrier material employed in an inverse anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor especially for treating this effluent

  20. Industrial Effluent Quality of Bikaner District Rajasthan ,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Yadav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial development is an obvious process in the current world. But it is resulting in different kind of pollution to the water resources. Monitoring of industrial effluents quality and its serious analysis is very significant relative to access the human health hazards. This paper is an attempt for the same purpose. The samples were collected from main industrial areas of the Bikaner City and were analysed for the desired physiochemical parameters applying the internationally valid standard methods. Results were compared with the international standards. It was found that effluent quality is very poor leading to very dangerous health hazards as the most of the samples were not found to be fit on international and national standards. This study suggests a need to revise a more advance development and public health awareness policy as well as in depth research.

  1. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are − 73.73; − 34.95; − 42.20; − 10.98; and − 8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. - Highlights: • Environmental Benefit Analysis of PPCPs • PPCPs' removal depends on their functional group and molecular structures. • Shadow prices as a proxy of the environmental benefits from ozonation process • HHCB and AHTN have the lowest shadow prices. • The greatest environmental benefit is associated with the removal of DCF

  2. Agricultural use of treated wastewater: the need for a paradigm shift in sanitation & treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Van, Lier, G; Huibers, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate treated domestic sewage can be regarded as iseal for irrigation and fertilization purposes, particularly in the (semi)arid climate region. This contribution focuses on: 1) pathogens, various levels of interception; 2) basic wastewater treatment; 3) wastewater treatment for effluent use in irrigated agriculture; 4) effluent treatment for agricultural re-use

  3. 40 CFR 424.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  4. 40 CFR 424.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  5. 40 CFR 424.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.47 Effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 424.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.43 Effluent...

  7. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  8. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  9. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma;

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  10. Valorisation of Moringaoleifera waste: treatment and reuse of textile dye effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca Vallvé, M. Mercedes; López Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on the valorisation of an agricultural waste as natural coagulant to treat wastewater from the textile industry. In this paper, the waste of Moringaoleifera oil extraction is used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. Moringaoleifera shows better results for dye removal than conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high...

  11. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIAL R.A.; CHAUDHARY M.F.; ABBAS S.T.; LATIF M.I.; KHAN A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  12. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  13. "Effect of Coagulants on Electrochemical Process for Phosphorus Removal from Activated Sludge Effluent"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Mesdaghinia

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Environmental Protection Organization of Iran, maximum permissible concentration of residual phosphorus in treated municipal wastewater is 1 mg /l-P. The total average phosphorus concentration in raw municipal wastewater is about 8 mg / l; about 70 percent of the incoming phosphorus normally is discharged with secondary treatment plant effluents. In this research, the role of adding different kinds of coagulants on phosphorus removal efficiency of an electrochemical process was investigated. The research is a bench scale experimental type using batch system for elec. process with direct current. Samples were collected from an extended aeration effluent. The used electrode was steel type and its total effective area was 336 cm2. In each run 1500 ml of sample was placed in an electrolytic cell equipped with magnetic stirrer. The results show that phosphorus removal efficiency increases by increasing of DC and reaction time. Minimum rate of current/percentage of removal was obtained for 0.6amp current and under the same conditions minimum rate of reaction time/percentage of removal was provided in 15 min. In 6min reaction time and 0.6amp current, adding poly aluminum chloride (PAC up to about 27 mg/l could improve the efficiency up to about 50%. But under the same condition, similar results were not observed in 12min reaction time. Besides, adding alum or ferrous sulfate showed similar behavior to PAC. Electrochemical treatment without addition of coagulants and thereby without any changes on the primary characteristics of the sample can remove the phosphorus up to about 93%. But in the case of sufficient reaction time for electrochemical process, adding coagulants can not improve the efficiency and in comparison to a chemical precipitation alone, the use of electrochemical treatment can not reduce the required doses of coagulants in short reaction time.

  14. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  15. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ukita; Monticha Pechsuth; Poonsuk Prasertsan

    2001-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively), total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively), oil & grease (25,600 mg/l), and has a low pH (4.5). Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the o...

  16. Sustainable Management of Effluents from Small Piggery Farms in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. de Victorica-Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, pig farming is the third most important livestock activity due to its contribution to the total meat production. However, it is estimated that around 38% of pig farms dispose their wastewaters without any treatment directly into the nation’s water bodies, which in turn has a severe impact in the environment. One reason for not treating is the high costs involved, especially for small pig farms. Therefore, a study was performed to develop a low cost and easy to operate treatment system suitable for this type of wastewater and with a quality that allows the reuse of the final effluent within the farm. The pilot study was performed in packed reactors to evaluate the influence of the hydraulic superficial charge on the removal of BOD and COD from a partially treated effluent produced in a small swine farm. BOD and COD initial concentrations ranged from 1,173-2,318 mg L-1 and 2,146-4,119 mg L-1, respectively. The reactors were three PVC columns, 10.16 cm in diameter and 1.32 M in height, each with 6.4 L of total volume and packed with a fixed bed of volcanic rock (tezontle, 47.7% porosity and 7 mm mean diameter. The columns were operated in sequence with download flow under Superficial Hydraulic Charges (SHC of 1, 3 and 5 m3/m2h, with recirculation. The results show treatment efficiencies of 97.3-98.9% for BOD and 84.8-92.6% for COD, with recirculation time between 16 and 27 days. The results of this study are being used to establish the basic elements for designing and implementing suitable wastewater treatment systems to recycle and reuse these effluents in small scale piggery farms in Mexico, to promote sustainable management and reduce water pollution.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log Koc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log Kow, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  18. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  19. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  20. Status of Cadmium Concentration in Soil and Vegetable Irrigated with City Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FARID Sajid; BALOCH Musa Kaleem; AKHTAR Kanwar Saleem

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and carcinogenic element, and it causes different diseases for people like sever nausea, salivation vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and neuralgia when it comes into food chain at excessive concentration. It is also not included in the micronutrients for plant growth. Due to arid and semi arid conditions of Pakistan, rainfall is small, causing shortage of irrigation water. Because of this shortage, farmers largely use city effluents for raising vegetables in the areas around big cities, which are contaminated with industrial wastewater. The effluents from Pakistan third largest city (Faisalabad) are used as supplementary irrigation water to produce vegetables for human consumption. This paper reports a study on assessment of risks and opportunities associated with this practice, with emphasis on Cd, which can enter the food chain as an impurity in vegetables. Cd and other elements were measured in some typical effluents, four types of soils and many vegetables with no fertilizer application. It was found that the municipal effluents increased soil salinity, sodicity and Cd concentration. The Cd concentration in the vegetables was high above those normally associated with suitability for human consumption. There were suggestions that soluble Cd concentration in the effluents could be lessened by adding lime, concurrently lowering the sodium adsorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate of the effluents, thus making them safe for utilization on agricultural soils. Fig 1, Tab 7, Ref 23

  1. Radiation induced decontamination of Cr(Ⅵ), Cu(Ⅱ) and phenol in some tannery effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan M.KHAN; Abdul MAHMOOD

    2007-01-01

    Industrialization has led to a number of environmental problems, such as release of toxic metals and other toxic organic and inorganic compounds to the environment. Among all, the rapid expansion of leather related industries in Pakistan have resulted in considerable environmental problems and effluents from processing of both domestic and imported hides and skins have increased pollution to alarming levels. Some tannery effluents of Peshawar area investigated in the present study showed high concentrations of Cr(Ⅵ) (2.7-12.6 mg/L), Cu(Ⅱ) (2.6-11.4 mg/L) and phenol (0.1-4.2 mg/L). These contaminants are very toxic and must be removed from effluents before releasing into water bodies. A new technique of gamma irradiation has been investigated to decrease the load of COD and concentrations of Cr(Ⅵ), Cu(Ⅱ) and phenol associated with tannery effluents to the permitted values. It was observed that concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) in the effluents can be brought to the permitted level by applying radiation dose of 3 kGy. A radiation dose of 2.5 kGy was required to remove more than 95% of Cu(Ⅱ) and 100 % degradation of phenol in tannery effluents could be achieved by only one kGy of radiation dose.

  2. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  3. Distribution of pyrethroid insecticides in secondary wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Emily; Young, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    Although the freely dissolved form of hydrophobic organic chemicals may best predict aquatic toxicity, differentiating between dissolved and particle-bound forms is challenging at environmentally relevant concentrations for compounds with low toxicity thresholds such as pyrethroid insecticides. The authors investigated the distribution of pyrethroids among 3 forms: freely dissolved, complexed with dissolved organic carbon, and sorbed to suspended particulate matter, during a yearlong study at a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Effluent was fractionated by laboratory centrifugation to determine whether sorption was driven by particle size. Linear distribution coefficients were estimated for pyrethroid sorption to suspended particulate matter (K(id)) and dissolved organic carbon (K(idoc)) at environmentally relevant pyrethroid concentrations. Resulting K(id) values were higher than those reported for other environmental solids, and variation between sampling events correlated well with available particle surface area. Fractionation results suggest that no more than 40% of the pyrethroid remaining in secondary effluent could be removed by extending settling periods. Less than 6% of the total pyrethroid load in wastewater effluent was present in the dissolved form across all sampling events and chemicals. PMID:23939863

  4. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  5. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  6. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  7. On-line liquid-effluent monitoring of sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL's sanitary sewer system is a possible route for the escape of toxic materials. Liquid effluents are released to Livermore's sanitary sewer system and the effluent is treated at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP). The plant is a secondary-treatment operation that returns most of the water to the San Francisco Bay via a transport pipeline. The remaining portion is used for irrigating vegetation along the roadways and a local golf course. An automatic on-line, sewage-effluent-monitoring system has been developed that diverts a representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the site. This portion is monitored for pH, radiation, and heavy metals as it passes through a detection assembly. The assembly consists of an industrial pH probe, two NaI radiation detectors, and an x-ray fluorescence metal detector. A microprocessor collects, reduces, and analyzes the data to determine if the levels are acceptable by established environmental limits

  8. Chloro-Organics in Papermill Effluent: Identification and Removal by Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd. Rahman, Rakmi; Zahrim, A. Y.; Abu Bakar, Azizah

    Effluents from paper mills are among major sources of aquatic pollution and may be toxic since they contain chlorinated phenolic compounds which are measured as adsorbable organic halides (AOX). In this work, removal of chlorophenol was investigated using a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a growth media. Wastewater for this study was obtained from treated effluent outlet of a papermill in Selangor. Treatment of the papermill secondary effluent shows that SBBR process, with a combination of adsorption and biodegradation, gave a good removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP), on average, about 70%. The growth kinetic parameters obtained were: YH = 0.6504 mg biomass/mg PCP, dH = 6.50x10-5 h-1, μh = 0.00315 h-1 and Ks = 5.82 mg PCP L-1. These show that the SBBR system is suitable to be operated at long SRTs.

  9. Treating Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Treating meningitis Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID THE AUTHORS STUDY? ... study, “ Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, ” Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ...

  10. Removal of viruses and indicators by anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating animal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Xagoraraki, Irene; Wallace, James; Bickert, William; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Rose, Joan B

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate treatment of agricultural waste is necessary for the protection of public health in rural areas because land-applied animal manure may transmit zoonotic disease. In this study, we evaluated the potential of using a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to treat agricultural waste. The AnMBR system, following a conventional complete mix anaerobic digester (CMAD), achieved high removals of biological and chemical agents. The mean log(10) removals of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and coliphage by the AnMBR were 5.2, 6.1, 6.4, and 3.7, respectively, and for the CMAD were 1.5, 1.2, 0.1, and 0.5, respectively. Compared with other indicators, coliphage was observed most frequently and had the highest concentration in effluent samples. Bovine adenoviruses and bovine polymaviruses (BPyV) were monitored in this study using nested PCR methods. All of the CMAD influent and CMAD effluent samples were positive for both viruses, and three AnMBR effluent samples were BPyV positive. The mean removals of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, and volatile solids by the entire system were 31, 96, 92, 82, and 91%, respectively, but there was no removal of ammonium. When the AnMBR was operated independent of the CMAD, AnMBR achieved similar E. coli and enterococci removals as the combined CMAD/AnMBR system. The high quality of effluent produced by the pilot AnMBR system in this study demonstrated that such systems can be considered as alternatives for managing animal manure. PMID:19549946

  11. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity.

  12. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. PMID:27593269

  13. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  14. Effluent monitoring: Its purpose and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of effluent monitoring is described in terms of the primary objectives, the most important of which is to verify that the facility is functioning as it was designed and that the waste treatment and effluent control systems are performing as planned and expected. The object of a monitoring programme should be periodically re-examined to ensure that the programme serves a contemporary purpose. The value of the effluent monitoring programme is determined by the extent to which users of the monitoring data, i.e. the operator, the regulating authorities and the public, accept the result as indicating that the plant is operating safely, and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The credibility of the monitoring results is therefore the most important factor determining the value of an effluent monitoring programme. (author)

  15. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  16. 40 CFR 409.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 409.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 409.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 409.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe3O4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe3O4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of corresponding

  4. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  5. The sequential application of macroalgal biosorbents for the bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T Kidgell

    Full Text Available Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models.

  6. Cytogenotoxicity of Abattoir Effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Using Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenotoxic potential of abattoir effluent from Bodija, Nigeria, was investigated using micronucleus test in Clarias gariepinus. Fish was exposed to five different concentrations: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.1% of the effluent for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tap water and 0.02 mL/L of benzene were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in the effluent in accordance with standard methods. After exposure, blood was collected from the treated and control fish and slides were prepared for micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormality evaluation in the peripheral erythrocytes. The effluent induced significant (p<0.05 increase in the frequency of MN in a time dependent manner. Similarly, the frequency of total nuclear abnormalities (blebbing, notch, bud, binucleation, and vacuolation was higher in the exposed fish than the negative control. Electrical conductivity, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, arsenic, and copper analyzed in the effluent may have provoked the observed cytogenetic damage. The findings herein suggest the presence of clastogens and cytotoxins in Bodija abattoir wastewater which are capable of increasing genomic instability in aquatic biota.

  7. Electrochemical treatment of heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr6+, Ni2+) from industrial effluent and modeling of copper reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsom, M; Pruksathorn, K; Damronglerd, S; Vergnes, H; Duverneuil, P

    2005-02-01

    An electrochemical technique was tested in a laboratory scale to treat heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr6+ and Ni2+) from plating industrial effluent. The experiments were performed in a membrane reactor having a capacity of 1 l. Stainless-steel sheets with surface area of 0.011 m2 and titanium coated with ruthenium oxide were used as cathode and anode, respectively. The electrolyte was circulated at a constant flow rate (0.42 l/min) and the pH was kept constant at 1. Applied current densities were 10 and 90 A/m2. According to the experiment, it was found that a membrane reactor with plane electrode was capable for treating plating wastewater with low energy consumption (42.30 kWh/kg metal) and low operating cost (5.43 US dollars/m3). More than 99% of metal reduction was achieved and the final concentrations of copper, chromium and nickel in treated water were 0.10-0.13, 0.19-0.20 and 0.05-0.13 ppm, respectively. The brightener had no effect on copper reduction whereas hexavalent chromium had strong effect. The kinetic of copper reduction in the presence of hexavalent chromium was modeled as a two-step process with respect to copper concentration. PMID:15707634

  8. Treatment of liquid effluent from uranium mines and mills. Report of a co-ordinated research project 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment and control of liquid effluents produced during uranium mining and milling operations is an integral part of environmental project management. Research has continued to add to the large body of science that has been built up around the treatment of radioactive and non-radioactive effluents to minimize their long-term environmental impact. The objective of the meetings on which this publication is based was to exchange information on active effluent treatment technologies that have application during operations and passive treatment techniques such as constructed wetlands and use of micro-organisms that are applicable during project reclamation and long-term care and maintenance. Papers describe effluent treatment case histories from active uranium mining and processing operations as well as effluent treatment research on both active and passive systems that have potential application under a wide range of operating and post-operational conditions including new information on high-density sludge from effluent neutralization (Australia), aerated manganese hydroxide for removal of radium (China), nanofiltration and macropore resins to treat mine water (Australia and China), in situ microbial treatment and permeable reactive walls for treatment of contaminated groundwater (Germany), construction of wetlands to treat mine water runoff (Australia and Germany), biogenic granules to remove 226Ra from mill effluent (India), self-remediation of acidic in situ leach aquifers (Kazakhstan) and sorption characteristics of soil for self-remediation of contaminated groundwater (Hungary). These and other topics presented in this publication will be of interest to technical personnel who deal with day-to-day practical aspects of liquid effluent control and treatment at uranium production facilities worldwide

  9. Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb > Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

  10. C2 (2-h) levels are not superior to trough levels as estimates of the area under the curve in tacrolimus-treated renal-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Povlsen, Johan; Madsen, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, 2-h samples (C2) have been found superior to trough levels for therapeutic monitoring of transplanted patients receiving cyclosporin. The present study was undertaken to see if the same was the case for tacrolimus. METHODS: Blood tacrolimus levels were determined in 21...... consecutive patients at 3 and 14 days after renal transplantation, and before and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral intake of 0.1 mg/kg tacrolimus. The area under the blood concentration/time curve (AUC) was determined by the trapezoidal method, association between blood concentration at each sampling time...... and AUC by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and pairs of correlation coefficients were compared by an asymptotic Wald-type test. RESULTS: AUC varied five-fold despite near-equal dosing. Pearson's correlation coefficient for trough level, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h were 0.84, 0.60, 0.81, 0.95, 0.95, and 0...

  11. Transcriptional and physiological response of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to urban waters entering into wildlife protected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and improve human welfare. To assess the effect of urban waters entering into protected areas, we performed 48-h whole-effluent exposures with fathead minnows, analyzing changes in steady state levels of mRNAs in the livers of exposed fish. Raw wastewater, treated city wastewater, and treated wastewater from a university were collected for exposures. All exposed fish showed altered mRNA levels of DNA damage-repair genes. Fish exposed to raw and treated wastewaters showed down-regulation of transcripts for key intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis and elevated plasma cholesterol. The type of wastewater treatment influenced the response of gene transcription. Because of the relevance of some of the altered cellular pathways, we suggest that these effluents may cause deleterious effects on fish inside protected areas that receive these waters. Inclusion of research and mitigation efforts for this type of threat in protected areas management is advised. - Highlights: • Wastewater entering wildlife preserves alters gene expression in exposed fish. • DNA repair mechanisms and cholesterol metabolism were altered in fish. • Effects on cholesterol genes were in agreement with fish hypercholesterolemia. - Urban wastewaters released into protected areas altered gene transcription of key genes such as DNA repair and cholesterol biosynthesis and produced hypercholesterolemia in fish

  12. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  13. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS...

  14. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. PMID:25792030

  15. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents.

  16. EFFECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON PLASTICITY AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.A.V.NARASIMHA RAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulk effluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or untreated over the soil leading to changes in soil properties causing improvement or degradation of engineering behaviour of soil. If there is an improvement in engineering behaviour of soil, there is a value addition to the industrial wastes serving the three benefits of safe disposal of effluent, using as a stabilizer and return of income on it. If there is degradation of engineering behaviour of soil then solution for decontamination is to be thought of. Expansive soils are mostly found in the arid and semi -arid regions of the world. In India expansive soils are called black cotton soils because of their colour and cotton growing potential. Expansive soils undergo swelling when they come into contact with water and shrink when water is squeezed out. The typical swelling/shrinkage behaviour is due to the basic mineral composition of the montmorillonite. The swelling nature of soil causes lot of damages to the civil engineering structures constructed over them. Hence in this paper the effect of certain industrial effluents on Plasticity and Swelling behaviour of anExpansive Soil has been presented. The soil used in this investigation is classified as “SC” as per I.S. Classification system. It is highly expansive nature as the Differential Free Swell Index is about 255%.In this Investigation tests on Consistency Limits and Swelling Characteristics are conducted on the soil treated withTextile, Tannery and Battery effluents at different percentages from 20 to 100% in increment of 20%.In order to compare the results of admixed soil, tests are also conducted on untreated soil. There is decrease in Plasticity and Swelling characteristics of soil when the soil is treated with Tannery and Textile effluents whereas anincrease Plasticity and Swelling

  17. 一体化生物膜技术处理滨海农村污水%Integrated biofilm technology for treating rural domestic sewage in coastal areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 高贤彪; 李玉华; 赵琳娜; 钱姗; 何宗均

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new integrated biofilm technology based on tri-stage aerobic/anoxic biofilm, which showed better running parameters and efficiency when treating the rural sewage. This new equipment was installed a recirculation pump (returning ratio is 2:1 ). This new equipment was installed a recireulation pump (returning ratio is 2: 1). The padding rate of the suspending padding increased from 15% to 30% compared with the original technology at the anaerobic stage. At tri-stage of aerobic/anoxic, YDT stereo elastic media in- creased from 50% , 40% , 25% to 70% , 60% , 40% , respectively. This equipment was run stably for twelve months. The water injecting amount and hydraulic retention time(HRT) were set at 18 ma/d and 3.7 d, respec- tively. It was showed that the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, NHa-N, TN, TP and SS were 75. 6% , 85.9% , 86.7% , 63.9% , 69.3% and 85.5% , respectively. The average concentrations of COD, BOD, NH3- N, TN, TP and SS in emitting water after treatment were 34.9, 8.9, 3.4, 9.9, 0.9 and 6.9 mg/L, respective- ly. In a conclusion, this equipment improved the removal capacity of BOD and TN greatly and all indicators ex- cept TP reached our design demands.%对厌氧-3级好氧/缺氧生物膜工艺进行技术改进,并对改进后的"一体化生物膜技术"处理低碳氮比农村生活污水进行了实际应用。新工艺增设了回流泵(回流比2∶1),且厌氧段悬浮填料装填率由原来的15%提高到30%,3级好氧/缺氧段YDT型弹性立体填料装填率依次由原来的50%、40%、25%提高到70%、60%和40%。装置连续稳定运行12个月,平均进水量为18 m3/d,HRT为3.7 d,监测结果表明:对COD、BOD、NH3-N、TN、TP和SS平均去除率分别为75.6%、85.9%、86.7%、63.9%、69.3%和85.5%;出水COD、BOD、NH3-N、TN、TP和SS的平均浓度分别在34.9、8.9、3.4、9.9、0.9和6.9 mg/L以下。改进后出水BOD和TN的去除能力有较大提高,除TP外其他各项指标均达到了设计要求。

  18. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  19. Metal Contamination In Plants Due To Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyzes the determination of heavy metals named Chromium Lead and Cadmium deposited in soil as well as in the plants and vegetables due to the tanning industries of the area of Hazaribagh Dhaka. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents which get mixed with the soil water of rivers and canals in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that was collected from the land adjacent to the canals which bear untreated tannery effluents. The soil is affected with the untreated effluents through the deposition of heavy metals. The metals were furthers deposited into the plants and vegetables grown on that soil. The roots stems and leaves of the plants of Jute Corchorus capsularis and Spinach Basella alba grown on that soil were analyzed for determining these metals. Extreme amount of chromium was found for plants and again Lead Cadmium were found in higher amount in these parts of the two plants. These two plants are taken as a popular vegetables extensively. In case of soil the amount of Chromium Lead and Cadmium were analyzed as 87 mgL 0.131 mgL and 0.190 mgL respectively. For the roots stems and leaves of Jute Corchorus capsularis the average values are 115.62 mgL for Chromium 11.25 mgL for Lead and 2.27 mgL for Cadmium respectively. Again in case of Spinach Basella alba 124.42 mgL was found for Chromium 7.38 mgL for lead and 2.97 mgL for Cadmium as average values for these parts of the two trees. All the observed values of metals of Chromium Lead and Cadmium are higher than the permissible and specially for Chromium the amount is extremely higher.

  20. Occurrence of anionic surfactants in treated sewage: Risk assessment to aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar [Department of Chemical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007 (India)], E-mail: akm@ched.svnit.ac.in; Kumar, Pradeep [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: pkumafce@iitr.ernet.in

    2008-12-30

    A comparative evaluation of occurrence of and risk to aquatic environment due to anionic surfactants (AS) in treated effluents from three main treatment processes, i.e. activated sludge process (ASP), oxidation pond (OP), and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) is presented. UASBR effluents contained substantial concentrations of AS (4.25-5.91 mg/L as average AS removal was not found to exceed 18%). Post-treatment of UASBR effluent using 1-1.6 days detention, anaerobic polishing ponds (PP) was also found quite ineffective. In UASBR-PP combine, AS reduced only up to 30%. Effluents from OP based sewage treatment plants (STPs) also contained significant concentrations of AS. On the contrary, effluent AS or linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentrations recorded in ASP effluents were quite low (less than 0.2 mg/L). Unlike UASBR, LAS or AS removals greater than 99% are achieved in ASP. Treated effluents from UASBR and OP based STPs when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to cause substantial risk to aquatic environment due to the presence of AS while effluents from ASP are not supposed to pose risk. Need to find an effective aerobic post-treatment unit to UASBR for desired removal of AS is emphasized.

  1. Occurrence of anionic surfactants in treated sewage: Risk assessment to aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative evaluation of occurrence of and risk to aquatic environment due to anionic surfactants (AS) in treated effluents from three main treatment processes, i.e. activated sludge process (ASP), oxidation pond (OP), and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) is presented. UASBR effluents contained substantial concentrations of AS (4.25-5.91 mg/L as average AS removal was not found to exceed 18%). Post-treatment of UASBR effluent using 1-1.6 days detention, anaerobic polishing ponds (PP) was also found quite ineffective. In UASBR-PP combine, AS reduced only up to 30%. Effluents from OP based sewage treatment plants (STPs) also contained significant concentrations of AS. On the contrary, effluent AS or linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentrations recorded in ASP effluents were quite low (less than 0.2 mg/L). Unlike UASBR, LAS or AS removals greater than 99% are achieved in ASP. Treated effluents from UASBR and OP based STPs when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to cause substantial risk to aquatic environment due to the presence of AS while effluents from ASP are not supposed to pose risk. Need to find an effective aerobic post-treatment unit to UASBR for desired removal of AS is emphasized

  2. Modeling of coastal effluent transport: an approach to linking far-field and near-field models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoqing; KHANGAOKAR Tarang

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in effluent transport modeling in coastal tidal environments is the proper specification of initial dilution in connection with the far-field transport phenomena. An approach of external linkage of far-field and near-field effluent transport models is presented, and applied to simulating the effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor, Washington in the Strait of Juan de Fuea. A near-field plume model was used to calculate the effluent initial dilution and a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the tidal circulation and far-field effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor. The hydrodynamic model was driven by tides and surface winds. Observed water surface elevation and velocity data were used to calibrate the model over a period covering the neap-spring tidal cycle. The model was also validated with observed surface drogue trajectory data. The model successfully reproduced the tidal dynamics in the study area and good agreements between model results and observed data were obtained. It is demonstrated that the linkage between the near-field and far-field models in effluent transport modeling can be achieved through iteratively adjusting the model grid sizes such that the dilution ratio and effluent concentration in the circulation model grid cell match the concentration calculated by the near-field plume model.

  3. 40 CFR 450.21 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best practicable technology currently available (BPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... infeasible, preserve topsoil. (b) Soil stabilization. Stabilization of disturbed areas must, at a minimum, be... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT POINT... the best practicable technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...

  4. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic chloramphenicol and effluent toxicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Adinolfi, Roberta; Siciliano, Antonietta; Iannece, Patrizia; Guida, Marco; Giugni, Maurizio; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria; Carotenuto, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol sodium succinate (CAP, C15H15Cl2N2 Na2O8) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic exhibiting activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as other groups of microorganisms only partially removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Thus, CAP and its metabolites can be found in effluents. The present work deals with the photocatalytic degradation of CAP using TiO2 as photocatalyst. We investigated the optimization of reaction contact time and concentration of TiO2 considering CAP and its by-products removal as well as effluent ecotoxicity elimination. Considering a CAP real concentration of 25mgL(-1), kinetic degradation curves were determined at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2gL(-1) TiO2 after 5, 10, 30, 60 and 120min reaction time. Treated samples were checked for the presence of by-products and residual toxicity (V. fischeri, P. subcapitata, L. sativum and D. magna). Results evidenced that the best combination for CAP and its by-products removal could be set at 1.6gL(-1) of TiO2 for 120min with an average residual toxicity of approximately 10%, that is the threshold set for negative controls in most toxicity tests for blank and general toxicity test acceptability. PMID:26256248

  6. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced. The anaerobic......Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced....... The anaerobically treated effluent was then treated in a bioreactor in the presence of a fungal strain (Aspergillus fumigatus) or a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas ovalis). The results of this study indicated a reduction in colour (76% and 56%), lignin (78% and 68%), COD (85% and 78%) and AOX (70% and 82...

  7. THE USE OF BIOREACTORS COUPLED WITH MEMBRANES FOR THE TREATMENT OF EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamasco R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to verify the viability of operating a bioreactor coupled with a membrane, and to analyze the global mechanisms witch need to be considered in the bioreactional concept in the separation by membrane. In order to meet the proposed objectives, a culture with a synthetic substratum (ethanol was utilized. A mineral membrane with the following characteristics was used: a pore diameter of 0.2 m m, 19 channels of a 4 mm diameter, a width of 0.85 m, a filtering surface area of 0.2 m2, a pressure of 2 bar and a tangential velocity of 2 m/s. The experiments consisted of modifying the residence time of the substratum within the reactor. The following measurements were taken: chemical oxygen demand (COD, concentration of biomass and filtered flow. The results show a treated effluent of good quality, indicating that the time of hydraulic residence time influences the efficiency of the system and is influenced by the restriction of the filtered flow by a fast fouling of the membrane

  8. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  9. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent.

  10. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  11. Desempenho de biomassas na adsorção de hidrocarbonetos leves em efluentes aquosos Performance of biomasses in the adsorption of simple hydrocarbons in aqueous effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Gomes dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Removal of hydrocarbons from aqueous effluents using biosorbents was investigated. The effluent was simulated by a dispersion of gasoline (simple hydrocarbons in water. Corn-cob, wood powder, coconut mesocarp and sugar-cane bagasse were used as adsorbents and their performance verified by means of batch experiments performed in an agitated vessel. The influence of input variables such as hydrocarbon concentration, mass of biomass and agitation level on the adsorbents' capacity was studied by means of factorial design. The results indicated that, among the materials studied, coconut mesocarp and sugar-cane bagasse can be considered promising biomasses for treating aqueous effluents contaminated by hydrocarbons.

  12. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O2* species of unknown identity with ground state O2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  13. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG{sub 5} of Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santal, Anita Rani, E-mail: anita.gangotra@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Singh, N.P. [Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Saharan, Baljeet Singh [Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The Alcaligenes faecalis strain SAG{sub 5} decolorizes 72.6 {+-} 0.56% of melanoidins. {yields} The decolorization was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day. {yields} The distillery effluent after biological treatment is environmentally safe. - Abstract: Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 {+-} 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG{sub 5}.

  14. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell'Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

  15. Effluent treatment from hot laundry of Instalacao Nuclear de Agua Pressurizada (INAP), by chemical precipitation processes and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many types of radioactive effluents which will be generated at the Instalacao Nuclear de Agua Pressurizada (INAP), that is in development by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), there is a specific one, arising from the laundry of this facility. Besides the presence of traces of radioactive materials in this effluent, it is present in its composition a significant quantify of detergent, difficulting its treatment by the techniques usually employed in the effluents treatment systems of nuclear facilities and consequently its release to the environment. In this work, a synthetic solution was prepared based on data available in literature and project documentation of the laundry of INAP. It was studied the treatment of this effluent by chemical precipitation with calcium oxide and reverse osmosis treatment. The results got during the treatment assays showed that the used processes are efficient to treat the effluent that will be generated at the laundry of INAP, obtaining a purified stream, that represents 90% of the effluent fed at the treatment system, with a higher quality than the water used for industrial processes, becoming its reutilisation in the water used for industrial processes, becoming its reutilisation in the INAP feasible, minimizing any negative impact to the environment. (author)

  16. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delgado Queissada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO, and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease, while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%.

  17. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs

  18. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade.

  19. 背部供皮区在大面积烧伤后期整复中的应用%The Application of the Back as Donor Site for Skin Graft in Treating Large Area Post-Burn Deformities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智明; 黄远发; 方云德; 柴勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨背部供皮区应用于大面积烧伤后期整复中的优势.方法 对52例大面积烧伤后期整复患者,采用鼓式取皮机在背部切取中厚皮片,移植修复多处瘢痕切除创面,观察供、植皮区愈合情况.结果 52例患者术后随访1~2年,移植皮片均成活,质地柔软、平整光滑,富有弹性,无明显增生性瘢痕,关节区活动自如,功能和外观恢复良好.供皮区愈合良好,无瘢痕增生或增生轻微.结论 背部供皮区可多次切取中厚皮片,用于大面积皮肤瘢痕创面的修复,手术效果良好,是大面积烧伤后期整复中的理想供区.%Objective To evaluate the priority of the back as donor site for skin graft in treating large area post-burn deformities. Methods In 52 large area post-burn patients, medium thickness skin grafts were taken from the back several times and the healing recovery of both the donor and receipt sites were observed and recorded. Results All patients were followed up for 1 -2 years. All the skin graft survived well with improved function and contour. The donor sites healed smoothly without obvious scars. Conclusion The back should be the ideal option for the donor site of skin graft in treating large area skin defect.

  20. The biorotor system for posttreatment of anaerobically treated domestic sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the evaluation of the applicability of biorotor system for post-treatment (polishing) of different effluent qualities of an UASB reactor treating raw domestic sewage, with emphasis on the elimination of various COD fractions, ammonia and E.Coli.The removal mechanism of E.Coli f

  1. Treatment of anaerobically treated domestic wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik, A.; Klapwijk, A.; El-Gohary, F.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale pilot plant consisting of a three-stage RBC has been investigated for the removal of E. coli, COD fractions and ammonia from the effluent of an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater. The results obtained reveal that a three-stage system operated at a HRT of 3.0 h represents an effe

  2. Observation and nursing on treating large area skin defect of limbs by moist dressings and VSD%肢体大面积皮肤缺损用湿性敷料与VSD的观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect and nursing method of moist dressings and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) on treating skin defect of limbs. Methods:From September 2011 to September 2012, 10 cases of post-traumatic limb skin defects were given moist dressings and VSD treatment. Results:In 10 cases, 6 patients removal of negative pressure and dressing after one week, found that the growth of granulation tissue good. 3 cases of large area skin and soft tissue pollution is particularly serious wound, treated for 2~3 times by VSD, wound in epithelial crawling stage, the prognosis is good. 1 case was treated by transposition of skin flap, flap survival, wound healing. Conclusion:Moist dressings combined with wound VSD is one of the effective methods for treating large area skin defects.%目的:探讨湿性敷料与封闭负压引流术(Vacuum Sealing Drainage,VSD)在治疗肢体皮肤缺损的观察及护理方法。方法:对2011年9月~2012年9月收治的创伤后肢体皮肤缺损10例,应用湿性敷料及封闭负压引流术配合治疗。结果:10例患者中,6例1周后去除负压吸引敷料,发现创面肉芽组织生长良好。3例大面积皮肤软组织污染特别严重创面,行负压引流治疗2~3次,伤口处于上皮爬行期,预后良好。1例行皮瓣转移术,皮瓣成活,伤口愈合。结论:湿性敷料配合创面封闭负压引流术是治疗皮肤大面积缺损的有效方法之一。

  3. CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS USING A Pt CATALIST SUPPORTED ON MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ovejero; José L. Sotelo; Araceli Rodríguez; Ana Vallet; Juan García

    2011-01-01

    In this work, catalytic wet air oxidation in a batch reactor was studied by catalytic wet air oxidation to treat industrial wastewater. Basic Yellow 11, a basic dye, was employed as a model compound and platinum supported over multi-walled nanotubes (Pt/MWNT) was used as catalyst. Additionally, two different industrial wastewaters were tested. The results prove the high effectivity of this treatment, showing high extents of total organic carbon and toxicity removal of the final effluent. We c...

  4. The effect of sewage effluent on trace metal speciation: implications for the biotic ligand model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Constantino, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University This research examined the suitability of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach for assessing environmental risk in surface waters consisting substantially of treated sewage effluent, and the implications of its use within a compliance-based regulatory framework aimed at controlling discharges of metals into the aquatic environment. The results from a series of Daphnia magna acute copp...

  5. Treating oil in a maritime environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some details of the International Maritime Organisation's marine pollution regulations are discussed. In simple terms, under IMO regulations oily water must be processed through approved equipment and can be legally discharged if the oil content in the treated effluent is less than 15 ppm. These regulations also make it clear that it is not permitted to use emulsifiers to hide the oil in the effluent. To separate the free oil from water, gravity enhanced separators can be used effectively. With conventional means it is possible to remove free oil from an oily water mixture, to the less than 15 part per million oil content. Conventional IMO certified oil content meters accurately read free oil content in the 0-30 ppm region, to prevent formation of an oil film from treated oily water discharges. Some additional basic rules of thumb worthy of consideration when separating oil from oily water: in general, it is cheaper to prevent oil discharge of oil into the effluent stream than to remove it; emulsifier-enriched lubricating oils emulsify readily and are difficult to remove when present in suspended droplets; the larger the amount of contamination, the greater the difficulty of removing the oil; an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure

  6. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  7. Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1976-10-01

    Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

  8. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas; Laila Abdelfattah Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  9. Dosimetric analysis of the brachial plexus among patients with breast cancer treated with post-mastectomy radiotherapy to the ipsilateral supraclavicular area: report of 3 cases of radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brachial plexus (BP) dose of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) to the ipsilateral supraclavicular (ISCL) area, and report the characteristics of radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy (RIBPN). The BP dose of 31 patients who received adjuvant PMRT to the ISCL area and chest wall using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and the records of 3 patients with RIBPN were retrospectively analyzed based on the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-endorsed guidelines. The total dose to the ISCL area and chest wall was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients with a higher number of removed lymph nodes (RLNs) had a higher risk of RIBPN (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.189, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.005-1.406, p = 0.044). In 31 patients treated with 3DCRT, the mean dose to the BP without irradiation to the ISCL area was significantly less than that with irradiation to the ISCL area (0.97 ± 0.20 vs. 44.39 ± 4.13 Gy, t = 136.75, p <0.001). In the 3DCRT plans with irradiation to the ISCL area and chest wall, the maximum dose to the BP was negatively correlated with age (r = −0.40, p = 0.026), body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.44, p = 0.014), and body weight (r = −0.45, p = 0.011). Symptoms of the 3 patients with RIBPN occurred 37–65 months after radiotherapy, and included progressive upper extremity numbness, pain, and motor disturbance. After treatment, 1 patient was stable, and the other 2 patients’ symptoms worsened. The incidence of RIBPN was higher in patients with a higher number of RLNs after PMRT. The dose to the BP is primarily from irradiation of the ISCL area, and is higher in slim and young patients. Prevention should be the main focus of managing RIBPN, and the BP should be considered an organ-at-risk when designing a radiotherapy plan for the ISCL area

  10. Efficacy of malaria prevention during pregnancy in an area of low and unstable transmission: an individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial using intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets in the Kabale Highlands, southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Clarke, Siân E; Hutchison, Coll L; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Magnussen, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are recommended malaria interventions during pregnancy; however, there is limited information on their efficacy in areas of low malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. An individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial involving 5775 women of all parities examined the effect of IPTp, ITNs alone, or ITNs used in combination with IPTp on maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) in a highland area of southwestern Uganda. The overall prevalence of malaria infection, maternal anaemia and LBW was 15.0%, 14.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Maternal and fetal outcomes were generally remarkably similar across all intervention groups (P>0.05 for all outcomes examined). A marginal difference in maternal haemoglobin was observed in the dual intervention group (12.57g/dl) compared with the IPTp and ITN alone groups (12.40g/dl and 12.44g/dl, respectively; P=0.04), but this was too slight to be of clinical importance. In conclusion, none of the preventive strategies was found to be superior to the others, and no substantial additional benefit to providing both IPTp and ITNs during routine antenatal services was observed. With ITNs offering a number of advantages over IPTp, yet showing comparable efficacy, we discuss why ITNs could be an appropriate preventive strategy for malaria control during pregnancy in areas of low and unstable transmission.

  11. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  12. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  13. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  14. 40 CFR 420.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). The Agency has determined...

  15. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.52 Section 406.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 406.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.92 Section 406.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Cereal Subcategory § 406.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.53 Section 406.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 406.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.12 Section 406.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 406.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.82 Section 406.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 406.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.22 Section 406.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.32 Section 406.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 406.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.62 Section 406.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Processing Subcategory § 406.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.33 Section 406.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.42 Section 406.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 406.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.72 Section 406.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 418.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Nitrate... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  7. 40 CFR 418.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.72 Section 418.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  8. 40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.62 Section 418.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  9. 40 CFR 418.33 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory... the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The following...

  10. 40 CFR 418.23 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided...

  11. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nitric Acid... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  12. 40 CFR 418.13 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate... attained by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  13. 40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  14. Effects of exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles in freshwater mussels in the presence of municipal effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gagnon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (nano-ZnO nanoparticles are used in the production of transparent sunscreens and cosmetics, which are released into surface waters and municipal wastewater effluent. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicity of nano-ZnO in the presence of municipal effluents to freshwater mussels Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed for 21 days at 15 o C to nano-ZnO and ZnCl2 in the presence of 10 % dilution of primary-treated municipal effluent. After the exposure period and 24-h depuration step, mussels were analyzed for total Zn in gills and digestive gland, free Zn, metallothioneins (MT, oxidative stress (glutathione S-transferase and LPO, endoplasmic reticulum stress (heat shock proteins and protein ubiquitination and genotoxicity. The data revealed that although total Zn loadings did not change with these treatments, Zn levels in digestive gland were elevated in mussels exposed to nano-ZnO but not with ZnCl2 in the presence of municipal effluent. Free Zn levels in the gills were elevated in mussels exposed to the municipal effluent, but decreased in mussels exposed to nano-ZnO. MT in digestive gland showed a similar pattern and was negatively associated with free and total Zn. GST activity was significantly reduced by both nano-ZnO and municipal effluent and was negatively correlated with MT levels, suggesting the involvement of MT in the sequestration of reactive oxygen species. Discriminant function analysis showed that the municipal effluent related effects differed from the unexposed mussels and nano-ZnO exposed mussels in terms of the following responses: free Zn in gills and digestive gland and GST activity. Nano-ZnO related effects also involved GST activity, MT and protein ubiquitination, which suggests a combination of oxidative stress and reticulum endoplasmic stress. In respect with oxidative stress, the oxidative properties of nano-ZnO and ZnCl2 are dampened in the presence of the municipal effluent.

  15. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pathak; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This...

  16. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  17. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  18. Liquid effluent study: Ground water characterization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This report is a support document to the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report (WHC 1990c). The focus is on sampling and analysis rationale, quality assurance (QA), data validation, and sampling conditions for the groundwater quality assessment. Interpretation of the groundwater data is provided in the final project report. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations.