WorldWideScience

Sample records for area telescope observations

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of GRB 110625A

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, P H Thomas; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that emit photons at GeV energies form a small but significant population of GRBs. However, the number of GRBs whose GeV-emitting period is simultaneously observed in X-rays remains small. We report gamma-ray observations of GRB 110625A using Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy range 100 MeV to 20 GeV. Gamma-ray emission at these energies was clearly detected using data taken between 180s and 580s after the burst, an epoch after the prompt emission phase. The GeV light curve differs from a simple power-law decay, and probably consists of two emission periods. Simultaneous Swift/XRT observations did not show flaring behaviors as in the case of GRB 100728A. We discuss the possibility that the GeV emission is the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of underlying ultraviolet flares.

  2. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new γ-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E ≥ 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of Γ = 1.51+0.05-0.04 with an exponential cutoff at Ec = 2.9 ± 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e-(E/Ec)b require b ≤ 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  3. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tajima, H.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Hanabata, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33175 Gradignan (France); Takahashi, T., E-mail: katsuta@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent H{alpha} filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0–1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5σ confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 ± 0.6) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 × 1034 (d/1.3 kpc)2 erg s–1 in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent Hα filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral π mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  5. A tool to estimate the Fermi Large Area Telescope background for short-duration observations

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileiou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The proper estimation of the background is a crucial component of data analyses in astrophysics, such as source detection, temporal studies, spectroscopy, and localization. For the case of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi spacecraft, approaches to estimate the background for short (less than ~one thousand seconds duration) observations fail if they ignore the strong dependence of the LAT background on the continuously changing observational conditions. We present a (to be) pu...

  6. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cosmic-Ray Induced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.

    2012-02-29

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The LAT has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth-limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx} 6.4 x 10{sup 6} photons with energies > 100 MeV and {approx} 250 hours total livetime for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission - often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission - has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {Lambda} = 2.79 {+-} 0.06.

  7. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF TWO GAMMA-RAY EMISSION COMPONENTS FROM THE QUIESCENT SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-rays from the quiescent Sun with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) during the first 18 months of the mission. These observations correspond to the recent period of low solar activity when the emission induced by cosmic rays (CRs) is brightest. For the first time, the high statistical significance of the observations allows clear separation of the two components: the point-like emission from the solar disk due to CR cascades in the solar atmosphere and extended emission from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of CR electrons on solar photons in the heliosphere. The observed integral flux (≥100 MeV) from the solar disk is (4.6 ± 0.2[statistical error]+1.0-0.8[systematic error]) x 10-7 cm-2 s-1, which is ∼7 times higher than predicted by the 'nominal' model of Seckel et al. In contrast, the observed integral flux (≥100 MeV) of the extended emission from a region of 20 deg. radius centered on the Sun, but excluding the disk itself, (6.8 ± 0.7[stat.]+0.5-0.4[syst.]) x 10-7 cm-2 s-1, along with the observed spectrum and the angular profile, is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for the IC emission.

  8. Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.longo@ts.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste and INFN, sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Vianello, Giacomo; Omodei, Nicola [Stanford University (HEPL), 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94205 (United States); Piron, Frederic; Vasilieou, Vlasios [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite de Montpellier II, CNRS/IN2P3, CC72, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Razzaque, Soebur [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2014-04-01

    The Fermi observatory, with its Gamma-ray Bursts Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT), is observing Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) with a very large spectral coverage and unprecedented sensitivity, from ∼10keV to >300GeV. In the first 3 years of the mission it observed emission above 100 MeV from 35 GRBs. In this paper we review the main results obtained on such a sample, highlighting also the relationships with the low-energy spectral and temporal features (as measured by the GBM). Some recent results on high energy photons from GRBs obtained with the preliminary Pass 8 new event-level reconstruction will be discussed.

  9. Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi observatory, with its Gamma-ray Bursts Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT), is observing Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) with a very large spectral coverage and unprecedented sensitivity, from ∼10keV to >300GeV. In the first 3 years of the mission it observed emission above 100 MeV from 35 GRBs. In this paper we review the main results obtained on such a sample, highlighting also the relationships with the low-energy spectral and temporal features (as measured by the GBM). Some recent results on high energy photons from GRBs obtained with the preliminary Pass 8 new event-level reconstruction will be discussed

  10. Gamma-ray observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Allafort, A; Antolini, E; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Enoto, T; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Fukui, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Lee, S -H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makishima, K; Mazziotta, M N; Mehault, J; Mitthumsiri, W; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Naumann-Godo, M; Nishino, S; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-01-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between \\sim100 MeV and \\sim100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to \\sim10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity integrated CO intensity (WCO) at a 1{\\deg} \\times1{\\deg} pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a WCO range of ~10 fold when divided in 3 regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The Wco-to-mass conversion factor, Xco, is found to be \\sim2.3\\times1...

  11. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between approx 100 MeV and approx 100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to approx 10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W(sub CO)) at a 1 deg 1 deg pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W(sub CO) range of approx 10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W(sub CO)-to-mass conversion factor, X(sub CO), is found to be approx 2.3 10(exp 20) / sq cm (K km/s)(exp -1) for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212 deg), approx 1.7 times higher than approx 1.3 10(exp 20) found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X(sub CO) in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas.W(sub CO) decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W(sub CO).

  12. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA-X PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on gamma-ray observations in the off-pulse window of the Vela pulsar PSR B0833-45 using 11 months of survey data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This pulsar is located in the 8 deg. diameter Vela supernova remnant, which contains several regions of non-thermal emission detected in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT lies within one of these regions, the 2 deg. x 3 deg. area south of the pulsar known as Vela-X. The LAT flux is significantly spatially extended with a best-fit radius of 0.088 ± 0.012 for an assumed radially symmetric uniform disk. The 200 MeV to 20 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 2.41 ± 0.09 ± 0.15 and integral flux above 100 MeV of (4.73 ± 0.63 ± 1.32) x 10-7 cm-2 s-1. The first errors represent the statistical error on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses give strong constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the pulsar wind nebula system and favor a scenario with two distinct electron populations.

  13. Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation from Fermi -Large Area Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) sub Pl)

  14. Deep Australia telescope large area survey radio observations of the European large area ISO survey S1/Spitzer wide-area infrared extragalactic field

    OpenAIRE

    Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray P.; Cornwell, Tim J.; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Siana, Brian D.; Boyle, Brian J.; Ciliegi, Paolo; Jackson, Carole A.; Huynh, Minh T.; Berta, Stefano; Rubele, Stefano; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Ivison, Rob J.; Smail, Ian

    2008-01-01

    We have conducted sensitive (1 σ < 30 μJy) 1.4 GHz radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of a field largely coincident with infrared observations of the Spitzer Wide-Area Extragalactic Survey. The field is centered on the European Large Area ISO Survey S1 region and has a total area of 3.9°. We describe the observations and calibration, source extraction, and cross-matching to infrared sources. Two catalogs are presented: one of the radio components found in the image ...

  15. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF PSR J1836+5925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the γ-ray pulsar PSR J1836+5925, powering the formerly unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1835+5918, was one of the early accomplishments of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Sitting 250 off the Galactic plane, PSR J1836+5925 is a 173 ms pulsar with a characteristic age of 1.8 million years, a spindown luminosity of 1.1 x 1034 erg s-1, and a large off-peak (OP) emission component, making it quite unusual among the known γ-ray pulsar population. We present an analysis of one year of LAT data, including an updated timing solution, detailed spectral results, and a long-term light curve showing no indication of variability. No evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen and the spectral characteristics of the OP emission indicate it is likely magnetospheric. Analysis of recent XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray counterpart yields a detailed characterization of its spectrum, which, like Geminga, is consistent with that of a neutron star showing evidence for both magnetospheric and thermal emission.

  16. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded ∼6.4x106 photons with energies >100 MeV and ∼250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission--often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission--has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index Γ=2.79±0.06.

  17. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Monoceros Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Katagiri, H; Ackermann, M; Ballet, J; Casandjian, J M; Hanabata, Y; Hewitt, J W; Kerr, M; Kubo, H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Ray, P S

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope onboard the \\textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} in the region of the supernova remnant~(SNR) Monoceros Loop~(G205.5$+$0.5). The brightest gamma-ray peak is spatially correlated with the Rosette Nebula, which is a molecular cloud complex adjacent to the southeast edge of the SNR. After subtraction of this emission by spatial modeling, the gamma-ray emission from the SNR emerges, which is extended and fit by a Gaussian spatial template. The gamma-ray spectra are significantly better reproduced by a curved shape than a simple power law. The luminosities between 0.2--300~GeV are $\\sim$~$4 \\times 10^{34}$~erg~s$^{-1}$ for the SNR and $\\sim$~$3 \\times 10^{34}$~erg~s$^{-1}$ for the Rosette Nebula, respectively. We argue that the gamma rays likely originate from the interactions of particles accelerated in the SNR. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions of accelerated hadrons with interstellar gas provid...

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ∼ 1 x 1033 erg s-1 between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0o.7 ± 0o.1 and 1o.6 ± 0o.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, Hα filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  19. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0–8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ∼1 × 1033 erg s–1 between 1 and 100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0.07 ± 0.01 and 1.06 ± 0.01. Given the association among X-ray rims, Hα filaments, and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  20. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Katagiri, H; Ballet, J; Giordano, F; Grenier, I A; Porter, T A; Roth, M; Tibolla, O; Uchiyama, Y; Yamazaki, R

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope(LAT) onboard the \\textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} in the region of the supernova remnant(SNR) Cygnus Loop(G74.0$-$8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2--100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2--3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is $\\sim$ $1 \\times 10^{33}$erg s$^{-1}$ between 1--100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0$^\\circ$.7 $\\pm$ 0$^\\circ$.1 and 1$^\\circ$.6 $\\pm$ 0$^\\circ$.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, \\halpha filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasona...

  1. Fermi large area telescope observations of blazar 3C 279 occultations by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of occultations of bright γ-ray sources by the Sun may reveal predicted pair halos around blazars and/or new physics, such as, e.g., hypothetical light dark matter particles—axions. We use Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) data to analyze four occultations of blazar 3C 279 by the Sun on October 8 each year from 2008 to 2011. A combined analysis of the observations of these occultations allows a point-like source at the position of 3C 279 to be detected with significance of ≈3σ, but does not reveal any significant excess over the flux expected from the quiescent Sun. The likelihood ratio test rules out complete transparency of the Sun to the blazar γ-ray emission at a 3σ confidence level.

  2. FERMI-LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXCEPTIONAL GAMMA-RAY OUTBURSTS OF 3C 273 IN 2009 SEPTEMBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the light curves and spectral data of two exceptionally luminous gamma-ray outbursts observed by the Large Area Telescope experiment on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 3C 273 in 2009 September. During these flares, having a duration of a few days, the source reached its highest γ-ray flux ever measured. This allowed us to study, in some details, their spectral and temporal structures. The rise and the decay are asymmetric on timescales of 6 hr, and the spectral index was significantly harder during the flares than during the preceding 11 months. We also found that short, very intense flares put out the same time-integrated energy as long, less intense flares like that observed in 2009 August.

  3. Observing two dark accelerators around the Galactic Centre with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, C Y; Ng, C W; Lin, L C C; Tam, P H T; Cheng, K S; Kong, A K H; Chernyshov, D O; Dogiel, V A

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from a detailed $\\gamma-$ray investigation in the field of two "dark accelerators", HESS J1745-303 and HESS J1741-302, with $6.9$ years of data obtained by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For HESS J1745-303, we found that its MeV-GeV emission is mainly originated from the "Region A" of the TeV feature. Its $\\gamma-$ray spectrum can be modeled with a single power-law with a photon index of $\\Gamma\\sim2.5$ from few hundreds MeV to TeV. Moreover, an elongated feature, which extends from "Region A" toward northwest for $\\sim1.3^{\\circ}$, is discovered for the first time. The orientation of this feature is similar to that of a large scale atomic/molecular gas distribution. For HESS J1741-302, our analysis does not yield any MeV-GeV counterpart for this unidentified TeV source. On the other hand, we have detected a new point source, Fermi J1740.1-3013, serendipitously. Its spectrum is apparently curved which resembles that of a $\\gamma-$ray pulsar. This makes it possibly associated with PSR B1...

  4. Observations of Energetic High Magnetic Field Pulsars with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, D.; Kerr, M.; DenHartog, P. R.; Baring, M. G.; DeCesar, M. E.; Espinoza, C. M.; Harding, A. K.; Romani, R. W.; Stappers, B. W.; Watters, K.; Weltevrde, P.; Abdo, A. A.; Craig, H. A.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119.6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The gamma-ray light curve of PSR J1119.6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 +/- 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 +/- 0.3(+0.4 -0.2) with an energy cut-off at 0.8 +/- 0.2(+2.0 -0.5) GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119.6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field--near that of magnetars -- the field strength and structure in the gamma-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the gamma-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846.0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-Beta pulsars, PSRs J1718.3718 and J1734.3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  5. Constraints on the Galactic Population of TEV Pulsar Wind Nebulae Using Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dalton, M; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Di Venere, L; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grégoire, T; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Marelli, M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Rousseau, R; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV gamma-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT)identified five high-energy (100MeV

  6. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G8.7-0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Caliandro, G. A., E-mail: hanabata@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: katagiri@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship between G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 {+-} 0.06 (stat) {+-} 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of {pi}{sup 0}s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Hays, E.; Troja, E.; Moiseev, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission ofG8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of pions produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS Jl804-2l6 and that the spectrum in the Ge V band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV-spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.l with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  8. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant G8.7-0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Caliandro, G.A.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Cameron, R.A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Caraveo, P.A.; /IASF, Milan /AIM, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Unlisted, US /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Perugia U. /ASDC, Frascati /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste Observ. /Hiroshima U. /Nagoya U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Bologna Observ. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Alabama U., Huntsville /CSIC, Catalunya /Hiroshima U. /NASA, Goddard /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-14

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship between G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 {+-} 0.06 (stat) {+-} 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of p0s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Markarian 421: The Missing Piece of its Spectral Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Georganopoulos, M.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Yatsu, Y.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Chen, W. P.; Jordan, B.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; McBreen, B.; Larionov, V. M.; Lin, C. S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cassaro, P.; Cesarini, A.; Falcone, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hovatta, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Lister, M. L.; Moody, J. W.; Maccaferri, G.; Mori, Y.; Nestoras, I.; Orlati, A.; Pace, C.; Pagani, C.; Pearson, R.; Perri, M.; Piner, B. G.; Ros, E.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Tammi, J.; Zook, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ~3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  10. Observations of the young supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of the young Supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We clearly detect a source positionally coincident with the SNR. The source is extended with a best-fit extension of 0.55$^{\\circ} \\pm 0.04^{\\circ}$ matching the size of the non-thermal X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission from the remnant. The positional coincidence and the matching extended emission allows us to identify the LAT source with the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-394...

  11. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T.; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Funk, S.; Giordano, F.; Hewitt, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Tajima, H.; Tibolla, O.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.04622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi-LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays, leading to the identification of the gamma-ray source with the SNR. The spectrum is well described as a power law with a photon index of = 1.85 0.06 (stat)+0.18 0.19 (sys), which smoothly connects to the H.E.S.S. spectrum in the TeV energy band. We discuss the gamma-ray emission mechanism based on multiwavelength data. The broadband data can be fit well by a model in which the gamma rays are of hadronic origin. We also consider a scenario with inverse Compton scattering of electrons as the emission mechanism of the gamma rays. Although the leptonic model predicts a harder spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range, the model can fit the data considering the statistical and systematic errors.

  12. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J0852.0-4622 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi-LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays, leading to the identification of the gamma-ray source with the SNR. The spectrum is well described as a power law with a photon index of Γ = 1.85 ± 0.06 (stat)+0.18-0.19 (sys), which smoothly connects to the H.E.S.S. spectrum in the TeV energy band. We discuss the gamma-ray emission mechanism based on multiwavelength data. The broadband data can be fit well by a model in which the gamma rays are of hadronic origin. We also consider a scenario with inverse Compton scattering of electrons as the emission mechanism of the gamma rays. Although the leptonic model predicts a harder spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range, the model can fit the data considering the statistical and systematic errors.

  13. THE VELA-X PULSAR WIND NEBULA REVISITED WITH FOUR YEARS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833–45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2° × 3° south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy γ-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features

  14. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; Perkins, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma ray flux upper limits between 500MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10TeV into prototypical standard model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse gamma ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  15. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Albert, A; Anderson, B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Essig, R; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Guiriec,; Gustafsson, M; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hughes, R E; Jogler, T; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Larsson,; Latronico, L; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martinez, G; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Sànchez-Conde, M; Sehgal, N; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spinelli, P; Strigari, L; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2013-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma-ray flux upper limits between 500 MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10 TeV into prototypical Standard Model channels. W...

  16. The VELA-X-Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, Alice K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2deg × 3deg south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  17. Inferred cosmic-ray spectrum from Fermi large area telescope γ-ray observations of Earth's limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bottacini, E; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dalton, M; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hewitt, J W; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Schaal, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Tronconi, V; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z

    2014-04-18

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the γ-ray emission from Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range ∼90  GeV-6  TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV-1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68±0.04 and 2.61±0.08 above ∼200  GeV, respectively. PMID:24785023

  18. OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7-3946 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present observations of the young supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We clearly detect a source positionally coincident with the SNR. The source is extended with a best-fit extension of 0.055 ± 0.004 matching the size of the non-thermal X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission from the remnant. The positional coincidence and the matching extended emission allow us to identify the LAT source with SNR RX J1713.7-3946. The spectrum of the source can be described by a very hard power law with a photon index of Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 that coincides in normalization with the steeper H.E.S.S.-detected gamma-ray spectrum at higher energies. The broadband gamma-ray emission is consistent with a leptonic origin as the dominant mechanism for the gamma-ray emission.

  19. Constraints on the Emission Geometries of Gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars Observed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, T J

    2012-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been established as a class of high-energy ($\\geq$0.1 GeV) emitters with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the \\emph{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. Most MSP gamma-ray light curves display sharp peaks indicative of thin accelerating gaps, suggesting copious pair-creation in the open volume. MSP gamma-ray and radio light curves have been simulated using geometric outer-gap (OG), slot-gap/two-pole caustic (TPC), and pair-starved polar cap gamma-ray models and either a hollow-cone beam or altitude-limited, outer-magnetospheric gap radio model, all assuming a vacuum retarded dipolar magnetic field geometry. A Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood technique has been developed to find the best-fit model parameters for nineteen MSPs using data from the LAT and various radio observatories. The best-fit viewing angles follow a uniform, angular distribution. The distribution of magnetic inclination angles favors all angles equally, contrary to analyses of non-recycled pulsars...

  20. Gamma-ray emission from PSR J0007+7303 using 7 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Wilhelmi, Emma de Ona; Rea, Nanda; Martin, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    Based on more than seven years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data, we report on a detailed analysis of the bright gamma-ray pulsar (PSR) J0007+7303. We confirm that PSR J0007+7303 is significantly detected as a point source also during the off-peak phases with a TS value of 262 ($\\sim$ 16 $\\sigma$). In the description of PSR J0007+7303 off-peak spectrum, a power law with an exponential cutoff at 2.7$\\pm$1.2$\\pm$1.3 GeV (the first/second uncertainties correspond to statistical/systematic errors) is preferred over a single power law at a level of 3.5 $\\sigma$. The possible existence of a cutoff hints at a magnetospheric origin of the emission. In addition, no extended gamma-ray emission is detected compatible with either the supernova remnant (CTA 1) or the very high energy (> 100 GeV) pulsar wind nebula. A flux upper limit of 6.5$\\times$10$^{-12}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in the 10-300 GeV energy range is reported, for an extended source assuming the morphology of the VERITAS detection. During on-pe...

  1. New Radio Telescope Makes First Scientific Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    first since Magellan to cover large areas of the planet's surface, will provide images showing surface features as small as about 1 km (3,000 ft), only three times the size of the Arecibo telescope itself. Venus may be a geologically active planet similar to the Earth, and the new images will be used to look for changes on Venus due to volcanic activity, landslides and other processes that may have modified the surface since the Magellan mission. The radar echoes received by both telescopes also can be combined to form a radar interferometer capable of measuring altitudes over some of the planet's mountainous regions with considerably better detail than was achieved by Magellan. These were the first scheduled observations with the new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, demonstrating its capabilities for solar-system studies. In addition to the observations of Venus, a tiny 150m (500 ft) asteroid, 2001 EC16, was imaged with the two telescopes working as a combined radar system on March 26 when the asteroid was only 8 times the distance of the Moon from the Earth. The image could show details on the asteroid's surface only 15 meters (50 ft) in size and shows EC16 to be an irregularly shaped object rotating about once every 200 hrs, one of the slowest rotation rates so far measured for these objects. It took about 20 seconds for the radar signal to go to EC16 and back, compared with the almost 5 minutes needed to go to Venus and back. EC16 was discovered by the NEAT asteroid survey on March 15, 11 days prior to the radar observations. Very large numbers of these near-Earth asteroids are being discovered and the combined Arecibo-GBT radar system will be needed to properly study a significant number of them. The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope The observing team led by Campbell also included Jean-Luc Margot of Caltech, Lynn Carter of Cornell, and Bruce Campbell of the Smithsonian Institution. The 100-meter (330 feet) Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope was dedicated in

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  3. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. A.

    One of the premier areas of scientific return from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of solar system objects has been studies of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Because these objects are unresolvable in most ground-based observations, HST's spatially resolved imaging and spectroscopy of their surfaces, atmospheres, and electrodynamic interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere have provided unique results. This talk will review highlights of the science results from HST observations of the Galilean satellites, including discovery of auroral emissions at the poles of Ganymede, the recent discovery of molecular sulfur in the Pele plume on Io, and the presence of SO2 in the surface of Callisto.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  6. GLAST Large Area Telescope Multiwavelength Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy gamma-ray sources are inherently nonthermal, multiwavelength objects. With the launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) scheduled for later this year, the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration invites cooperative efforts from observers at all wavelengths. Among the many topics where multiwavelength studies will maximize the scientific understanding, two stand out for particular emphasis: (1) Active Galactic Nuclei. The study of AGN gamma-ray jets through time variability and spectral modeling can help link the accretion processes close to the black hole with the large-scale interaction of the AGN with its environment; (2) Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources. New gamma-ray sources need first to be identified with known objects seen at other wavelengths using position, spectrum, or time variability, and then multiwavelength studies can be used to explore the astrophysical implications of high-energy radiation from these sources. Observers interested in any type of coordinated observations should contact the LAT Multiwavelength Coordinating Group

  7. GLAST Large Area Telescope Multiwavelength Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-10

    High-energy gamma-ray sources are inherently nonthermal, multiwavelength objects. With the launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) scheduled for later this year, the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration invites cooperative efforts from observers at all wavelengths. Among the many topics where multiwavelength studies will maximize the scientific understanding, two stand out for particular emphasis: (1) Active Galactic Nuclei. The study of AGN gamma-ray jets through time variability and spectral modeling can help link the accretion processes close to the black hole with the large-scale interaction of the AGN with its environment; (2) Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources. New gamma-ray sources need first to be identified with known objects seen at other wavelengths using position, spectrum, or time variability, and then multiwavelength studies can be used to explore the astrophysical implications of high-energy radiation from these sources. Observers interested in any type of coordinated observations should contact the LAT Multiwavelength Coordinating Group.

  8. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS PSR J1057-5226, J1709-4429, AND J1952+3252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data have confirmed the pulsed emission from all six high-confidence gamma-ray pulsars previously known from the EGRET observations. We report results obtained from the analysis of 13 months of LAT data for three of these pulsars (PSR J1057-5226, PSR J1709-4429, and PSR J1952+3252) each of which had some unique feature among the EGRET pulsars. The excellent sensitivity of LAT allows more detailed analysis of the evolution of the pulse profile with energy and also of the variation of the spectral shape with phase. We measure the cutoff energy of the pulsed emission from these pulsars for the first time and provide a more complete picture of the emission mechanism. The results confirm some, but not all, of the features seen in the EGRET data.

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from behind-the-limb solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe'; Liu, Wei; da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Allafort, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT >30 MeV observations have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. These sample both the impulsive and long duration phases of GOES M and X class flares. Of particular interest is the recent detections of three solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources and implications for the particle acceleration mechanisms.

  10. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from behind-the-limb solar flares

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Omodei, Nicola; Petrosian, Vahe; Wei LIU; da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Allafort, Alice; Collaboration, for the Fermi-LAT

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT >30 MeV observations have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. These sample both the impulsive and long duration phases of GOES M and X class flares. Of particular interest is the recent detections of three solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulte...

  11. PSR J0007+7303 in the CTA1I Supenova Remnant: New Gamma-Ray Results from Two Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A.; Wood, K.; DeCesar, M.; Gargano, F.; Giordano, F.; Ray, P. S.; Parent, D.; Harding, A.; Coleman, M.; Wood, D. L.; Wolff, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main results of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope is the discovery of -ray selected pulsars. The high magnetic field pulsar, PSR J0007+7303 in CTA1, was the first ever to be discovered through its -ray pulsations. Based on analysis of two years of Large Area Telescope (LAT) survey data, we report on the discovery of -ray emission in the off-pulse phase interval at the 6 level. The emission appears to be extended at the 2 level with a disk of extension 0.6. level. The flux from this emission in the energy range E 100 MeV is F 100 = (1.73 0.40stat 0.18sys) 108photonscm2 s1 and is best fitted by a power law with a photon index of = 2.54 0.14stat 0.05sys. The pulsed -ray flux in the same energy range is F 100 = (3.95 0.07stat 0.30sys) 107photonscm2 s1 and is best fitted by an exponentially cutoff power-law spectrum with a photon index of = 1.41 0.23stat 0.03sys and a cutoff energy Ec = 4.04 0.20stat 0.67sysGeV. We find no flux variability either at the 2009 May glitch or in the long-term behavior. We model the -ray light curve with two high-altitude emission models, the outer gap and slot gap, and find that the preferred model depends strongly on the assumed origin of the off-pulse emission. Both models favor a large angle between the magnetic axis and observer line of sight, consistent with the nondetection of radio emission being a geometrical effect. Finally, we discuss how the LAT results bear on the understanding of the cooling of this neutron star.

  12. Fermi Large Area Telescope first source catalog

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11-month period, and the threshold likelihood Test St...

  13. Fermi Large Area Telescope Third Source Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    The Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100 MeV-300 GeV range. Based on the first four years of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the 2FGL catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emissi...

  14. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann et al., M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24-month period. The Second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% conf...

  15. Observations of Mars using Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Philip B.; Clancy, R. Todd; Lee, Steven W.; Kahn, Ralph; Zurek, Richard; Martin, Leonard; Singer, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The lack of a continuous record of Martian meteorology or of volatile cycles on Mars for extended periods of several Martian years seriously hinders efforts to understand the physics of the Martian atmosphere and surface system. The spacecraft observations are limited to only a few isolated time periods, and the Earth based record is limited by the relatively short periods surrounding oppositions when telescopic observations can yield useful data. To remedy this situation, the authors have embarked on a three year program of Mars observations using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Several scientific investigations are being carried out using the images, including: a study of the albedo variations; unit mapping of spectral reflectances; determination of optical depths due to aerosols and condensates; a study of the properties of condensate clouds and hoods; comparison of surface and atmospheric features; observation of size and shape of the polar caps; and investigation of surface atmospheric phenomena.

  16. AGN Observations with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2006-01-01

    MAGIC is presently the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with the largest reflecting surface and the lowest energy threshold. MAGIC concluded its first year of regular observation in April 2006. During this period and the preceding commissioning phase, 25 Active Galactic Nuclei have been observed and VHE gamma-ray emission has been confirmed by 4 of them. Two more AGNs have been detected as gamma-ray sources with high statistical significance for the first time. We report in this paper ...

  17. Diffuse γ-ray emission observed by the Fermi large area telescope: massive stars, cosmic rays and the census of the interstellar medium in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission is produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) with interstellar gas and low-energy radiation fields. This is the brightest component of the high-energy γ-ray sky, surveyed since 2008 with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Galactic diffuse emission constitutes not only a bright and structured background which needs to be modeled in order to study individual sources and fainter diffuse components, but it can be used also as a probe of the interstellar environment of the Milky Way. We present in-depth studies of LAT γ-ray observations of selected regions in the local and outer Galaxy. LAT data are compared with multiwavelength tracers of the interstellar medium (ISM), including radio/mm-wave lines of gas and infrared emission/extinction from dust. The impact of the HI optical depth, often overlooked in the past, is carefully examined and recognized currently as the dominant source of uncertainty in the interpretation of observations. On one hand, we discuss the constraints provided by the γ-ray data on the census of the interstellar gas. We determine the XCO = N(H2)/WCO ratio for several clouds, finding no significant gradients in the Galactic disc over a range of ∼ 3.5 kpc in Galactocentric radius, and variations of a factor ≤ 2 in nearby local clouds. We also find evidence for an ubiquitous dark phase of interstellar gas which does not shine at radio/mm wavelengths and which provides a mass ∼ 50% of that traced by CO. For the first time we determine its γ-ray spectrum which is found to be well correlated with that of HI, thus further confirming that the emission originates from interstellar gas. On the other hand, we use the emissivity per hydrogen atom to infer the distribution of CRs in distant locations not accessible by direct measurements. While the local HI emissivity is consistent with the CR spectra measured near the

  18. Blazar Observations with the MAGIC Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneiske, T. M.; Mannheim, K.

    The MAGIC Telescope will be able to detect gamma gay sources down to energies of 30GeV. Therefore a large number of sources will be seen, especially blazars. 30 GeV is also the upper energy limit of EGRET. Therefore it is possible to extrapolate a spectrum of an EGRET source without a complicated model. We make first predictions about the detectability of EGRET blazars calculating the minimum observation time for the MAGIC Telescope. Blazars are often located at high redshifts and their spectra should show some cut-offs at high energies due to pair production processes with low energy background photons. We developed a background radiation model using recent results of optical to infrared data and included this absorption effect in our calculation about the observability. We found that the shape of the spectrum and the intergalactic absorption does not make a big difference for a simple detection of the source. The observation time is only dependent on the flux near the energy threshold of the telescope (30 GeV) and the zenith angle of the blazar. The results are showing that MAGIC will be able to detect more than 50% of the EGRET sources even at high redshift and therefore it will be a good tool for multi-wavelength campaigns.

  19. The Allen Telescope Array Commensal Observing System

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Peter K G

    2012-01-01

    This memo describes the system used to conduct commensal correlator and beamformer observations at the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). This system was deployed for ~2 years until the ATA hibernation in 2011 and was responsible for collecting >5 TB of data during thousands of hours of observations. The general system design is presented and the implementation is discussed in detail. I emphasize the rationale for various design decisions and attempt to document a few aspects of ATA operations that might not be obvious to non-insiders. I close with some recommendations from my experience developing the software infrastructure and managing the correlator observations. These include: reuse existing systems; solve, don't avoid, tensions between projects, and share infrastructure; plan to make standalone observations to complement the commensal ones; and be considerate of observatory staff when deploying new and unusual observing modes. The structure of the software codebase is documented.

  20. Near-Earth Observations by Spread Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, I A; Eremin, V V; Zubenko, G I; Kondabarov, A V; Ougolnikov, O S

    2003-01-01

    We suggest the all-sky survey at the International Space Station by four little wide-angle telescopes with polarization filters and CCD-arrays spread by several meters one from another. The video information processing will be carried out by real-time multiprocessor system on the board of the station. This experiment would allow to observe the sunlit space debris and meteoroids of centimetre size with their distances and velocities estimations at the distances up to 20 km from station and to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar medium by the making of polarization sky maps and detecting the weak-contrast features on it.

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope Third Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100~MeV--300~GeV range. Based on the first four years of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the 2FGL catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and improved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources above 4 sigma significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 232 sources are considered as identifie...

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E; Bonnell, J.; Cannon, A.; Celik O.; Corbet, R.; Davis, D. S.; DeCesar, M. E.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. E.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E; Perkins, J. S.; Racusin, J. L; Scargle, J. D.; Stephens, T. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24-month period. The Second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in 5 energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 11eV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely gamma-ray-producing source classes.

  3. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P. L.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bignami, G. F., E-mail: digel@stanford.edu, E-mail: Gino.Tosti@pg.infn.it, E-mail: jean.ballet@cea.fr, E-mail: tburnett@u.washington.edu [Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori (IUSS), I-27100 Pavia (Italy); and others

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24-month period. The Second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in 5 energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we att...

  6. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    axis (NGC 1448) and the dust lane (NGC 1947), respectively. Strong emission lines of H-alpha, ionized nitrogen [N II] and ionized sulphur [S II] were seen in both galaxies; they originate in interstellar gas clouds within their confines. From the exact wavelengths of these lines, the velocity of the galaxies can be measured. The team found values near 1100-1200 km/sec for both galaxies, in full agreement with the published values. Moreover, the variations of these line wavelengths at increasing distance from the galaxy centres allow to determine the rotation curves with good accuracy. A total amplitude of about 400 km/sec was observed in both galaxies. The velocity gradient is very steep at the centre, indicating the presence of a large mass in this area. Indeed, total masses of the order of 10e9 or even 10e10 solar masses were calculated for the innermost region of the galaxies. Team 2a: D'elia, Hardy, Janhonen, Lesuffleur, Nellen, Nykyri, Pudano; Team leader: Jacco van Loon This team obtained high-dispersion spectra (resolution about 80,000) with the Coude Echelle Spectrometer and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) of 5 late-type gaint and supergiant stars. These stars have arrived at a late phase of their lives. The heaviest, i.e. the supergiants may soon become supernovae, while the less heavy, the giants, may develop into a White Dwarf via the intermediate Planetary Nebula stage. The team wanted to find out which of these stars would develop which way by classifying them. The spectra covered two spectral regions, at the hydrogen H-alpha 6562 A line and at the ionized calcium Ca II 8542 A line. The calcium line serves for spectral classification; the deeper and broader this line is, the higher is the luminosity of the star. Of the five stars, T Microscopis and nu Eridanis were found to have a rather weak and narrow Ca II line and are therefore giants; the others had higher luminosity, in particular Alpha Orionis. In astronomical terms, the latter may in fact

  7. Observer Access to the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; Boisson, Catherine; Brau-Nogué, Sylvie; Deil, Christoph; Khélifi, Bruno; Mayer, Michael; Walter, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a ground-based facility for very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy, will operate as an open observatory, serving a wide scientific community to explore and to study the non-thermal universe. Open community access is a novelty in this domain, putting a challenge on the implementation of services that make VHE gamma-ray astronomy as accessible as any other waveband. We present here the design of the CTA Observer Access system that comprises support of scientific users, dissemination of data and software, tools for scientific analysis, and the system to submit observing proposals. We outline the scientific user workflows and provide the status of the current developments.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  10. Cosmic Ray Studies with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.; Baldini, L.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides both direct and indirect measurements of galactic cosmic rays (CR). The LAT high-statistics observations of the 7 GeV - 1 TeV electron plus positron spectrum and limits on spatial anisotropy constrain models for this cosmic-ray component. On a galactic scale, the LAT observations indicate that cosmic-ray sources may be more plentiful in the outer Galaxy than expected or that the scale height of the cosmic-ray diffusive halo is larger than conventional models. Production of cosmic rays in supernova remnants (SNR) is supported by the LAT gamma-ray studies of several of these, both young SNR and those interacting with molecular clouds.

  11. Optical Observations of GEO Debris with Two Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriguez, H.; Barker, E.

    2007-01-01

    six-parameter orbits to investigate what causes this change in observed angular rates. Are these faint objects either the same population of high area-to-mass (A/M) objects on eccentric orbits as discovered by the ESA Space Debris Telescope (Schildknecht, et al. 2004), or are they just normal debris from breakups in GEO?

  12. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  13. Observations of AGN with the First VERITAS Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Cogan, P.; collaboration, for the VERITAS

    2005-01-01

    The first VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) telescope has been in operation at the basecamp of the Whipple Observatory since January 2005. Here we present initial observations of AGN made using this telescope. Although this is engineering data, significant detections of Markarian 421 and Markarian 501 have been achieved.

  14. Grid-Observing: Creating a Global Network of Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.; Gelderman, R.; Naylor, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Steele, I.

    2004-12-01

    With the increasing switch from classical observing campaigns to service observations, the decreasing pressure on a large number of 1 - 2m telescopes, and the rapid growth in the number of robotic, autonomous telescopes, it has become possible to create a truly global network of telescopes - what we call ``Grid-Observing." Such a network would permit a variety of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring and temporal survey projects which cannot be performed either with current or proposed larger telescopes (e.g. LSST) or with individual telescopes operated by a single institution. Participating observatories can be ``paid" for the services they provide to the network by being able to extract an equivalent amount of time on other telescopes, scaled by aperture, spectral resolution, atmospheric conditions, and the costs of operation or willingness to provide such a service. An XML interface - Remote Telescope Markup Language - insures that communications within the network are simple and relatively easily adapted to existent observatory software and procedures. An eBay-like mechanism for the automatic scheduling of telescopes can provide the necessary flexibility needed to perform time-critical projects as well as insure that the participating institutions retain full control over their telescopes. We are planning on networking several robotic telescope in the near future and expect that many other robotic and non-robotic telescopes will follow.

  15. Pulsar Observations with Radio Telescope FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhu, Li-Chun; Zhu, Wen-Bai; Jin, Cheng-Jin; Gan, Heng-Qian

    2006-12-01

    FAST, Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, is the Chinese effort for the international project SKA, Square Kilometer Array. An innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and wide band without involving complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Besides a general coverage of those critical technologies involved in FAST concept, the progresses in demonstrating model being constructed at the Miyun Radio Observatory of the NAOC is introduced. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of science goals, for example, the natural hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies, looking for the first generation of shining objects, hearing the possible signal from other civilizations, etc. Among these subjects, the most striking one could be pulsar study. Large scale survey by FAST will not only improve the statistics of the pulsar population, but also may offer us a good fortune to pick up more of the most exotic, even unknown types like a sub-millisecond pulsar or a neutron star -- black hole binary as the telescope is put into operation.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope observations of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Philip B.; Clancy, Todd; Lee, Steve; Kahn, Ralph; Zurek, Richard; Martin, Leonard; Singer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) afforded the possibility of resolving features as small as 100 km on the Martian surface even when it is at the far point of its orbit. Therefore it is ideally suited for monitoring seasonal changes on the red planet. The objectives research include: the study of Martian dust storms; use of images obtained through different filters to study the spectral reflectance of regions on the Martian surface; use of ultraviolet images and spectra to measure the amount of ozone in the planet's atmosphere as a function of location of the planet; use of images to study changes in the albedo of the Mars surface; and use of Planetary Camera images to study Martian clouds and to measure the opacity of the atmosphere.

  17. Asteroid observations with the Hubble space telescope and the space infrared telescope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hubble space telescope will provide asteroid observers with exceptional opportunities to make observations not possible from the ground. It will provide expanded wavelength coverage in the ultraviolet, plus high spatial resolution permitting observations of body shape, configuration and compositional variations at geophysically and cosmochemically relevant scales for the nearest and largest objects. There are also opportunities for making important observations of asteroids fainter than can be practically observed from the ground. Other second- generation Earth-orbiting observatories are planned for later years. The authors discuss how one of these, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, has particular potential for asteroids

  18. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET have prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space-based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that will increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays, and the triggering capability of the instrument. The GLAST proposal is based on the assertion that silicon particle detectors are the technology of choice for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST Tracker has planes of thin radiatior interspersed with planes of crossed-strip (x,y) 300-μm-pitch silicon detectors to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm in track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of 0.1 degree at high energy (the low energy angular resolution at 100 MeV would be about 2 degree, limited by multiple scattering). A possible GLAST calorimeter is made of a mosaic of Csl crystals of order 10 r.l. in depth, with silicon photodiodes readout. The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET's extends the energy range to about 300 GeV

  19. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, G.L.

    1993-11-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET have prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space-based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that will increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays, and the triggering capability of the instrument. The GLAST proposal is based on the assertion that silicon particle detectors are the technology of choice for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST Tracker has planes of thin radiatior interspersed with planes of crossed-strip (x,y) 300-{mu}m-pitch silicon detectors to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers ({approximately}5 cm) provides a lever arm in track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of 0.1{degree} at high energy (the low energy angular resolution at 100 MeV would be about 2{degree}, limited by multiple scattering). A possible GLAST calorimeter is made of a mosaic of Csl crystals of order 10 r.l. in depth, with silicon photodiodes readout. The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET`s extends the energy range to about 300 GeV.

  20. Performance of the second MEMS space telescope for observation of extreme lightning from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-A.; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jik; Park, Il H.

    2016-03-01

    A small space-telescope equipped with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) micro-mirror is applied to space missions for observing random, rare and temporal events like transient luminous events (TLEs). The measurement of TLEs with fine time resolution will show the different temporal profiles predicted by the various models for sprites, blue jets, elves and halos. The proposed space-telescope consists of three components: two sub-telescopes with different focal lengths and a spectrometer. The trigger telescope with a short focal length surveys a wide field of view. The zoom-in telescope with a long focal length looks into a small field of view area that is part of the trigger telescope's wide field of view. Upon identifying a candidate TLE, the trigger telescope determines the location of the event and provides the location to the MEMS micro-mirror. Then, the micro-mirror, which is placed as a pinhole in front of the zoom-in telescope, rotates its mirror plane by such an angle that the zoom-in telescope will watch the small field of view around the center of the event. In this manner, the zoom-in telescope achieves the zoom-in designed by its long focal length. The first such small-space telescope, the MEMS Telescope for Extreme Lightning (MTEL), was launched into space in 2009 and identified a few candidates sprites. However a power failure (over-charge of the solar battery) of the main satellite occurred, and the MTEL was not able to continue space operation to acquire sizable statistics for TLE events. We developed and constructed the second small-space telescope, called MTEL-II, to continue to observe TLE events in space. In this paper, we present the performance of MTEL-II based on ground tests.

  1. Gamma-ray observations of the microquasars Cygnus X-1, Cygnus X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339-4 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bodaghee, Arash; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jerome; Wilms, Joern; Pooley, Guy G

    2013-01-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration, the jet mechanism, and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 d and 10 d of ~4 years worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339-4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus 5 new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ~5-sigma that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10-d timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1, we find three low significance excesses (~3-4-sigma) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other mic...

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope and multi-wavelength observations of the flaring activity of PKS 1510-089 between 2008 September and 2009 June

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    We report on the multi-wavelength observations of PKS 1510-089 (a flat spectrum radio quasar at z=0.361) during its high activity period between 2008 September and 2009 June. During this 11 months period, the source was characterized by a complex variability at optical, UV and gamma-ray bands, on time scales down to 6-12 hours. The brightest gamma-ray isotropic luminosity, recorded on 2009 March 26, was ~ 2x10^48erg s^-1. The spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range shows a mild curvature well described by a log-parabolic law, and can be understood as due to the Klein-Nishina effect. The gamma-ray flux has a complex correlation with the other wavelengths. There is no correlation at all with the X-ray band, a weak correlation with the UV, and a significant correlation with the optical flux. The gamma-ray flux seems to lead the optical one by about 13 days. From the UV photometry we estimated a black hole mass of ~ 5.4x10^8 solar masses, and an accretion rate of ~ 0.5 solar masses/year. Although the power in the ...

  3. Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the gamma-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity and full-sky coverage of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this talk I will describe targets studied for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. I will also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, c...

  4. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MICROQUASARS CYGNUS X-1, CYGNUS X-3, GRS 1915+105, AND GX 339–4 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rodriguez, Jérôme [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/INSU, CEA DSM/IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Pooley, Guy G., E-mail: bodaghee@ssl.berkeley.edu [Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cavendish Laboratory, The University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ∼4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339–4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ∼5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (∼3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339–4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} and 1.6 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  5. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MICROQUASARS CYGNUS X-1, CYGNUS X-3, GRS 1915+105, AND GX 339–4 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ∼4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339–4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ∼5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (∼3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339–4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 and 1.6 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars

  6. The gamma-ray large area space telescope (GLAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope is planned as NASA's next major mission in high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It is included in the Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan as a 2002 'New Start', with a planned 2005 launch. NASA commissioned a Facility Science Team (FST) of both advocates and non-advocates to establish the framework of the mission. The FST developed a Science Requirements Document that outlines the specifications of an instrument needed to make the next advance in this field. The adopted specifications will lead to an investigation with an energy response extending to 300 GeV, ten times higher than the EGRET instrument on the Compton Observatory, and with a source sensitivity 50 times greater. In addition there would be gains in spectral and spatial resolution. A heavy emphasis will be placed on multi-wavelength observations to maximize the science from the mission

  7. Astronomy with a Budget Telescope An Introduction to Practical Observing

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    If you had purchased an inexpensive astronomical telescope a few years ago, disappointment would have been almost guaranteed. In current Internet age, times have changed and most (but not quite all) telescopes have been used to favorable results. Sir Patrick Moore, working with John Watson, has surveyed and tested the best and the worst of today's budget-priced astronomical telescopes. This new edition of Astronomy with a Budget Telescope is the result of their efforts. This book will show you how to recognize the good from the bad in observational ware with essential hints and tips on what to look for when buying both new and used telescopes. Updated and expanded, this latest edition includes budgeting tips for the new generation of digital cameras and 'go-to' telescopes. It provides a step-by-step guide to setting up your telescope, and how to observe the Moon, Sun, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Inside you'll find full-page finder charts and full-color images showing you what each object should loo...

  8. Optical telescope BIRT in ORIGIN for gamma ray burst observing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Content, Robert; Sharples, Ray; Page, Mathew J.; Cole, Richard; Walton, David M.; Winter, Berend; Pedersen, Kristian; Hjorth, Jens; Andersen, Michael; Hornstrup, Allan; Den Herder, Jan-Willem A.; Piro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The ORIGIN concept is a space mission with a gamma ray, an X-ray and an optical telescope to observe the gamma ray bursts at large Z to determine the composition and density of the intergalactic matter in the line of sight. It was an answer to the ESA M3 call for proposal. The optical telescope is...... path length. All 3 instruments use the same 2k x 2k detector simultaneously so that telescope pointing and tip-tilt control of a fold mirror permit to place the gamma ray burst on the desired instrument without any other mechanism. © 2012 SPIE....

  9. New vacuum solar telescope and observations with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is a one meter vacuum solar telescope that aims to observe fine structures on the Sun. The main goals of NVST are high resolution imaging and spectral observations, including measurements of the solar magnetic field. NVST is the primary ground-based facility used by the Chinese solar research community in this solar cycle. It is located by Fuxian Lake in southwest China, where the seeing is good enough to perform high resolution observations. We first introduce the general conditions at the Fuxian Solar Observatory and the primary science cases of NVST. Then, the basic structures of this telescope and instruments are described in detail. Finally, some typical high resolution data of the solar photosphere and chromosphere are also shown

  10. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in 3 months produced a deeper and better-resolved map of the gamma-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ~10-sigma) gamma-ray sources in these data. These are the best-characterized and best-localized point-like (i.e.,...

  11. Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric telescope automation and observing software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photometric telescope (PT) provides observations necessary for the photometric calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Because the attention of the observing staff is occupied by the operation of the 2.5 meter telescope which takes the survey data proper, the PT must reliably take data with little supervision. In this paper we describe the PT's observing program, MOP, which automates most tasks necessary for observing. MOP's automated target selection is closely modeled on the actions a human observer might take, and is built upon a user interface that can be (and has been) used for manual operation. This results in an interface that makes it easy for an observer to track the activities of the automating procedures and intervene with minimum disturbance when necessary. MOP selects targets from the same list of standard star and calibration fields presented to the user, and chooses standard star fields covering ranges of airmass, color, and time necessary to monitor atmospheric extinction and produce a photometric solution. The software determines when additional standard star fields are unnecessary, and selects survey calibration fields according to availability and priority. Other automated features of MOP, such as maintaining the focus and keeping a night log, are also built around still functional manual interfaces, allowing the observer to be as active in observing as desired; MOP's automated features may be used as tools for manual observing, ignored entirely, or allowed to run the telescope with minimal supervision when taking routine data

  12. A Proposed Astronomy Learning Progression for Remote Telescope Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Burrows, Andrea C.; French, Debbie A.; Sanchez, Richard A.; Tatge, Coty B.

    2014-01-01

    Providing meaningful telescope observing experiences for students who are deeply urban or distantly rural place-bound--or even daylight time-bound--has consistently presented a formidable challenge for astronomy educators. For nearly 2 decades, the Internet has promised unfettered access for large numbers of students to conduct remote telescope…

  13. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Atwood, W B

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. This paper describes the LAT, its pre-flight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4x4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 x,y tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an 8 layer hodoscopic configuration wit...

  14. Automated Science Processing for the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, James

    2012-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope provides high sensitivity to emission from astronomical sources over a broad energy range (20MeV to >300 GeV) and has substantially improved spatial, energy, and timing resolution compared with previous observatories at these energies [4]. One of the LAT's most innovative features is that it performs continuous monitoring of the gamma-ray sky with all-sky coverage every 3 h. This survey strategy greatly enables the search for transient behavior from both previously known and unknown sources. In addition, the constant accumulation of data allows for increasingly improved measurements of persistent sources. These include the Milky Way Galaxy itself, which produces gamma-ray emission as a result from interactions of cosmic rays with gas in the Galaxy, and potential signals from candidate dark matter particles in the Milky Way and its neighboring galaxies. The automated science processing (ASP) functionality of the Fermi Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) is a part of the automated data pipeline that processes the raw data arriving from the spacecraft and puts it into a form amenable to scientific analysis. ASP operates at the end of the pipeline on the processed data and is intended to detect and characterize transient behavior (e.g., short time scale increases or “flares” in the gamma-ray flux) from astronomical sources. On detection of a flaring event, ASP will alert other observatories on a timely basis so that they may train their telescopes on the flaring source in order to detect possible correlated activity in other wavelength bands. Since the data from the LAT is archived and publicly available as soon as it is processed, ASP serves mainly to provide triggers for those follow-up observations; its estimates of the properties of the flaring sources (flux, spectral index, location) need not be the best possible, as subsequent off-line analysis can provide more refined

  15. The Fermi Large Area Telescope as a Galactic Supernovae Axionscope

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Manuel; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Conrad, Jan; Sanchez-Conde, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In a Galactic core-collapse supernova (SN), axionlike particles (ALPs) could be emitted via the Primakoff process and eventually convert into $\\gamma$ rays in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. From a data-driven sensitivity estimate, we find that, for a SN exploding in our Galaxy, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) would be able to explore the photon-ALP coupling down to $g_{a\\gamma} \\simeq 2 \\times 10^{-13}\\,$GeV$^{-1}$ for an ALP mass $m_a \\lesssim 10^{-9}\\,$eV. These values are out of reach of next generation laboratory experiments. In this event, the Fermi LAT would probe large regions of the ALP parameter space invoked to explain the anomalous transparency of the Universe to $\\gamma$ rays, stellar cooling anomalies, and cold dark matter. If no $\\gamma$-ray emission were to be detected, Fermi-LAT observations would improve current bounds derived from SN1987A by more than one order of magnitude.

  16. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 using the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly-a and H-a lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad blueshifted Ly-a, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also detect NV~\\lambda\\lambda 1239,1243 A line emission, but only to the red of Ly-A. The profiles of the NV lines differ markedly from that of H-a, suggesting that the N^{4+} ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  17. Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cleve, J. Van; Stansberry, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (approximately 0.3 to 4.0 microns) spectroscopy has been successfully employed since the early 1970 s to infer the surface compositions of asteroids. Spectroscopic observations in the thermal infrared (approximately 5 to 40 microns) are similarly promising. Silicate spectra in this range are dominated by Si-O stretch and bend fundamentals, and other minerals have similarly diagnostic bands. Observations in this spectral range are difficult from the ground due to strong telluric absorptions and background emission. Nevertheless, spectral structure has been detected on a few asteroids in the 8 to 14-micron range from the ground, as well as from orbit with the ISO satellite. The Spitzer Space Telescope can observe asteroids with much higher sensitivity over a broader wavelength range than is possible from the ground or was possible with ISO. We present results of measurements of asteroids with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  18. A Balloon-borne Telescope for Planetary Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Yuji; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakano, Toshihiko; Fujimura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Mutsumi

    2012-07-01

    This presentation reports the development status of the balloon-borne telescope(BBT) for planetary observations which is scheduled to launch in August 2012. The BBT flies in the stratosphere where the atmosphere is as 1/100 thin as that around the ground, and is higher than the ozone layer. The telescope can receive star light with the band from NIR to UV through less atmospheric distortions. Our project aims to take images of target planets from the BBT in such advantageous environment, and to observe atmospheric phenomena in other planets. As the technology demonstration, a prototype flight system with a 30cm diameter telescope was launched in 2009 in Japan. The second demonstration with an improved system is scheduled to launch in this August. With the improved flight system, the BBT is expected to take images of Venus with the resolution of as high as 0.2 arc-seconds in a few hours. Eventually, the BBT is planned to launch into the polar jet stream and to observe target planets in a few hundreds hours. For the following flight observation, the successor flight system is already being developed. In this presentation, the target planets and its science which the project aims are briefly introduced. And also the development status of the flight system for the next launch is introduced.

  19. GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (∼ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and γ beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on

  20. GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi

    2003-07-01

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (~ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and γ beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on

  1. Galileo's telescope: history, scientific analysis, and replicated observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Giorgio

    2009-08-01

    In the summer of 1609, Galileo Galilei started to improve upon the Dutch spyglass. Only a few months were needed to increase the magnifying power of the instrument up to 30 times. This transformation allowed Galileo to perform astronomical observations destined to change the traditional Universe. At present, the Institute and Museum of History of Science of Florence is conducting a research programme on the lenses of early telescopes. Historical research is combined with scientific analyses conducted by the National Institute of Applied Optics in Arcetri, the National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Florence, and the Glass Experimental Station in Murano. The shape and composition of the lenses are studied by applying different techniques. Moreover, the composition of early lenses and scientific glass objects are compared. Finally, Galileo’s observations are checked with an optical replica of Galileo’s telescope held at the Astrophysical Observatory in Arcetri.

  2. Observations of Extragalactic Sources with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Mazin, D.

    2007-01-01

    MAGIC is currently the world's largest single dish ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope. During the first year of operation, more than 20 extragalactic sources have been observed and several of them detected. Here we present results of analyzed data, including discussion about spectral and temporal properties of the detected sources. In addition, we discuss implications of the measured energy spectra of distant sources for our knowledge of the extragalactic background light.

  3. Telescopic observations - Visual, photographic, polarimetric. [of planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leonard J.; James, Philip B.; Dollfus, Audouin; Iwasaki, Kyosuke; Beish, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper divides the high points of telescopic observations of Mars into three time periods: historical, missions support (recent), and present. Particular attention is given to visual and photographic observations, with brief discussions of spectroscopic and polarization studies. Major topics of Martian phenomena included are albedo features, polar caps, dust storms, and white clouds. The interannual variability of the recessions of seasonal polar caps has been compared to dust storm activity, but this relationship remains uncertain. Only a very limited number of canals can be related to markings on the Viking images. The remainder are argued to be optical illusions created by observers pushing their perceived resolution beyond practical limits.

  4. Spectral analysis of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crab Pulsar is a relatively young neutron star. The Pulsar is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was observed on Earth in the year 1054. The Crab Pulsar has been extensively observed in the gamma-ray energy band by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument onboard the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope, during its first months of data taking. The LAT data have been used to reconstruct the fluxes and the energy spectra of the pulsed gamma-ray component and of the gamma-rays from the Nebula. The results on the pulsed component are in good agreement with the previous measurement from EGRET, while the results on the Nebula are consistent with the observations from Earth based telescopes.

  5. Thermalizing a telescope in Antarctica: Analysis of ASTEP observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, Tristan; Agabi, Abdelkrim; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Daban, Jean-Baptiste; Mekarnia, Djamel; Aristidi, Eric; Schmider, Francois-Xavier; Crouzet, Nicolas; Gonçalves, Ivan; Gouvret, Carole; Ottogalli, Sébastien; Faradji, Hélène; Blanc, Pierre-Eric; Bondoux, Eric; Valbousquet, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The installation and operation of a telescope in Antarctica represent particular challenges, in particular the requirement to operate at extremely cold temperatures, to cope with rapid temperature fluctuations and to prevent frosting. Heating of electronic subsystems is a necessity, but solutions must be found to avoid the turbulence induced by temperature fluctua- tions on the optical paths. ASTEP 400 is a 40 cm Newton telescope installed at the Concordia station, Dome C since 2010 for photometric observations of fields of stars and their exoplanets. While the telescope is designed to spread star light on several pixels to maximize photometric stability, we show that it is nonetheless sensitive to the extreme variations of the seeing at the ground level (between about 0.1 and 5 arcsec) and to temperature fluctuations between --30 degrees C and --80 degrees C. We analyze both day-time and night-time observations and obtain the magnitude of the seeing caused by the mirrors, dome and camera. The most important ...

  6. Observations of Supernova Remnants with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Egron, E; Loru, S; Iacolina, M N; Marongiu, M; Righini, S; Mulas, S; Murtas, G; Bachetti, M; Concu, R; Melis, A; Trois, A; Ricci, R; Pilia, M

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of the Astronomical Validation activities for the 64m Sardinia Radio Telescope, we performed 5-22 GHz imaging observations of the complex-morphology supernova remnants (SNRs) W44 and IC443. We adopted innovative observing and mapping techniques providing unprecedented accuracy for single-dish imaging of SNRs at these frequencies, revealing morphological details typically available only at lower frequencies through interferometry observations. High-frequency studies of SNRs in the radio range are useful to better characterize the spatially-resolved spectra and the physical parameters of different regions of the SNRs interacting with the ISM. Furthermore, synchrotron-emitting electrons in the high-frequency radio band are also responsible for the observed high-energy phenomenology as -e.g.- Inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emission components observed in gamma-rays, to be disentangled from hadron emission contribution (providing constraints on the origin of cosmic rays).

  7. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide important new capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. Integral-field spectroscopy is performed with apertures 3 to 7 arcsec square (spatial slices of 0.1 to 0.6 arcsec). JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This tracking capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST will observe in the solar elongation range of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During an observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using data from JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This results from the fact that the Observatory's sunshield and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example

  8. Status of GLAST, the Gamma-ray Large-area Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochester, L.; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    GLAST is a satellite-based observatory consisting of the Large-Area Telescope (LAT), a modular 4 x 4-tower pair-conversion telescope with a field-of-view greater than 2 steradians, capable of measuring gamma-ray energies in the range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, and the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), a set of NaI and BGO detectors covering 8 steradians and sensitive to photons with energies between 10 keV and 25 MeV, allowing for correlative observations of transient events. The observatory is currently being constructed and is scheduled to be launched in August 2007.

  9. Status of GLAST, the Gamma-ray Large-area Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GLAST is a satellite-based observatory consisting of the Large-Area Telescope (LAT), a modular 4 x 4-tower pair-conversion telescope with a field-of-view greater than 2 steradians, capable of measuring gamma-ray energies in the range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, and the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), a set of NaI and BGO detectors covering 8 steradians and sensitive to photons with energies between 10 keV and 25 MeV, allowing for correlative observations of transient events. The observatory is currently being constructed and is scheduled to be launched in August 2007

  10. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy γ-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3) measure spectra

  11. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  12. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Norwood, James; Fletcher, Leigh N; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G J; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  13. Breakout Reconnection Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R ⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R ⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s‑1. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.

  14. Breakout Reconnection Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Reva, Anton; Shestov, Sergey; Kuzin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 $R_\\odot$ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 \\AA\\ line. Starting from 2009 April 8 TESIS, observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 $R_\\odot$ above photosphere. A reconstructed from the MDI data magnetic field also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of $\\approx$ 7 km s$^{-1}$. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5-4 \\AA\\ channel increased. We interpret the loops' sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below...

  15. Detections of millisecond pulsars with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi observatory was launched on June 11, 2008. It hosts the Large Area Telescope (LAT), sensitive to gamma-ray photons from 20 MeV to over 300 GeV. When the LAT began its activity, nine young and energetic pulsars were known in gamma ray range. At least several tens of pulsar detections by the LAT were predicted before launch. The LAT also allowed the study of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), never firmly detected in gamma ray range before Fermi. This thesis first presents the pulsar timing campaign for the LAT, in collaboration with large radio telescopes and X-ray telescopes, allowing for high sensitivity pulsed searches. Furthermore, it lead to quasi-homogeneous coverage of the galactic MSPs, so that the search for pulsations in LAT data for this population of stars was not affected by an a-priori bias. We present a search for pulsations from these objects in LAT data. For the first time, eight galactic MSPs have been detected as sources of pulsed gamma-ray emission over 100 MeV. In addition, a couple of good candidates for future detection are seen. A similar search for globular cluster MSPs was not successful so far. Comparison of the phase-aligned gamma-ray and radio light curves, as well as the spectral shapes, leads to the conclusion that their gamma-ray emission is similar to that of normal pulsars, and is probably produced in the outer-magnetosphere. This discovery suggests that many unresolved gamma-ray sources are unknown MSPs. (author)

  16. Neptune and Titan Observed with Keck Telescope Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.E.; Macintosh, B.A.; Gibbard, S.; Gavel, D.T.; Roe, H.; De Pater, I.; Ghez, A.M.; Acton, S.; Wizinowich, P.L.; Lai, O.

    2000-05-05

    The authors report on observations taken during engineering science validation time using the new adaptive optics system at the 10-m Keck II Telescope. They observe Neptune and Titan at near-infrared wavelengths. These objects are ideal for adaptive optics imaging because they are bright and small, yet have many diffraction-limited resolution elements across their disks. In addition Neptune and Titan have prominent physical features, some of which change markedly with time. They have observed infrared-bright storms on Neptune, and very low-albedo surface regions on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, Spatial resolution on Neptune and Titan was 0.05-0.06 and 0.04-0.05 arc sec, respectively.

  17. Observation of the Crab Nebula with the MAGIC telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Otte, A Nepomuk; Contreras, J L; Gaug, M; López, M; Majumdar, P

    2007-01-01

    We report about very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations of the Crab Nebula with the MAGIC telescope. The gamma-ray flux from the nebula was measured between 60 GeV and 9 TeV. The energy spectrum can be described with a curved power law dF/dE=f_0 (E/300GeV)^(a+b log10(E/300GeV)) with a flux normalization f_0 of (6.0+-0.2stat)*10^-10 cm^-2 s^-1 TeV^-1, a=-2.31+-0.06stat and b=-0.26+-0.07stat. The position of the IC-peak is determined at 77+-47 GeV. Within the observation time and the experimental resolution of the telescope, the gamma-ray emission is steady and pointlike. The emission's center of gravity coincides with the position of the pulsar. Pulsed gamma-ray emission from the pulsar could not be detected. We constrain the cutoff energy of the spectrum to be less than ~30 GeV, assuming that the differential energy spectrum has an exponential cutoff. For a super-exponential shape, the cutoff energy can be as high as ~60GeV.

  18. Metric Observations of Saturn with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Regis D.; Pandey-Pommier, Mamta; Gautier, Daniel; Zarka, Philippe; Hofstadter, Mark D.

    2014-11-01

    We used the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (Pune, India) to observe Saturn at three wavelengths in the metric domain - 0.49 m (610 MHz), 1.28 m (235 MHz), and 2.0 m (150 MHz) - with the aim of constraining the deep atmospheric ammonia and water vapor concentrations around 10-20 kbar. We have obtained a clean detection at 0.49 m, with a disk brightness temperature of 216 ± 23 K, and no significant emission outside the disk, thus confirming model predictions about the weakness of synchrotron radiation by magnetospheric electrons. The initial measurements at the longer wavelengths were affected by strong ionospheric scintillation and RFI interferences. These measurements have been repeated and are expected to help reducing the initial error bars. We will discuss the constraints resulting from these observations on Saturn's deep atmospheric composition.

  19. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  20. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M.; Larsson, Josefin; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S. J.; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2010-01-01

    The young remnant of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) offers an unprecedented glimpse into the hydrodynamics and kinetics of fast astrophysical shocks. We have been monitoring SN 1987A with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since it was launched. The recent repair of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) allows us to compare observations in 2004, just before its demise, with those in 2010, shortly after its resuscitation by NASA astronauts. We find that the Ly-alpha and H-alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We report evidence for nearly coherent, resonant scattering of Lya photons (to blueshifts approximately -12,000 km /s) from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also report emission to the red of Ly-alpha that we attribute to N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line emission. These lines are detectable because, unlike hydrogen atoms, N4+ ions emit hundreds of photons before they are ionized. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H-alpha. We attribute this to scattering of N4+ ions by magnetic fields in the ionized plasma. Thus, N v emission provides a unique probe of the isotropization zone of the collisionless shock. Observations with the recently installed Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) will enable us to observe the N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line profiles with much higher signal-to-noise ratios than possible with STIS and may reveal lines of other highly ionized species (such as C IVlambda lambda 1548,1551 Angstrom) that will test our explanation for the N v emission

  1. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Moses, Julianne; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper, we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant-planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  2. SETI Observations of Exoplanets with the Allen Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Harp, G R; Tarter, Jill C; Dreher, John; Jordan, Jane; Shostak, Seth; Smolek, Ken; Kilsdonk, Tom; Wimberly, M K R; Ross, John; Barott, W C; Ackermann, R F; Blair, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    We report radio SETI observations on a large number of known exoplanets and other nearby star systems using the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) for about 19000 hours from May 2009 to Dec 2015. This search focused on narrow-band radio signals from a set totaling 9293 stars, including 2015 exoplanet stars and Kepler objects of interest and an additional 65 whose planets may be close to their Habitable Zone. The ATA observations were made using multiple synthesized beams and an anticoincidence filter to help identify terrestrial radio interference. Stars were observed over frequencies from 1-9 GHz in multiple bands that avoid strong terrestrial communication frequencies. Data were processed in near-real time for narrow-band (0.7-100 Hz) continuous and pulsed signals with transmitter/receiver relative accelerations from -0.3 to 0.3 m/s^2. A total of 1.9 x 10^8 unique signals requiring immediate follow-up were detected in observations covering more than 8 x 10^9 star-MHz. We detected no persistent signals from extrate...

  3. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HD 202628 DEBRIS DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by ∼64° from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along P.A. = 130°. It has inner and outer radii (>50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast (Δr/r ≈ 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is ∼254 AU. With mean surface brightness of V ≈ 24 mag arcsec–2, this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by ∼28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the HD 202628 Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, John E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by approx.64deg from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along PA = 130deg. It has inner and outer radii (> 50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast ((Delta)r/r approx. = 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is approx. 254 AU. With a mean surface brightnesses of V approx. = 24 mag arcsec.(sup -2), this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by approx.28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Grillmair, C J; Holtzmann, J A; Worthey, G; Ballester, G E; Burrows, C J; Clarke, J T; Crisp, D; Evans, R W; Gallagher, J S; Griffiths, R E; Hester, J J; Hössel, J G; Scowen, P A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Trauger, J T; Watson, A M; Westphal, J A; Grillmair, Carl.J.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Worthey, Guy

    1997-01-01

    We present an F606W-F814W color-magnitude diagram for the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images. The luminosity function is well-sampled to 3 magnitudes below the turn-off. We see no evidence for multiple turnoffs and conclude that, at least over the field of the view of the WFPC2, star formation was primarily single-epoch. If the observed number of blue stragglers is due to extended star formation, then roughly 6% (upper limit) of the stars could be half as old as the bulk of the galaxy. The color difference between the red giant branch and the turnoff is consistent with an old population and is very similar to that observed in the old, metal-poor Galactic globular clusters M68 and M92. Despite its red horizontal branch, Draco appears to be older than M68 and M92 by 1.6 +/- 2.5 Gyrs, lending support to the argument that the ``second parameter'' which governs horizontal branch morphology must be something other than age. Draco's observed luminosity function is very similar...

  6. Metric Observations of Saturn with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, R.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Gautier, D.; Zarka, P.; Hofstadter, M.; Hersant, F.; Girard, J.

    2015-12-01

    We used the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, India) to observe Saturn in the metric domain – at 0.49 m (610 MHz), 1.28 m (235 MHz), and 2.0 m (150 MHz) -with the aim of constraining the deep atmospheric ammonia and water vapor concentrations around 10-20 kbar. We have obtained a clean detection at 610 MHz, with a disk brightness temperature Tb= 216 ± 32 K, and no significant emission outside of the disk, thus confirming model predictions about the weakness of synchrotron radiation by magnetospheric electrons (Lorenzato et al. 2012, Lorenzato et al. 2012). A marginal detection was obtained at 235 MHz, with Tb= 404 ± 249 K, while an upper limit of 1210 K was set at 150 MHz. Unfortunately, some of the GMRT measurements were affected by strong ionospheric scintillation or radio frequency interferences (RFI). Although the reduction of the LOFAR measurements is much more complex, results are expected in the near future and they will complement nicely with those obtained with the GMRT. We will discuss the constraints resulting from these observations on Saturn's deep atmospheric composition.

  7. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT RCW 86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 5.4 yr Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we report the detection of GeV γ-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnant RCW 86 (G315.4-2.3) with a significance of ∼5.1σ. The data slightly favors an extended emission of this supernova remnant. The spectral index of RCW 86 is found to be very hard, Γ ∼ 1.4, in the 0.4-300 GeV range. A one-zone leptonic model can well fit the multi-wavelength data from radio to very high energy γ-rays. The very hard GeV γ-ray spectrum and the inferred low gas density seem to disfavor a hadronic origin for the γ-rays. The γ-ray behavior of RCW 86 is very similar to several other TeV shell-type supernova remnants, e.g., RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347

  8. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  9. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  10. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  11. NASA Telescopes Join Forces to Observe Unprecedented Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    WASHINGTON -- NASA's Swift satellite, Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory have teamed up to study one of the most puzzling cosmic blasts ever observed. More than a week later, high-energy radiation continues to brighten and fade from its location. Astronomers say they have never seen such a bright, variable, high-energy, long-lasting burst before. Usually, gamma-ray bursts mark the destruction of a massive star, and flaring emission from these events never lasts more than a few hours. Although research is ongoing, astronomers feel the unusual blast likely arose when a star wandered too close to its galaxy's central black hole. Intense tidal forces probably tore the star apart, and the infalling gas continues to stream toward the hole. According to this model, the spinning black hole formed an outflowing jet along its rotational axis. A powerful blast of X- and gamma rays is seen when the jet is pointed in our direction. On March 28, Swift's Burst Alert Telescope discovered the source in the constellation Draco when it erupted with the first in a series of powerful blasts. "We know of objects in our own galaxy that can produce repeated bursts, but they are thousands to millions of times less powerful than the bursts we are seeing. This is truly extraordinary," said Andrew Fruchter at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. Swift determined a position for the explosion, which now is cataloged as gamma-ray burst (GRB) 110328A, and informed astronomers worldwide. As dozens of telescopes turned to study the spot, astronomers quickly noticed a small, distant galaxy very near the Swift position. A deep image taken by Hubble on Monday, April 4, pinpointed the source of the explosion at the center of this galaxy, which lies 3.8 billion light-years away from Earth. That same day, astronomers used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make a four-hour-long exposure of the puzzling source. The image, which locates the X-ray object 10 times more

  12. Hubble Space Telescope observations of white dwarfs in detached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I describe three programs of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of white dwarfs (WDs) in detached binaries. (1) I summarize the HST UV spectroscopy of the Hyades eclipsing binary V471 Tauri, containing a dK main-sequence star and a hot WD. By phasing time-resolved STIS spectra on the 9.25-min rotation period of the WD, we have shown that there are two opposite spots on the WD where there is magnetic accretion from the K star's wind. (2) Several programs of direct imaging and FGS astrometry are yielding high-precision visual orbits and dynamical masses, including the famous systems of Sirius and Procyon, as well as three fainter binaries in which both components are DC WDs. (3) Finally I discuss the bizarre nucleus of the low-surface-brightness planetary nebula EGB 6. The central star is associated with a compact emission-line nebula, which HST imaging shows is associated with a resolved dM companion. Why there should be a compact nebula around the cool star is puzzling; we speculate that it could be an accretion disk of material captured from the outflow that produced the surrounding faint PN. In a recent development, Spitzer has detected a 24 μm excess from EGB 6, indicating a dust component at a temperature of ∼260 K; the location of this dust relative to the hot and cool stars and the compact nebula remains uncertain at present.

  13. The On-Orbit Calibrations for the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ampe, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Anderson, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Bagagli, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Belli, F.; /Frascati /Rome U.,Tor Vergata; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-17

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.

  14. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, on Behalf of the Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi (Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potential targets for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. Active Galactic Nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. While important to gamma-ray astrophysics, such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT)on the Fermi spacecraft.

  15. The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft bore-sight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009. (authors)

  16. The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bartelt, J.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bogart, J.R.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Cameron, R.A.; Campell, M.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Condamoor, S.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Flath, D.L.; Focke, W.B.; Fouts, K.; Freytag, D.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goodman, J.; Hakimi, M.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.A.; Huffer, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kavelaars, A.; Kelly, H.; Kocian, M.L.; Lee, S.H.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitra, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nelson, D.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J.H.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Saxton, O.H.; Sugizaki, M.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Turri, M.; Usher, T.L.; Wai, L.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P. [Stanford Univ, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys and Cosmol, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bartelt, J.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bogart, J.R.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Cameron, R.A.; Campell, M.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Condamoor, S.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Flath, D.L.; Focke, W.B.; Fouts, K.; Freytag, D.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goodman, J.; Hakimi, M.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.A.; Huffer, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kavelaars, A.; Kelly, H.; Kocian, M.L.; Lee, S.H.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitra, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nelson, D.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J.H.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Saxton, O.H.; Sugizaki, M.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Turri, M.; Usher, T.L.; Wai, L.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P. [Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [and others

    2009-07-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft bore-sight alignments. Here we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. These results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009. (authors)

  17. Upper Limits from Five Years of Blazar Observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; the VERITAS collaboration; Fumagalli, M.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4σ excess.

  18. Upper limits from five years of blazar observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nguyen, T; Nieto, D; De Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rovero, A C; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Fumagalli, M; Prochaska, J X

    2016-01-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) {\\gamma}-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ~570 hours. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog which are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have a spectroscopic distance estimate. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of fo...

  19. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2006-01-01

    This is complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters.

  20. Impact of network geometry, observation schemes and telescope structure deformations on local ties: simulations applied to Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido

    2012-03-01

    The 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is currently under construction in Sardinia (Italy). To ensure future surveying and monitoring operations at an utmost level of accuracy, we aim at selecting the optimal design and the most cost-effective solution for the establishment of the local ground control network (LGCN). We simulate and test 45 data sets corresponding to 5 different network configurations. We investigate the influence of 2 LGCN geometries (14 or 8 ground markers) and 3 terrestrial observation schemes (based on redundant forward intersections or side shots) on the precision and accuracy of the conventional reference point (CRP) of SRT and the simulated tie vector with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) station. In addition, thermal and gravitational deformations of the radio telescope structure are simulated as systematic errors introduced into the observations and their effects on the CRP estimates are quantified. The state-of-the-art of CRP surveying and computation, based on terrestrial indirect methods, is applied. We show how terrestrial indirect methods can estimate the position of the radio telescope CRP to the millimeter precision level. With our simulations, we prove that limiting the LGCN to a 8-point configuration ensures the same precision on the CRP obtained with a 14-point network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of telescope deformations, side shots, despite the lower redundancy, preserve a precision similar to that of redundant forward intersections. We show that the deformations due to gravitational flexure and thermal expansion of the radio telescope cannot be neglected in the tie vector computation, since they may bias the CRP estimate by several millimeters degrading its accuracy but not impacting on its formal precision. We highlight the dependency of the correlation matrices of the solutions on the geometry of the network and the observation schemes. Similarly, varying the extent of telescope deformations

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the HD 202628 Debris Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Krist, John E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by 64 degrees from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along PA = 130 degrees. It has inner and outer radii (>50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 2...

  2. Sensitivity Projections for Dark Matter Searches with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Eric; Sanchez-Conde, Miguel; Anderson, Brandon; Caputo, Regina; Cuoco, Alessandro; Di Mauro, Mattia; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gomez-Vargas, German; Meyer, Manuel; Tibaldo, Luigi; Wood, Matthew; Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Zimmer, Stephan; Ajello, Marco; Albert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the $\\gamma$-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi G...

  3. The Australia Telescope 20GHz Survey: Hardware, Observing Strategy, and Scanning Survey Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Paul J; Kesteven, Michael J; Ekers, Ronald D; Sadler, Elaine M; Murphy, Tara; Massardi, Marcella; Ricci, Roberto; Calabretta, Mark; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Edwards, Philip G; Ekers, Jennifer A; Jackson, Carole A; Leach, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sault, Robert J; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Walker, Mark A; Wilson, Warwick E

    2011-01-01

    The Australia Telescope 20GHz (AT20G) survey is a large area (2{\\pi} sr), sensitive (40mJy), high frequency (20GHz) survey of the southern sky. The survey was conducted in two parts: an initial fast scanning survey, and a series of more accurate follow-up observations. The follow-up survey catalog has been presented by Murphy et al. 2010. In this paper we discuss the hardware setup and scanning survey strategy as well as the production of the scanning survey catalog.

  4. The Fermi Large Area Telescope On Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy \\gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the Instrument Response Functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team h...

  5. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Celik, Q.; Cobet, R.; Davis, D. S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guiriec, S.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Thompson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy -ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the Instrument Response Functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

  6. THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Albert, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Atwood, W. B.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonamente, E., E-mail: echarles@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: luca.baldini@pi.infn.it, E-mail: rando@pd.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); and others

    2012-11-15

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

  7. THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

  8. Fermi large area telescope detection of a break in the gamma-ray spectrum of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on observations of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A in the energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV using 44 months of observations from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We perform a detailed spectral analysis of this source and report on a low-energy break in the spectrum at 1.72−0.89+1.35 GeV. By comparing the results with models for the gamma-ray emission, we find that hadronic emission is preferred for the GeV energy range.

  9. Observations of Very High Energy Gamma-Rays during Moonlight and Twilight with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, J.; Ona-Wilhelmi, E.; Cortina, J.; Lorenz, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study the capability of the MAGIC telescope to observe under moderate moonlight. TeV gamma-ray signals from the Crab nebula were detected with the MAGIC telescope during periods when the Moon was above the horizon and during twilight. This was accomplished by increasing the trigger discriminator thresholds. No change is necessary in the high voltage settings since the camera PMTs were especially designed to avoid high currents. We characterize the telescope performance by studying the effe...

  10. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  11. The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. LAMOST's special design allows both a large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6 m–4.9 m) and a wide field of view (FOV) (5°). It has an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration which continuously changes the mirror's surface that adjusts during the observation process and combines thin deformable mirror active optics with segmented active optics. Its primary mirror (6.67 m × 6.05 m) and active Schmidt mirror (5.74m × 4.40m) are both segmented, and composed of 37 and 24 hexagonal sub-mirrors respectively. By using a parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, the focal surface of 1.75 m in diameter can accommodate 4000 optical fibers. Also, LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras. LAMOST will be the telescope with the highest rate of spectral acquisition. As a national large scientific project, the LAMOST project was formally proposed in 1996, and approved by the Chinese government in 1997. The construction started in 2001, was completed in 2008 and passed the official acceptance in June 2009. The LAMOST pilot survey was started in October 2011 and the spectroscopic survey will launch in September 2012. Up to now, LAMOST has released more than 480000 spectra of objects. LAMOST will make an important contribution to the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe, structure and evolution of the Galaxy, and cross-identification of multi-waveband properties in celestial objects. (invited reviews)

  12. On sky testing of the SOFIA telescope in preparation for the first science observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Franziska; Wolf, Jürgen; Waddell, Patrick; Dunham, Edward; Reinacher, Andreas; Lampater, Ulrich; Jakob, Holger; Bjarke, Lisa; Adams, Sybil; Grashuis, Randy; Meyer, Allan; Bower, Kenneth; Schweikhard, Keith; Keilig, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is an airborne observatory that will study the universe in the infrared spectrum. A Boeing 747-SP aircraft will carry a 2.5 m telescope designed to make sensitive infrared measurements of a wide range of astronomical objects. In 2008, SOFIA's primary mirror was demounted and coated for the first time. After reintegration into the telescope assembly in the aircraft, the alignment of the telescope optics was repeated and successive functional and performance testing of the fully integrated telescope assembly was completed on the ground. The High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) was used as a test instrument for aligning the optics and calibrating and tuning the telescope's pointing and control system in preparation for the first science observations in flight. In this paper, we describe the mirror coating process, the subsequent telescope testing campaigns and present the results.

  13. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  14. Linking Publications and Observations - the ESO Telescope Bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Meakins, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. In this context, the ESO Library has developed and maintains two tools: FUSE, a full-text search tool, and the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a content management system that is used to classify and annotate ESO-related scientific papers. The new public telbib interface provides faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. It is available at http://telbib.eso.org

  15. Shoot-the-Shower: real-time observations for astroparticle physics using the FRAM robotic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebr, J.; Janeček, P.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Mašek, M.; Ebrová, I.; Černý, J.

    2014-12-01

    The FRAM telescope operates as an atmospheric monitoring device for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition to regular photometric observations aimed to determine the overall aerosol content and characteristic in the atmosphere above the Observatory, FRAM is also a part of the rapid monitoring program. When a ultra-high energy shower is detected by the fluorescence telescopes of the Observatory, the FRAM telescope takes a series of images to measure atmospheric transparency along the trajectory of the shower. These observations are critical for the identification of showers with anomalous profiles. If such showers were clearly observed, they can significantly constrain the hadronic interaction models at very high energies.

  16. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  17. Gamma-ray and Radio Properties of Six Pulsars Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltevrede, P.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dormody, M.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hobbs, G.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Makeev, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wang, N.; Watters, K.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed γ-rays for PSRs J0631+1036, J0659+1414, J0742-2822, J1420-6048, J1509-5850, and J1718-3825 using the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Although these six pulsars are diverse in terms of their spin parameters, they share an important feature: their γ-ray light curves are (at least given the current count statistics) single peaked. For two pulsars, there are hints for a double-peaked structure in the light curves. The shapes of the observed light curves of this group of pulsars are discussed in the light of models for which the emission originates from high up in the magnetosphere. The observed phases of the γ-ray light curves are, in general, consistent with those predicted by high-altitude models, although we speculate that the γ-ray emission of PSR J0659+1414, possibly featuring the softest spectrum of all Fermi pulsars coupled with a very low efficiency, arises from relatively low down in the magnetosphere. High-quality radio polarization data are available showing that all but one have a high degree of linear polarization. This allows us to place some constraints on the viewing geometry and aids the comparison of the γ-ray light curves with high-energy beam models.

  18. Discovery of GeV emission from the Circinus galaxy with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of γ-ray emission from the Circinus galaxy using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Circinus is a nearby (∼4 Mpc) starburst with a heavily obscured Seyfert-type active nucleus, bipolar radio lobes perpendicular to the spiral disk, and kpc-scale jet-like structures. Our analysis of 0.1-100 GeV events collected during 4 yr of LAT observations reveals a significant (≅ 7.3σ) excess above the background. We find no indications of variability or spatial extension beyond the LAT point-spread function. A power-law model used to describe the 0.1-100 GeV γ-ray spectrum yields a flux of (18.8 ± 5.8) × 10–9 photon cm–2 s–1 and photon index 2.19 ± 0.12, corresponding to an isotropic γ-ray luminosity of 3 × 1040 erg s–1. This observed γ-ray luminosity exceeds the luminosity expected from cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium and inverse Compton radiation from the radio lobes. Thus, the origin of the GeV excess requires further investigation.

  19. GAMMA-RAY AND RADIO PROPERTIES OF SIX PULSARS DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of pulsed γ-rays for PSRs J0631+1036, J0659+1414, J0742-2822, J1420-6048, J1509-5850, and J1718-3825 using the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Although these six pulsars are diverse in terms of their spin parameters, they share an important feature: their γ-ray light curves are (at least given the current count statistics) single peaked. For two pulsars, there are hints for a double-peaked structure in the light curves. The shapes of the observed light curves of this group of pulsars are discussed in the light of models for which the emission originates from high up in the magnetosphere. The observed phases of the γ-ray light curves are, in general, consistent with those predicted by high-altitude models, although we speculate that the γ-ray emission of PSR J0659+1414, possibly featuring the softest spectrum of all Fermi pulsars coupled with a very low efficiency, arises from relatively low down in the magnetosphere. High-quality radio polarization data are available showing that all but one have a high degree of linear polarization. This allows us to place some constraints on the viewing geometry and aids the comparison of the γ-ray light curves with high-energy beam models.

  20. GRB Follow-up Observations with the Whipple Telescope and VERITAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRB observations above 100 GeV promise to constrain source models decisively and may also permit to study questions in other fields such as quantum gravity. The VERITAS collaboration has been working on GRB follow-up observations for several years using the Whipple 10 m telescope on Mt. Hopkins, AZ. We present a preliminary summary of the bursts for which interesting data is available. Even though the telescope mount was not optimized for this task, GRB follow-ups within less than 5 minutes have been possible. The new telescopes of the VERITAS array (under construction) will bring a further reduction in reaction time and an improvement in sensitivity

  1. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  2. Sensitivity Projections for Dark Matter Searches with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, Eric; Anderson, Brandon; Caputo, Regina; Cuoco, Alessandro; Di Mauro, Mattia; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gomez-Vargas, German; Meyer, Manuel; Tibaldo, Luigi; Wood, Matthew; Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Zimmer, Stephan; Ajello, Marco; Albert, Andrea; Baldini, Luca; Bechtol, Keith; Bloom, Elliott; Ceraudo, Francesco; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Digel, Seth; Gaskins, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Michael; Mirabal, Nestor; Razzano, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the $\\gamma$-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both stati...

  3. The Fermi Large Area Telescope as a cosmic-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope is an international observatory conceived to study high energy gamma-rays from the universe. It is designed to identify and reconstruct electromagnetic showers and it can collect cosmic-ray electrons and positrons thanks to its triggering and filtering capabilities. The Fermi LAT collaboration has published several results on charged cosmic rays. We measured the inclusive spectrum of electrons and positrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV and searched for anisotropies in the electron incoming direction. We have recently published a measurement of cosmic-ray positron-only and electron-only spectra for energies between 20 GeV and 200 GeV exploiting the Earth's magnetic field as a charge separator. In this work we describe the techniques and capabilities of the LAT as a cosmic-ray detector and review the recent results and their interpretations. Prospects for future studies and observations will also be discussed

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT TYCHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Naumann-Godo, M.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J.; Tanaka, T.; Uchiyama, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Mazziotta, M. N.; Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Tibolla, O., E-mail: francesco.giordano@ba.infn.it, E-mail: Melitta.Naumann-Godo@cea.fr [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    After almost three years of data taking in sky-survey mode, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected {gamma}-ray emission toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The {gamma}-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5 {+-} 1.1{sub stat} {+-} 0.7{sub syst}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a photon index of 2.3 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.1{sub syst}. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray, and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from {pi}{sup 0} decays as a result of cosmic-ray acceleration and interaction with the ambient medium.

  5. Highlights from the Fermi Large Area Telescope after 5 years of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has been exploring the high-energy γ-ray sky since its launch on June 11, 2008. After 5 years of essentially flawless operations, the LAT collected more than 800 million γ rays from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. With its uniform coverage of the sky, the LAT allowed the first high statistics observations of γ-ray sources of known classes as well as the discovery of new emitters. The LAT also allowed a detailed study of the diffuse γ-ray emission, which constitutes roughly 90% of the LAT photons, and constrains cosmic-ray production and propagation in our own Galaxy. In this talk I will review the status and the performance of the LAT and describe some of the most important scientific results

  6. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT TYCHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After almost three years of data taking in sky-survey mode, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected γ-ray emission toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The γ-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5 ± 1.1stat ± 0.7syst)× 10–9 cm–2 s–1 with a photon index of 2.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.1syst. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray, and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from π0 decays as a result of cosmic-ray acceleration and interaction with the ambient medium.

  7. The Cherenkov Telescope Array On-Site integral sensitivity: observing the Crab

    CERN Document Server

    Fioretti, Valentina; Schussler, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future large observatory in the very high energy (VHE) domain. Operating from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, it will be composed of tens of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) displaced in a large area of a few square kilometers in both the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA/DATA On-Site Analysis (OSA) is the system devoted to the development of dedicated pipelines and algorithms to be used at the CTA site for the reconstruction, data quality monitoring, science monitoring and realtime science alerting during observations. The OSA integral sensitivity is computed here for the most studied source at Gamma-rays, the Crab Nebula, for a set of exposures ranging from 1000 seconds to 50 hours, using the full CTA Southern array. The reason for the Crab Nebula selection as the first example of OSA integral sensitivity is twofold: (i) this source is characterized by a broad spectrum covering the entire CTA energy range; (ii) it represents, at the time of writing, the standar...

  8. Early Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of the Quasar 3C454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A

    2009-05-07

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable {gamma}-ray emission with an average flux of {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for energies > 100 MeV. The {gamma}-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically-shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a time scale of about three days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair-production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor {delta} > 8, consistent with the values inferred from VLBI observations of superluminal expansion ({delta} {approx} 25). The observed {gamma}-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power-law, but instead steepens strongly above {approx} 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power-law with photon indices of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2GeV could be due to -ray absorption via photonphoton pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host AGN, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close ({approx}< 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  9. Observations of VHE gamma-Ray Sources with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bartko, Hendrik; Collaboration, for the MAGIC

    2007-01-01

    The MAGIC telescope with its 17m diameter mirror is today the largest operating single-dish Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT). It is located on the Canary Island La Palma, at an altitude of 2200m above sea level, as part of the Roque de los Muchachos European Northern Observatory. The MAGIC telescope detects celestial very high energy gamma-radiation in the energy band between about 50 GeV and 10 TeV. Since Autumn of 2004 MAGIC has been taking data routinely, observing various objects li...

  10. Observation of Galactic Sources of Very High Energy Gamma-Rays with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bartko, H.; Collaboration, for the MAGIC

    2007-01-01

    The MAGIC telescope with its 17m diameter mirror is today the largest operating single-dish Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT). It is located on the Canary Island La Palma, at an altitude of 2200m above sea level, as part of the Roque de los Muchachos European Northern Observatory. The MAGIC telescope detects celestial very high energy gamma-radiation in the energy band between about 50 GeV and 10 TeV. Since the autumn of 2004 MAGIC has been taking data routinely, observing various object...

  11. Very high energy gamma-ray observations during moonlight and twilight with the MAGIC telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Böck, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; Delgado, C; De Angelis, A; De los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garcia-Lopez, R; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Göbel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jacon, P; Jogler, T; Kalekin, O; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Kritzer, R; Laille, A; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Ona-Wilhelmi, E; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Poller, M; Puchades, N; Prandini, E; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zandane, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2007-01-01

    We study the capability of the MAGIC telescope to observe under moderate moonlight. TeV gamma-ray signals from the Crab nebula were detected with the MAGIC telescope during periods when the Moon was above the horizon and during twilight. This was accomplished by increasing the trigger discriminator thresholds. No change is necessary in the high voltage settings since the camera PMTs were especially designed to avoid high currents. We characterize the telescope performance by studying the effect of the moonlight on the gamma-ray detection efficiency and sensitivity, as well as on the energy threshold.

  12. Variable stars observed with the AST3-1 telescope from dome A of antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gang; Liu, Xuanming

    2015-01-01

    Dome A in the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best astronomical observing sites on Earth. The first one of three Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1), a 50/68 cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable telescope of China operating in Antarctica and the biggest telescope located in Antarctic inland. AST3-1 obtained huge amounts of data in 2012 and we processed the time-series parts. Here we present light curves of 29 variable stars identified from ten-day observations in 2012 with AST3-1, including 22 newly discovered variable stars. 23 of them are eclipsing binaries and the others are pulsating stars. We present the properties of the 29 variable stars, including the classifications, periods and magnitude ranges in i band. For the 17 eclipsing binaries, the phased light curves are presented with the orbital period values well determined.

  13. Observer-Based Control Techniques for the LBT Adaptive Optics under Telescope Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Agapito, Guido; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Tesi, Pietro; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observer-based control techniques for the adaptive optics system of the LBT telescope. In such a context, attention is focused on the use of Kalman and H∞ filters to estimate the temporal evolution of phase perturbations due to the atmospheric turbulence and the telescope vibrations acting on tip/tilt modes. We shall present preliminary laboratory experiments carried out at the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri using the Kalman filter.

  14. Simultaneous Observations of Solar Prominence Oscillations Using Two Remote Telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapiór, M.; Kotrč, Pavel; Rudawy, P.; Oliver, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 6 (2015), s. 1647-1659. ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : optical observations * prominences * oscillations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  15. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    A balloon borne telescope is one of the effective observation methods for planets under space environment. A telescope is carried up to the stratosphere at an altitude of higher than 32 km where the air density is as thin as 1/100 of that at the ground. The thin atmosphere gives a telescope better observation conditions: fine seeing, stable weather, and high transmittance especially in the infrared region. Moreover there is a chance that a planet can be continuously seen for a window longer than 24 hours from the polar stratosphere. The authors have been developing a balloon borne telescope system for years to take finer images of planets in the solar system., The first object is Venus, of which atmospheric motions are derived by tracking the changes of cloud patterns with bands of UV, visible and NIR. Highly precise pointing control within the error of sub-arcseconds is required so that the balloon borne telescope achieves its diffraction-limited spatial resolution. The flight system is equipped with a three-stage attitude and pointing control system in order to realize the desired pointing control precision. In 2009, the flight system was built and tested in various ground tests and an actual balloon flight. Although the balloon experiment failed due to trouble with an onboard computer, the ground tests before the flight operation have verified that the pointing control system can achieve pointing error of less than 0.2 arcseconds. The balloon borne telescope is being redesigned for a sequential observation of Venus, Mars and Jupiter in the summer of 2011. This flight will be a step for a long-duration observation in the polar stratosphere. Additionally, an observation of the sodium tail of Mercury with a small telescope and a wide field of view has been under consideration. Mercury has very thin atmosphere called a surface-bounded exosphere. Past observations by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes revealed that one of the atmospheric components, gaseous

  16. Scheduling and executing Phase II observing scripts on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Niall I.; Cornell, Mark E.

    1998-07-01

    We describe our scheme for scheduling and observing with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The HET will be operated 85 percent of the time in a queue-scheduled, service observing mode. Principal investigators (PIs) use software planning tools to determine how to make their observations with the HET, and submit proposals for telescope time to local Time Allocation Committees (TACs). Once time has been granted, PIs submit detailed observing scripts which instruct HET operations how, when, and under what conditions data are to be taken. These scripts are compiled into a relational database which is used to schedule the telescope. Observations are scheduled using TAC and PI-assigned priorities to rank plans relative to ne another. Resident astronomers use these priorities plus a set of simple precedence rules to determine which objects are to be observed each night. The execution of observation scripts is mostly automated, with the software commanding the telescope position and building data acquisition macros for each instrument. Aside from building and running the nightly observing queue, the resident astronomers are responsible for identifying targets, starting exposures, and validating data quality. They may also revise the observing queue in real time as conditions change. We discuss our initial experience working with this system, scheduling and executing observations during the commissioning of the HET.

  17. An Autonomous Observation and Control System Based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guang-Yu; Tang, Peng-Yi; Jia, Ming-Hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-Cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    For an unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of Open Source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2 respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfill the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfill the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 dire...

  18. Sensitivity projections for dark matter searches with the Fermi large area telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Anderson, B.; Caputo, R.; Cuoco, A.; Di Mauro, M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Meyer, M.; Tibaldo, L.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Ceraudo, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Digel, S. W.; Gaskins, J.; Gustafsson, M.; Mirabal, N.; Razzano, M.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the γ-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 meV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We project the expected sensitivities of each search method for 10 and 15 years of LAT data taking. In particular, we find that the sensitivity of searches targeting dwarf galaxies, which provide the best limits currently, will improve faster than the square root of observing time. Current LAT limits for dwarf galaxies using six years of data reach the thermal relic level for masses up to 120 GeV for the b b ¯ annihilation channel for reasonable dark matter density profiles. With projected discoveries of additional dwarfs, these limits could extend to about 250 GeV. With as much as 15 years of LAT data these searches would be sensitive to dark matter annihilations at the thermal relic cross section for masses to greater than 400 GeV (200 GeV) in the b b ¯ (τ+τ-) annihilation channels.

  19. The Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results (1874 - 1885): Observing Telescopes, Photographic Processes, and Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D. M.; Wild, M. N.; Appleby, G. M.; Macdonald, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    Potential sources of inhomogeneity in the sunspot measurements published by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, during the early interval 1874 - 1885 are examined critically. Particular attention is paid to inhomogeneities that might arise because the sunspot measurements were derived from solar photographs taken at various contributing solar observatories, which used different telescopes, experienced different seeing conditions, and employed different photographic processes. The procedures employed in the Solar Department at the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), Herstmonceux, during the final phase of sunspot observations provide a modern benchmark for interpreting the early sunspot measurements. The different observing telescopes used at the contributing solar observatories during the interval 1874 - 1885 are discussed in detail, using information gleaned from the official RGO publications and other relevant historical documents. Likewise, the different photographic processes employed at the different solar observatories are reviewed carefully. The procedures used by RGO staff to measure the positions and areas of sunspot groups on photographs of the Sun having a nominal radius of either four or eight inches are described. It is argued that the learning curve for the use of the Kew photoheliograph at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, actually commenced in 1858, not 1874. The RGO daily number of sunspot groups is plotted graphically and analysed statistically. Similarly, the changes of metadata at each solar observatory are shown on the graphical plots and analysed statistically. It is concluded that neither the interleaving of data from the different solar observatories nor the changes in metadata invalidates the RGO count of the number of sunspot groups, which behaves as a quasi-homogeneous time series. Furthermore, it is emphasised that the correct treatment of days without photographs is quite crucial to the correct calculation of Group Sunspot Numbers.

  20. Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector and cosmic ray telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Steinberg, R.I.

    1985-01-25

    The Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector consists of 140 tons of liquid scintillator in a hollow 8 m x 8 m x 16 m box surrounding the Brookhaven /sup 37/Cl solar neutrino detector. The experiment is located at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine. Half of the detector is currently running; the full detector will be taking data early in 1985. An extensive air shower array is also currently under construction on the earth's surface above the underground chamber, consisting of 100 scintillators, each 3 m/sup 2/, covering approximately 0.8 km/sup 2/; the first portion of the surface array will also be providing data in early 1985. Together, the new Homestake detectors (Fig. 1) will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. In this paper, we present a progress report on the new detectors. In Sec. I we describe the underground device and its capabilities as a monopole detector; in Sec. II we describe the surface array and the cosmic ray studies; the neutrino measurements have been discussed elsewhere.

  1. Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector and cosmic ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector consists of 140 tons of liquid scintillator in a hollow 8 m x 8 m x 16 m box surrounding the Brookhaven 37Cl solar neutrino detector. The experiment is located at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine. Half of the detector is currently running; the full detector will be taking data early in 1985. An extensive air shower array is also currently under construction on the earth's surface above the underground chamber, consisting of 100 scintillators, each 3 m2, covering approximately 0.8 km2; the first portion of the surface array will also be providing data in early 1985. Together, the new Homestake detectors (Fig. 1) will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. In this paper, we present a progress report on the new detectors. In Sec. I we describe the underground device and its capabilities as a monopole detector; in Sec. II we describe the surface array and the cosmic ray studies; the neutrino measurements have been discussed elsewhere

  2. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  3. Active remote observing system for the 1-m telescope at Tonantzintla Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Abel; Martínez, Luis A.; Hernández, Héctor; Garfias, Fernando; Ángeles, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    We have designed and installed a new active remote observing system for the 1-m, f/15 telescope at the Tonantzintla Observatory. This remote system is operated in real-time through the Internet, allowing an observer to control the building, the telescope (pointing, guiding and focusing) and the CCD image acquisition at the main and finder telescopes from the Instituto de Astronomia headquarters in Mexico City (150 KM away). The whole system was modeled within the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the design has proved to be versatile enough for a variety of astronomical instruments. We describe the system architecture and how different subsystems (telescope control, main telescope and finder image acquisition, weather station, videoconference, etc.) that are based on different operative system platforms (Linux, Windows, uIP) have been integrated. We present the first results of an IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel. Recent remote direct imaging and spectroscopic observations have been used to test the astronomical site. We conclude that this remote system is an excellent tool for supporting research and graduated observational astronomy programs.

  4. Lunar impact flashes: Results from 56 hours of video survey data observed by using one telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Baratoux, D.; Daassou, A.; Bouley, S.

    2015-10-01

    Primarily observations are performed during 2013 and 2014 at AGM observatory of Marrakech by using one SC telescope in the aim of observing sporadic meteoroids impacting the lunar dark side. Here,we report results from 56 hours of video survey.

  5. Refining the associations of the Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Landoni, M; Paggi, A; Masetti, N; Giroletti, M; Otí-Floranes, H; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Digel, S W; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) was released in February 2010 and the Fermi-LAT 2-Year Source Catalog (2FGL) appeared in April 2012, based on data from 24 months of operation. Since their releases, many follow up observations of unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) were performed and new procedures to associate gamma-ray sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths were developed. Here we review and characterize all the associations as published in the 1FGL and 2FGL catalog on the basis of multifrequency archival observations. In particular we located 177 spectra for the low-energy counterparts that were not listed in the previous Fermi catalogs, and in addition we present new spectroscopic observations of 8 gamma-ray blazar candidates. Based on our investigations, we introduce a new counterpart category of "candidate associations" and propose a refined classification for the candidate low-energy counterparts of the Fermi sources. We compare the 1FGL-assigned coun...

  6. A tentative gamma-ray line from Dark Matter annihilation at the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of a gamma-ray line in the cosmic-ray fluxes would be a smoking-gun signature for dark matter annihilation or decay in the Universe. We present an improved search for such signatures in the data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), concentrating on energies between 20 and 300 GeV. Besides updating to 43 months of data, we use a new data-driven technique to select optimized target regions depending on the profile of the Galactic dark matter halo. In regions close to the Galactic center, we find a 4.6σ indication for a gamma-ray line at Eγ ≈ 130 GeV. When taking into account the look-elsewhere effect the significance of the observed excess is 3.2σ. If interpreted in terms of dark matter particles annihilating into a photon pair, the observations imply a dark matter mass of mχ = 129.8±2.4 +7−13 GeV and a partial annihilation cross-section of (σv)χχ→γγ = (1.27±0.32 +0.18−0.28) × 10−27cm3s−1 when using the Einasto dark matter profile. The evidence for the signal is based on about 50 photons; it will take a few years of additional data to clarify its existence

  7. Results from the beam test of the engineering model of the GLAST large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a beam test using the Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope, which was installed in a beam of positrons, hadrons and tagged photons at SLAC. The performance of the four subsystems, Anti Coincidence Detector, Silicon Tracker, Calorimeter and Data Acquisition will be described

  8. ΔE-E telescope with high energy resolution large sensitive area ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and the performances of ΔE-E telescope with active thick 11 cm and window area 1600 mm2 are described. ΔE detector is a Frisch ionization chamber. The performances of ΔE detector utilizing 239Pu-α source is tested. The optimum ΔE resolution obtained is 4.6%

  9. The Large Area Telescope in the context of the extended Fermi mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launched on June 11, 2008 with the goal of a 10-year lifetime, the Fermi observatory is nearing completion of the 5-year prime phase of the mission. In this paper we briefly review the prospects of the Large Area Telescope (the main instrument on board Fermi) in the context of the extended mission

  10. Green Bank Telescope observations of low column density HI around NGC 2997 and NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J

    2013-01-01

    Observations of ongoing HI accretion in nearby galaxies have only identified about 10% of the needed fuel to sustain star formation in these galaxies. Most of these observations have been conducted using interferometers and may have missed lower column density, diffuse, HI gas that may trace the missing 90% of gas. Such gas may represent the so-called "cold flows" predicted by current theories of galaxy formation to have never been heated above the virial temperature of the dark matter halo. As a first attempt to identify such cold flows around nearby galaxies and complete the census of HI down to N(HI)~10^18 cm^-2, I used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to map the circumgalactic (r < 100-200 kpc) HI environment around NGC 2997 and NGC 6946. The resulting GBT observations cover a four square degree area around each galaxy with a 5-sigma detection limit of N(HI)~10^18 cm^-2 over a 20 km/s linewidth. This project complements absorption line studies, which are well-suited to the regime of lower ...

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 324P/La Sagra

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Li, Jing; Larson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of active asteroid 324P/La Sagra near perihelion show continued mass loss consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice. Isophotes of the coma measured from a vantage point below the orbital plane are best matched by steady emission of particles having a nominal size $a \\sim$ 100 $\\mu$m. The inferred rate of mass loss, $dM_d/dt \\sim$0.2 kg s$^{-1}$, can be supplied by sublimation of water ice in thermal equilibrium with sunlight from an area as small as 930 m$^2$, corresponding to about 0.2\\% of the nucleus surface. Observations taken from a vantage point only 0.6\\degr~from the orbital plane of 324P set a limit to the velocity of ejection of dust in the direction perpendicular to the plane, $V_{\\perp} <$ 1 m s$^{-1}$. Short-term photometric variations of the near-nucleus region, if related to rotation of the underlying nucleus, rule out periods $\\le$ 3.8 hr and suggest that rotation probably does not play a central role in driving the observed mass loss. We estimat...

  12. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since outburst, about 15% of all time on the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian telescope (AAT) has been devoted to observing SN 1987A. In this report the author describes these observations, first discussing the policy and organization adopted for making them followed by a description of the various types of observation made. The author presents some of the highlights which have emerged from these observations

  13. First detections of nebula with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and study of their pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched on 2008 June 11, carrying the Large Area Telescope (LAT), sensitive to gamma-rays in the 20 MeV - 300 GeV energy range. The Crab Nebula had been detected and studied in the 70 MeV - 30 GeV band using the CGRO-EGRET experiment, but no pulsar wind nebula (PWN) had ever been firmly identified in the high energy gamma-ray domain. PWNe are powered by the constant injection of a relativistic wind of electrons and positrons from their central pulsars. These charged particles are accelerated at the shock front forming the PWN and emit photons which can be observed along the entire electromagnetic spectrum, including the high energy gamma-ray domain. Data provided by the Fermi-LAT during the first two years of the mission have allowed the detection and the identification of three PWNe and their associated pulsars (Crab Nebula, Vela X and MSH 15-52) as well as the PWN HESS J1825-137 discovered by ground-based experiments sensitive to very high energy gamma-rays. Results of temporal, spectral and morphological analyses of the pulsar/PWN systems detected by Fermi- LAT, as well as results of systematic studies performed first around every gamma-ray pulsar detected by the LAT and secondly around every very high energy source identified as a PWN or a PWN candidate are presented in this dissertation. These studies bring new insights and constraints on the physical properties of the sources as well as on emitting processes in pulsar magnetospheres and in PWNe. (author)

  14. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the γ-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ∼10σ) γ-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) γ-ray sources in the early mission data.

  15. Pulsar observations with European telescopes for testing gravity and detecting gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Perrodin, D; Janssen, G H; Karuppusamy, R; Kramer, M; Lee, K; Liu, K; McKee, J; Purver, M; Sanidas, S; Smits, R; Stappers, B W; Zhu, W; Concu, R; Melis, A; Burgay, M; Casu, S; Corongiu, A; Egron, E; Iacolina, N; Pellizzoni, A; Pilia, M; Trois, A

    2016-01-01

    A background of nanohertz gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries could soon be detected by pulsar timing arrays, which measure the times-of-arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars with very high precision. The European Pulsar Timing Array uses five large European radio telescopes to monitor high-precision millisecond pulsars, imposing in this way strong constraints on a gravitational wave background. To achieve the necessary precision needed to detect gravitational waves, the Large European Array for Pulsars (LEAP) performs simultaneous observations of pulsars with all five telescopes, which allows us to coherently add the radio pulses, maximize the signal-to-noise of pulsar signals and increase the precision of times-of-arrival. We report on the progress made and results obtained by the LEAP collaboration, and in particular on the addition of the Sardinia Radio Telescope to the LEAP observations during its scientific validation phase. In addition, we discuss how LEAP can be used t...

  16. Stellar intensity interferometry over kilometer baselines: Laboratory simulation of observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2014-01-01

    A long-held astronomical vision is to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, show their evolution over time, and reveal interactions of stellar winds and gas flows in binary star systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electronically connected and used also for intensity interferometry. With no optical connection between the telescopes, the error budget is set by the electronic time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Corresponding light-travel distances are on the order of one meter, making the method practically insensitive to atmospheric turbulence or optical imperfections, permitting both very long baselines and observing at short optical wavelengths. Theoretical modeling has shown how stellar surface images can be retrieved from such observ...

  17. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the search for 0.1-10 GeV emission from magnetars in 17 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently known magnetars is found. The most stringent upper limits to date on their persistent emission in the Fermi energy range are estimated between ∼10-12and10-10 erg s-1 cm-2, depending on the source. We also searched for gamma-ray pulsations and possible outbursts, also with no significant detection. The upper limits derived support the presence of a cutoff at an energy below a few MeV in the persistent emission of magnetars. They also show the likely need for a revision of current models of outer-gap emission from strongly magnetized pulsars, which, in some realizations, predict detectable GeV emission from magnetars at flux levels exceeding the upper limits identified here using the Fermi-LAT observations.

  18. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Giomi, Matteo; Maier, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the...

  19. Using Internet-Based Robotic Telescopes to Engage Non-Science Majors in Astronomical Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Coble, K.; Slater, T. F.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Responding to national science education reform documents calling for students to have more opportunities for authentic research experiences, several national projects have developed online telescope networks to provide students with Internet-access to research grade telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier in the past. Internet-based robotic telescopes allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005) and undergraduate programs (e.g., McLin et al. 2009). This project looks at the educational value of using Internet-based robotic telescopes in a general education introductory astronomy course at the undergraduate level. Students at a minority-serving institution in the midwestern United States conducted observational programs using the Global Telescope Network (GTN). The project consisted of the use of planetarium software to determine object visibility, observing proposals (with abstract, background, goals, and dissemination sections), peer review (including written reviews and panel discussion according to NSF intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria), and classroom presentations showing the results of the observation. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by the Fermi mission to support the science of high energy astrophysics. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University and is controlled using SkyNet. Data includes course artifacts (proposals, reviews, panel summaries, presentations, and student reflections) for six semesters plus student interviews. Using a grounded theory approach

  20. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  1. Large zenith-angle observations with the CAT Cherenkov imaging telescope

    OpenAIRE

    collaboration, G. Mohanty for the CAT

    1999-01-01

    We present here results from large zenith-angle observations with the CAT atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope, based on data taken on the Crab Nebula and on the blazar Mk501 from 1996 onwards. From Monte Carlo simulations, the threshold energy of the telescope is expected to vary from about 250 GeV at zenith to about 2 TeV at a zenith angle of 60 degrees. The lower source-fluxes due to the increased threshold energy are partly compensated for by an increase in the effective collection are...

  2. Astrometrical Observations of Pluto - Charon System with the Automated Telescopes of Pulkovo Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Devyatkin, Alexander V; Slesarenko, Vyacheslav Yu

    2015-01-01

    The space probe 'New Horizon' was launched on 19th of January 2006 in order to study Pluto and its moons. Spacecraft will fly by Pluto as close as 12500 km in the middle of July 2015 and will get the most detailed images of Pluto and its moon until this moment. At the same time, observation obtained by the ground-based telescopes may also be helpful for the research of such distant system. Thereby, the Laboratory of observational astrometry of Pulkovo Observatory of RAS made a decision to reprocess observations obtained during last decade. More than 350 positional observations of Pluto - Charon system were carried out with the mirror astrograph ZA-320M at Pulkovo and Maksutov telescope MTM-500M near Kislovodsk. These observations were processed by means of software system APEX-II developed in Pulkovo observatory and numerical simulation was performed to calculate the differences between positions of photocenter and barycenter of Pluto - Charon system.

  3. Observation constraints of the hard X-ray modulation telescope HXMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hard X-ray modulation telescope HXMT is a low orbit X-ray space telescope whose main science goals are to accomplish a hard X-ray all sky survey and to study timing and spectral characteristics of X-ray sources.HXMT has three kinds of science instruments:the high energy X-ray detector(HE),the medium energy X-ray detector(ME) and the low energy X-ray detector(LE).The observation schedule of HXMT is a key to achieving the science goal of HXMT,and the analysis of the observation constraints is one of the first tasks in making the observation schedule.This paper analyzes how the observation constraints influence the sky visibility and the visible time distribution of X-ray sources and discusses the schedule strategy with regard to the observation constraints.

  4. Astrometrical observations of Pluto-Charon system with the automated telescopes of Pulkovo observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesarenko, V. Yu.; Bashakova, E. A.; Devyatkin, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The space probe "New Horizons" was launched on 19th of January 2006 in order to study Pluto and its moons. Spacecraft performed close fly-by to Pluto on 14th of July 2015 and obtained the most detailed images of Pluto and its moon until this moment. At the same time, observation obtained by the ground-based telescopes may also be helpful for the research of such distant system. Thereby, the Laboratory of observational astrometry of Pulkovo Observatory of RAS made a decision to reprocess observations obtained during last decade. More than 350 positional observations of Pluto-Charon system were carried out with the mirror astrograph ZA-320M at Pulkovo and Maksutov telescope MTM-500M near Kislovodsk. These observations were processed by means of software system APEX-II developed in Pulkovo observatory and numerical simulations were performed to calculate the differences between positions of photocenter and barycenter of Pluto-Charon system.

  5. A secure and reliable monitor and control system for remote observing with the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gary; Souccar, Kamal; Malin, Daniella

    2004-09-01

    Remote access to telescope monitor and control capabilities necessitates strict security mechanisms to protect the telescope and instruments from malicious or unauthorized use, and to prevent data from being stolen, altered, or corrupted. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) monitor and control system (LMTMC) utilizes the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware technology to connect remote software components. The LMTMC provides reliable and secure remote observing by automatically generating SSLIOP enabled CORBA objects. TAO, the ACE open source Object Request Broker (ORB), now supports secure communications by implementing the Secure Socket Layer Inter-ORB Protocol (SSLIOP) as a pluggable protocol. This capability supplies the LMTMC with client and server authentication, data integrity, and encryption. Our system takes advantage of the hooks provided by TAO SSLIOP to implement X.509 certificate based authorization. This access control scheme includes multiple authorization levels to enable granular access control.

  6. Observing Near-Earth Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Abell, Paul; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Mueller, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Rivkin, Andrew; Ryan, Erin; Stansberry, John

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has the potential to enhance our understanding of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We present results of investigations into the observability of NEOs given the nominal observing requirements of JWST on elongation (85°-135°) and non-sidereal rates (<30 mas s-1). We find that approximately 75% of NEOs can be observed in a given year. However, observers will need to wait for appropriate observing windows. We find that JWST can easily execute photometric observations of meter-sized NEOs that will enhance our understanding of the small NEO population.

  7. Observing Near-Earth Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Cristina A; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Mueller, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Rivkin, Andrew; Ryan, Erin; Stansberry, John

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has the potential to enhance our understanding of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We present results of investigations into the observability of NEOs given the nominal observing requirements of JWST on elongation (85-135 degrees) and non-sidereal rates ($<$30mas/s). We find that approximately 75% of NEOs can be observed in a given year. However, observers will need to wait for appropriate observing windows. We find that JWST can easily execute photometric observations of meter-sized NEOs which will enhance our understanding of the small NEO population.

  8. Observing Outer Planet Satellites (Except Titan) with the James Webb Space Telescope: Science Justification and Observational Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Grundy, Will; Stansberry, John; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thatte, Deepashri; Gudipati, Murthy; Tsang, Constantine; Greenbaum, Alexandra; McGruder, Chima

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations with a unique combination of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the study of outer planet satellites within our Solar System. We highlight the infrared spectroscopy of icy moons and temporal changes on geologically active satellites as two particularly valuable avenues of scientific inquiry. While some care must be taken to avoid saturation issues, JWST has observation modes that should provide excellent infrared data for such studies.

  9. Subsystems of the ISON Telescopes for GEO, HEO and LEO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotov, T.; Agapov, V.

    2012-09-01

    International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) represents one of largest systems specializing in observation of space objects. ISON project is continuously developing and is joining now the 27 observation facilities in 12 countries with 42 telescopes of different class (apertures from 12.5 cm to 2.6 m). 3.5 millions of measurements in 450 thousands of tracks are collected for about 3000 objects in 2011. 168 new high-orbits objects are discovered during 2011 and orbits for 1704 GEO region objects are maintained in the ISON database. Three ISON subsystems are formed - for survey observations of bright objects at GEO-region; ephemerides observations of high-orbit faint fragments and ephemerides observations of bright GEO and HEO objects. Two more subsystems are in development - for surveying the HEO-objects and observations of LEO-objects. Few series of dedicated telescopes with large FOV and automated mounts were elaborated for them. Ten 22-cm aperture instruments with FOV of 4° and four 25-cm aperture instruments with FOV of 3° were installed in observing facilities around the World in order to survey the GEO region in global scale both by longitude (0°-360°) and inclination (0°-20°) and provide main data stream for the orbital archive maintenance. First unites of 40-cm and 50-cm aperture instruments with FOV of 2° were produced for the surveying and tracking observations of faint objects (first such telescopes are installed in Kitab, Ussuriysk and Kislovodsk). Lot of 19.2-cm aperture instruments with FOV of 7° is produced and in installation now for surveying the HEO-objects, including double and quadruple systems with more large FOV (first such telescopes are installed in Sanglok and Kislovodsk) . Four 12.5-cm aperture instruments with FOV of 10° will be used for LEO-objects observations (first such telescope is installed in Tiraspol). It was elaborated and tested few survey modes and algorithm permitting to find correlation between short arc tracks of

  10. Very High Energy Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Locations with the Whipple Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Horan, D; Badran, H M; Blaylock, G; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Byrum, K L; Celik, O; Chow, Y C K; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Daniel, M K; Perez, I de la Calle; Dowdall, C; Falcone, A D; Fegan, D J; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L F; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Gutíerrez, K J; Hall, J; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, S B; Humensky, T B; Kenny, G E; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D B; Kildea, J; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; Moriarty, P; Nagai, T; Ong, R A; Perkins, J S; Petry, D; Quinn, J; Quinn, M; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Toner, J A; Valcarcel, L; Vasilev, V V; Wagner, R G; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; White, R J; Williams, D A; 10.1086/509567

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) can impose tight constraints on some GRB emission models. Many GRB afterglow models predict a VHE component similar to that seen in blazars and plerions, in which the GRB spectral energy distribution has a double-peaked shape extending into the VHE regime. VHE emission coincident with delayed X-ray flare emission has also been predicted. GRB follow-up observations have had high priority in the observing program at the Whipple 10m Gamma-ray Telescope and GRBs will continue to be high priority targets as the next generation observatory, VERITAS, comes on-line. Upper limits on the VHE emission, at late times (>~4 hours), from seven GRBs observed with the Whipple Telescope are reported here.

  11. Very High Energy Observations of Gamma Ray Bursts with the Whipple/VERITAS Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observations at Very High Energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) can impose tight constraints on some GRB emission models. Many GRB after-glow models predict a VHE component similar to that seen in blazars and supernova remnants, in which the GRB spectral energy distribution has a double-peaked shape extending into the VHE regime. Consistent with this afterglow scenario, EGRET detected delayed high energy emission from all five bright BATSE GRBs that occurred within its field of view. GRB observations have had high priority in the observing program at the Whipple 10m Telescope and will continue to be high priority targets when the next generation observatory VERITAS comes online. Upper limits on the VHE emission from ten GRBs observed with the Whipple Telescope are reported here

  12. The Second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence > 0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data, through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sam...

  13. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions

  14. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhattacharyya, B. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M., E-mail: hartog@stanford.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); and others

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  15. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CONSTRAINTS ON THE GAMMA-RAY OPACITY OF THE UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift- and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the γ-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the 'baseline' model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

  16. 325-MHz observations of the ELAIS-N1 field using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sirothia, S K; Saikia, D J; Dole, H; Ricquebourg, F; Roland, J

    2008-01-01

    We present observations of the European Large-Area {\\it ISO} Survey-North 1 (ELAIS-N1) at 325 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), with the ultimate objective of identifying active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies and examining their evolution with cosmic epoch. After combining the data from two different days we have achieved a median rms noise of $\\approx40 \\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$, which is the lowest that has been achieved at this frequency. We detect 1286 sources with a total flux density above $\\approx270 \\mu$Jy. In this paper, we use our deep radio image to examine the spectral indices of these sources by comparing our flux density estimates with those of Garn et al. at 610 MHz with the GMRT, and surveys with the Very Large Array at 1400 MHz. We attempt to identify very steep spectrum sources which are likely to be either relic sources or high-redshift objects as well as inverted-spectra objects which could be Giga-Hertz Peaked Spectrum objects. We present the source counts, and report...

  17. ON THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SURPLUS OF DIFFUSE GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this 'Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus' by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE

  18. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY DETECTION OF THE RADIO GALAXY M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) γ-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10σ in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like γ-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) x 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (-8 photons cm-2 s-1, 2σ), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT γ-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Alternative models for the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.

  19. Frequency Calibration of Molecular Line Observing System of the TM65m Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wu, Y. J.; Qiao, H. H.; Wang, J. Z.; Zuo, X. T.

    2015-11-01

    In order to carry out molecular line observations with the TM65m radio telescope, we carry out the frequency calibration and test observations of DIBAS (Digital Backend System), which is the spectrometer of the telescope. First, we test the performance of DIBAS with PCAL signals. We find that the spectral resolution is equal to the channel width, and the inaccuracy of spectral resolution is much lower than the channel width. Second, we observed hhco\\ lines toward two sources. The centroid velocity of calibrated data is consistent with GBT (Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope) observations. At last, we observed 1665 MHz OH maser lines toward W3(OH) for one hour. The line shapes keep stable, and the RMS (Root Mean Squares) noise levels are consistent with theoretical values. We also observed 6.7 GHz methanol masers toward W3(OH) for several scans with a separation of about one hour. The line shapes of each scans are well consistent with each other.

  20. 2MTF III. HI 21cm observations of 1194 spiral galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Hong, Tao; Jarrett, T H; Koribalski, Baerbel S; Macri, Lucas; Springob, Christopher M; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2014-01-01

    We present HI 21cm observations of 1194 galaxies out to a redshift of 10,000 km/s selected as inclined spirals (i>60deg) from the 2MASS Redshift Survey. These observations were carried out at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This observing program is part of the 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) survey. This project will combine HI widths from these GBT observations with those from further dedicated observing at the Parkes Telescope, from the ALFALFA survey at Arecibo, and S/N>10 and spectral resolution, v_res < 10km/s published widths from a variety of telescopes. We will use these HI widths along with 2MASS photometry to estimate Tully-Fisher distances to nearby spirals and investigate the peculiar velocity field of the local Universe. In this paper we report on detections of neutral hydrogen in emission in 727 galaxies, and measure good signal-to-noise and symmetric HI global profiles suitable for use in the Tully-Fisher relation in 484.

  1. Ceres Evolution: From Thermodynamic Modeling and Telescope to Dawn Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, Jean Philippe; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Raymond, Carol A.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Jaumann, Ralf; Ammannito, Eleonora; Russell, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic modeling indicated that Ceres has experienced planetary processes, including extensive melting of its ~25% water and differentiation, (McCord and Sotin, JGR, 2005; Castillo and McCord, Icarus, 2009). Early telescopic studies showed Ceres’ surface to be spectrally similar to carboneous-chondrite-like material, i.e., aqueously altered silicates darkened by carbon, with a water-OH-related absorption near 3.06 µm. Later observations improved the spectra and suggested more specific interpretations: Structural water in clay minerals, phyllosilicates, perhaps ammoniated, iron-rich clays, carbonates, brucite, all implying extensive aqueous alteration, perhaps in the presence of CO2. Telescopic observations and thermodynamic models predicted Dawn would find a very different body compared to Vesta (e.g. McCord et al., SSR, 2011), as current Dawn observations are confirming. Ceres’ original water ice should have melted early in its evolution, with the resulting differentiation and mineralization strongly affecting Ceres’ composition, size and shape over time. The ocean should have become very salty and perhaps may still be liquid in places. The surface composition from telescopes seems to reflect this complex history. The mineralization with repeated mixing of the crust with the early liquid interior and with in-fall from space would create a complex surface that will present an interpretation challenge for Dawn. The Dawn spacecraft is currently collecting observations of Ceres’ landforms, elemental and mineralogical/molecular composition and gravity field from orbit. Early results suggest a heavily cratered but distorted and lumpy body with features and composition consistent with internal activity, perhaps recent or current, associated with water and perhaps other volatiles. We will present and interpret the latest Dawn Ceres findings and how they affect our earlier understanding of Ceres evolution from modeling and telescope observations.

  2. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B

    2012-01-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements hea...

  3. Observation of VHE gamma-rays from Cassiopeia A with the MAGIC telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Böck, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; Delgado, C; De los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garca-Lopez, R; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Göbel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jacon, P; Jogler, T; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Kritzer, R; Laille, A; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Ona-Wilhelmi, E; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Poller, M; Puchades, N; Prandini, E; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2007-01-01

    We searched for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The shell-type supernova remnant Cassiopeia A was observed with the 17 meter MAGIC telescope between July 2006 and January 2007 for a total time of 47 hours. The observation was made both in dark conditions and under moderate Moon illumination. The source was detected above an energy of 250 GeV with a significance of 5.3sigma and a photon flux above 1 TeV of (7.3+-0.7_stat+-2.2_sys)10^-13 cm^-2s^-1. The photon spectrum is compatible with a power law dN/dE = A E^-Gamma with a photon index Gamma=2.3+-0.2_stat+-0.2_sys. The source is point-like within the angular resolution of the telescope.

  4. A population of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bignami, G F; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Camilo, F; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cognard, I; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbet, R; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; Desvignes, G; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Freire, P C C; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hobbs, G; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Johnston, S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kramer, M; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Manchester, R N; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; McLaughlin, M A; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ransom, S M; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stappers, B W; Starck, J L; Striani, E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vasileiou, V; Venter, C; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Watters, K; Webb, N; Weltevrede, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-08-14

    Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. PMID:19574349

  5. A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsars are born with sub-second spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. (authors)

  6. Large-area Reflective Infrared Filters for Millimeter/sub-mm Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Z; Thompson, K L; Kuo, C L; Brooks, G; Pothoven, T

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes are attempting to image the sky with ever-larger cryogenically-cooled bolometer arrays, but face challenges in mitigating the infrared loading accompanying large apertures. Absorptive infrared filters supported by mechanical coolers scale insufficiently with aperture size. Reflective metal-mesh filters placed behind the telescope window provide a scalable solution in principle, but have been limited by photolithography constraints to diameters under 300 mm. We present laser etching as an alternate technique to photolithography for fabrication of large-area reflective filters, and show results from lab tests of 500 mm-diameter filters. Filters with up to 700 mm diameter can be fabricated using laser etching with existing capability.

  7. Analyzing the capability of a radio telescope in a bistatic space debris observation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bistatic space debris observation system using a radio telescope as the receiving part is introduced. The detection capability of the system at different working frequencies is analyzed based on real instruments. The detection range of targets with a fixed radar cross section and the detection ability of small space debris at a fixed range are discussed. The simulations of this particular observation system at different transmitting powers are also implemented and the detection capability is discussed. The simulated results approximately match the actual experiments. The analysis in this paper provides a theoretical basis for developing a space debris observation system that can be built in China

  8. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  9. Probing Millisecond Pulsar Emission Geometry Using Light Curves From the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice; Guillemot, L.

    2009-01-01

    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of 13-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), slot gap (SG), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by SG and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We also find exclusive differentiation of the current gamma-ray MSP population into two MSP sub-classes: light curve shapes and lags across wavebands impose either pair-starved PC (PSPC) or SG / OG-type geometries. In the first case, the radio pulse has a small lag with respect to the single gamma-ray pulse, while the (first) gamma-ray peak usually trails the radio by a large phase offset in the latter case. Finally, we find that the flux correction factor as a function of magnetic inclination and observer angles is typically of order unity for all models. Our calculation of light curves and flux correction factor f(_, _, P) for the case of MSPs is therefore complementary to the "ATLAS paper" of Watters et al. for younger pulsars.

  10. Jet Emission in Young Radio Sources: A Fermi Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G.; Siemiginowska, A.; Kelly, B. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Celotti, A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high-energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the γ-ray band. We derive predictions on the γ-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high-energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales (lsim10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of γ-ray luminosities, with intensities up to ~1046-1048 erg s-1 depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and γ-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for γ-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray-detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of ~4-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not yield any statistically significant detections. However, the majority of the model-predicted γ-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power (L jet, kin/L disk > 0.01) of a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources (lsim 1 kpc) and on the particle-to-magnetic field energy density ratio that are in broad agreement with equipartition assumptions.

  11. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than ∼ 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of ∼ 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming

  12. Jet emission in young radio sources: A Fermi large area telescope gamma-ray view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high-energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the γ-ray band. We derive predictions on the γ-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high-energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales (≲10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of γ-ray luminosities, with intensities up to ∼1046-1048 erg s–1 depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and γ-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for γ-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray-detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of ∼4-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not yield any statistically significant detections. However, the majority of the model-predicted γ-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power (L jet, kin/L disk > 0.01) of a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources (≲ 1 kpc) and on the particle-to-magnetic field energy density ratio that are in broad agreement with equipartition assumptions.

  13. Astronomical observation devices CIAO and COMICS for Telescope Subaru; Sugbaru boenkyo kansoku sochi CIAO/COMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    Described herein are astronomical observation devices, a coronagraph imaging device (CIAO) and intermediate-infrared imaging spectrometer (COMICS), delivered to National Astronomical Observatory in October 1999. These devices are for the focal section of Telescope Subaru, completed in Hawaii in 1999 (devices for the first stage project), to observe various celestial objects by imaging and spectroscopically processing the infrared ray data collected by the telescope. This company has developed these devices jointly with National Astronomical Observatory as the orderer. They have been in service since December 1999 when they were set in the telescope (the attached photograph shows COMICS). Its major specifications are dimensions: 2,000 mm long, 2,000 mm wide and 1900 mm high, weight: 1,300 kg (CIAO) and 1640 kg (COMICS), and detector temperature: 35K (-238 degrees C) for CIAO and 5K (-268 degrees C) for COMICS. They are featured by the infrared sensor and optical system cooled by a system which uses a refrigerator to prevent heat radiation (infrared ray) from the ambient; and the optical system being insulated and supported by a tension strap structure to keep its performance unaffected by cooling or slanting ({+-}70 degrees). (translated by NEDO)

  14. Commensal observing with the Allen Telescope array: software command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Keating, Garrett K.; MacMahon, David; Williams, Peter K. G.; Harp, Gerald; Ackermann, Robert; Kilsdonk, Tom; Richards, Jon; Barott, William C.

    2010-07-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a Large-Number-Small-Diameter radio telescope array currently with 42 individual antennas and 5 independent back-end science systems (2 imaging FX correlators and 3 time domain beam formers) located at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO). The goal of the ATA is to run multiple back-ends simultaneously, supporting multiple science projects commensally. The primary software control systems are based on a combination of Java, JRuby and Ruby on Rails. The primary control API is simplified to provide easy integration with new back-end systems while the lower layers of the software stack are handled by a master observing system. Scheduling observations for the ATA is based on finding a union between the science needs of multiple projects and automatically determining an efficient path to operating the various sub-components to meet those needs. When completed, the ATA is expected to be a world-class radio telescope, combining dedicated SETI projects with numerous radio astronomy science projects.

  15. Commensal observing with the Allen Telescope array: software command and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; MacMahon, David; Williams, Peter K G; Harp, Gerald; Ackermann, Robert; Kilsdonk, Tom; Richards, Jon; Barott, William C; 10.1117/12.857860

    2010-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a Large-Number-Small-Diameter radio telescope array currently with 42 individual antennas and 5 independent back-end science systems (2 imaging FX correlators and 3 time domain beam formers) located at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO). The goal of the ATA is to run multiple back-ends simultaneously, supporting multiple science projects commensally. The primary software control systems are based on a combination of Java, JRuby and Ruby on Rails. The primary control API is simplified to provide easy integration with new back-end systems while the lower layers of the software stack are handled by a master observing system. Scheduling observations for the ATA is based on finding a union between the science needs of multiple projects and automatically determining an efficient path to operating the various sub-components to meet those needs. When completed, the ATA is expected to be a world-class radio telescope, combining dedicated SETI projects with numerous radio astronom...

  16. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, Michel [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Al Samarai, Imen, E-mail: samarai@cppm.in2p3.fr [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Akerlof, Carl [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Basa, Stephane [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Bertin, Vincent [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boer, Michel [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Klotz, Alain [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); IRAP, 9 avenue du colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand [CEA-IRFU, centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vecchi, Manuela [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Zheng, Weikang [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2012-11-11

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5 Degree-Sign . Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  17. Whipple Telescope Observations of LS I +61 303: 2004-2006

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the past two years' observations on the galactic microquasar LS I +61 303 with the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope. The recent MAGIC detection of the source between 200 GeV and 4 TeV suggests that the source is periodic with very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission linked to its orbital cycle. The entire 50-hour data set obtained with Whipple from 2004 to 2006 was analyzed with no reliable detection resulting. The upper limits obtained in the 2005-2006 season covered several of the same epochs as the MAGIC Telescope detections, albeit with lower sensitivity. Upper limits are placed on emission during the orbital phases of 0->0.1 and 0.8->1, phases which are not included in the MAGIC data set.

  18. First scientific VLBI observations using New Zealand 30 metre radio telescope WARK30M

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid; Weston, Stuart; McCallum, Jamie; Ellingsen, Simon; Gulyaev, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a successful twenty-four hour 6.7 GHz VLBI experiment using the 30 metre radio telescope wark30m near Warkworth, New Zealand, recently converted from a radio telecommunications antenna. This was the first scientific VLBI observing session with the participation of this new station and two radio telescopes located in Australia: Hobart 26-m and Ceduna 30-m. We have determined the position of wark30m with uncertainties estimated as 100 mm for the vertical component and 10 mm for the horizontal components. We have detected parsec scale emission from the radio source 1031-837 and established that it is associated with the gamma-ray object 2FGL J1032.9-8401. We conclude that wark30m is ready to operate for scientific projects.

  19. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between ∼6 and ∼13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of ∼2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  20. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  1. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbielini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B,; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron- plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between approx. 6 and approx. 13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of approx. 2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Padua U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Pisa /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  3. Comet 67P observations with LOTUS: a new near-UV spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Jon; Jermak, Helen; Steele, Iain; Snodgrass, Colin; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jones, Geraint

    2015-11-01

    The European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft has been orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereinafter “67P”) since August 2014, providing in-situ measurements of the dust, gas and plasma content of the coma within ~100km of the nucleus. Supporting the mission is a world-wide coordinated campaign of simultaneous ground-based observations of 67P (www.rosetta-campaign.net), providing wider context of the outer coma and tail invisible to Rosetta. We can now compare these observations, augmented by "ground truth" from Rosetta, with those of other comets past and future that are only observed from Earth.The robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT) is part of this campaign due to its unique ability to flexibly and autonomously schedule regular observations over entire semesters. Its optical imagery has recently been supplemented by near-UV spectroscopy to observe the UV molecular bands below 4000Å that are of considerable interest to cometary science. The LT's existing spectrographs FRODOSpec and SPRAT cut off at 4000Å, so the Liverpool Telescope Optical-to-UV Spectrograph - LOTUS - was fast-track designed, built and deployed on-sky in just five months. LOTUS contains no moving parts; acquisition is made with the LT's IO:O imaging camera, and different width slits for calibration and science are selected by fine-tuning the telescope's pointing on an innovative "step" design in its single slit.We present here details of the LOTUS spectrograph, and some preliminary results of our ongoing observations of comet 67P.

  4. NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN FOUR METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  5. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, high speed point/area photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a high speed point/area photometer for the space telescope are summarized. The scientific objectives, photometer requirements, and design concepts are presented.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-Based Optical and Ultraviolet Observations of GRB010222

    CERN Document Server

    Galama, T J; Brown, T M; Kimble, R A; Price, P A; Berger, E; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Yost, S A; Gal-Yam, A; Bloom, J S; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Fox, D; Djorgovski, S G

    2003-01-01

    We report on Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical and STIS near ultraviolet MAMA observations, and ground-based optical observations of GRB010222, spanning 15 hrs to 71 days. The observations are well-described by a relativistic blast-wave model with a hard electron-energy distribution, p = 1.57, and a jet transition at t_j=0.93 days. These values are slightly larger than previously found as a result of a correction for the contribution from the host galaxy to the late-time ground-based observations and the larger temporal baseline provided by the Hubble Space Telescope observations. The host galaxy is found to contain a very compact core (size <0.25 arcsec) which coincides with the position of the optical transient. The STIS near ultraviolet MAMA observations allow for an investigation of the extinction properties along the line of sight to GRB010222. We find that the far ultraviolet curvature component (c_4) is rather large. In combination with the low optical extinction A_V =0.11 mag, when compared to t...

  7. Astrometrical Observations of Pluto - Charon System with the Automated Telescopes of Pulkovo Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Devyatkin, Alexander V.; Bashakova, Ekaterina A.; Slesarenko, Viacheslav Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The space probe 'New Horizon' was launched on 19th of January 2006 in order to study Pluto and its moons. Spacecraft will fly by Pluto as close as 12500 km in the middle of July 2015 and will get the most detailed images of Pluto and its moon until this moment. At the same time, observation obtained by the ground-based telescopes may also be helpful for the research of such distant system. Thereby, the Laboratory of observational astrometry of Pulkovo Observatory of RAS made a decision to rep...

  8. Overview of the results from extra-galactic observations with the MAGIC telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Karsten; Collaboration, for the MAGIC

    2011-01-01

    The non-thermal jet emission in active galactic nuclei covers several orders of magnitude in the frequency range. Hence the observational approach needs multi-wavelength (MWL) campaigns collecting data in the radio, optical, UV, X-rays, high energy until the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray band. MAGIC, a system of two 17 m diameter telescopes at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on the canary island La Palma, actively participates and organizes MWL observations on known and newly discov...

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Binary Very-Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Gizis, J. E.; Reid, I N; Knapp, G. R.; Liebert, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Koerner, D. W.; Burgasser, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images of 82 nearby field late-M and L dwarfs. We resolve 13 of these systems into double M/L dwarf systems and identify an additional possible binary. Combined with previous observations of 20 L dwarfs, we derive an observed binary fraction for ultracool dwarfs of 17+4-3%, where the statistics included systems with separations in the range 1.6-16 A.U. We argue that accounting for biases and incompleteness leads to an estimated binary fraction 15+...

  10. Flux upper limit of gamma-ray emission by GRB050713a from MAGIC Telescope observations

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Asensio, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartelt, M; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Bavikadi, R; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bisesi, E; Böck, R K; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Chilingarian, A A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S C; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Göbel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Jacon, P; Kalekin, O; Kranich, D; Laille, A; Lenisa, T; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Lucarelli, F; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mase, K; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Oña-Wilhelmi, E; Orduna, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pavel, N; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prandini, E; Rico, J; Rhode, W; Riegel, B; Rissi, M; Robert, A

    2006-01-01

    The long-duration GRB050713a was observed by the MAGIC Telescope, 40 seconds after the burst onset, and followed up for 37 minutes, until twilight. The observation, triggered by a SWIFT alert, covered energies above ~175 GeV. Using standard MAGIC analysis, no evidence for a gamma signal was found. As the redshift of the GRB was not measured directly, the flux upper limit, estimated by MAGIC, is still compatible with the assumption of an unbroken power-law spectrum extending from a few hundred keV to our energy range.

  11. Observation of the Perseus cluster of galaxies with the MAGIC telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Saverio; Colin, Pierre; Hildebrand, Dorothee; Zandanel, Fabio; Prada, Francisco; Collaboration, for the MAGIC; Pfrommer, Christoph; Pinzke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes performed a deep observation of the central region of the Perseus galaxy cluster in stereoscopic mode between October 2009 and February 2011. The nearly 85 hr of collected data (after quality selection) represent the deepest observation of a cluster of galaxies at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) ever. The survey resulted in the detection of VHE gamma-ray emissions from its central galaxy NGC 1275 and from the radio galaxy IC 310. In addition, the deep survey also pe...

  12. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF BRIGHT γ-RAY OUTBURSTS FROM THE PECULIAR QUASAR 4C +21.35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on the two-year-long Fermi-Large Area Telescope observation of the peculiar blazar 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216). This source was in a quiescent state from the start of the science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in 2008 August until 2009 September, and then became more active, with gradually increasing flux and some moderately bright flares. In 2010 April and June, 4C +21.35 underwent a very strong GeV outburst composed of several major flares characterized by rise and decay timescales of the order of a day. During the outburst, the GeV spectra of 4C +21.35 displayed a broken power-law form with spectral breaks observed near 1-3 GeV photon energies. We demonstrate that, at least during the major flares, the jet in 4C +21.35 carried a total kinetic luminosity comparable to the total accretion power available to feed the outflow. We also discuss the origin of the break observed in the flaring spectra of 4C +21.35. We show that, in principle, a model involving annihilation of the GeV photons on the He II Lyman recombination continuum and line emission of 'broad-line region' clouds may account for such. However, we also discuss the additional constraint provided by the detection of 4C +21.35 at 0.07-0.4 TeV energies by the MAGIC telescope, which coincided with one of the GeV flares of the source. We argue that there are reasons to believe that the ∼17 cm from the nucleus), but instead originates further away from the active center, namely, around the characteristic scale of the hot dusty torus surrounding the 4C +21.35 nucleus (∼1019 cm).

  13. The Second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo, A A; et al, .; Hessels, J.

    2013-01-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and ener...

  14. A Large Area CCD Camera for the Schmidt Telescope at the Venezuelan National Astronomical Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Baltay, C.; Snyder, J. A.; Andrews, P.; Emmet, W.; Schaefer, B.; Sinnott, J.; Bailyn, C.; de Coppi, P.; Oemler, A.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sofia, S.; van Altena, W.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C; Briceno, C.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and put into operation a large area CCD camera that covers a large fraction of the image plane of the 1 meter Schmidt telescope at Llano del Hato in Venezuela. The camera consists of 16 CCD devices arranged in a 4 x 4 mosaic covering 2.3 degrees x 3.5 degrees of sky. The CCDs are 2048 x 2048 LORAL devices with 15 micron pixels. The camera is optimized for drift scan photometry and objective prism spectroscopy. The design considerations, construction features and ...

  15. A Large Area CCD Camera for the Schmidt Telescope at the Venezuelan National Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Baltay, C; Andrews, P; Emmet, W; Schaefer, B; Sinnott, J; Bailyn, C D; Coppi, P S; Oemler, A E; Sabbey, C N; Sofia, S; Van Altena, W F; Vivas, A K; Abad, C; Briceño, C; Bruzual, G; Magris, G; Stock, J; Prugna, F D; Sánchez, G; Schenner, H; Adams, B; Gebhard, M; Honeycutt, R K; Musser, J; Harris, F; Geary, J; Sanchez, Ge.; Sanchez, Gu.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and put into operation a large area CCD camera that covers a large fraction of the image plane of the 1 meter Schmidt telescope at Llano del Hato in Venezuela. The camera consists of 16 CCD devices arranged in a 4 x 4 mosaic covering 2.3 degrees x 3.5 degrees of sky. The CCDs are 2048 x 2048 LORAL devices with 15 micron pixels. The camera is optimized for drift scan photometry and objective prism spectroscopy. The design considerations, construction features and performance parameters are described in the following article.

  16. Very-high-energy {\\gamma}-ray observations of novae and dwarf novae with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Clavero, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsaesser, D; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Guberman, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Idec, W; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Verguilov, V; Vovk, I; Will, M; Zanin, R; Desiante, R; Hays, E

    2015-01-01

    Context. In the last five years the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument detected GeV {\\gamma}-ray emission from five novae. The GeV emission can be interpreted in terms of an inverse Compton process of electrons accelerated in a shock. In this case it is expected that protons in the same conditions can be accelerated to much higher energies. Consequently they may produce a second component in the {\\gamma}-ray spectrum at TeV energies. Aims. We aim to explore the very-high-energy domain to search for {\\gamma}-ray emission above 50 GeV and to shed light on the acceleration process of leptons and hadrons in nova explosions. Methods. We have performed observations with the MAGIC telescopes of the classical nova V339 Del shortly after the 2013 outburst, triggered by optical and subsequent GeV {\\gamma}-ray detec- tions. We also briefly report on VHE observations of the symbiotic nova YY Her and the dwarf nova ASASSN-13ax. We complement the TeV MAGIC observations with the analysis of con- temporaneous Fermi-...

  17. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2012-01-01

    The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z=0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E >100GeV) gamma-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the Southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. Detection from the Northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE gamma-emission. During the outburst, the VHE gamma-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 hours at large zenith angles. Here we present ...

  18. Discovery of Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Young Radio Pulsar PSR J1028-5819 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, The Fermi-LAT

    2009-01-01

    Radio pulsar PSR J1028-5819 was recently discovered in a high-frequency search (at 3.1 GHz)in the error circle of the EGRET source 3EG J1027-5817. The spin-down power of this young pulsar is great enough to make it very likely the counterpart for the EGRET source. We report here the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from PSR J1028-5819 in early observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray light curve shows two sharp peaks having phase se...

  19. Subaru Telescope adaptive optics observations of gravitationally lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Cristian E.; Oguri, Masamune; Minowa, Yosuke; Iye, Masanori; Inada, Naohisa; Oya, Shin; Kayo, Issha; Hayano, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Terada, Hiroshi; Takami, Hideki; Watanabe, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of an imaging observation campaign conducted with the Subaru Telescope adaptive optics system (IRCS+AO188) on 28 gravitationally lensed quasars and candidates (23 doubles, 1 quad, 1 possible triple, and 3 candidates) from the SDSS Quasar Lens Search. We develop a novel modelling technique that fits analytical and hybrid point spread functions (PSFs), while simultaneously measuring the relative astrometry, photometry, as well as the lens galaxy morphology. We account for systematics by simulating the observed systems using separately observed PSF stars. The measured relative astrometry is comparable with that typically achieved with the Hubble Space Telescope, even after marginalizing over the PSF uncertainty. We model for the first time the quasar host galaxies in five systems, without a priori knowledge of the PSF, and show that their luminosities follow the known correlation with the mass of the supermassive black hole. For each system, we obtain mass models far more accurate than those previously published from low-resolution data, and we show that in our sample of lensing galaxies the observed light profile is more elliptical than the mass, for ellipticity ≳0.25. We also identify eight doubles for which the sources of external and internal shear are more reliably separated, and should therefore be prioritized in monitoring campaigns aimed at measuring time delays in order to infer the Hubble constant.

  20. Gaia science alerts and the observing facilities of the Serbian-Bulgarian mini-network telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The astrometric European Space Agency (ESA Gaia mission was launched in December 19, 2013. One of the tasks of the Gaia mission is production of an astrometric catalog of over one billion stars and more than 500000 extragalactic sources. The quasars (QSOs, as extragalactic sources and radio emitters, are active galactic nuclei objects (AGNs whose coordinates are well determined via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI technique and may reach sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. The QSOs are the defining sources of the quasi-inertial International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF because of their core radio morphology, negligible proper motions (until sub-milliarcsecond per year, and apparent point-like nature. Compact AGNs, visible in optical domain, are useful for a direct link of the future Gaia optical reference frame with the most accurate radio one. Apart from the above mentioned activities, Gaia has other goals such as follow-up of transient objects. One of the most important Gaia's requirements for photometric alerts is a fast observation and reduction response, that is, submition of observations within 24 hours. For this reason we have developed a pipeline. In line with possibilities of our new telescope (D(cm/F(cm=60/600 at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV, of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, we joined the Gaia-Follow-Up Network for Transients Objects (Gaia-FUN-TO for the photometric alerts. Moreover, in view of the cooperation with Bulgarian colleagues (in the frst place, SV, one of us (GD initiated a local mini-network of Serbian { Bulgarian telescopes useful for the Gaia-FUN-TO and other astronomical purposes. During the next year we expect a new 1.4 m telescope at ASV site. The speed of data processing (from observation to calibration server could be one day. Here, we present an overview of our activities in the Gaia-FUN-TO which includes establishing Serbian { Bulgarian mini-network (of five telescopes at three sites

  1. Simulated high resolution observation by the sigma telescope of the low energy gamma-ray emission from the galactic center region based on recent observational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulated high resolution images of the galactic center region have been obtained for the SIGMA telescope, using recent observational data. It is shown, using various computing methods, that the next generation of gamma-ray imaging telescopes will be able to resolve this complex region of the sky

  2. Development of the Model of Galactic Interstellar Emission for Standard Point-source Analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Landriu, D.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Remy, Q.; Renault, N.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schaal, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Werner, M.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2016-04-01

    Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.

  3. CONFRONTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TIME-DEPENDENT JET SIMULATIONS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of magnetized disk winds, carried out to simulation scales of 60 AU, in order to confront optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of protostellar jets. We 'observe' the optical forbidden line emission produced by shocks within our simulated jets and compare these with actual observations. Our simulations reproduce the rich structure of time-varying jets, including jet rotation far from the source, an inner (up to 400 km s-1) and outer (less than 100 km s-1) component of the jet, and jet widths of up to 20 AU in agreement with observed jets. These simulations when compared with the data are able to constrain disk wind models. In particular, models featuring a disk magnetic field with a modest radial spatial variation across the disk are favored.

  4. New Horizons: Long-Range Kuiper Belt Targets Observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecchi, S. D.; Noll, K. S.; Weaver, H. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Buie, M. W.; Parker, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of three Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), discovered in our dedicated ground-based search campaign, that are candidates for long-range observations from the New Horizons spacecraft: 2011 epochY31, 2011 HZ102, and 2013 LU35. Astrometry with HST enables both current and future critical accuracy improvements for orbit precision, required for possible New Horizons observations, beyond what can be obtained from the ground. Photometric colors of all three objects are red, typical of the Cold Classical dynamical population within which they reside; they are also the faintest KBOs to have had their colors measured. None are observed to be binary with HST above separations of approx. 0.02 arcsec (approx. 700 km at 44 AU) and delta m less than or equal to 0.5.

  5. A calibration system for the Green Bank Telescope 4mm receiver: On-telescope, RFI-free calibration for 68-92 GHz observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Galen

    2012-11-01

    Calibration for spectral line observations covering 68-92 GHz on the Green Bank Telescope uses a different calibration scheme than lower frequency receivers. In addition and extremely important is that any calibration scheme must not generate radio frequency interference (RFI) to other experiments ongoing at the Green Bank Observatory. An asynchronous logic network interfaces between the telescope control system, a brushless AC motor and three bit position encoding to place or remove reflectors, absorber or a quarter wave plate in the beam of the feeds to enable observers to calibrate their data during observations or configure the receiver for Very Long Baseline Interferometer network observations. This system is free of RFI that schemes utilizing more commonly available technology create.

  6. Far-infared spectroscopic observations with a Balloon-Borne infrared telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first observations of far-infrared celestial objects using the 50-cm Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope were made in Alice Springs, Australia. Far-infrared spectrophotometric data between 45 and 115 μm were taken for the Orion-KL region, Saturn and a southern H II region RCW 38. The data including high excitation transition lines of CO for Orion-KL, O III lines for RCW 38 and a PH3 absorption feature of Saturn will be presented. (author)

  7. Observing---and Imaging---Active Galactic Nuclei with the Event Horizon Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Vincent L; Bouman, Katherine L; Chael, Andrew A; Johnson, Michael D; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Blackburn, Lindy; Wardle, John F C; Freeman, William T

    2016-01-01

    Originally developed to image the shadow region of the central black hole in Sagittarius A* and in the nearby galaxy M87, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) provides deep, very high angular resolution data on other AGN sources too. The challenges of working with EHT data have spurred the development of new image reconstruction algorithms. This work briefly reviews the status of the EHT and its utility for observing AGN sources, with emphasis on novel imaging techniques that offer the promise of better reconstructions at 1.3 mm and other wavelengths.

  8. Recent Observations of IC443 with the Whipple 10m Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the results of recent observations made with the Whipple 10m imaging Cherenkov telescope of the region of the supernova remnant IC443. No evidence for gamma-ray emission was found, and we obtain an upper limit above 500 GeV (99.9% confidence) of 0.6 x 10-7 ph m-2 s-1 (0.11 Crab) at the location of the recently identified X-ray plerion nebula and 0.8 x 10-7 ph m-2 s-1 (0.14 Crab) at the site of the OH maser at the densest part of the molecular cloud

  9. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum Observed with the Surface Detector of the Telescope Array Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; B.G. Cheon; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with primary energies above 1.6 x 10^(18) eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 x 10^(18) eV and a steepening at 5.4 x 10^(19) eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of ultra-high energy cosmic ray ...

  10. AGN Observations in the GeV/TeV Energy Range with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MAGIC currently is the largest imaging atmospheric Cerenkov telescope world-wide. Since 2004, gamma-ray emission from several active galactic nuclei in the GeV/TeV energy range has been detected, some of which were newly discovered as very-high energy gamma-ray sources. The gamma-rays are assumed to originate from particle acceleration processes in the AGN jets. We give an overview of the AGN observed and detected by MAGIC, discuss spectral and temporal properties of these and show physics im...

  11. Collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter observed by the NASA infrared telescope facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G.; A'Hearn, M.; Baines, K.; Deming, D.; Dowling, T.; Goguen, J.; Griffith, C.; Hammel, H.; Hoffmann, W.; Hunten, D.; Zahnle, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Infrared Telescope Facility was used to investigate the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter from 12 July to 7 August 1994. Strong thermal infrared emission lasting several minutes was observed after the impacts of fragments C, G, and R. All impacts warmed the stratosphere and some the troposphere up to several degrees. The abundance of stratospheric ammonia increased by more than 50 times. Impact-related particles extended up to a level where the atmospheric pressure measured several millibars. The north polar near-infrared aurora brightened by nearly a factor of 5 a week after the impacts.

  12. Observations of Westerlund 2 with the H.E.S.S. telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observations of the field of view of Westerlund 2 with the H.E.S.S. telescopes have led to the discovery of an extended VHE source, HESS J1023-575, that has been previously associated with either the massive WR binary system WR 20a, the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 or cosmic rays accelerated in bubbles or at their termination shock and interacting with their environment. The extension and non-variability of the VHE source disfavour the two first scenario and an unambiguous identification of the source is still on hold. The Fermi satellite also showed recently two bright gamma-ray pulsars in the same region. In order to investigate the origin of the VHE emission, re-observations have been performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope during 2008 and 2009. These new results shed light on the identification and morphology of HESS J1023-575. We present the new H.E.S.S. observations and discuss the possible counterpart.

  13. Slipping reconnection in a solar flare observed in high resolution with the GREGOR solar telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sobotka, M; Denker, C; Balthasar, H; Jurčák, J; Liu, W; Berkefeld, T; Vera, M Collados; Feller, A; Hofmann, A; Kneer, F; Kuckein, C; Lagg, A; Louis, R E; von der Lühe, O; Nicklas, H; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sigwarth, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    A small flare ribbon above a sunspot umbra in active region 12205 was observed on November 7, 2014, at 12:00 UT in the blue imaging channel of the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope, using a 1 A Ca II H interference filter. Context observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) show that this ribbon is part of a larger one that extends through the neighboring positive polarities and also participates in several other flares within the active region. We reconstructed a time series of 140 seconds of Ca II H images by means of the multiframe blind deconvolution method, which resulted in spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.1 arcsec and 1 s. Light curves and horizontal velocities of small-scale bright knots in the observed flare ribbon were measured. Some knots are stationary, but three move along the ribbon with speeds of 7-11 km/s. Two of them move in the opposite d...

  14. Observation of the 2005 January 20 GLE event using Yangbajing solar neutron telescope and neutron monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solar cosmic rays Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) event associated with a X7.1/2b solar flare in 2005 January 20 was observed by the Yangbajing solar neutron telescope (SNT) and neutron monitor (NM), located at Yangbajing Tibet (90.53 degree E, 30.11 degree N, 4310m a.s.l) with the highest vertical geomagnetic cut-off rigidity of 14.1 GV in NM network. The statistical significance of the counting rate enhancement recorded by solar neutron telescope in >40 MeV channel was 3.7 σ in the time window of 07:00-07:05UT and 6.0σ in the time window of 07:00-07:20UT, respectively. The onset time of 06:51-06:52UT for this GLE event was clearly observed by the Yangbajing NM. Our Observation indicates that solar protons have been accelerated up to energies of >10 GeV during this solar event. (authors)

  15. Astrometric observations of outer Jovian satellites with the `Saturn' telescope. First results

    CERN Document Server

    Khovritchev, M Yu; Balyaev, I A; Bikulova, D A; Izmailov, I S; Roshchina, E A; Petjur, V V; Shumilov, A A; Maksimova, L A; Oskina, K I; Apetyan, A A; Kulikova, A M

    2015-01-01

    The one-meter telescope-reflector `Saturn' (D=1 m, F = 4 m) was partially renovated at the Pulkovo observatory at the end of 2014. The telescope was equipped by CCD camera S2C with 14x14 arcmin field of view and 824 mas per pix scale. The observations of outer Jovian satellites have been performed in a test mode since January 2015. The exposure time of 30 seconds allows us to obtain images of stars up to magnitude 19.5 with the present state of the mirror and the equipment. The observations of outer Jovian satellites have been performed during testing period. These objects are interesting targets because their astrometric observations required to improve ephemeris and dynamic studies. Satellites positions have been determined on the basis of CCD images obtained within 6 nights. Astrometric reduction is performed by linear method using HCRF/UCAC4 and HCRF/URAT1. Internal accuracy of satellites positions has been estimated as 20 - 100 mas. The absolute values of residuals O-C do not exceed 100 mas in most cases...

  16. The silicon tracker/converter for the gamma-ray large area space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silicon Tracker/Converter of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will have an active area of 80 m2, representing one of the largest planned applications of the silicon-strip detector technology. The large number of channels (1.3 million) to read out, together with the requirement that the tracker provide the trigger to the data acquisition, force the readout electronics to be of very low noise. Furthermore, to fit into the power constraints of the satellite environment, the electronics must have an ultra-low power consumption. To fulfill these requirements, plus others imposed by the space environment, such as redundancy, a mixed mode CMOS front-end readout chip and a digital readout controller chip have been designed and prototyped. In this article, we present the status of the readout electronics and the results from a test-beam study with a small GLAST tracker prototype. (author)

  17. Bayesian techniques for comparing time-dependent GRMHD simulations to variable Event Horizon Telescope observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Junhan; Chan, Chi-kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long baseline interferometer (VLBI) that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. We also apply our method to the early EHT data...

  18. Point source detection performance of Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope imaging observation

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Zhuoxi; Li, Xiaobo; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will perform an all-sky survey in hard X-ray band as well as deep imaging of a series of small sky regions. We expect various compact objects to be detected in these imaging observations. Point source detection performance of HXMT imaging observation depends not only on the instrument but also on its data analysis since images are reconstructed from HXMT observed data with numeric methods. Denoising technique plays an import part in HXMT imaging data analysis pipeline alongside with demodulation and source detection. In this paper we have implemented several methods for denoising HXMT data and evaluated the point source detection performances in terms of sensitivities and location accuracies. The results show that direct demodulation with 1-fold cross correlation should be the default reconstruction and regularization methods, although both sensitivity and location accuracy could be further imporved by selecting and tuning numerical methods in data analysis of HXMT i...

  19. Follow-up observations toward Planck cold clumps with ground-based radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Mardones, Diego; Kim, Kee-Tae; Menten, Karl M; Tatematsu, Ken; Cunningham, Maria; Juvela, Mika; Zhang, Qizhou; Goldsmith, Paul F; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Meng, Fanyi; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Guan, Xin; Yuan, Jinghua; Belloche, Arnaud; Henkel, Christian; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Garay, Guido; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Wang, Ke; Bronfman, Leonardo; Toth, L Viktor; Schnee, Scott; Qin, Shengli; Akhter, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of prestellar cores, especially massive ones, are still far from being well understood due to the lack of a large sample. The low dust temperature ($<$14 K) of Planck cold clumps makes them promising candidates for prestellar objects or for sources at the very initial stages of protostellar collapse. We have been conducting a series of observations toward Planck cold clumps (PCCs) with ground-based radio telescopes. In general, when compared with other star forming samples (e.g. infrared dark clouds), PCCs are more quiescent, suggesting that most of them may be in the earliest phase of star formation. However, some PCCs are associated with protostars and molecular outflows, indicating that not all PCCs are in a prestellar phase. We have identified hundreds of starless dense clumps from the mapping survey with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7-m telescope. Follow-up observations suggest that these dense clumps are ideal targets to search for prestellar objects.

  20. Observations of GEO Debris with the Magellan 6.5-m Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cardonna, Tommaso; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.

    2012-01-01

    Optical observations of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) debris are important to address two questions: 1. What is the distribution function of objects at GEO as a function of brightness? With some assumptions, this can be used to infer a size distribution. 2. Can we determine what the likely composition of individual GEO debris pieces is from studies of the spectral reflectance of these objects? In this paper we report on optical observations with the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile that attempt to answer both questions. Imaging observations over a 0.5 degree diameter field-of-view have detected a significant population of optically faint debris candidates with R > 19th magnitude, corresponding to a size smaller than 20 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175. Many of these objects show brightness variations larger than a factor of 2, suggesting either irregular shapes or albedo variations or both. The object detection rate (per square degree per hour) shows an increase over the rate measured in the 0.6-m MODEST observations, implying an increase in the population at optically fainter levels. Assuming that the albedo distribution is the same for both samples, this corresponds to an increase in the population of smaller size debris. To study the second issue, calibrated reflectance spectroscopy has been obtained of a sample of GEO and near GEO objects with orbits in the public U.S. Space Surveillance Network catalog. With a 6.5-m telescope, the exposures times are short (30 seconds or less), and provide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 4500 to 8000 Angstroms. If the observed objects are tumbling, then simultaneous coverage and short exposure times are essential for a realistic assessment of the object fs spectral signature. We will compare the calibrated spectra with lab-based measurements of simple spacecraft surfaces composed of a single material.

  1. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF LOOPS WITH CORONAL RAIN OBSERVED BY HINODE/SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The condensations composing coronal rain, falling down along loop-like structures observed in cool chromospheric lines such as Hα and Ca II H, have long been a spectacular phenomenon of the solar corona. However, considered a peculiar sporadic phenomenon, it has not received much attention. This picture is rapidly changing due to recent high-resolution observations with instruments such as the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), CRISP of the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Furthermore, numerical simulations have shown that coronal rain is the loss of thermal equilibrium of loops linked to footpoint heating. This result has highlighted the importance that coronal rain can play in the field of coronal heating. In this work, we further stress the importance of coronal rain by showing the role it can play in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field topology. We analyze Hinode/SOT observations in the Ca II H line of a loop in which coronal rain puts in evidence in-phase transverse oscillations of multiple strand-like structures. The periods, amplitudes, transverse velocities, and phase velocities are calculated, allowing an estimation of the energy flux of the wave and the coronal magnetic field inside the loop through means of coronal seismology. We discuss the possible interpretations of the wave as either standing or propagating torsional Alfven or fast kink waves. An estimate of the plasma beta parameter of the condensations indicates a condition that may allow the often observed separation and elongation processes of the condensations. We also show that the wave pressure from the transverse wave can be responsible for the observed low downward acceleration of coronal rain.

  2. Stellar Archaeology and Galaxy Genesis: The Need for Large Area Multi-Object Spectrograph on 8 m-Class Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Mike J.; Lewis, Geraint F.

    The origin and evolution of galaxies like the Milky Way and M31 remain among the key questions in astrophysics. The galaxies we see today in and around the Local Group are representatives of the general field population of the Universe and have been evolving for the majority of cosmic time. As our nearest neighbour systems they can be studied in far more detail than their distant counterparts and hence provide our best hope for understanding star formation and prototypical galaxy evolution over the lifetime of the Universe [K. Freeman, J. Bland-Hawthorn in Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 487 (2002)]. Significant observational progress has been made, but we are still a long way from understanding galaxy genesis. To unravel this formative epoch, detailed large area multi-object spectroscopy of spatial, kinematic and chemical structures on 8 m-class telescopes are required, to provide the link between local near-field cosmology and predictions from the high-redshift Universe.

  3. Co-evolution of AGN and Star-forming Galaxies in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) is a wide deep radio survey which is distinguished by its comprehensive multi-wavelength approach. ATLAS is creating a large dataset of radio-selected galaxies for studying the evolution and inter-relationship of star-forming and active galaxies. Although the project is far from complete, we are already starting to answer some of these questions, and have stumbled across three surprises along the way: * FRI/FRII radio-loud AGN embedded within spiral galaxies, * radio-bright AGN which are unexpectedly faint in the infrared, and which may be at high redshift * IR-luminous radio-quiet AGN which are partly responsible for the wide variations in reported values of the radio-infrared ratio These and other observations suggest that the AGN activity and star formation become increasingly inter-dependent at high redshifts.

  4. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation from Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with Six Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sehgal, N.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strigari, L.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way are some of the most dark matter (DM) dominated objects known. We report on γ -ray observations of Milky Way dSphs based on six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data processed with the new Pass8 event-level analysis. None of the dSphs are significantly detected in γ rays, and we present upper limits on the DM annihilation cross section from a combined analysis of 15 dSphs. These constraints are among the strongest and most robust to date and lie below the canonical thermal relic cross section for DM of mass ≲100 GeV annihilating via quark and τ -lepton channels.

  5. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation from Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with Six Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Anderson, B; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Essig, R; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Horan, D; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Llena Garde, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Malyshev, D; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Meyer, M; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sehgal, N; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strigari, L; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2015-12-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) of the Milky Way are some of the most dark matter (DM) dominated objects known. We report on γ-ray observations of Milky Way dSphs based on six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data processed with the new Pass8 event-level analysis. None of the dSphs are significantly detected in γ rays, and we present upper limits on the DM annihilation cross section from a combined analysis of 15 dSphs. These constraints are among the strongest and most robust to date and lie below the canonical thermal relic cross section for DM of mass ≲100  GeV annihilating via quark and τ-lepton channels. PMID:26684107

  6. Sardinia Radio Telescope wide-band spectral-polarimetric observations of the galaxy cluster 3C 129

    CERN Document Server

    Murgia, M; Carretti, E; Melis, A; Concu, R; Trois, A; Loi, F; Vacca, V; Tarchi, A; Castangia, P; Possenti, A; Bocchinu, A; Burgay, M; Casu, S; Pellizzoni, A; Pisanu, T; Poddighe, A; Poppi, S; D'Amico, N; Bachetti, M; Corongiu, A; Egron, E; Iacolina, N; Ladu, A; Marongiu, P; Migoni, C; Perrodin, D; Pilia, M; Valente, G; Vargiu, G

    2016-01-01

    We present new observations of the galaxy cluster 3C 129 obtained with the Sardinia Radio Telescope in the frequency range 6000-7200 MHz, with the aim to image the large-angular-scale emission at high-frequency of the radio sources located in this cluster of galaxies. The data were acquired using the recently-commissioned ROACH2-based backend to produce full-Stokes image cubes of an area of 1 deg x 1 deg centered on the radio source 3C 129. We modeled and deconvolved the telescope beam pattern from the data. We also measured the instrumental polarization beam patterns to correct the polarization images for off-axis instrumental polarization. Total intensity images at an angular resolution of 2.9 arcmin were obtained for the tailed radio galaxy 3C 129 and for 13 more sources in the field, including 3C 129.1 at the galaxy cluster center. These data were used, in combination with literature data at lower frequencies, to derive the variation of the synchrotron spectrum of 3C 129 along the tail of the radio source...

  7. Recent GRBs observed with the 1.23m CAHA telescope and the status of its upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gorosabel, Javier; Jelinek, Martin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Carrion, Sebastian Castillo; Guziy, Sergey; Cunniffe, Ronan; Fernandez, Matilde; Huelamo, Nuria; Terron, Victor; Morales, Nicolas; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Mottola, Stefano; Carsenty, Uri; .,

    2010-01-01

    We report on optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) followed up by our collaboration with the 1.23m telescope located at the Calar Alto observatory. The 1.23m telescope is an old facility, currently undergoing upgrades to enable fully autonomous response to GRB alerts. We discuss the current status of the control system upgrade of the 1.23m telescope. The upgrade is being done by the ARAE our group, based on members of IAA (Instituto de Astrofiisica de Andalucia). Currently the ARAE group is responsible to develop the BOOTES network of robotic telescopes based on the Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version (RTS2), which controls the available instruments and interacts with the EPICS database of Calar Alto. Currently the telescope can run fully autonomously or under observer supervision using RTS2. The fast reaction response mode for GRB reaction (typically with response times below 3 minutes from the GRB onset) still needs some development and testing. The telescope is usually operated in legacy interac...

  8. Non-Blazhko RR Lyrae Stars Observed with the KEPLER Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Nemec, J M; Benko, J M; Moskalik, P; Kolenberg, K; Szabo, R; Kurtz, D W; Bryson, S; Guggenberger, E; Chadid, M; Jeon, Y -B; Kunder, A; Layden, A C; Kinemuchi, K; Kiss, L L; Poretti, E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kjeldsen, H; Caldwell, D; Ripepi, V; Derekas, A; Nuspl, J; Mullally, F; Thompson, S E; Borucki, W J

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of our recent study of the non-Blazhko RR Lyrae stars observed with the Kepler space telescope. These stars offer the opportunity for studying the stability of the pulsations of RR Lyrae stars and for providing a reference against which the Blazhko RR Lyrae stars can be compared. Of particular interest is the stability of the low-dispersion (sigma < 1mmag) light curves constructed from ~18,000 long-cadence (30-min) and (for FN Lyr and AW Dra) the ~150,000 short-cadence (1-min) photometric data points. Fourier-based [Fe/H] values and other physical characteristics are also derived. When the observed periods are compared with periods computed with the Warsaw non-linear convective pulsation code better agreement is achieved assuming pulsational L and M values rather than the (higher) evolutionary L and M values.

  9. Prospects for Observing Ultracompact Binaries with Space-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers and Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, T. B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G.; Cornish, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultracompact binaries. An important subset of the ultracompact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multimessenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher information matrix is used to estimate the number of binaries from a model of the Milky Way which are localized on the sky by the gravitational wave detector to within 1 and 10 deg(exp 2) and bright enough to be detected by a magnitude-limited survey.We find, depending on the choice ofGW detector characteristics, limiting magnitude and observing strategy, that up to several hundred gravitational wave sources could be detected in electromagnetic follow-up observations.

  10. Development of the Circumpolar Stratospheric Telescope FUJIN for Observations of Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, A.; Taguchi, M.; Shoji, Y.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M.; Goda, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Yosida, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Watanabe, M.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to conduct long-term continuous observations for studies on time-dependent events in the planetary atmospheres and plasmaspheres. The FUJIN project aims at continuous observations of planets using a telescope lifted by a balloon in the polar stratosphere. The FUJIN-2 will be launched at ESRANGE in Kiruna, Sweden in the window from June to August in 2016. The gondola will be recovered in Scandinavia after two or three weeks flight. The main target of the FUJIN-mission was Venus previously. But since the outline of Venus changes its phase, it is hard for us to plan the test using balloon which choose the observation term to free. We decide to mainly observe Jupiter for same conditions over one year without the term of conjunction. We will observe the haze in the Jupiter's polar using the most deep absorption band of methane in 890nm, visual-infrared region, and we will get the parameters which decide that the wave is Rossby-Wave to get the Jupiter's background wind. And we will observe Mercury's sodium atmosphere and tail as an optional observation as an option.

  11. Searches for Cosmic-Ray Electron Anisotropies with the \\textit{Fermi} Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope on board the \\textit{Fermi} satellite (\\textit{Fermi}-LAT) detected more than 1.6 million cosmic-ray electrons/positrons with energies above 60 GeV during its first year of operation. The arrival directions of these events were searched for anisotropies of angular scale extending from $\\sim$ 10 $^\\circ$ up to 90$^\\circ$, and of minimum energy extending from 60 GeV up to 480 GeV. Two independent techniques were used to search for anisotropies, both resulting in null results. Upper limits on the degree of the anisotropy were set that depended on the analyzed energy range and on the anisotropy's angular scale. The upper limits for a dipole anisotropy ranged from $\\sim0.5%$ to $\\sim5%$.

  12. Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large area (1 m x 1 m) double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2 to 100 MeV neutrons and 0.5 to 30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975. (U.S.)

  13. Measurement of separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Ormes, E Orlando J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sbarra, C; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2011-01-01

    We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting the Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to the Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 GeV and 200 GeV. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20--100 GeV range and determine for the first time that it continues to rise between 100 and 200 GeV.

  14. Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, A. D.; Herzo, D.; Koga, R.; Millard, W. A.; Moon, S.; Ryan, J.; Wilson, R.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1975-01-01

    A large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2-100 MeV neutrons and 0.5-30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975.

  15. Recent Results on SNRs and PWNe from the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Topics include: Fermi LAT Collaboration groups; galactic results from LAT; a GeV, wide-field instrument; the 1FGL catalog, the Fermi LAT 1FGL source catalog, unidentified gamma-ray sources; variability in 1FGL sources; curvature in 1FGL sources; spectral-variability classification; gamma-ray pulsars and MSPs; GeV PWN - where to look; Crab pulsar and nebula; Vela X nebular of Vela pulsar; MSH 15-52; GeV PWNe spectra; GeV nebula limits; Nebula search of LAT pulsars; supernova remnants; SNR: GeV morphology; SNR: molecular connection; SNR: GeV breaks; SNR: young vs. old. The summary includes slides about the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and LAT sensitivity with time.

  16. Measurement of Separate Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; McEnery, J. E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Ackemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting Earth's shadow, which, is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 and 200 Ge V. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 Ge V range. The three new spectral points between 100 and 200 GeV are consistent with a fraction that is continuing to rise with energy.

  17. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-354

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 ± 0.7) x 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  18. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler’s supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of {5.1}-0.7+0.8 kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km s-1 and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations among these filaments trace the density distribution of the material, which may have a disk-like geometry. Based on observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. Hubble and Keck Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope and Keck 10 meter telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude $H_V$ = 17.0$\\pm$0.1 and estimated diameter $\\sim$2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo $p_V$ = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10% to 15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is $\\sim$40 km$^2$, corresponding to a dust mass $\\sim$9$\\times$10$^6$ kg (88 $\\mu$m mean particle radius assumed). The full width at half maximum of the debris sheet varies from $\\sim$100 km near the nucleus to $\\sim$1000 km 30arcsec (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s$^{-1}$, particle sizes between 10 and 300 $\\mu$m and an inverse square-root relation between particle...

  20. Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Filippenko, Alexei V; Aldering, Greg; Antilogus, Pierre; Arnett, David; Baade, Dietrich; Baron, Eddie; Barris, Brian J; Benetti, Stefano; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, Adam S; Canal, Ramon; Cappellaro, Enrico; Carlberg, Raymond; di Carlo, Elisa; Challis, Peter; Crotts, Arlin; Danziger, John I; Della Valle, Massimo; Jack, Dennis; Fink, Michael; Foley, Ryan J; Fransson, Claes; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Garnavich, Peter; Gerardy, Chris L; Goldhaber, Gerson; Hamuy, Mario; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Hoeflich, Peter A; Holland, Stephen T; Holz, Daniel E; Hughes, John P; Jeffery, David J; Jha, Saurabh W; Kasen, Dan; Khokhlov, Alexei M; Kirshner, Robert P; Knop, Robert; Kozma, Cecilia; Krisciunas, Kevin; Kromer, Markus; Lee, Brian C; Leibundgut, Bruno; Lentz, Eric J; Leonard, Douglas C; Lewin, Walter H G; Li, Weidong; Livio, Mario; Lundqvist, Peter; Maoz, Dan; Matheson, Thomas; Mazzali, Paolo; Meikle, Peter; Miknaitis, Gajus; Milne, Peter; Mochnacki, Stefan; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi; Nugent, Peter E; Oran, Elaine; Panagia, Nino; Patat, Ferdinando; Perlmutter, Saul; Phillips, Mark M; Pinto, Philip; Poznanski, Dovi; Pritchet, Christopher J; Reinecke, Martin; Riess, Adam; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Scalzo, Richard; Schlegel, Eric M; Schmidt, Brian; Siegrist, James; Soderberg, Alicia M; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Spadafora, Anthony; Spyromilio, Jason; Sramek, Richard A; Starrfield, Sumner G; Strolger, Louis G; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Thomas, Rollin; Tonry, John L; Tornambe, Amedeo; Truran, James W; Turatto, Massimo; Turner, Michael; Van Dyk, Schuyler D; Weiler, Kurt; Wheeler, J Craig; Wood-Vasey, Michael; Woosley, Stan; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2011-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This dataset provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 Angstrom. Significant diversity is seen in the near maximum-light spectra (~ 2000--3500 Angstrom) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminosities measured in uvw1/F250W are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter dm15(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broad-band B band (e.g., ~0.4 mag versus ~0.2 mag for those with 0.8 3 sigma), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by ~0.9 mag and ~2.0 mag in the uvw1/F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show th...

  1. Possibility of observing high energy neutrinos from gamma bursts, with the Antanares telescope, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Antares collaboration intends to build a deep-sea neutrino telescope with a detection surface of about 1/10 km2 in the Mediterranean sea. The universe is transparent to neutrinos, so their study provides a unique means of improving our knowledge of the nature and origin of cosmic rays and their emission from the most powerful astrophysical sources in the cosmos. Neutrinos also offer the possibility of opening a new energy window (E>TeV) for observation of the universe. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to a study of the possibility of using the future telescope to look for correlations between gamma-ray bursts and high-energy neutrinos. It is based, on one hand, on the predictions of neutrino fluxes from gamma-ray bursts in the framework of the theoretical model of 'fireballs', and, on the other hand, on the temporal properties of the gamma-ray bursts in the 4. BATSE catalogue. The second part of the thesis presents the results obtained with a prototype detector line deployed, at the end of 1999, some forty km south-west off Marseilles. The objective was to operate a complete apparatus, similar to the future detector lines, from the shore, and under realistic conditions. Data from 7 photomultiplier tubes disposed along the detector line were transmitted through 37 km of optical fiber to the shore, where they were used to reconstruct tracks due to atmospheric muons, thus validating the detection principles and methods. (author)

  2. Color Indices of Selected Objects Situated on the MEO and GEO Orbits Obtained by two Telescopes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silha, Jiri; Hamara, Michal

    2013-08-01

    In the presented paper we are investigating the color indices of targets situated at the geostationary orbits. To get the color indices we performed five nights of observations at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory FMPI CU, Modra during the summer and fall 2012 and during the winter 2013. The main targets were stable spacecrafts and rocket bodies. In three cases we also observed fragments of the Titan 3C rocket body which fragmented on GEO in 1993. Two types of observations were used. During one station observations the measurements were performed by the 0.6-meter Zeiss telescope with 3.29-meter focal length and with Johnson/Cousin BVRI filters. For two simultaneous observations the 0.6-meter Zeiss telescope and 0.28- meter Celestron EdgeHD telescope equipped with Johnson/Cousin R filter were used. We calculated astrometric positions of selected targets by our own package Sateph and by using the public catalogue.

  3. Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the blazar 1ES 1215+303 with the MAGIC Telescopes and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Cañellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Gimenez, I Puerto; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Berdyugin, A; Buson, S; Järvelä, E; Larsson, S; Lähteenmäki, A; Tammi, J; de Lausanne, now at: Ecole polytechnique fédérale; Lausanne,; Switzerland,; Padova, supported by INFN; Energéticas, now at: Centro de Investigaciones; Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y; Madrid,; Spain,; KIPAC, now at:; Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator; USA,; ESO, now at: Finnish Centre for Astronomy with; Turku, University of; Finland,; Observatory, Aalto University Metsähovi Radio; Metsähovintie,; Finland,; Physics, Department of; University, Stockholm; Stockholm,; Sweden,; Physics, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle; Stockholm,; Sweden,; Astronomy, Department of; University, Stockholm; Stockholm,; Sweden),

    2012-01-01

    Context. We present the discovery of very high energy (VHE, E > 100GeV) gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac object 1ES 1215+303 by the MAGIC telescopes and simultaneous multi-wavelength data in a broad energy range from radio to gamma-rays. Aims. We study the VHE gamma-ray emission from 1ES 1215+303 and its relation to the emissions in other wavelengths. Methods. Triggered by an optical outburst, MAGIC observed the source in January-February 2011 for 20.3 hrs. The target was monitored in the optical R-band by the KVA telescope that also performed optical polarization measurements. We triggered target of opportunity observations with the Swift satellite and obtained simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and from the Mets\\"ahovi radio telescope. We also present the analysis of older MAGIC data taken in 2010. Results. The MAGIC observations of 1ES 1215+303 carried out in January-February 2011 resulted in the first detection of the source at VHE with a statistical significanc...

  4. Candidate microlensing events from M31 observations with the Loiano telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Novati, S Calchi; De Paolis, F; Dominik, M; Ingrosso, G; Jetzer, Ph; Mancini, L; Nucita, A; Scarpetta, G; Sereno, M; Strafella, F; Gould, A

    2009-01-01

    Microlensing observations towards M31 are a powerful tool for the study of the dark matter population in the form of MACHOs both in the Galaxy and the M31 halos, a still unresolved issue, as well as for the analysis of the characteristics of the M31 luminous populations. In this work we present the second year results of our pixel lensing campaign carried out towards M31 using the 152 cm Cassini telescope in Loiano. We have established an automatic pipeline for the detection and the characterisation of microlensing variations. We have carried out a complete simulation of the experiment and evaluated the expected signal, including an analysis of the efficiency of our pipeline. As a result, we select 1-2 candidate microlensing events (according to different selection criteria). This output is in agreement with the expected rate of M31 self-lensing events. However, the statistics are still too low to draw definitive conclusions on MACHO lensing.

  5. CANDIDATE MICROLENSING EVENTS FROM M31 OBSERVATIONS WITH THE LOIANO TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microlensing observations toward M31 are a powerful tool for the study of the dark matter population in the form of MACHOs both in the Galaxy and the M31 halos, a still unresolved issue, as well as for the analysis of the characteristics of the M31 luminous populations. In this work, we present the second-year results of our pixel lensing campaign carried out toward M31 using the 152 cm Cassini telescope in Loiano. We have established an automatic pipeline for the detection and the characterization of microlensing variations. We have carried out a complete simulation of the experiment and evaluated the expected signal, including an analysis of the efficiency of our pipeline. As a result, we select 1-2 candidate microlensing events (according to different selection criteria). This output is in agreement with the expected rate of M31 self-lensing events. However, the statistics are still too low to draw definitive conclusions on MACHO lensing.

  6. Gamma-ray observations of the Crab Region using a coded-aperture telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of the Galactic anticenter, including the Crab Nebula, was observed during a balloon flight of the University of New Hampshire Directional Gamma-Ray Telescope employing the coded-aperture imaging technique to image celestial gamma-radiation between 160 keV and 9.3 MeV. The background systematics are treated with a simple and relatively straightforward correction procedure. The results demonstrate that the coded-aperture procedure is a viable approach for imaging not only point sources of radiation, but also extended sources of emission. The results for the Crab's photon spectrum are consistent with a power-law spectrum. Upper limits on the flux levels of line emission at 405 keV and 1050 keV and on the flux from the X-ray binary source A0535 + 26 and diffuse Galactic emission from the anticenter region are derived. 35 references

  7. Photometric Properties of Ceres from Telescopic Observations using Dawn Framing Camera Color Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gary, Bruce L; Sanchez, Juan A; Stephens, Robert D; Megna, Ralph; Coley, Daniel; Nathues, Andreas; Corre, Lucille Le; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres is likely differentiated similar to the terrestrial planets but with a water/ice dominated mantle and an aqueously altered crust. Detailed modeling of Ceres' phase function has never been performed to understand its surface properties. The Dawn spacecraft began orbital science operations at the dwarf planet in April 2015. We observed Ceres with flight spares of the seven Dawn Framing Camera color filters mounted on ground-based telescopes over the course of three years to model its phase function versus wavelength. Our analysis shows that the modeled geometric albedos derived from both the IAU HG model and the Hapke model are consistent with a flat and featureless spectrum of Ceres, although the values are ~10% higher than previous measurements. Our models also suggest a wavelength dependence of Ceres' phase function. The IAU G-parameter and the Hapke single-particle phase function parameter, g, are both consistent with decreasing (shallower) phase slope with increasing wavelength. Such...

  8. Observation of Chromospheric Sunspot at Millimeter Range with the Nobeyama 45 m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Iwai, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    The brightness temperature of the radio free-free emission at millimeter range is an effective tool for characterizing the vertical structure of the solar chromosphere. In this paper, we report on the first single-dish observation of a sunspot at 85 and 115 GHz with sufficient spatial resolution for resolving the sunspot umbra using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We used radio attenuation material, i.e. a solar filter, to prevent the saturation of the receivers. Considering the contamination from the plage by the side-lobes, we found that the brightness temperature of the umbra should be lower than that of the quiet region. This result is inconsistent with the preexisting atmospheric models. We also found that the brightness temperature distribution at millimeter range strongly corresponds to the ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission at 1700 {\\AA}, especially at the quiet region.

  9. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 ± 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 ± 0.004 ± 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 ± 3 ± 11) x 10-8 cm-2 s-1. The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE-#Gamma#e(-E/Ec) where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is Ec = 2.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is -2 but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  10. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z = 0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI γ-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. establishing this source as the best studied southern TeV blazar. Detection from the northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE γ-emission. During the outburst, the VHE γ-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 h at large zenith angles. Aims: We studied the behavior of the source after its extraordinary flare. Furthermore, we developed an analysis method in order to analyze these data taken under large zenith angles. Methods: Here we present an enhanced analysis method for data taken at high zenith angles. We developed improved methods for event selection that led to a better background suppression. Results: The quality of the results presented here is superior to the results presented previously for this data set: detection of the source on a higher significance level and a lower analysis threshold. The averaged energy spectrum we derived has a spectral index of (-3.5 ± 0.2) above 400 GeV, which is in good agreement with the spectral shape measured by H.E.S.S. during the major flare on MJD 53 944. Furthermore, we present the spectral energy distribution modeling of PKS 2155-304. With our observations we increased the duty cycle of the source

  11. Test observations that search for metal-poor stars with the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal-deficient stars are regarded as fossils of the early generation of stars and therefore make crucial observational targets related to stellar astrophysics. They provide fundamental information and insights on properties of the very early stage of the chemical history of the Galaxy and have been investigated for decades. The unique design of the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST), such as its large field and multi-object observational capability, enables it to be an excellent tool for searching for these metal-poor stars in the Milky Way. This work reports the result of test observations which search for metal-poor stars with LAMOST, during which nine candidate metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0 were newly detected based on the low-resolution spectroscopic observations of the LAMOST commissioning data. The sample of stars demonstrates the efficiency of selecting from the input catalog, as well as the ability of LAMOST to enlarge the sample of metal-poor stars in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the sample of stars could be used for future calibrations of the LAMOST stellar parameter pipeline. (research papers)

  12. Modeling Seven Years of Event Horizon Telescope Observations with Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Avery E; Johnson, Michael D; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Wang, Carlos; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Akiyama, Kazunori; Johannsen, Tim; Roy, Alan L

    2016-01-01

    An initial three-station version of the Event Horizon Telescope, a millimeter-wavelength very-long baseline interferometer, has observed Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) repeatedly from 2007 to 2013, resulting in the measurement of a variety of interferometric quantities. Of particular importance, there is now a large set of closure phases, measured over a number of independent observing epochs. We analyze these observations within the context of a realization of semi-analytic radiatively inefficient disk models, implicated by the low luminosity of Sgr A*. We find a broad consistency among the various observing epochs and between different interferometric data types, with the latter providing significant support for this class of models of Sgr A*. The new data significantly tighten existing constraints on the spin magnitude and its orientation within this model context, finding a spin magnitude of $a=0.10^{+0.30+0.56}_{-0.10-0.10}$, an inclination with respect to the line of sight of $\\theta={60^\\circ}^{+5^\\circ+10^\\c...

  13. Australia Telescope Compact Array radio continuum 1384 and 2368 MHz Observations of Sgr B

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David I; Ott, Juergen; Protheroe, Raymond J; Ekers, Ron D

    2010-01-01

    We present images of the Sagittarius (Sgr) B giant molecular cloud at 2368 and 1384 MHz obtained using new, multi-configuration Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations. We have combined these observations with archival single-dish observations yielding images at resolutions of 47" by 14" and 27" by 8" at 1384 and 2368 MHz respectively. These observations were motivated by our theoretical work (Protheroe et al. 2008) indicating the possibility that synchrotron emission from secondary electrons and positrons created in hadronic cosmic ray (CR) collisions with the ambient matter of the Sgr B2 cloud could provide a detectable (and possibly linearly polarized) non-thermal radio signal. We find that the only detectable non-thermal emission from the Sgr B region is from a strong source to the south of Sgr B2, which we label Sgr B2 Southern Complex (SC). We find Sgr B2(SC) integrated flux densities of 1.2+/-0.2 Jy at 1384 MHz and 0.7+/-0.1 Jy at 2368 MHz for a source of FWHM size at 1384 MHz of ~54". De...

  14. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE LOOPS OBSERVED WITH THE NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the high tempo-spatial resolution Hα images observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we report solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale, anti-parallel loops with an X-shaped topology. The reconnection process contains two steps: a slow step with a duration of more than several tens of minutes, and a rapid step lasting for only about three minutes. During the slow reconnection, two sets of anti-parallel loops gradually reconnect, and new loops are formed and stacked together. During the rapid reconnection, the anti-parallel loops approach each other quickly, and then rapid reconnection takes place, resulting in the disappearance of the former loops. In the meantime, new loops are formed and separate. The region between the approaching loops is brightened, and the thickness and length of this region are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. During the rapid reconnection process, obvious brightenings at the reconnection site and apparent material ejections outward along reconnected loops are observed. These observed signatures are consistent with predictions by reconnection models. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and triggers instabilities, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti-parallel loops and resulting in the rapid reconnection

  15. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 1013-5 × 1014 g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 1015 g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events

  16. Observations of GRB 060526 Optical Afterglow with Russian-Turkish 1.5-m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Khamitov, I M; Bikmaev, I F; Sakhibullin, N A; Pavlinsky, M N; Sunyaev, R A; Aslan, Z

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the photometric multicolor observations of GRB 060526 optical afterglow obtained with Russian-Turkish 1.5-m Telescope (RTT150, Mt. Bakirlitepe, Turkey). The detailed measurements of afterglow light curve, starting from about 5 hours after the GRB and during 5 consecutive nights were done. In addition, upper limits on the fast variability of the afterglow during the first night of observations were obtained and the history of afterglow color variations was measured in detail. In the time interval from 6 to 16 hours after the burst, there is a gradual flux decay, which can be described approximately as a power law with an index of -1.14+-0.02. After that the variability on the time scale \\delta t < t is observed and the afterglow started to decay faster. The color of the afterglow, V-R=~0.5, is approximately the same during all our observations. The variability is detected on time scales up to \\delta t/t =~ 0.0055 at \\Delta F_\

  17. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE STUDY OF COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: hayashi@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mizuno@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2012-08-10

    We report an analysis of the interstellar {gamma}-ray emission from the Chamaeleon, R Coronae Australis (R CrA), and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. They are among the nearest molecular cloud complexes, within {approx}300 pc from the solar system. The {gamma}-ray emission produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas in those molecular clouds is useful to study the CR densities and distributions of molecular gas close to the solar system. The obtained {gamma}-ray emissivities above 250 MeV are (5.9 {+-} 0.1{sub stat}{sup +0.9}{sub -1.0sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} photons s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1}, (10.2 {+-} 0.4{sub stat}{sup +1.2}{sub -1.7sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} photons s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1}, and (9.1 {+-} 0.3{sub stat}{sup +1.5}{sub -0.6sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} photons s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively. Whereas the energy dependences of the emissivities agree well with that predicted from direct CR observations at the Earth, the measured emissivities from 250 MeV to 10 GeV indicate a variation of the CR density by {approx}20% in the neighborhood of the solar system, even if we consider systematic uncertainties. The molecular mass calibrating ratio, X{sub CO} = N(H{sub 2})/W{sub CO}, is found to be (0.96 {+-} 0.06{sub stat}{sup +0.15}{sub -0.12sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} H{sub 2}-molecule cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, (0.99 {+-} 0.08{sub stat}{sup +0.18}{sub -0.10sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} H{sub 2}-molecule cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, and (0.63 {+-} 0.02{sub stat}{sup +0.09}{sub -0.07sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} H{sub 2}-molecule cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1} for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively, suggesting a variation of X{sub CO} in the vicinity of the solar system. From the

  18. Observations of the Crab Pulsar between 25 and 100 GeV with the MAGIC I Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Otte, N.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Hirotani, K.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the observation of γ-rays above 25 GeV from the Crab pulsar (PSR B0532+21) using the MAGIC I telescope. Two data sets from observations during the winter period 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 are used. In order to discuss the spectral shape from 100 MeV to 100 GeV, one year of public Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) data are also analyzed to complement the MAGIC data. The extrapolation of the exponential cutoff spectrum determined with the Fermi-LAT data is inconsistent with MAGIC measurements, which requires a modification of the standard pulsar emission models. In the energy region between 25 and 100 GeV, the emission in the P1 phase (from -0.06 to 0.04, location of the main pulse) and the P2 phase (from 0.32 to 0.43, location of the interpulse) can be described by power laws with spectral indices of -3.1 ± 1.0stat ± 0.3syst and -3.5 ± 0.5stat ± 0.3syst, respectively. Assuming an asymmetric Lorentzian for the pulse shape, the peak positions of the main pulse and the interpulse are estimated to be at phases -0.009 ± 0.007 and 0.393 ± 0.009, while the full widths at half-maximum are 0.025 ± 0.008 and 0.053 ± 0.015, respectively.

  19. Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lifan; Filippenko, Alexei; Baron, Eddie; Kromer, Markus; Jack, Dennis; Zhang, Tianmeng; Aldering, Greg; Antilogus, Pierre; Arnett, W. David; Baade, Dietrich; Barris, Brian J.; Benetti, Stefano; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, Adam S.; Canal, Ramon; Cappellaro, Enrico; Carlberg, Raymond; di Carlo, Elisa; Challis, Peter; Crotts, Arlin; Danziger, John I.; Della Valle, Massimo; Holland, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, This dataset provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 A. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra (approx.2000-3500 A) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminosities measured in the uvw lIF250W filter are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter .(Delta)m15(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broad-band B band (e.g., approx. 0.4 mag versus approx. 0.2 mag for those with 0.8 3(sigma), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by approx. 0,9 mag and approx. 2.0 mag in the uvwl1F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show that different progenitor metallicity or line-expansion velocities alone cannot explain such a large discrepancy. Viewing-angle effects, such as due to an asymmetric explosion, may have a significant influence on the flux emitted in the UV region. Detailed modeling is needed to disentangle and quantify the above effects

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact Encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, P D; Route, M; Weaver, H A; A'Hearn, M F; Belton, M J S; Meech, K J; Feldman, Paul D.; Candliss, Stephan R. Mc; Route, Matthew; Weaver, Harold A.; Hearn, Michael F. A'; Belton, Michael J. S.; Meech, Karen J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the Hubble Space Telescope program to observe periodic comet 9P/Tempel 1 in conjunction with NASA's Deep Impact mission. Our objectives were to study the generation and evolution of the coma resulting from the impact and to obtain wide-band images of the visual outburst generated by the impact. Two observing campaigns utilizing a total of 17 HST orbits were carried out: the first occurred on 2005 June 13-14 and fortuitously recorded the appearance of a new, short-lived fan in the sunward direction on June 14. The principal campaign began two days before impact and was followed by contiguous orbits through impact plus several hours and then snapshots one, seven, and twelve days later. All of the observations were made using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). For imaging, the ACS High Resolution Channel (HRC) provides a spatial resolution of 36 km (16 km/pixel) at the comet at the time of impact. Baseline images of the comet, made prior to impact, photometrically resolved the comet's nucleus. T...

  1. High resolution SZ observations at the IRAM 30-m telescope with NIKA

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Ade, P; Andrée, P; Beelen, A; Belier, B; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Boudou, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Comis, B; D'Addabbo, A; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Leclercq, S; Macías-Pérez, J F; Martino, J; Mauskopf, P; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Revéret, V; Rodriguez, L; Ruppin, F; Savini, G; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2014-01-01

    High resolution observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect are necessary to allow the use of clusters of galaxies as a probe for large scale structures at high redshifts. With its high resolution and dual-band capability at millimeter wavelengths, the NIKA camera can play a significant role in this context. NIKA is based on newly developed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and operates at the IRAM 30m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain. In this paper, we give the status of the NIKA camera, focussing on the KID technology. We then present observations of three galaxy clusters: RX J1347.5-1145 as a demonstrator of the NIKA capabilities and the recent observations of CL J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89) and MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55). We also discuss prospects for the final NIKA2 camera, which will have a 6.5 arcminute field of view with about 5000 detectors in two bands at 150 and 260 GHz.

  2. OBSERVATIONS OF THE M82 SN 2014J WITH THE KILODEGREE EXTREMELY LITTLE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report observations of the bright M82 supernova 2014J serendipitously obtained with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT). The supernova (SN) was observed at high cadence for over 100 days, from pre-explosion, to early rise and peak times, through the secondary bump. The high cadence KELT data with high signal-to-noise ratio is completely unique for SN 2014J and for any other SNIa, with the exception of the (yet) unpublished Kepler data. Here, we report determinations of the SN explosion time and peak time. We also report measures of the ''smoothness'' of the light curve on timescales of minutes/hours never before probed, and we use this to place limits on energy produced from short-lived isotopes or inhomogeneities in the explosion or the circumstellar medium. From the non-observation of significant perturbations of the light curves, we derive a 3σ upper limit corresponding to 8.7 × 1036 erg  s–1 for any such extra sources of luminosity at optical wavelengths

  3. Simulating Cherenkov Telescope Array observation of RX J1713.7-3946

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamori, T; Sano, H; Yamazaki, R; Ohira, Y; Bamba, A; Fukui, Y; Mori, K; Lee, S -H; Fujita, Y; Tajima, H; Inoue, T; Gunji, S; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Inoue, S; Ioka, K; Kohri, K; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Naito, T; Okumura, A; Saito, T; Sawada, M; Tanaka, T; Terada, Y; Uchiyama, Y; Yanagita, S; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2015-01-01

    We perform simulations of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of a young supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946. This target is not only one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high-energy gamma rays but also well observed in other wavebands. In X-rays, the emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation, which links directly to the existence of high-energy electrons. Radio observations of CO and HI gas have revealed a highly inhomogeneous medium surrounding the SNR, such as clumpy molecular clouds. Therefore gamma rays from hadronic interactions are naturally expected. However, the spectrum in GeV energy range measured by Fermi/LAT indicates more typical of leptonic emission from accelerated electrons. Despite lots of multi-wavelength information, the competing interpretations have led to much uncertainty in the quest of unraveling the true origin of the gamma-ray emission from RX~J1713.7--3946. CTA will achieve highest performance ever in sensitivity, angular resolution, and energy resolutio...

  4. Observations of the M82 SN 2014J with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Siverd, Robert J; Stassun, Keivan G; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of the bright M82 supernova 2014J serendipitously obtained with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT). The SN was observed at high cadence for over 100 days, from pre-explosion, to early rise and peak times, through the secondary bump. The high cadence KELT data with high S/N is completely unique for SN 2014J and for any other SNIa, with the exception of the (yet) unpublished Kepler data. Here, we report determinations of the SN explosion time and peak time. We also report measures of the "smoothness" of the light curve on timescales of minutes/hours never before probed, and we use this to place limits on energy produced from short-lived isotopes or inhomogeneities in the explosion or the circumstellar medium. From the non-observation of significant perturbations of the light curves, we derive a 3sigma upper-limit corresponding to 8.7 x 10^36 erg/s for any such extra sources of luminosity at optical wavelengths.

  5. OBSERVATIONS OF THE M82 SN 2014J WITH THE KILODEGREE EXTREMELY LITTLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Goobar, Ariel [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-20

    We report observations of the bright M82 supernova 2014J serendipitously obtained with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT). The supernova (SN) was observed at high cadence for over 100 days, from pre-explosion, to early rise and peak times, through the secondary bump. The high cadence KELT data with high signal-to-noise ratio is completely unique for SN 2014J and for any other SNIa, with the exception of the (yet) unpublished Kepler data. Here, we report determinations of the SN explosion time and peak time. We also report measures of the ''smoothness'' of the light curve on timescales of minutes/hours never before probed, and we use this to place limits on energy produced from short-lived isotopes or inhomogeneities in the explosion or the circumstellar medium. From the non-observation of significant perturbations of the light curves, we derive a 3σ upper limit corresponding to 8.7 × 10{sup 36} erg  s{sup –1} for any such extra sources of luminosity at optical wavelengths.

  6. Constraints on an exosphere at Ceres from Hubble Space Telescope observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lorenz; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Retherford, Kurt D.; Cunningham, Nathaniel J.; Feldman, Paul D.; Saur, Joachim; Spencer, John R.; Strobel, Darrell F.

    2016-03-01

    We report far ultraviolet observations of Ceres obtained with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph (COS) of the Hubble Space Telescope in the search for atomic emissions from an exosphere. The derived brightnesses at the oxygen lines at 1304 Å and 1356 Å are consistent with zero signals within the 1σ propagated statistical uncertainties. The OI 1304 Å brightness of 0.12 ± 0.20 Rayleighs can be explained by solar resonant scattering from an atomic oxygen column density of (8.2 ± 13.4) × 1010 cm-2. Assuming that O is produced by photodissociation of H2O, we derive an upper limit for H2O abundance and compare it to previous observations. Our upper limit is well above the expected O brightness for a tenuous sublimated H2O exosphere, but it suggests that H2O production with a rate higher than 4 × 1026 molecules s-1 was not present at the time of the COS observation. Additionally, we derive an extremely low geometric albedo of ˜1% in the 1300 Å to 1400 Å range.

  7. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL LENS DELAYED γ-RAY FLARES FROM BLAZAR B0218+357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C. C.; Grove, J. E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Larsson, S. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Scargle, J. D. [Space Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Amin, M. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Blandford, R. D.; Chiang, J.; Marshall, P. J. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bulmash, D. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ciprini, S. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Corbet, R. H. D. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Falco, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wood, D. L. [Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); D' Ammando, F.; Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lott, B. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Ojha, R., E-mail: Teddy.Cheung@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: stefan@astro.su.se [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2014-02-20

    Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), we report the first clear γ-ray measurement of a delay between flares from the gravitationally lensed images of a blazar. The delay was detected in B0218+357, a known double-image lensed system, during a period of enhanced γ-ray activity with peak fluxes consistently observed to reach >20-50 × its previous average flux. An auto-correlation function analysis identified a delay in the γ-ray data of 11.46 ± 0.16 days (1σ) that is ∼1 day greater than previous radio measurements. Considering that it is beyond the capabilities of the LAT to spatially resolve the two images, we nevertheless decomposed individual sequences of superposing γ-ray flares/delayed emissions. In three such ∼8-10 day-long sequences within a ∼4 month span, considering confusion due to overlapping flaring emission and flux measurement uncertainties, we found flux ratios consistent with ∼1, thus systematically smaller than those from radio observations. During the first, best-defined flare, the delayed emission was detailed with a Fermi pointing, and we observed flux doubling timescales of ∼3-6 hr implying as well extremely compact γ-ray emitting regions.

  8. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL LENS DELAYED γ-RAY FLARES FROM BLAZAR B0218+357

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), we report the first clear γ-ray measurement of a delay between flares from the gravitationally lensed images of a blazar. The delay was detected in B0218+357, a known double-image lensed system, during a period of enhanced γ-ray activity with peak fluxes consistently observed to reach >20-50 × its previous average flux. An auto-correlation function analysis identified a delay in the γ-ray data of 11.46 ± 0.16 days (1σ) that is ∼1 day greater than previous radio measurements. Considering that it is beyond the capabilities of the LAT to spatially resolve the two images, we nevertheless decomposed individual sequences of superposing γ-ray flares/delayed emissions. In three such ∼8-10 day-long sequences within a ∼4 month span, considering confusion due to overlapping flaring emission and flux measurement uncertainties, we found flux ratios consistent with ∼1, thus systematically smaller than those from radio observations. During the first, best-defined flare, the delayed emission was detailed with a Fermi pointing, and we observed flux doubling timescales of ∼3-6 hr implying as well extremely compact γ-ray emitting regions

  9. Observational results of a multi-telescope campaign in search of interstellar urea [(NH2)2CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH2)2CO] observed toward the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from ∼100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST). The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best-fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of two between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity of both (NH2)2CO and of Sgr B2(N) makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laboratory data, and models, and discuss our results in the context of a possible molecular detection of urea.

  10. ATLASGAL - The APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy at 870 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, F; Contreras, Y; Wyrowski, F; Schilke, P; Bronfman, L; Henning, T; Walmsley, C M; Beuther, H; Bontemps, S; Cesaroni, R; Deharveng, L; Garay, G; Herpin, F; Le Floc'h, B; Linz, H; Mardones, D; Minier, V; Molinari, S; Motte, F; Nyman, L -A; Reveret, V; Risacher, C; Russeil, D; Schneider, N; Testi, L; Troost, T; Vasyunina, T; Wienen, M; Zavagno, A; Kovács, A; Kreysa, E; Siringo, G; Weiss, A

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) Studying continuum emission from interstellar dust is essential to locate and characterize the highest density regions in the interstellar medium. In particular, the early stages of massive star formation are still mysterious. Our goal is to produce a large scale, systematic database of massive pre- and proto-stellar clumps in the Galaxy, in order to better understand how and under what conditions star formation takes place. A well characterized sample of star-forming sites will deliver an evolutionary sequence and a mass function of high-mass star-forming clumps. Such a systematic survey at submm wavelengths also represents a pioneering work in preparation for Herschel and ALMA. The APEX telescope is ideally located to observe the inner Milky Way. The recently commissioned Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) is a 295-element bolometer array observing at 870 microns, with a beam of 19". Taking advantage of its large field of view (11.4') and excellent sensitivity, we have started an unbiased surve...

  11. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power (dot E) = 3.5 x 1033 ergs s-1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10-8 cm-2 s-1 with cut-off energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency Lγ/(dot E) ≅ 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  12. PULSED GAMMA RAYS FROM THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J0030+0451 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second MSP to be detected in gamma rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The spin-down power E-dot=3.5x1033 erg s-1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, respectively, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cutoff power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10-8 cm-2 s-1 with cutoff energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency Lγ/E-dot≅15 percent for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  13. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Whipple 10 m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, J

    2007-01-01

    Due to the strong and steady TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula supernova remnant, its measured flux and energy spectrum can be used to verify the calibration and data reduction methods applied to IACT data acquired over many observing seasons. This gives us confidence in the results obtained on variable TeV sources observed over the same period and in relating the sensitivity of new instruments to historical datasets. Here we present the results of an analysis of 65.3 hours of good quality data taken on the Crab Nebula between October 2000 and March 2006 with the Whipple 10m telescope. The total exposure resulted in a 46 sigma signal with 11886 selected excess events. The energy spectrum was best fit by a power law of the form dN/dE = (3.19 +/- 0.07_stat) x 10^-11 (E/TeV)^(-2.64 +/- 0.03_stat) cm^-2/s/TeV in the energy range 0.49--8 TeV. The systematic uncertainty in the flux was estimated to be 30%, with a systematic error of 0.2 in the photon index. A reasonable agreement is shown for a fit to a c...

  14. Hubble Space Telescope observations of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 (1993e)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H.A.; Feldman, P.D.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Arpigny, C.; Brown, R.A.; Helin, E.F.; Levy, D.H.; Marsden, B.G.; Meech, K.J.; Larson, S.M.; Noll, K.S.; Scotti, J.V.; Sekanina, Z.; Shoemaker, C.S.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Smith, T.E.; Storrs, A.D.; Yeomans, D.K.; Zellner, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope observed the fragmented comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 (1993e) (P indicates that it is a periodic comet) on 1 July 1993. Approximately 20 individual nuclei and their comae were observed in images taken with the Planetary Camera. After subtraction of the comae light, the 11 brightest nuclei have magnitudes between ~23.7 and 24.8. Assuming that the geometric albedo is 0.04, these magnitudes imply that the nuclear diameters are in the range ~2.5 to 4.3 kilometers. If the density of each nucleus is 1 gram per cubic centimeter, the total energy deposited by the impact of these 11 nuclei into Jupiter's atmosphere next July will be ~4 x 1030 ergs (~108 megatons of TNT). This latter number should be regarded as an upper limit because the nuclear magnitudes probably contain a small residual coma contribution. The Faint Object Spectrograph was used to search for fluorescence from OH, which is usually an excellent indicator of cometary activity. No OH emission was detected, and this can be translated into an upper limit on the water production rate of ~2 x 1027 molecules per second.

  15. A telescopic cinema sound camera for observing high altitude aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Rockets and other high altitude aerospace vehicles produce interesting visual and aural phenomena that can be remotely observed from long distances. This paper describes a compact, passive and covert remote sensing system that can produce high resolution sound movies at >100 km viewing distances. The telescopic high resolution camera is capable of resolving and quantifying space launch vehicle dynamics including plume formation, staging events and payload fairing jettison. Flight vehicles produce sounds and vibrations that modulate the local electromagnetic environment. These audio frequency modulations can be remotely sensed by passive optical and radio wave detectors. Acousto-optic sensing methods were primarily used but an experimental radioacoustic sensor using passive micro-Doppler radar techniques was also tested. The synchronized combination of high resolution flight vehicle imagery with the associated vehicle sounds produces a cinema like experience that that is useful in both an aerospace engineering and a Hollywood film production context. Examples of visual, aural and radar observations of the first SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket launch are shown and discussed.

  16. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smitha Subramanian; Annapurni Subramaniam; Luc Simard; Kim Gillies; A. N. Ramaprakash; G. C. Anupama; C. S. Stalin; Swara Ravindranath; B. Eswar Reddy

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for the production of a near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog (IRGSC) for Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) observations are identified and presented. A methodology to compute the expected J band magnitude of stellar sources from their optical (, , ) magnitudes is developed. The computed and observed J magnitudes of sources in three test fields are compared and the methodology developed is found to be satisfactory for the magnitude range, JVega = 16–22 mag. From this analysis, we found that for the production of final TMT IRGSC (with a limiting magnitude of JVega = 22 mag), we need , , bands optical data which go up to AB ∼ 23 mag. Fine tuning of the methodology developed, such as using Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) template fitting for optimal classification of stars in the fainter end, incorporating spectral libraries in the model, to reduce the scatter, and modification of the existing colour–temperature relation to increase the source density are planned for the subsequent phase of this work.

  17. Observation of the Halo of NGC 3077 Near the "Garland" Region Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, S; Sakai, Shoko; Madore, Barry

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of upper main sequence stars and red giant branch stars in the halo of an amorphous galaxy, NGC3077. The observations were made using Wide Field Planetary Camera~2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The red giant branch luminosity function in I-band shows a sudden discontinuity at I = 24.0 +- 0.1 mag. Identifying this with the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), and adopting the calibration provided by Lee, Freedman, & Madore (1993) and the foreground extinction of A_B = 0.21 mag, we obtain a distance modulus of (m-M)_0 = 27.93 +- 0.14(random) +- 0.16(sys). This value agrees well with the distance estimates of four other galaxies in the M81 Group. In addition to the RGB stars, we observe a concentration of upper main sequence stars in the halo of NGC3077, which coincides partially with a feature known as the ``Garland''. Using Padua isochrones, these stars are estimated to be <150 Myrs old. Assuming that the nearest encounter between NGC3077 and M81 occurred 280 Myrs ago as pr...

  18. 2006 Whole Earth Telescope Observations of GD358: A New Look at the Prototype DBV

    CERN Document Server

    Provencal, J L; Kanaan, A; Shipman, H L; Childers, D; Baran, A; Kepler, S O; Reed, M; Zhou, A; Eggen, J; Watson, T K; Winget, D E; Thompson, S E; Riaz, B; Nitta, A; Kleinman, S J; Crowe, R; Slivkoff, J; Sherard, P; Purves, N; Binder, P; Knight, R; Kim, S -L; Chen, Wen-Ping; Yang, M; Lin, H C; Lin, C C; Chen, C W; Jiang, X J; Sergeev, A V; Mkrtichian, D; Janiashvili, E; Andreev, M; Janulis, R; Siwak, M; Zola, S; Koziel, D; Stachowski, G; Paparo, M; Bognár, Z; Handler, G; Lorenz, D; Steininger, B; Beck, P; Nagel, T; Kusterer, D; Hoffman, A; Reiff, E; Kowalski, R; Vauclair, G; Charpinet, S; Chevreton, M; Solheim, J E; Pakstiene, E; Fraga, L; Dalessio, J

    2008-01-01

    We report on the analysis of 436.1 hrs of nearly continuous high-speed photometry on the pulsating DB white dwarf GD358 acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) during the 2006 international observing run, designated XCOV25. The Fourier transform (FT) of the light curve contains power between 1000 to 4000 microHz, with the dominant peak at 1234 microHz. We find 27 independent frequencies distributed in 10 modes, as well as numerous combination frequencies. Our discussion focuses on a new asteroseismological analysis of GD358, incorporating the 2006 data set and drawing on 24 years of archival observations. Our results reveal that, while the general frequency locations of the identified modes are consistent throughout the years, the multiplet structure is complex and cannot be interpreted simply as l=1 modes in the limit of slow rotation. The high k multiplets exhibit significant variability in structure, amplitude and frequency. Any identification of the m components for the high k multiplets is highly s...

  19. Probing millisecond pulsar emission geometry using light curves from the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Venter, C; Guillemot, L

    2009-01-01

    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of B-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by TPC and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We...

  20. THE FIRST CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), corresponding to 11 months of data collected in scientific operation mode. The First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) includes 671 γ-ray sources located at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>100) that are detected with a test statistic greater than 25 and associated statistically with AGNs. Some LAT sources are associated with multiple AGNs, and consequently, the catalog includes 709 AGNs, comprising 300 BL Lacertae objects, 296 flat-spectrum radio quasars, 41 AGNs of other types, and 72 AGNs of unknown type. We also classify the blazars based on their spectral energy distributions as archival radio, optical, and X-ray data permit. In addition to the formal 1LAC sample, we provide AGN associations for 51 low-latitude LAT sources and AGN 'affiliations' (unquantified counterpart candidates) for 104 high-latitude LAT sources without AGN associations. The overlap of the 1LAC with existing γ-ray AGN catalogs (LBAS, EGRET, AGILE, Swift, INTEGRAL, TeVCat) is briefly discussed. Various properties-such as γ-ray fluxes and photon power-law spectral indices, redshifts, γ-ray luminosities, variability, and archival radio luminosities-and their correlations are presented and discussed for the different blazar classes. We compare the 1LAC results with predictions regarding the γ-ray AGN populations, and we comment on the power of the sample to address the question of the blazar sequence.

  1. Development of an X-ray Telescope with a Large Effective Area for the Iron K Line Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Tachibana, Sasagu; Yoshikawa, Shun; Tamura, Keisuke; Mori, Hideyuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Kojun

    2015-08-01

    X-ray micro-calorimeters such as the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board ASTRO-H will enable precise spectroscopy of iron K lines even for spatially extended objects. To exploit the full power of the high-energy resolution, X-ray telescopes with a large effective area around 6 keV are essentially important. Conventional Wolter-I X-ray telescopes aimed at X-rays below 10 keV have used the principle of total reflection to collect the X-rays. Enlarging the diameter of this type of telescopes is not effective to obtain the large effective area, since the incident angle of X-rays for the outer part of the telescope exceeds the critical angle, and the X-ray reflectivity of the outer part is significantly low. For example, the critical angle of Ir for an X-ray of 6 keV is 0.748 deg. Thus if we assume a focal length of 6 m for a Wolter-I optics using mirrors covered with Ir as a reflector, the mirrors the radial position of which are larger than 34 cm cannot reflect X-rays above 6 keV effectively. If multi-layer mirrors are applied to the outer part of the telescope, however, the X-ray reflectivity can be enhanced significantly by the principle of Bragg reflection. Our objective is to develop a Wolter-I X-ray telescope with an aperture of 110 cm and a focal length of 6 m, and make all mirrors in the telescope can reflect X-rays around 6 keV effectively by utilizing the multi-layer mirrors. The size of the telescope is determined by a boundary condition that can be launched by the epsilon rocket of ISAS/JAXA. The multi-layer is designed to enhance the reflectivity at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV, or 6.9 keV. Our simulation suggests that the effective area averaged in the 5.7-7.7 keV band could be 2000 cm2, whichis comparable to the effective area of Athena launched in 2028 by ESA. Furthermore, we showed that the Ir/C multi-layers produced by our DC magnetron sputtering machine has a surface roughness of less than 4 angstrom. This value is smaller than the average surface roughness

  2. Modeling Seven Years of Event Horizon Telescope Observations with Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Fish, Vincent L.; Johnson, Michael D.; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Wang, Carlos; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Johannsen, Tim; Roy, Alan L.

    2016-04-01

    An initial three-station version of the Event Horizon Telescope, a millimeter-wavelength very-long baseline interferometer, has observed Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) repeatedly from 2007 to 2013, resulting in the measurement of a variety of interferometric quantities. Of particular importance is that there is now a large set of closure phases measured over a number of independent observing epochs. We analyze these observations within the context of a realization of semi-analytic radiatively inefficient disk models, implicated by the low luminosity of Sgr A*. We find a broad consistency among the various observing epochs and between different interferometric data types, with the latter providing significant support for this class of model of Sgr A*. The new data significantly tighten existing constraints on the spin magnitude and its orientation within this model context, finding a spin magnitude of a={0.10}-0.10-0.10+0.30+0.56, an inclination with respect to the line of sight of θ ={60^\\circ }-{8^\\circ -{13}^\\circ }+{5^\\circ +{10}^\\circ }, and a position angle of ξ ={156^\\circ }-{17^\\circ -{27}^\\circ }+{10^\\circ +{14}^\\circ } east of north. These are in good agreement with previous analyses. Notably, the previous 180° degeneracy in the position angle has now been conclusively broken by the inclusion of the closure-phase measurements. A reflection degeneracy in the inclination remains, permitting two localizations of the spin vector orientation, one of which is in agreement with the orbital angular momentum of the infrared gas cloud G2 and the clockwise disk of young stars. This may support a relationship between Sgr A*'s accretion flow and these larger-scale features.

  3. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K., E-mail: jlee@khu.ac.kr [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  4. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, Marco; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, William B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, Milan; /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, Bijan; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bogaert, G.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Borgland, Anders W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASI, Rome /NRAO, Charlottesville /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Manchester U. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2011-11-30

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 {+-} 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 {+-} 0.004 {+-} 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 {+-} 3 {+-} 11) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE{sup -{Gamma}}e{sup (-E/E{sub c})} where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is {Gamma} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E{sub c} = 2.4 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 {+-} 4 rad m{sup -2} but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  5. Updated search for spectral lines from Galactic dark matter interactions with pass 8 data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2015-06-01

    Dark matter in the Milky Way may annihilate directly into γ rays, producing a monoenergetic spectral line. Therefore, detecting such a signature would be strong evidence for dark matter annihilation or decay. We search for spectral lines in the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the Milky Way halo in the energy range 200 MeV-500 GeV using analysis methods from our most recent line searches. The main improvements relative to previous works are our use of 5.8 years of data reprocessed with the Pass 8 event-level analysis and the additional data resulting from the modified observing strategy designed to increase exposure of the Galactic center region. We search in five sky regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter scenarios and find no significant detections. In addition to presenting the results from our search for lines, we also investigate the previously reported tentative detection of a line at 133 GeV using the new Pass 8 data.

  6. First detection of GeV emission from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) that has star-formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense efforts of search. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of $\\sim 6.3 \\sigma $ using 7.5 years of \\textsl {Fermi} Large Area Telescope observation. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high density gas makes Arp 220 an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova remnants ...

  7. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of a population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of gigaelectronvolts from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as super-symmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  8. Collapse postulate for observables with continuous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide a mathematical framework for discussing the statistical correlations between the outcomes, when an arbitrary sequence of observables are measured, it is necessary to generalize the conventional von Neumann-Lueders collapse postulate to observables with a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the standard prescription in conventional quantum theory for the joint probabilities of compatible observables is sufficient to characterize, more or less completely, the appropriate ''generalized collapse postulate'' which associates with each observable a unique ''finitely additive expectation valued measure''. An interesting feature of the collapse associated with observables with continuous spectra, which again follows from the basic principles of conventional quantum theory, is that it must be formulated in terms of the so-called non-normal conditional expectations, which implies that the joint probabilities associated with successive observations of such observables are not in general σ-additive. The implications of this non-σ-additivity on the determination of expectation values, correlation functions etc., are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the basic prescriptions introduced in this paper constitute a natural completion of the framework of conventional quantum theory for discussing the statistics of an arbitrary sequence of observations

  9. Probing Very Bright-End of Galaxy Luminosity Function at z >~ 7 Using Hubble Space Telescope Pure Parallel Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Haojing; Zamojski, Michel A; Windhorst, Rogier A; McCarthy, Patrick J; Fan, Xiaohui; Röttgering, Huub J A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Robertson, Brant E; Davé, Romeel; Cai, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 sq. arcmin in total area. We have found three bright Y098-dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z >~ 7.4. One of these objects shows a peculiar indication of variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass LBGs observed at lower redshifts. While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by "cosmic variance" than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z~7.4 is ...

  10. Near Space Observations: Planetary Science from a Balloon-Borne Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E.; Hibbitts, C.; Cheng, A.; Dolloff, M.; Kremic, T.

    2015-10-01

    On 25-SEP-2014, the BOPPS balloon mission (Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science) launched from Ft Sumner, NM. During its 17-hour flight, BOPPS observed three comets in wavelengths from 0.8 to 4.6 μm with its infrared camera and demonstrated 66 mas image stability with its visible- UV cameras. The BOPPS payload was intended to develop and demonstrate two key capabilities of balloonborne telescopes: the ability to acquire IR wavelengths that are obscured from the ground or from SOFIA, and the ability to obtain diffraction-limited images at wavelengths shortward of 1 μm, where ground-based adaptive optics systems typically provide poor Strehl ratios. Now that the successful BOPPS mission is behind us, there is the potential to re-use the BOPPS instrumentation for additional long-duration balloon missions to address other planetary science investigations: a planetary observatory in the stratosphere, with the possibility of performing observations that are proposed and competed by the planetary community. NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility just flew a record-setting 32-day circumglobal super-pressure balloon mission at southern mid-latitudes. Unlike previous long-duration flights from Antarctica (zeropressure balloons flying in constant daylight), this recent flight launched from New Zealand and passed through day/night cycles, demonstrating the ability of balloons to carry science payloads weighing up to 3000 lb and provide hundreds of hours of dark time above 99.5 % of the atmosphere. We will provide an overview of the BOPPS payload and a review of the BOPPS flight. We will highlight the recommended changes that would allow BOPPS to become a general purpose infrared and visible/UV observatory.

  11. Discovery of VHE γ-rays from the blazar 1ES 1215+303 with the MAGIC telescopes and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Ansoldi, S.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jankowski, F.; Jogler, T.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Buson, S.; Järvelä, E.; Larsson, S.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tammi, J.

    2012-08-01

    Context. We present the discovery of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from the BL Lac object 1ES 1215+303 by the MAGIC telescopes and simultaneous multi-wavelength data in a broad energy range from radio to γ-rays. Aims: We study the VHE γ-ray emission from 1ES 1215+303 and its relation to the emissions in other wavelengths. Methods: Triggered by an optical outburst, MAGIC observed the source in 2011 January - February for 20.3 h. The target was monitored in the optical R-band by the KVA telescope that also performed optical polarization measurements. We triggered target of opportunity observations with the Swift satellite and obtained simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and from the Metsähovi radio telescope. We also present the analysis of older MAGIC data taken in 2010. Results: The MAGIC observations of 1ES 1215+303 carried out in 2011 January - February resulted in the first detection of the source at VHE with a statistical significance of 9.4σ. Simultaneously, the source was observed in a high optical and X-ray state. In 2010 the source was observed in a lower state in optical, X-ray, and VHE, while the GeV γ-ray flux and the radio flux were comparable in 2010 and 2011. The spectral energy distribution obtained with the 2011 data can be modeled with a simple one zone SSC model, but it requires extreme values for the Doppler factor or the electron energy distribution.

  12. Probing MACHOs by observation of M31 pixel lensing with the 1.5m Loiano telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Novati, S Calchi; De Paolis, F; Dominik, M; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Ingrosso, G; Jetzer, P; Mancini, L; Nucita, A A; Scarpetta, G; Strafella, F; Gould, A

    2007-01-01

    We analyse a series of pilot observations in order to study microlensing of (unresolved) stars in M31 with the 1.5m Loiano telescope, including observations on both identified variable source stars and reported microlensing events. We also look for previously unknown variability and discover a nova. We discuss an observing strategy for an extended campaign with the goal of determining whether MACHOs exist or whether all microlensing events are compatible with lens stars in M31.

  13. Observations of the Blazar 3C 66A with the Magic Telescopes in Stereoscopic Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report new observations of the intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object 3C 66A with the MAGIC telescopes. The data sample we use were taken in 2009 December and 2010 January, and comprises 2.3 hr of good quality data in stereoscopic mode. In this period, we find a significant signal from the direction of the blazar 3C 66A. The new MAGIC stereoscopic system is shown to play an essential role for the separation between 3C 66A and the nearby radio galaxy 3C 66B, which is at a distance of only 6'. The derived integral flux above 100 GeV is 8.3% of the Crab Nebula flux and the energy spectrum is reproduced by a power law of photon index 3.64 ± 0.39stat ± 0.25sys. Within errors, this is compatible with the one derived by VERITAS in 2009. From the spectra corrected for absorption by the extragalactic background light, we only find small differences between the four models that we applied, and constrain the redshift of the blazar to z < 0.68.

  14. Si and Fe depletion in Galactic star-forming regions observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Yoko; Miyata, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of the mid-infrared spectroscopy of 14 Galactic star-forming regions with the high-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We detected [SiII] 35um, [FeII] 26um, and [FeIII] 23um as well as [SIII] 33um and H2 S(0) 28um emission lines. Using the intensity of [NII] 122um or 205um and [OI] 146um or 63um reported by previous observations in four regions, we derived the ionic abundance Si+/N+ and Fe+/N+ in the ionized gas and Si+/O0 and Fe+/O0 in the photodissociation gas. For all the targets, we derived the ionic abundance of Si+/S2+ and Fe2+/S2+ for the ionized gas. Based on photodissociation and HII region models the gas-phase Si and Fe abundance are suggested to be 3-100% and <8% of the solar abundance, respectively, for the ionized gas and 16-100% and 2-22% of the solar abundance, respectively, for the photodissociation region gas. Since the [FeII] 26um and [FeIII] 23um emissions are weak, the high sensitivity of the IRS enables to de...

  15. Testing the No-Hair Theorem with Event Horizon Telescope Observations of Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimeter-wave very-long baseline interferometric array, has enabled spatially-resolved studies of the sub-horizon-scale structure for a handful of supermassive black holes. Among these, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), presents the largest angular cross section. Thus far, these studies have focused upon measurements of the black hole spin and the validation of low-luminosity accretion models. However, a critical input into the analysis of EHT data is the structure of the black hole spacetime, and thus these observations provide the novel opportunity to test the applicability of the Kerr metric to astrophysical black holes. Here we present the first simulated images of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) around Sgr A* employing a quasi-Kerr metric that contains an independent quadrupole moment in addition to the mass and spin that fully characterize a black hole in general relativity. We show th...

  16. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST Hα data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75 Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11 Mm, and the estimated twist is 1π. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in Hα images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 Å, and as a bright structure in 171 Å and 131 Å images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux

  17. The fragment R collision: W. M. Keck telescope observations of SL9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J R; de Pater, I; Jernigan, J G; Liu, M C; Brown, M E

    1995-03-01

    The W. M. Keck telescope was used to observe the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) fragment R at a wavelength of 2.3 micrometers on 21 July 1994. The data showed three outbursts. The first flash lasted about 40 seconds and was followed 1 minute after its peak by a second flash that lasted about 3 minutes. A third, longer lasting flare began 6 minutes after the first flash and lasted for 10 minutes. At its maximum brightness, the flare outshone Jupiter. The two short flashes are probably associated with the initial meteor trail and the subsequent fireball, respectively. The bright flare occurred when the impact site rotated into view. These data show that the explosion ejected material at least 1300 kilometers above the visible cloud tops. The luminosity of the impact site during the long bright flare was probably maintained by the release of gravitational potential energy, as this material fell back onto the lower atmosphere. PMID:7871431

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope spectral observations of AGB stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; Bernard-Salas, J; Menzies, J W; Sloan, G C; Whitelock, P A; Wood, P R; Cioni, M -R L; Feast, M W; Lagadec, E; van Loon, J Th; Groenewegen, M A T; Harris, G J

    2007-01-01

    We have observed five carbon-rich AGB stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, using the Infrared Spectrometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The stars were selected from a near-infrared survey of Fornax and include the three reddest stars, with presumably the highest mass-loss rates, in that galaxy. Such carbon stars probably belong to the intermediate-age population (2-8 Gyr old and metallicity of [Fe/H] -1) of Fornax. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate mass-loss rate, as a function of luminosity and metallicity, by comparing AGB stars in several galaxies with different metallicities. The spectra of three stars are fitted with a radiative transfer model. We find that mass-loss rates of these three stars are 4-7x10^-6 Msun yr-1. The other two stars have mass-loss rates below 1.3x10^-6 Msun yr-1. We find no evidence that these rates depend on metallicity, although we do suggest that the gas-to-dust ratio could be higher than at solar metallicity, in the range 240 to 800. The C2H...

  19. Metrics for Optimization of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Observations of Stellar Variables and Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Michael B; Pepper, Joshua A; Stassun, Keivan G

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be the largest time-domain photometric survey ever. In order to maximize the LSST science yield for a broad array of transient stellar phenomena, it is necessary to optimize the survey cadence, coverage, and depth via quantitative metrics that are specifically designed to characterize the time-domain behavior of various types of stellar transients. In this paper we present three such metrics built on the LSST Metric Analysis Framework (MAF) model (Jones et al. 2014). Two of the metrics quantify the ability of LSST to detect non-periodic and/or non-recurring transient events, and the ability of LSST to reliably measure periodic signals of various timescales. The third metric provides a way to quantify the range of stellar parameters in the stellar populations that LSST will probe. We provide example uses of these metrics and discuss some implications based on these metrics for optimization of the LSST survey for observations of stellar variables and transients.

  20. Event Horizon Telescope Observations as Probes for Quantum Structure of Astrophysical Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The need for a consistent quantum evolution for black holes has led to proposals that their semiclassical description is modified not just near the singularity, but at horizon or larger scales. If such modifications extend beyond the horizon, they influence regions accessible to distant observeration. Natural candidates for these modifications behave like metric fluctuations, with characteristic length and time scales set by the horizon radius. We investigate the possibility of using the Event Horizon Telescope to observe these effects, if they have a strength sufficient to make quantum evolution consistent with unitarity. We find that such quantum fluctuations can introduce a strong time dependence for the shape and size of the shadow that a black hole casts on its surrounding emission. For the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, detecting the rapid time variability of its shadow will require non-imaging timing techniques. However, for the much larger black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy, a vari...

  1. Capability of Cherenkov Telescopes to Observe Ultra-fast Optical Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Deil, C; Hermann, G; Clapson, A -C; Förster, A; Van Eldik, C; Hofmann, W

    2008-01-01

    The large optical reflector (~ 100 m^2) of a H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope was used to search for very fast optical transients of astrophysical origin. 43 hours of observations targeting stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars were obtained using a dedicated photometer with microsecond time resolution. The photometer consists of seven photomultiplier tube pixels: a central one to monitor the target and a surrounding ring of six pixels to veto background events. The light curves of all pixels were recorded continuously and were searched offline with a matched-filtering technique for flares with a duration of 2 us to 100 ms. As expected, many unresolved (500 us) background events originating in the earth's atmosphere were detected. In the time range 3 to 500 us the measurement is essentially background-free, with only eight events detected in 43 h; five from lightning and three presumably from a piece of space debris. The detection of flashes of brightness ~ 0.1 Jy and only 20 us duration from the space debri...

  2. Hubble Space Telescope observations of Europa in and out of eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, W.B.; McGrath, M.; Hand, K.; Ford, H.C.; Geissler, P.; Hough, J.H.; Turner, E.L.; Chyba, C.F.; Carlson, R.; Turnbull, M.

    2010-01-01

    Europa is a prime target for astrobiology and has been prioritized as the next target for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration flagship mission. It is important, therefore, that we advance our understanding of Europa, its ocean and physical environment as much as possible. Here, we describe observations of Europa obtained during its orbital eclipse by Jupiter using the Hubble Space Telescope. We obtained Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel far ultraviolet low-resolution spectra that show oxygen line emission both in and out of eclipse. We also used the Wide-Field and Planetary Camera-2 and searched for broad-band optical emission from fluorescence of the surface material, arising from the very high level of incident energetic particle radiation on ices and potentially organic substances. The high-energy particle radiation at the surface of Europa is extremely intense and is responsible for the production of a tenuous oxygen atmosphere and associated FUV line emission. Approximately 50% of the oxygen emission lasts at least a few hours into the eclipse. We discuss the detection limits of the optical emission, which allow us to estimate the fraction of incident energy reradiated at optical wavelengths, through electron-excited emission, Cherenkov radiation in the ice and fluorescent processes. ?? 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope STIS Observations of GRB 000301C: CCD Imaging and Near-Ultraviolet MAMA Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smette; A.S. Fruchter; Th.R. Gull; K.C. Sahu; L. Petro; H. Ferguson; J. Rhoads; D.J. Lindler; R.A.M.J. Wijers

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the gamma-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R~=21.50+/-0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. An 8000 s, 1150 Å

  4. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.;

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. ...

  5. Stellar intensity interferometry over kilometer baselines: Laboratory simulation of observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine

    2014-01-01

    A long-held astronomical vision is to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, show their evolution over time, and reveal interactions of stellar winds and gas flows in binary star systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electr...

  6. T35: a small automatic telescope for long-term observing campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Ruiz, Susana; Abril, Miguel; Costillo, Luis P; Garcia, Antonio; de la Rosa, Jose Luis; Bustamante, Isabel; Gutierrez-Soto, Juan; Magan, Hector; Ramos, Jose Luis; Ubierna, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    The T35 is a small telescope (14") equipped with a large format CCD camera installed in the Sierra Nevada Observatory (SNO) in Southern Spain. This telescope will be a useful tool for the detecting and studying pulsating stars, particularly, in open clusters. In this paper, we describe the automation process of the T35 and show also some images taken with the new instrumentation.

  7. Commensal observing with the Allen Telescope array: software command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Keating, Garrett K.; MacMahon, David; Williams, Peter K. G.; Harp, Gerald; Ackermann, Robert; Kilsdonk, Tom; Richards, Jon; Barott, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a Large-Number-Small-Diameter radio telescope array currently with 42 individual antennas and 5 independent back-end science systems (2 imaging FX correlators and 3 time domain beam formers) located at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO). The goal of the ATA is to run multiple back-ends simultaneously, supporting multiple science projects commensally. The primary software control systems are based on a combination of Java, JRuby and Ruby on Rails. The pri...

  8. Acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) for high precision tracking in telescope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Cai, Hua-Xiang; Huang, Yong-Mei; Ge, Liang; Tang, Tao; Su, Yan-Rui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jin-Ying; He, Dong; Du, Sheng-Ping; Ling, Yu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a cascade acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by a disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) method is proposed to improve the tracking precision of telescope systems. Telescope systems usually suffer some uncertain disturbances, such as wind load, nonlinear friction and other unknown disturbances. To ensure tracking precision, an acceleration feedback loop which can increase the stiffness of such a system is introduced. Moreover, to further improve the tracking precision, we introduce the DOC method which can accurately estimate the disturbance and compensate it. Furthermore, the analysis of tracking accuracy used by this method is proposed. Finally, a few comparative experimental results show that the proposed control method has excellent performance for reducing the tracking error of a telescope system.

  9. 2006 WHOLE EARTH TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF GD358: A NEW LOOK AT THE PROTOTYPE DBV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the analysis of 436.1 hr of nearly continuous high-speed photometry on the pulsating DB white dwarf GD358 acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) during the 2006 international observing run, designated XCOV25. The Fourier transform (FT) of the light curve contains power between 1000 and 4000 μHz, with the dominant peak at 1234 μHz. We find 27 independent frequencies distributed in 10 modes, as well as numerous combination frequencies. Our discussion focuses on a new asteroseismological analysis of GD358, incorporating the 2006 data set and drawing on 24 years of archival observations. Our results reveal that, while the general frequency locations of the identified modes are consistent throughout the years, the multiplet structure is complex and cannot be interpreted simply as l = 1 modes in the limit of slow rotation. The high-k multiplets exhibit significant variability in structure, amplitude and frequency. Any identification of the m components for the high-k multiplets is highly suspect. The k = 9 and 8 modes typically do show triplet structure more consistent with theoretical expectations. The frequencies and amplitudes exhibit some variability, but much less than the high-k modes. Analysis of the k = 9 and 8 multiplet splittings from 1990 to 2008 reveal a long-term change in multiplet splittings coinciding with the 1996 sforzando event, where GD358 dramatically altered its pulsation characteristics on a timescale of hours. We explore potential implications, including the possible connections between convection and/or magnetic fields and pulsations. We suggest future investigations, including theoretical investigations of the relationship between magnetic fields, pulsation, growth rates, and convection.

  10. Monitoring Mars with the Hubble Space Telescope: 1990-1991 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Philip B.; Clancy, R. Todd; Lee, Steven W.; Martin, Leonard J.; Singer, Robert B.; Smith, ED; Kahn, Ralph A.; Zurek, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Images of Mars obtained using the Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope during 1990 and 1991 are described and analyzed. Multispectral images of Mars record the martian season between L(sub s) = 348 deg and 60 deg corresponding to late winter and spring in the northern hemisphere. The wavelengths of these observations varied between 230 nm in the ultraviolet and 890 nm in the near infrared. We use these images to discuss atmospheric and polar phenomena, to constrain the aerosols and ozone in the martian atmosphere, and to compare surface albedo features within this data set as well as with previous observations. Two methods are used to constrain the opacity of the martian atmosphere: comparisons of ultraviolet images with atmospheric scattering models and examination of contrast changes of surface features observed at visible wavelengths. Our observations are consistent with a Mars which was quite different from the planet when it was viewed by Viking; we estimate an upper limit of 0.1 for equatorial dust opacity near vernal equinox, compared to values of 0.4 to 0.5 measured in Chryse by Viking Lander 1. Later, at L(sub s) = 60 deg, and upper limit of 0.2 was found for dust in the southern hemisphere. Except for suggestions of local dust activity near the north polar cap in late spring, there was no visual evidence of dust storms on the planet. The Hartley band of ozone is within the F230W filter bandpass, and the 230W/336W ratio is therefore sensitive to ozone. High latitude ozone is observed at a concentration similar to that observed by Mariner 9; a seasonal dependence in ozone concentration was observed with concentration decreasing at northern arctic latitudes and increasing at southern midlatitudes as L(sub s) increases from 350 deg to 60 deg. Despite the difference in dust loading, the behavior of condensate clouds and the recession of the north polar cap are consistent with those observed during Viking years. Late winter images of the north polar

  11. Full-disk Synoptic Observations of the Chromosphere Using H$_{\\alpha}$ Telescope at the Kodaikanal Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, B; Rangarajan, K E; Bagare, S P; Jagdev, Singh; Kemkar, P M M; Lancelot, J P; Thulasidharen, K C; Gabriel, F; Selvendran, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the installation and observations of a new solar telescope installed on 7th October, 2014 at the Kodaikanal Observatory. The telescope is a refractive type equipped with a tunable Lyot H$_{\\alpha}$ filter. A CCD camera of 2k$\\times$2k size makes the image of the Sun with a pixel size of 1.21$^{\\prime\\prime}$ pixel$^{-1}$ with a full field-of-view of 41$^{\\prime}$. The telescope is equipped with a guiding system which keeps the image of the Sun within a few pixels throughout the observations. The FWHM of the Lyot filter is 0.4\\AA~and the filter is motorized, capable of scanning the H$_{\\alpha}$ line profile at a smaller step size of 0.01\\AA. Partial-disk imaging covering about 10$^{\\prime}$, is also possible with the help of a relay lens kept in front of the CCD camera. In this paper, we report the detailed specifications of the telescope, filter unit, its installation, observations and the procedures we have followed to calibrate and align the data. We also present preliminary results wi...

  12. The major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes, Part II: A performance study using observations of the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barceló, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Bitossi, M.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Cecchi, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dettlaff, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fidalgo, D.; Fink, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Haberer, W.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Illa, J. M.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lemus, J. L.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Negrello, M.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schlammer, J.; Schmidl, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Tejedor, L. A.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vogler, P.; Wetteskind, H.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.

    2016-01-01

    MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo system. For low zenith angle observations, the standard trigger threshold of the MAGIC telescopes is ∼ 50 GeV. The integral sensitivity for point-like sources with Crab Nebula-like spectrum above 220 GeV is (0.66 ± 0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h of observations. The angular resolution, defined as the σ of a 2-dimensional Gaussian distribution, at those energies is ≲ 0.07°, while the energy resolution is 16%. We also re-evaluate the effect of the systematic uncertainty on the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in the following components: < 15% in energy scale, 11%-18% in flux normalization and ± 0.15 for the energy spectrum power-law slope.

  13. The major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes, Part II: The achieved physics performance using the Crab Nebula observations

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksic, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barcelo, M; Barrio, J A; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Bitossi, M; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Cecchi, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Corti, D; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Mendez, C Delgado; Dettlaff, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fink, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; Lopez, R J Garcia; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Munoz, A Gonzalez; Gozzini, S R; Haberer, W; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Illa, J M; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lemus, J L; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorca, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Negrello, M; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rugamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schlammer, J; Schmidl, S; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Tejedor, L A; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Wetteskind, H; Will, M; Zanin, R; IFAE,; UAB, Campus; Bellaterra, E-08193; Spain,; di Udine, Universita; Trieste, INFN; Udine, I-33100; Italy,; Astrophysics, INAF National Institute for; Rome, I-00136; di Siena, Universita; Pisa, INFN; Siena, I-53100; Institute, Rudjer Boskovic; Rijeka, University of; Split, University of; Zagreb, HR-10000; Croatia,; Physik, Max-Planck-Institut fur; Munchen, D-80805; Germany,; Complutense, Universidad; Madrid, E-28040; de Canarias, Inst de Astrofisica; La Laguna, E-38200; Tenerife,; Lodz, University of; Lodz, PL-90236; Poland,; Elektronen-Synchrotron, Deutsches; Zeuthen, D-15738; Zurich, ETH; Zurich, CH-8093; Switzerland,; Wurzburg, Universitat; Wurzburg, D-97074; Energeticas, Centro de Investigaciones; Tecnologicas, Medioambientales y; Sciences, Institute of Space; Barcelona, E-08193; di Padova, Universita; INFN,; Padova, I-35131; Dortmund, Technische Universitat; Dortmund, D-44221; Radiacions, Unitat de Fisica de les; de Fisica, Departament; CERES-IEEC,; de Barcelona, Universitat Autonoma; de Barcelona, Universitat; ICC,; IEEC-UB,; Barcelona, E-08028; Physics, Division of; Astronomy,; University, Kyoto; Japan,; Observatory, Tuorla; Turku, University of; Physics, Department of; Oulu, University of; Finland,; Research, Inst for Nucl; Energy, Nucl; Sofia, BG-1784; Bulgaria,; di Pisa, Universita; Pisa, I-56126; ICREA,; Insubria, Universita dell; Bicocca, INFN Milano; Como,; Como, I-22100; Observatory, European Gravitational; Macerata, I-56021 S Stefano a; Siena, INFN; at, now; :,; Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight; Greenbelt,; 20771, MD; USA,; Physics, Department of; Astronomy, Department of; Maryland, University of; Park, College; 20742, MD; de Lausanne, now at Ecole polytechnique federale; Lausanne,; Teilchenphysik, Now at Institut fur Astro- und; Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens- Universitat; Innsbruck, A-6020; Austria,; deceased,; ESO, now at Finnish Centre for Astronomy with; Turku,; Division, now at Astrophysics Science; Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research; 400085, Mumbai; India,; INAF-Trieste, also at

    2014-01-01

    MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo system. For low zenith observations the trigger threshold of the MAGIC telescopes is about 50GeV. The integral sensitivity for sources with Crab Nebula-like spectrum above 220GeV is (0.66+/-0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h of observations. The angular resolution at those energies is < 0.07 degree, while the energy resolution is 16%. We also re-evaluate the effect of the systematic uncertainty on the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in following components: < 15% in energy scale...

  14. Aerosol observation in Fengtai area, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengdong Liu; Jianguo Liu; Bei Wang; Fan Lu; Shuhua Huang; Dexia Wu; Daowen Han

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol number concentration and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) mass concentrations of urban background aerosols were performed in Fengtai area, Beijing in 2006. Black carbon (BC) was collected simultaneously from the ground and analyzed to determine the particulate matter components. To satisfy the interest in continuous monitoring of temporal and spatial distribution of aerosols, the relationship between extinction coefficient (visibility) measured by lidar remote sensing and the aerosol number concentration measured from the ground was derived by using statistical method. Vertical particle number concentration profile within the planetary boundary layer could be inversed through the lidar data as well as the statistical relation.

  15. AUSTRALIA TELESCOPE COMPACT ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM 1384 AND 2368 MHz OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present images of the Sagittarius (Sgr) B giant molecular cloud at 1384 and 2368 MHz obtained using new, multi-configuration Australia Telescope Compact Array observations. We have combined these observations with archival single-dish observations yielding images at resolutions of 47'' x 14'' and 27'' x 8'' at 1384 and 2368 MHz, respectively. These observations were motivated by our theoretical work indicating the possibility that synchrotron emission from secondary electrons and positrons created in hadronic cosmic ray (CR) collisions with the ambient matter of the Sgr B2 cloud could provide a detectable (and possibly linearly polarized) non-thermal radio signal. We find that the only detectable non-thermal emission from the Sgr B region is from a strong source to the south of Sgr B2, which we label Sgr B2 Southern Complex (SC). We find Sgr B2(SC) integrated flux densities of 1.2 ± 0.2 Jy at 1384 MHz and 0.7 ± 0.1 Jy at 2368 MHz for a source of FWHM size at 1384 MHz of ∼54''. Despite its non-thermal nature, the synchrotron emission from this source is unlikely to be dominated due to secondary electrons and positrons. Failing to find clear evidence of non-thermal emission due to secondary electrons and positrons, we use polarization data to place 5σ upper limits on the level of polarized intensity from the Sgr B2 cloud of 3.5 and 3 mJybeam-1 at 1384 and 2368 MHz, respectively. We also use the angular distribution of the total intensity of archival 330 MHz Very Large Array and the total intensity and polarized emission of our new 1384 and 2368 MHz data to constrain the diffusion coefficient for transport of the parent hadronic CRs into the dense core of Sgr B2 to be no larger than about 1% of that in the Galactic disk. Finally, we have also used the data to perform a spectral and morphological study of the features of the Sgr B cloud and compare and contrast these to previous studies.

  16. Observational Results of a Multi-Telescope Campaign in Search of Interstellar Urea [(NH$_2$)$_2$CO

    CERN Document Server

    Remijan, Anthony J; McGuire, Brett A; Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Looney, Leslie W; Friedel, Douglas N; Golubiatnikov, G Yu; Lovas, Frank J; Ilyushin, V V; Alekseev, E A; Dyubko, S F; McCall, Benjamin J; Hollis, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH$_2$)$_2$CO] observed towards the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from $\\sim$100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: BIMA, CARMA, the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and SEST. The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of 2 between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity, both of (NH$_2$)$_2$CO and of Sgr B2(N), makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laborator...

  17. Bent-tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz-1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ~10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of alternative sky observation modes with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Szanecki, M; Niedźwiecki, A; Sitarek, J; Bednarek, W

    2015-01-01

    We investigate possible sky survey modes with the Middle Sized Telescopes (MST, aimed at covering the energy range from $\\sim$100 GeV to 10 TeV) subsystem of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We use the standard CTA tools, CORSIKA and sim_telarray, to simulate the development of gamma-ray showers, proton background and the telescope response. We perform simulations for the H.E.S.S.-site in Namibia, which is one of the candidate sites for the CTA experiment. We study two previously considered modes, parallel and divergent, and we propose a new, convergent mode with telescopes tilted toward the array center. For each mode we provide performance parameters crucial for choosing the most efficient survey strategy. For the non-parallel modes we study the dependence on the telescope offset angle. We show that use of both the divergent and convergent modes results in potential advantages in comparison with use of the parallel mode. The fastest source detection can be achieved in the divergent mode with larger offs...

  19. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of Recent Gamma-ray Outbursts from 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C~454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in December 2009 when it became the brightest gamma-ray source in the sky for over one week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at photon energies E>100 MeV reached F = 22+/-1 x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy gamma-rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated gamma-ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 h and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the gamma-ray spectral index vs flux plane. A minimum Doppler factor of ~ 15 is derived, and the maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ~ 20 GeV. The spectral break at a few GeV is inconsiste...

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 ∼B(F098M) ≅ 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ≅ 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude mAB(F098M)= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z ∼> 2.

  1. Determination of dark energy by the Einstein Telescope: Comparing with CMB, BAO, and SNIa observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study is currently in progress for a third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector called the Einstein Telescope (ET). An important kind of source for ET will be the inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars up to z∼2. If binary neutron star mergers are the progenitors of short-hard γ-ray bursts, then some fraction of them will be seen both electromagnetically and through GW, so that the luminosity distance and the redshift of the source can be determined separately. An important property of these 'standard sirens' is that they are self-calibrating: the luminosity distance can be inferred directly from the GW signal, with no need for a cosmic distance ladder. Thus, standard sirens will provide a powerful independent check of the ΛCDM model. In previous work, estimates were made of how well ET would be able to measure a subset of the cosmological parameters (such as the dark energy parameter w0) it will have access to, assuming that the others had been determined to great accuracy by alternative means. Here we perform a more careful analysis by explicitly using the potential Planck cosmic microwave background data as prior information for these other parameters. We find that ET will be able to constrain w0 and wa with accuracies Δw0=0.099 and Δwa=0.302, respectively. These results are compared with projected accuracies for the JDEM baryon acoustic oscillations project and the SNAP type Ia supernovae observations.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS OF V455 ANDROMEDAE POST-OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubble Space Telescope spectra obtained in 2010 and 2011, 3 and 4 yr after the large amplitude dwarf nova outburst of V455 And, were combined with optical photometry and spectra to study the cooling of the white dwarf, its spin, and possible pulsation periods after the outburst. The modeling of the ultraviolet (UV) spectra shows that the white dwarf temperature remains ∼600 K hotter than its quiescent value at 3 yr post-outburst, and still a few hundred degrees hotter at 4 yr post-outburst. The white dwarf spin at 67.6 s and its second harmonic at 33.8 s are visible in the optical within a month of outburst and are obvious in the later UV observations in the shortest wavelength continuum and the UV emission lines, indicating an origin in high-temperature regions near the accretion curtains. The UV light curves folded on the spin period show a double-humped modulation consistent with two-pole accretion. The optical photometry 2 yr after outburst shows a group of frequencies present at shorter periods (250-263 s) than the periods ascribed to pulsation at quiescence, and these gradually shift toward the quiescent frequencies (300-360 s) as time progresses past outburst. The most surprising result is that the frequencies near this period in the UV data are only prominent in the emission lines, not the UV continuum, implying an origin away from the white dwarf photosphere. Thus, the connection of this group of periods with non-radial pulsations of the white dwarf remains elusive

  3. Discovery of Nine Gamma-Ray Pulsars in Fermi Large Area Telescope Data Using a New Blind Search Method

    OpenAIRE

    Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Ray, P.S.; Barr, E. D.; Belfiore, A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Çelik, O; Champion, D. J.; Dormody, M.; Eatough, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the sear...

  4. Building Large Area CZT Imaging Detectors for a Wide-Field Hard X-ray Telescope - ProtoEXIST1

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Grindlay, J; Chammas, N; Barthelemy, S; Baker, R; Gehrels, N; Nelson, K E; Labov, S; Collins, J; Cook, W R; McLean, R; Harrison, F

    2009-01-01

    We have constructed a moderately large area (32 cm2), fine pixel (2.5 mm pixel, 5 mm thick) CZT imaging detector which constitutes the first section of a detector module (256 cm2) developed for a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope, ProtoEXIST1. ProtoEXIST1 is a prototype for the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), a next generation space-borne multi-wavelength telescope. We have constructed a large (nearly gapless) detector plane through a modularization scheme by tiling of a large number of 2 cm x 2 cm CZT crystals. Our innovative packaging method is ideal for many applications such as coded-aperture imaging, where a large, continuous detector plane is desirable for the optimal performance. Currently we have been able to achieve an energy resolution of 3.2 keV (FWHM) at 59.6 keV on average, which is exceptional considering the moderate pixel size and the number of detectors in simultaneous operation. We expect to complete two modules (512 cm2) withi...

  5. The Uffo Slewing Mirror Telescope for Early Optical Observation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Jiwoo; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Castrotirado, A. J.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, C.-R.; Chen, P.; Choi, Y. J.; Connell, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M. H. A.; Huang, J. J.; Jeong, S.; Jung, A.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Lin, C. Y.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T. C.; Lund, N.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Panayuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Wang, M. Z.; Yashin, I.; Zhao, M. H.

    first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission. Using fast moving mirrors to redirect our optical path rather than slewing the entire spacecraft, UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRB within 1 sec. We have developed the UFFO Pathfinder Telescope which is going to be on board of the...... Lomonosov satellite and launched in middle of 2012. We will discuss about scientific potentials of the UFFO project and present the payload development status, especially for Slewing Mirror Telescope which is the key instrument of the UFFO-pathfinder mission....

  6. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Miller, N. A., E-mail: siamak.dehghan@vuw.ac.nz [Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Stevenson University, Stevenson, MD 21153 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  7. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 ≤ P 1.4 GHz ≤ 1026 W Hz–1, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz–1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  8. Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope Observations of Wolf–Rayet Dwarf Galaxy Mrk 996

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Jaiswal; A. Omar

    2013-09-01

    The Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope (DFOT) is a 1.3 meter aperture optical telescope, recently installed at Devasthal, Nainital. We present here the first results using an H filter with this telescope on a Wolf–Rayet dwarf galaxy Mrk 996. The instrumental response and the H sensitivity obtained with the telescope are (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2/counts s-1 and 7.5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 respectively. The H flux and the equivalent width for Mrk 996 are estimated as (132 ± 37) × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and ∼ 96 Å respectively. The star formation rate is estimated as 0.4 ± 0.1⊙ yr-1. Mrk 996 deviates from the radio-FIR correlation known for normal star forming galaxies with a deficiency in its radio continuum. The ionized gas as traced by Hα emission is found in a disk shape which is misaligned with respect to the old stellar disk. This misalignment is indicative of a recent tidal interaction in the galaxy. We believe that galaxy–galaxy tidal interaction is the main cause of the WR phase in Mrk 996.

  9. A synthetic aperture radio telescope for ICME observations as a potential payload of SPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, W.; Liu, H.; Xiong, M.; Liu, Y. D.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a potential payload for the Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), a space weather mission proposed by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a synthetic aperture radio imager designed to detect radio emissions from interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which is expected to be an important instrument to monitor the propagation and evolution of ICMEs. The radio telescope applies a synthetic aperture interferometric technique to measure the brightness temperature of ICMEs. Theoretical calculations of the brightness temperature utilizing statistical properties of ICMEs and the background solar wind indicate that ICMEs within 0.35 AU from the Sun are detectable by a radio telescope at a frequency axis at different radius and speed, to fulfill sampling of the brightness temperature. An array of 4+4 elements with opposite scanning directions are developed for the radio telescope to achieve the required sensitivity (three-axis stabilized spacecraft platform while keeping a good sampling pattern. We also discuss how we select the operating frequency, which involves a trade-off between the engineering feasibility and the scientific goal. Our preliminary results indicate that the central frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, which requires arm lengths of the two groups of 14m and 16m, respectively, gives an angular resolution of 2°, a field of view of ×25° around the Sun, and a time resolution of 30 minutes.

  10. DISCOVERY OF PULSED γ-RAYS FROM THE YOUNG RADIO PULSAR PSR J1028-5819 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio pulsar PSR J1028-5819 was recently discovered in a high-frequency search (at 3.1 GHz) in the error circle of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) source 3EG J1027-5817. The spin-down power of this young pulsar is great enough to make it very likely the counterpart for the EGRET source. We report here the discovery of γ-ray pulsations from PSR J1028-5819 in early observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The γ-ray light curve shows two sharp peaks having phase separation of 0.460 ± 0.004, trailing the very narrow radio pulse by 0.200 ± 0.003 in phase, very similar to that of other known γ-ray pulsars. The measured γ-ray flux gives an efficiency for the pulsar of ∼10-20% (for outer magnetosphere beam models). No evidence of a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen in the current Fermi data but limits on associated emission are weak because the source lies in a crowded region with high background emission. However, the improved angular resolution afforded by the LAT enables the disentanglement of the previous COS-B and EGRET source detections into at least two distinct sources, one of which is now identified as PSR J1028-5819.

  11. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: mdwood@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: mar0@uw.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from ≈20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of γ rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of γ-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347–121.

  13. Likelihood Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Gamma-ray Pulsars with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope allows detection of thousands of new gamma-ray sources and detailed characterization of the spectra and variability of bright sources. Unsurprisingly, this increased capability leads to increased complexity in data analysis. Likelihood methods are ideal for connecting models with data, but the computational cost of folding the model input through the multi-scale instrument response function is appreciable. Both interactive analysis and large projects---such as analysis of the full gamma-ray sky---can be prohibitive or impossible, reducing the scope of the science possible with the LAT. To improve on this situation, we have developed pointlike, a software package for fast maximum likelihood analysis of LAT data. It is interactive by design and its rapid evaluation of the likelihood facilitates exploratory and large-scale, all-sky analysis. We detail its implementation and validate its performance on simulated data. We ...

  14. Development of the Model of Galactic Interstellar Emission for Standard Point-Source Analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Hou, X; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Kamae, T; Kuss, M; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Maldera, S; Malyshev, D; Manfreda, A; Martin, P; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mirabal, N; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Remy, Q; Renault, N; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schaal, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2016-01-01

    Most of the celestial gamma rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point and extended source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. We describe here the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM) that is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. The model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. We also include in the GIEM large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric ...

  15. Improvements in data analysis obtained by large-area silicon ΔE - E detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a few practical methods for the analysis of data obtained by standard thin-thick silicon detector telescopes used in nuclear reaction measurements. The addressed issues are: (1) improvement in double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) calibration based on the fact that each event is registered twice, both in horizontal and vertical strips, (2) improvements in particle identification and (3) simplified mapping of the non-uniformity of the thin detector, without a dedicated measurement of the thickness. The proposed procedures are applied on experimental data obtained for 30MeV 7Li beam induced reactions on LiF and C targets, studied with a detection setup consisting of four telescopes placed at different angles and distances. The proposed methods aim at quicker and more reliable calibration and particle identification. (orig.)

  16. Improvements in data analysis obtained by large-area silicon ΔE - E detector telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uroic, M.; Miljanic, D.; Prepolec, L.; Soic, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Milin, M. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia); Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Scuderi, V. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Lattuada, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Universtita' di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Martel, I. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Huelva (Spain); Sanchez Benitez, A.M. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Huelva (Spain); Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Fisica Nuclear da, Lisboa (Portugal); Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The paper describes a few practical methods for the analysis of data obtained by standard thin-thick silicon detector telescopes used in nuclear reaction measurements. The addressed issues are: (1) improvement in double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) calibration based on the fact that each event is registered twice, both in horizontal and vertical strips, (2) improvements in particle identification and (3) simplified mapping of the non-uniformity of the thin detector, without a dedicated measurement of the thickness. The proposed procedures are applied on experimental data obtained for 30MeV {sup 7}Li beam induced reactions on LiF and C targets, studied with a detection setup consisting of four telescopes placed at different angles and distances. The proposed methods aim at quicker and more reliable calibration and particle identification. (orig.)

  17. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  18. Prospects for observing ultracompact binaries with space-based gravitational wave interferometers and optical telescopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Littenberg, T.B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G. A.; Cornish, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultra-compact binaries. An important subset of the ultra-compact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multi-messenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher Information Matrix is used to estimate the number of...

  19. REMOTES: reliable and modular telescope solution for seamless operation and monitoring of various observation facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubec, Michal; Skala, Petr; Sedláček, Milan; Nekola, Martin; Štrobl, Jan; Blažek, Martin; Hudec, René

    Bellingham: International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012 - (Radziwill, N.), 84511I-1-84511I-13. (Proceedings of SPIE. 8451). ISBN 9780819491527. [Software and Cyberinfrastructure for Astronomy /2./. Amsterdam (NL), 01.07.2012 -04.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Keywords : robotic telescope * modular solution * field control module Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  1. Long term performance evaluation of the TACTIC imaging telescope using ∼400 h Crab Nebula observation during 2003–2010

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Tickoo; R Koul; R C Rannot; K K Yadav; P Chandra; V K Dhar; M K Koul; M Kothari; N K Agarwal; A Goyal; H C Goyal; S Kotwal; N Kumar; P Marandi; K Venugopal; K Chanchalani; N Bhatt; S Bhattacharyya; C Borwankar; N Chouhan; S R Kaul; A K Mitra; S Sahaynathan; M Sharma; K K Singh; C K Bhat

    2014-03-01

    The TeV atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with imaging camera (TACTIC) -ray telescope has been in operation at Mt. Abu, India since 2001 to study TeV -ray emission from celestial sources. During the last 10 years, apart from consistently detecting a steady signal from the Crab Nebula above ∼1.2 TeV energy, at a sensitivity level of ∼5.0 in ∼25 h, the telescope has also detected flaring activity from Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 on several occasions. Although we used Crab Nebula data partially, in some of the reported results, primarily for testing the validity of the full data analysis chain, the main aim of this work is to study the long term performance of the TACTIC telescope by using consolidated data collected between 2003 and 2010. The total on-source data, comprising ∼402 h, yields an excess of ∼(3742±192) -ray events with a statistical significance of ∼19.9 . The off-source data, comprising ∼107 h of observation, is found to be consistent with a no-emission hypothesis, as expected. The resulting -ray rate for the onsource data is determined to be ∼(9.31±0.48) h-1. A power law fit (d/d = $f_0E^{−}$) with $f_0 \\tilde (2.66 ± 0.29) × 10^{−11}$ cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 and $ \\tilde$ 2.56 ± 0.10 is found to provide reasonable fit to the inferred differential spectrum within statistical uncertainties. The spectrum matches reasonably well with that obtained by other groups. A brief summary of the improvements in the various subsystems of the telescope carried out recently, which has resulted in a substantial improvement in its detection sensitivity (viz., ∼5 in an observation period of ∼13 h as compared to ∼25 h earlier) are also presented in this paper. Encouraged by the detection of strong -ray signals from Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 on several occasions, there is considerable scope for the TACTIC telescope to monitor similar TeV -ray emission activity from other active galactic nuclei on a long-term basis.

  2. Latitudinal distribution of O2on ganymede: Observations with the hubble space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W.M.; Spencer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    To help constrain the spatial variation of oxygen on Jupiter's satellite Ganymede, and hence have more clues to its mode of production and stability, we have obtained spectral data from the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) for a single pole-to-pole latitudinal strip, along with several Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in three narrow band visible filters. All observations were made of the trailing hemisphere. In the FOS data we observe both visible absorptions at 0.577 and 0.627 ??m, associated with dense-phase oxygen (compressed gases, liquids, or solids). Filter options limited the WFPC2 observations to wavelengths near the weaker oxygen absorption at 0.627 ??m. These observations suggest that the dense-phase or dimer oxygen form is predominantly found in equatorial and mid-latitudes. The spectroscopic absorption feature appears in both bright and dark terrains but may be somewhat weaker in dark regions, which is consistent with the smaller mean photon path length in the surface in darker areas. Therefore, the abundance of oxygen appears more dependent on latitude and longitude constraints than surface albedo. At the highest latitudes, where the ratio spectra have a strong upturn toward the blue, the oxygen bands do not appear. This relation suggests that dimer oxygen and ozone (as seen by Galileo) have opposite trends with latitude. Possible causes include competition or variation in the preferred stable form, which depends on temperature, solar ultraviolet flux, and/or surface age; enhancement of O3at the poles due to plasma interactions; or viewing geometry effects that reduce the oxygen features at the poles when observed from Earth. The predominantly equatorial feature supports the production of O2through plasma bombardment and favors defect trapping over physical adsorption of the dimer molecules in the surface. We briefly consider the implications of Ganymede's magnetosphere for our understanding of O2and O3distribution on Ganymede. ?? 1997

  3. The spatial structure and temporal variability of Ganymede’s auroral ovals from Hubble Space Telescope observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Fabrizio; Saur, Joachim; Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt D.; McGrath, Melissa A.; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrel F.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze spectrally and spatially resolved images of Ganymede’s FUV-auroral ovals obtained during the past two decades by Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). We find both, spatial inhomogeneities of the brightness-distribution on the observed disk as well as temporal variation as a function of Ganymede’s position relative to the Jovian current sheet. The brightness of the ovals is not equally distributed along the ovals, i.e., the Jupiter-facing side is always brighter than the anti-Jupiter side at least by ~60%. When Ganymede moves from high elevated magnetic latitudes towards the center region of the Jovian current sheet, the brightness of the aurora on the leading side increases by over 30% from ~80 Rayleigh up to ~108 Rayleigh. Simultaneously, inside the current sheet center the auroral ovals are displaced by an average of ~6° of planetographic latitude, i.e., the ovals shift furthermore down towards the planetographic equator on the leading side, and up towards the poles on the trailing side. Both effects, the increase of brightness and the moving of the ovals, are correlated to increased plasma interaction inside the current sheet. Ganymede’s electron-impact-excited auroral emissions are thought to be driven by electron acceleration by strong field-aligned currents at the boundary area between open and closed magnetic field lines of Ganymede’s mini-magnetosphere. The change of the auroral morphology is a direct response to the changing plasma environment, i.e., changing ram and thermal pressures. Thus, the investigation of the aurora proves to be a suitable diagnostic tool of the various processes that contribute to Ganymede’s complex plasma and magnetic field environment.

  4. Gamma large area silicon telescope: Applying SI strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, W. B.; Bloom, E. D.; Godfrey, G. L.; Hertz, P. L.; Lin, Ying-Chi; Nolan, P. L.; Snyder, A. E.; Taylor, R. E.; Wood, K. S.; Michelson, P. F.

    1992-12-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) (presently operating on CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory)) has prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that would increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays and the triggering capability of the instrument. The proposed GLAST (Gamma Ray Large Area Silicon Telescope) instrument is based on silicon particle detectors that offer the advantages of no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST tracker has planes of cross strip (x, y) 300 micrometer match silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. An angular resolution of 0.1 deg at high energy is possible (the low energy angular resolution 100 MeV would be about 2 deg, limited by multiple scattering). The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET's extends the energy range to about 300 GeV.

  5. Adaptive Optics at Optical Wavelengths: Test Observations of Kyoto 3DII Connected to Subaru Telescope AO188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Akita, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) enables us to observe objects with high spatial resolution, which is important in most astrophysical observations. Most AO systems are operational at near-infrared wavelengths but not in the optical range, because optical observations require a much higher performance to obtain the same Strehl ratio as near-infrared observations. Therefore, to enable AO-assisted observations at optical wavelengths, we connected the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII), which can perform integral field spectroscopy, to the second generation AO system of the Subaru Telescope (AO188). We developed a new beam-splitter that reflects light below 594 nm for the wavefront sensors of AO188 and transmits above 644 nm for Kyoto 3DII. We also developed a Kyoto 3DII mount at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope. In test observations, the spatial resolution of the combined AO188–Kyoto 3DII was higher than that in natural seeing conditions, even at 6500 Å. The full width at half maximum of an undersampled (1.5 spaxels) bright guide star (7.0 mag in the V-band) was 0.″12.

  6. Long-term observations of Uranus and Neptune at 90 GHz with the IRAM 30m telescope - (1985 -- 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, C.; Moreno, R.; Greve, A.

    2008-01-01

    The planets Uranus and Neptune with small apparent diameters are primary calibration standards. We investigate their variability at ~90 GHz using archived data taken at the IRAM 30m telescope during the 20 years period 1985 to 2005. We calibrate the planetary observations against non-variable secondary standards (NGC7027, NGC7538, W3OH, K3-50A) observed almost simultaneously. Between 1985 and 2005, the viewing angle of Uranus changed from south-pole to equatorial. We find that the disk bright...

  7. Single dish performance of KVN 21-m radio telescopes:Simultaneous observations at 22 and 43 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Han, Seog-Tae; Je, Do-Heung; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wi, Seog-Oh; Cho, Se-Hyung; Sohn, Bong Won; Kim, Jaeheon; Lee, Jeewon; Oh, Se-Jin; Song, Min-Gyu; Kang, Jiman; Jung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Jeong Ae; Oh, Junghwan; Bae, Jae-Han; Yun, So-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Bong Gyu; Chung, Hyunsoo; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Jung, Taehyun; Park, Pulun; Kim, Min Joong; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Won-Ju

    2011-01-01

    We report simultaneous multi-frequency observing performance at 22 and 43 GHz of the 21-m shaped-Cassegrain radio telescopes of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). KVN is the first millimeter-dedicated VLBI network in Korea having a maximum baseline length of 480 km. It currently operates at 22 and 43 GHz and planed to operate in four frequency bands, 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz. The unique quasioptics of KVN enable simultaneous multi-frequency observations based on efficient beam filtering and accuarate antenna-beam alignment at 22 and 43 GHz. We found that the offset of the beams is within 20 degrees.

  8. Quantum telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2014-01-01

    In the 20th century, quantum mechanics connected the particle and wave concepts of light and thereby made mechanisms accessible that had never been imagined before. Processes such as stimulated emission and quantum entanglement have revolutionized modern technology. But even though astronomical observations rely on novel technologies, the optical layout of telescopes has fundamentally remained unchanged. While there is no doubt that Huyghens and Newton would be astounded by the size of our modern telescopes, they would nevertheless understand their optical design. The time may now have come to consider quantum telescopes, that make use of the fundamental scientific changes brought along by quantum mechanics. While one aim is to entertain our reader, our main purpose is to explore the possible future evolution of telescopes.

  9. Scientific Highlights from Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, the MAGIC gamma-ray telescope has newly discovered 6 TeV blazars. The total set of 13 MAGIC-detected active galactic nuclei includes well-studied objects at other wavelengths like Markarian 501 and the giant radio galaxy M 87, but also the distant the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, and the newly discovered TeV gamma-ray emitter S5 0716+71. In addition, also long-term and multi-wavelength studies on well-known TeV blazars and systematic searches for new TeV blazars have been...

  10. Scientific Highlights from Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Robert; Collaboration, for the MAGIC

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, the MAGIC gamma-ray telescope has newly discovered 6 TeV blazars. The total set of 13 MAGIC-detected active galactic nuclei includes well-studied objects at other wavelengths like Markarian 501 and the giant radio galaxy M87, but also the distant the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, and the newly discovered TeV gamma-ray emitter S5 0716+71. In addition, also long-term and multi-wavelength studies on well-known TeV blazars and systematic searches for new TeV blazars have been car...

  11. Search for Spectral Irregularities due to Photon-Axionlike-Particle Oscillations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costanza, F.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Katsuragawa, M.; Kensei, S.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Okada, C.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We report on the search for spectral irregularities induced by oscillations between photons and axionlike-particles (ALPs) in the γ -ray spectrum of NGC 1275, the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster. Using 6 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we find no evidence for ALPs and exclude couplings above 5 ×10-12 GeV-1 for ALP masses 0.5 ≲ma≲5 neV at 95% confidence. The limits are competitive with the sensitivity of planned laboratory experiments, and, together with other bounds, strongly constrain the possibility that ALPs can reduce the γ -ray opacity of the Universe.

  12. How many radio-loud quasars can be detected by the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope?

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xinwu; Bai, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In the unification scheme, radio quasars and FR II radio galaxies come from the same parent population, but viewed at different angles. Based on the Comptonization models for the gamma-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we estimate the number of radio quasars and FR II radio galaxies to be detected by the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) using the luminosity function (LF) of their parent population derived from the flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) LF. We find that ~...

  13. Bent-Tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Siamak; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Norris, Ray P.; Miller, Neal A.

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), supplemented with the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 bent-tailed sources, four diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (one relic, two halos, and one unclassified object), and a further seven complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in...

  14. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, G; Ely, J; Kriss, G A; Crenshaw, D M; Horne, Keith; Korista, K T; Netzer, H; Pogge, R W; Arevalo, P; Barth, A J; Bentz, M C; Brandt, W N; Breeveld, A A; Brewer, B J; Bonta, E Dalla; De Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Denney, K D; Dietrich, M; Edelson, R; Evans, P A; Fausnaugh, M M; Gehrels, N; Gelbord, J M; Goad, M R; Grier, C J; Grupe, D; Hall, P B; Kaastra, J; Kelly, B C; Kennea, J A; Kochanek, C S; Lira, P; Mathur, S; McHardy, I M; Nousek, J A; Pancoast, A; Papadakis, I; Pei, L; Schimoia, J S; Siegel, M; Starkey, D; Treu, T; Uttley, P; Vaughan, S; Vestergaard, M; Villforth, C; Yan, H; Young, S; Zu, Y

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 170 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and broad emission lines, with amplitudes ranging from ~30% to a factor of two in the emission lines and a factor of three in the continuum. The variations of all the strong emission lines lag behind those of the continuum, with He II 1640 lagging behind the continuum by ~2.5 days and Lyman alpha 1215, C IV 1550, and Si IV 1400 lagging by ~5-6 days. The relationship between the continuum and emission lines is complex. In particular, during the second half of the campaign, all emission-line lags increased by a factor of 1.3-2 and differences appear in the detailed structure of the continuum and emission-line light curves. Velocity-resolved cross-correlation analysis shows coherent structure in lag versus line-of-sight veloc...

  15. THE TRUE DURATIONS OF STARBURSTS: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THREE NEARBY DWARF STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ∼200 to ∼400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales often derived observationally with the longer timescales derived from dynamical arguments. If these three starbursts are typical of starbursts in dwarf galaxies, then the short timescales (3-10 Myr) associated with starbursts in previous studies are best understood as 'flickering' events which are simply small components of the larger starburst. In this sample of three nearby dwarfs, the bursts are not localized events. All three systems show bursting levels of star formation in regions of both high and low stellar density. The enhanced star formation moves around the galaxy during the bursts and covers a large fraction of the area of the galaxy. These massive, long-duration bursts can significantly affect the structure, dynamics, and chemical evolution of the host galaxy and can be the progenitors of 'superwinds' that drive much of the recently chemically enriched material from the galaxy into the intergalactic medium.

  16. Observations of the magnetars 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586 with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Jankowski, F; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Masbou, J; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Rea, N

    2012-01-01

    Magnetars are an extreme, highly magnetized class of isolated neutron stars whose large X-ray luminosity is believed to be driven by their high magnetic field. In this work we study for the first time the possible very high energy gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV from magnetars, observing the sources 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586. We observed the two sources with atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in the very high energy range (E > 100 GeV). 4U 0142+61 was observed with the MAGIC I telescope in 2008 for ~25 h and 1E 2259+586 was observed with the MAGIC stereoscopic system in 2010 for ~14 h. The data were analyzed with the standard MAGIC analysis software. Neither magnetar was detected. Upper limits to the differential and integral flux above 200 GeV were computed using the Rolke algorithm. We obtain integral upper limits to the flux of 1.52*10^-12cm^-2 s^-1 and 2.7*10^-12cm^-2 s^-1 with a confidence level of 95% for 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586, respectively. The resulting differential upper limits are presented tog...

  17. Simulation of autonomous observing with a ground-based telescope: the LSST experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen; Cook, Kem; Miller, Michelle; Petry, Catherine; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Saha, Abhijit; Allsman, Robyn; Axelrod, Timothy; Claver, Charles; Delgado, Francisco; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, R. Lynne; Krughoff, Simon; Pierfederici, Francesco; Pinto, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    A survey program with multiple science goals will be driven by multiple technical requirements. On a ground-based telescope, the variability of conditions introduces yet greater complexity. For a program that must be largely autonomous with minimal dwell time for efficiency it may be quite difficult to foresee the achievable performance. Furthermore, scheduling will likely involve self-referential constraints and appropriate optimization tools may not be available. The LSST project faces these issues, and has designed and implemented an approach to performance analysis in its Operations Simulator and associated post-processing packages. The Simulator has allowed the project to present detailed performance predictions with a strong basis from the engineering design and measured site conditions. At present, the Simulator is in regular use for engineering studies and science evaluation, and planning is underway for evolution to an operations scheduling tool. We will describe the LSST experience, emphasizing the objectives, the accomplishments and the lessons learned.

  18. Thin fused silica optics for a high angular resolution and large collecting area X Ray telescope after Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M; Basso, Stefano; Campana, Sergio; Conconi, Paolo; Ghigo, Mauro; Mattaini, Enrico; Moretti, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of an X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (SMART-X project, led by CfA together with other US institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area >2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. This paper deals with the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than 10 times larger than Chandra and an angular resolution of 1 arcsec HEW on axis and of a few arcsec off-axis across a large field of view (1o in diameter).

  19. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data V. Hobby-Eberly Telescope Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Donald P.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Gunn, James E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of 27 quasars with redshifts between 3.58 and 4.49. The objects were identified as high-redshift candidates based on their colors in Sloan Digital Sky Survey commissioning data. The redshifts were confirmed with low resolution spectra obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The quasars' $i^*$ magnitudes range from 18.55 to 20.97. Nearly 60% of the quasar candidates observed are confirmed spectroscopically as quasars. Two of the objects are Broad Absorption Line quasars...

  20. Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Using a Hybrid Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; B.G. Cheon; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than $10^{18.2}$ eV with the Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) and the Surface Detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27 2008 to September 7 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is ...

  1. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with {\\it Yohkoh} Soft X-ray Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V.

    2008-01-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied by using the data obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard {\\it Yohkoh} from 1991 November to 1993 March. The following characteristics are found; Many of active regions appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a ``sea-anemone''. Such active regions are called {\\it anemone ARs}. About one-forth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure....

  2. Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Using a Hybrid Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, E J; Cho, W R; Fujii, H; Fujii, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Hiyama, K; Honda, K; Iguchi, T; Ikeda, D; Ikuta, K; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Iwamoto, S; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kanbe, T; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, H K; Kim, J H; Kitamoto, K; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Kondo, Y; Kuramoto, K; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, S; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuura, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Miyata, K; Murano, Y; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nam, S W; Nonaka, T; Ogio, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Oku, D; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Roh, S Y; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, J I; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Tsuyuguchi, Y; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Ukai, H; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamakawa, Y; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zhou, X; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2013-01-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than $10^{18.2}$ eV with the Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) and the Surface Detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27 2008 to September 7 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  3. Green Bank Telescope observations of the water masers of NGC 3079: accretion disk magnetic field and maser scintillation

    OpenAIRE

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Bignall, H. E.; Diamond, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present observations of the 22 GHz water megamasers in the circumnuclear disk of NGC 3079 obtained with the Green Bank Telescope. The data are analyzed for circular polarization due to the Zeeman-induced splitting of the water maser lines. No circular polarization is detected and we derive a 1 sigma upper limit of 11 mG for the toroidal magnetic field at ~0.64 pc from the central black hole. This is the tightest upper limit for the magnetic field around a black hole to date. We use the mag...

  4. Whole earth telescope observations of the white dwarf G29-38 - Phase variations of the 615 second period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive set of high-speed photometric observations obtained with the Whole Earth Telescope network is used to show that the complex light curve of the ZZ Zeti (DAV) star G29-38 is dominated by a single, constant amplitude period of 615 s during the time span of these observations. The pulse arrival times for this period exhibit a systematic variation in phase readily explained by light-travel time effects produced by reflex orbital motion about an unseen companion. The best-fit model to the observations indicates a highly eccentric orbit, a period of 109 + or - 13 days and a minimum mass of 0.5 solar mass for the companion. 23 refs

  5. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  6. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    OpenAIRE

    GIGLIO, L.; G. R. van der Werf; J. T. Randerson; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for estimating monthly burned area globally at 1° spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Using regression trees constructed for 14 different global regions, MODIS active fire observations were calibrated to ''true'' burned area estimates derived from 500-m MODIS imagery based on the conventional assumption that burned area is proportional to counts of fire pixels. Unlike earlier methods, we...

  7. BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCE LIST FROM THE FIRST THREE MONTHS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three months of sky-survey operation with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveal 132 bright sources at |b|>10 deg. with test statistic greater than 100 (corresponding to about 10σ). Two methods, based on the CGRaBS, CRATES, and BZCat catalogs, indicate high-confidence associations of 106 of these sources with known active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This sample is referred to as the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). It contains two radio galaxies, namely, Centaurus A and NGC 1275, and 104 blazars consisting of 58 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 42 BL Lac objects, and 4 blazars with unknown classification. Four new blazars were discovered on the basis of the LAT detections. Remarkably, the LBAS includes 10 high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), sources which were previously difficult to detect in the GeV range. Another 10 lower-confidence associations are found. Only 33 of the sources, plus two at |b| < 10 deg., were previously detected with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope(EGRET), probably due to variability. The analysis of the γ-ray properties of the LBAS sources reveals that the average GeV spectra of BL Lac objects are significantly harder than the spectra of FSRQs. No significant correlation between radio and peak γ-ray fluxes is observed. Blazar log N-log S distributions and luminosity functions are constructed to investigate the evolution of the different blazar classes, with positive evolution indicated for FSRQs but none for BL Lacs. The contribution of LAT blazars to the total extragalactic γ-ray intensity is estimated.

  8. Constraining the Dark Matter decay lifetime with very deep observations of the Perseus cluster with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Palacio, J; Acosta, M Vazquez; Colin, P; Maggio, C; Rico, J

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary results on Dark Matter searches from observations of the Perseus galaxy cluster with the MAGIC Telescopes. MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. Galaxy clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound structures in the Universe, with masses of ~10^15 Solar masses. There is strong evidence that galaxy clusters are Dark Matter dominated objects, and therefore promising targets for Dark Matter searches, particularly for decay signals. MAGIC has taken almost 300 hours of data on the Perseus Cluster between 2009 and 2015, the deepest observational campaign on any galaxy cluster performed so far in the very high energy range of the electromagnetic spectrum. We analyze here a small sample of this data and search for signs of dark matter in the mass range between 100 GeV and 20 TeV. We apply a likelihood analysis optimized for the spectral and morphological features expected in the dark matter decay signals. This i...

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 0946+301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based spectra of the brightest broad absorption line (BAL) quasar in the UV: PG 0946+301. A detailed study of the absorption troughs as a function of velocity is presented, facilitated by the use of a new algorithm to solve for the optical depth as a function of velocity for multiplet lines. We find convincing evidence for saturation in parts of the troughs. This supports our previous assertion that saturation is common in BALs and therefore cast doubts on claims for very high metallicity in BAL flows. Because of the importance of BAL saturation we also discuss its evidence in other objects. In PG 0946+301 large differences in ionization as a function of velocity are detected, and our findings support the hypothesis that the line of sight intersects a number of flow components that combine to give the appearance of the whole trough. Based on the optical depth profiles, we develop a geometrical-kinematical model for the flow. We have positively identified 16 ions of eight elements (H i, C iii, C iv, N iii, N iv, N v, O iii, O iv, O v, O vi, Ne v, Ne viii, P v, Si iv, S v, S vi) and have probable identifications of Mg x and S iv. Unlike earlier analysis of IUE data, we find no evidence for BALs arising from excited ionic states in the HST spectrum of PG 0946+301. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  10. Knot a Bad Idea: Testing BLISS Mapping for Spitzer Space Telescope Eclipse Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Much of transiting exoplanet science relies on high-precision photometry. The current generation of instruments exhibit sensitivity variations greater than the astrophysical signals. For the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, a popular way to handle this is BiLinearly-Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity mapping (BLISS). We use examples of posterior probability functions to show that this scheme can misfit or bias astrophysical parameters, and a toy model to show that underestimated uncertainties may even happen in very simple cases. BLISS maps of detector sensitivity can also be unreliable if the noise in the data is low. To know the astrophysical and detector models a priori, we construct a model of \\emph{Spitzer} light curves with $\\sim10^{3}$ data. We compare standard BLISS to a variant in which the knot values are full-fledged parameters in the MCMC, and to a standard polynomial model. Both types of BLISS fit the eclipse depth similarly, and the standard BLISS knots vary...

  11. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Williams, Brian J; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Patnaude, Daniel J; Reynolds, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler's supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of 5.1 [+0.8, -0.7] kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km/s and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm^-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations amon...

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of cD Galaxies and their Globular Cluster Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, A; West, M J; Marzke, R O; Minniti, D; Rejkuba, M; Jordan, Andres; Cote, Patrick; West, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Minniti, Dante; Rejkuba, Marina

    2004-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain F450W and F814W images of four cD galaxies (NGC 541 in Abell 194, NGC 2832 in Abell 779, NGC 4839 in Abell 1656 and NGC 7768 in Abell 2666) in the range 5400 < cz < 8100 km s^{-1}. For NGC 541, the HST data are supplemented by ground-based B and I images obtained with the FORS1 on the VLT. We present surface brightness and color profiles for each of the four galaxies, confirming their classification as cD galaxies. Isophotal analyses reveal the presence of subarcsecond-scale dust disks in the nuclei of NGC 541 and NGC 7768. Despite the extreme nature of these galaxies in terms of spatial extent and luminosity, our analysis of their globular cluster systems reveals no anomalies in terms of specific frequencies, metallicity gradients, average metallicities, or the metallicity offset between the globulars and the host galaxy. We show that the latter offset appears roughly constant at \\Delta [Fe/H] ~ 0.8 dex for early-type galaxies spanning a lumino...

  13. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Polarization Observations of Three Edge-on Massive YSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Janet P; Colgan, Sean W J; Cotera, Angela S; Erickson, Edwin F; Hines, Dean C; Whitney, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Massive young stellar objects (YSOs), like low-mass YSOs, appear to be surrounded by optically thick envelopes and/or disks and have regions, often bipolar, that are seen in polarized scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We are using the 0.2'' spatial resolution of NICMOS on Hubble Space Telescope to examine the structure of the disks and outflow regions of massive YSOs in star-forming regions within a few kpc of the Sun. Here we report on 2 micron polarimetry of NGC 6334 V and S255 IRS1. NGC 6334 V consists of a double-lobed bright reflection nebula seen against a dark region, probably an optically thick molecular cloud. Our polarization measurements show that the illuminating star lies ~ 2'' south of the line connecting the two lobes; we do not detect this star at 2 micron, but there are a small radio source and a mid-infrared source at this location. S255 IRS1 consists of two YSOs (NIRS1 and NIRS3) with overlapping scattered light lobes and luminosities corresponding to early B stars. Included in ...

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NUCLEUS OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Philippe L.; Toth, Imre [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, CNRS and Aix Marseille Université, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Weaver, Harold A., E-mail: philippe.lamy@lam.fr [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We report on the analysis of several sequences of broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope on 2013 April 10, May 8, October 9, and November 1 in an attempt to detect and characterize its nucleus. Whereas the overwhelming coma precluded the detection of the nucleus in the first two sequences, the contrast was sufficient in early October to unambiguously retrieve the signal from the nucleus. Two images taken within a few minutes led to similar V magnitudes for the nucleus of 21.97 and 22.0 with a 1σ uncertainty of 0.065. Assuming a standard value for the geometric albedo (0.04) and a linear phase function with a coefficient of 0.04 mag deg{sup –1}, these V values imply that the nucleus radius is 0.68 ± 0.02 km. Although this result does depend on these two assumptions, we argue that the radius most likely lies in the range 0.6-0.9 km. This result is consistent with the constraints derived from the water production rates reported by Combi et al. The last sequence of images in 2013 November revealed temporal variation of the innermost coma. If attributed to a single rotating jet, this coma brightness variation suggests the rotational period of the nucleus may be close to ∼10.4 hr.

  15. Triaxial ellipsoid dimensions and poles of asteroids from AO observations at the Keck-II telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack; Christou, Julian; Nelson, Jerry

    2009-07-01

    Five main belt asteroids, 2 Pallas, 129 Antigone, 409 Aspasia, 532 Herculina, and 704 Interamnia were imaged with the adaptive optics system on the 10 m Keck-II telescope in the near infrared on one night, August 16, 2006. The three axis dimensions and rotational poles were determined for Pallas, Antigone, Aspasia, and Interamnia, from their changing apparent sizes and shapes as measured with parametric blind deconvolution. The rotational pole found for Interamnia is much different from all previous work, including our own at Lick Observatory the previous month. Although images of Herculina were obtained at only two rotational phases, its rotation appears to be opposite to that predicted from the lightcurve inversion model of M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and J. Piironen [2002. Icarus 159, 369-395]. A search for satellites was made in all of the asteroid images, with negative results, but three trailing stars around Herculina (200 km diameter), down to 8.9 magnitudes fainter and between 1 and 115 asteroid radii (100 to 11,500 km) from the asteroid, establishes an upper limit of 3.3 km for any object with the same albedo near Herculina.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the host galaxies and environments of calcium-rich supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, J. D.; Levan, A. J.; James, P. A.; Angus, C. R.; Church, R. P.; Davies, M. B.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2016-05-01

    Calcium-rich supernovae (SNe) represent a significant challenge for our understanding of the fates of stellar systems. They are less luminous than other SN types and they evolve more rapidly to reveal nebular spectra dominated by strong calcium lines with weak or absent signatures of other intermediate- and iron-group elements, which are seen in other SNe. Strikingly, their explosion sites also mark them out as distinct from other SN types. Their galactocentric offset distribution is strongly skewed to very large offsets (˜1/3 are offset >20 kpc), meaning they do not trace the stellar light of their hosts. Many of the suggestions to explain this extreme offset distribution have invoked the necessity for unusual formation sites such as globular clusters or dwarf satellite galaxies, which are therefore difficult to detect. Building on previous work attempting to detect host systems of nearby Ca-rich SNe, we here present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of five members of the class - three exhibiting large offsets and two coincident with the disc of their hosts. We find no underlying sources at the explosion sites of any of our sample. Combining with previous work, the lack of a host system now appears to be a ubiquitous feature amongst Ca-rich SNe. In this case the offset distribution is most readily explained as a signature of high-velocity progenitor systems that have travelled significant distances before exploding.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the host galaxies and environments of calcium-rich supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Lyman, J D; James, P A; Angus, C R; Church, R P; Davies, M B; Tanvir, N R

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-rich supernovae represent a significant challenge for our understanding of the fates of stellar systems. They are less luminous than other supernova (SN) types and they evolve more rapidly to reveal nebular spectra dominated by strong calcium lines with weak or absent signatures of other intermediate- and iron-group elements, which are seen in other SNe. Strikingly, their explosion sites also mark them out as distinct from other SN types. Their galactocentric offset distribution is strongly skewed to very large offsets (around one third are offset greater than 20 kpc), meaning they do not trace the stellar light of their hosts. Many of the suggestions to explain this extreme offset distribution have invoked the necessity for unusual formation sites such as globular clusters or dwarf satellite galaxies, which are therefore difficult to detect. Building on previous work attempting to detect host systems of nearby Ca-rich SNe, we here present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 5 members of the class - 3 e...

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NUCLEUS OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the analysis of several sequences of broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope on 2013 April 10, May 8, October 9, and November 1 in an attempt to detect and characterize its nucleus. Whereas the overwhelming coma precluded the detection of the nucleus in the first two sequences, the contrast was sufficient in early October to unambiguously retrieve the signal from the nucleus. Two images taken within a few minutes led to similar V magnitudes for the nucleus of 21.97 and 22.0 with a 1σ uncertainty of 0.065. Assuming a standard value for the geometric albedo (0.04) and a linear phase function with a coefficient of 0.04 mag deg–1, these V values imply that the nucleus radius is 0.68 ± 0.02 km. Although this result does depend on these two assumptions, we argue that the radius most likely lies in the range 0.6-0.9 km. This result is consistent with the constraints derived from the water production rates reported by Combi et al. The last sequence of images in 2013 November revealed temporal variation of the innermost coma. If attributed to a single rotating jet, this coma brightness variation suggests the rotational period of the nucleus may be close to ∼10.4 hr

  19. Diffusion of cosmic-rays and the Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope: Phenomenology at the 1-100 GeV regime

    CERN Document Server

    Marrero, Ana Y Rodriguez; del Pozo, Elsa de Cea; Reimer, Olaf; Cillis, Analia N

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes astrophysical scenarios that may be detected at the upper end of the energy range of the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), as a result of cosmic-ray (CR) diffusion in the interstellar medium (ISM). Hadronic processes are considered as the source of $\\gamma$-ray photons from localized molecular enhancements nearby accelerators. Two particular cases are presented: a) the possibility of detecting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with maxima above 1 GeV, which may be constrained by detection or non-detection at very-high energies (VHE) with observations by ground-based Cerenkov telescopes, and b) the possibility of detecting V-shaped, inverted spectra, due to confusion of a nearby (to the line of sight) arrangement of accelerator/target scenarios with different characteristic properties. We show that the finding of these signatures (in particular, a peak at the 1--100 GeV energy region) is indicative for an identification of the underlying mechanism producing the $\\gamma$-rays ...

  20. HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE DARK HALO IN NGC 821

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) of elliptical galaxy NGC 821 obtained to approximately 100'' (over two effective radii) with long-slit spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Our measured stellar LOSVDs are larger than the planetary nebulae measurements at similar radii. We fit axisymmetric orbit-superposition models with a range of dark halo density profiles, including two-dimensional kinematics at smaller radii from SAURON data. Within our assumptions, the best-fitted model gives a total enclosed mass of 2.0 x 1011 M sun within 100'', with an accuracy of 2%; this mass is equally divided between halo and stars. At 1 Re , the best-fitted dark matter halo accounts for 13% of the total mass in the galaxy. This dark halo is inconsistent with previous claims of little to no dark matter halo in this galaxy from planetary nebula measurements. We find that a power-law dark halo with a slope 0.1 is the best-fitted model; both the no dark halo and Navarro-Frenk-White models are worse fits at a greater than 99% confidence level. NGC 821 does not appear to have the expected dark halo density profile. The internal moments of the stellar velocity distribution show that the model with no dark halo is radially anisotropic at small radii and tangentially isotropic at large radii, while the best-fitted halo models are slightly radially anisotropic at all radii. We test the potential effects of model smoothing and find that there are no effects on our results within the errors. Finally, we run models using the planetary nebula kinematics and assuming our best-fitted halos and find that the planetary nebulae require radial orbits throughout the galaxy.

  1. Faint meteor observation by large-format CMOS sensor with 1.05-m Kiso schmidt telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, J.; Kasuga, T.; Terai, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Ohta, K.; Murooka, F.; Ohnishi, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Mito, H.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Matsunaga, N.; Sako, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Doi, M.; Enomoto, T.

    2014-07-01

    We tried to use a new high-sensitivity CMOS sensor of the world's largest size as a one-chip 20cmx 20cm square attached to the prime focus of the 1.05 m (F3.1) Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, University of Tokyo, for faint meteor observation. The resulting field of view was 3.3 by 3.3 degrees, with a limiting magnitude of about 12 in our preliminary analysis. Assuming the height of faint meteors at 100 km, the derived flux of sporadic meteors is about 5x10^{-4} km^{-2}s^{-1}. Although the analysis is still on going, it is clear that this CMOS sensor is useful and effective for observing faint meteors.

  2. The development of time-resolved multi-stage shifter for GRAINE project, cosmic gamma-ray observation with emulsion telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are furthering GRAINE project which is the project of 10 MeV-100 GeV cosmic gamma-ray observation with precise (0.08deg(a)1-2GeV) and polarization sensitive large aperture area (∼10 m2) emulsion telescope by repeating long duration balloon flights. To determine gamma-ray direction on celestial coordinates, time resolution below a second is needed to emulsion tracks. We created new timestamp method 'multi-stage shifter' which brings a time resolution below a second a emulsion tracks with high reliability and high efficiency for large scale and inaccessible emulsion experiment. An overview and a status of multi-stage shifter development are described. (author)

  3. Hubble space telescope and ground-based observations of the type Iax supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chornock, Ryan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Balam, David D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Branch, David [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Frieman, Joshua [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fynbo, Johan; Leloudas, Giorgos [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Leonard, Douglas C., E-mail: cmccully@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); and others

    2014-05-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with n{sub e} ≳ 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected 'infrared catastrophe', a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a 'complete deflagration' that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  4. Observations of the magnetars 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586 with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jankowski, F.; Jogler, T.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Rea, N.; Backes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Magnetars are an extreme, highly magnetized class of isolated neutron stars whose large X-ray luminosity is believed to be driven by their high magnetic field. Aims: We study for the first time the possible very high energy γ-ray emission above 100 GeV from magnetars, observing the sources 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586. Methods: We observed the two sources with atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in the very high energy range (E > 100 GeV). 4U 0142+61 was observed with the MAGIC I telescope in 2008 for about 25 h and 1E 2259+586 was observed with the MAGIC stereoscopic system in 2010 for about 14 h. The data were analyzed with the standard MAGIC analysis software. Results: Neither magnetar was detected. Upper limits to the differential and integral flux above 200 GeV were computed using the Rolke algorithm. We obtain integral upper limits to the flux of 1.52 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 and 2.7 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 with a confidence level of 95% for 4U 0142+61 and 1E 2259+586, respectively. The resulting differential upper limits are presented together with X-ray data and upper limits in the GeV energy range. FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A23

  5. SPITZER, VERY LARGE TELESCOPE, AND VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE CANDIDATE HD 168625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present mid-IR and radio observations of the Galactic luminous blue variables (LBVs) candidate HD 168625 and its associated nebula. We obtained mid-IR spectroscopic observations using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, and performed mid-IR and radio imaging observations using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope and the Very Large Array with comparable angular resolution. Our spectroscopic observations detected spectral features attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and therefore indicate the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) around the ionized nebula. This result increases the number of LBVs and LBV candidates where a PDR has been found, confirming the importance of such a component in the total mass-loss budget of the central object during this elusive phase of massive star evolution. We have analyzed and compared the mid-IR and radio maps, and derive several results concerning the associated nebula. There is evidence for grain distribution variations across the nebula, with a predominant contribution from bigger grains in the northern part of the nebula while PAH and smaller grains are more concentrated in the southern part. A compact radio component located where there is a lack of thermal dust grains corroborates the presence of a shock in the southern nebula, which could arise as a consequence of the interaction of a fast outflow with the slower, expanding dusty nebula. Such a shock would be a viable means for PAH production as well as for changes in the grain size distribution. Finally, from the detection of a central radio component probably associated with the wind from the central massive supergiant, we derive a current mass-loss rate of M-dot =(1.46±0.15)x10-6 Msun yr-1.

  6. Multiple Asteroid Systems: Dimensions and Thermal Properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J.E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Martins, R. Vieira; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Lim, L.; Reichart, D.; Ivarsen, K.; Haislip, J.

    2016-01-01

    Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each o...

  7. Search for Spectral Irregularities due to Photon-Axionlike-Particle Oscillations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M; Albert, A; Anderson, B; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Ciprini, S; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Costanza, F; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Di Mauro, M; Di Venere, L; Domínguez, A; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Guiriec, S; Horan, D; Jóhannesson, G; Katsuragawa, M; Kensei, S; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Maldera, S; Manfreda, A; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Meyer, M; Michelson, P F; Mirabal, N; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Negro, M; Nuss, E; Okada, C; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Sánchez-Conde, M; Sgrò, C; Simone, D; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2016-04-22

    We report on the search for spectral irregularities induced by oscillations between photons and axionlike-particles (ALPs) in the γ-ray spectrum of NGC 1275, the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster. Using 6 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we find no evidence for ALPs and exclude couplings above 5×10^{-12}  GeV^{-1} for ALP masses 0.5≲m_{a}≲5  neV at 95% confidence. The limits are competitive with the sensitivity of planned laboratory experiments, and, together with other bounds, strongly constrain the possibility that ALPs can reduce the γ-ray opacity of the Universe. PMID:27152783

  8. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P. R.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  9. Search for spectral irregularities due to photon-axion-like particle oscillations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for spectral irregularities induced by oscillations between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) in the $\\gamma$-ray spectrum of NGC 1275, the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster. Using six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we find no evidence for ALPs and exclude couplings above $5\\times10^{-12}\\,\\mathrm{GeV}^{-1}$ for ALP masses $0.5 \\lesssim m_a \\lesssim 5$ neV at 95% confidence. The limits are competitive with the sensitivity of planned laboratory experiments, and, together with other bounds, strongly constrain the possibility that ALPs can reduce the $\\gamma$-ray opacity of the Universe.

  10. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Sala, P R

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first 7 years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  11. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF CONVECTION PARAMETERS IN WHITE DWARFS. I. WHOLE EARTH TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF EC14012-1446

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an analysis of 308.3 hr of high-speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 μHz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l = 1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004-2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1 m, McDonald 2.1 m, and KPNO 2 m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convective response timescale of τ0 = 99.4 ± 17 s, a temperature exponent N = 85 ± 6.2, and an inclination angle of θi = 32.09 ± 3.02. We present our current empirical map of the convective response timescale across the DA instability strip.

  12. Beaming structures of Jupiter's decametric common S-bursts observed from LWA1, NDA, and URAN2 radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Masafumi; Clarke, Tracy E; Higgins, Charles A; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Dowell, Jayce; Imai, Kazumasa; Brazhenko, Anatolii I; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii V; Konovalenko, Alexandr A

    2016-01-01

    On 2015 February 21, simultaneous observations of Jupiter's decametric radio emission between 10 and 33 MHz were carried out using three powerful low-frequency radio telescopes: Long Wavelength Array Station One (LWA1) in USA; Nan\\c{c}ay Decameter Array (NDA) in France; and URAN2 telescope in Ukraine. We measure lag times of short-bursts (S-bursts) for 105-minutes of data over effective baselines up to 8460 km by using cross-correlation analysis of the spectrograms from each instrument. Of particular interest is the measurement of the beaming thickness of S-bursts, testing if either flashlight- or beacon-like beaming is emanating from Jupiter. We find that the lag times for all pairs drift slightly as time elapses, in agreement with expectations from the flashlight-like beaming model. This leads to a new constraint of the minimum beaming thickness of 2.66". Also, we find that most of the analyzed data abound with S-bursts, whose occurrence probability peaks at 17-18 MHz.

  13. Empirical Determination of Convection Parameters in White Dwarfs I : Whole Earth Telescope Observations of EC14012-1446

    CERN Document Server

    Provencal, J L; Kanaan, A; Thompson, S E; Dalessio, J; Shipman, H L; Childers, D; Clemens, J C; Rosen, R; Henrique, P; Bischoff-Kim, A; Strickland, W; Chandler, D; Walter, B; Watson, T K; Castanheira, B; Wang, S; Handler, G; Wood, M; Vennes, S; Nemeth, P; Kepler, S O; Reed, M; Nitta, A; Kleinman, S J; Brown, T; Kim, S -L; Sullivan, D; Chen, Wen-Ping; Yang, M; Shih, Chia-You; Jiang, X J; Sergeev, A V; Maksim, A; Janulis, R; Baliyan, K S; Vats, H O; Zola, S; Baran, A; Winiarski, M; Ogloza, W; Paparo, M; Bognar, Z; Papics, P; Kilkenny, D; Sefako, R; Buckley, D; Loaring, N; Kniazev, A; Silvotti, R; Galleti, S; Nagel, T; Vauclair, G; Dolez, N; Fremy, J R; Perez, J; Almenara, J M; Fraga, L

    2012-01-01

    We report on analysis of 308.3 hrs of high speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 microHz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l=1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004--2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1m, McDonald 2.1m, and KPNO 2m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convectiv...

  14. Wide-Field Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 1399*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Goudfrooij, Paul; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Angelini, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive high spatial resolution imaging study of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 1399, thecentral giant elliptical cD galaxy in the Fornax galaxy cluster, conducted with the Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) aboard theHubble Space Telescope(HST).Using a novel technique to construct drizzled point-spreadfunction libraries for HSTACS data, we accurately determine the fidelity of GC structural parameter measurementsfrom detailed artificial star cluster experiments and show the superior robustness of the GC half-light radius,rh,compared with other GC structural parameters, such as King core and tidal radius. The measurement ofrhfor themajor fraction of the NGC 1399 GC system reveals a trend of increasingrhversus galactocentric distance,Rgal,out to about 10 kpc and a flat relation beyond. This trend is very similar for blue and red GCs, which are found tohave a mean size ratio ofrh,redrh,blue0.820.11 at all galactocentric radii from the core regions of the galaxyout to40 kpc. This suggests that the size difference between blue and red GCs is due to internal mechanismsrelated to the evolution of their constituent stellar populations. Modeling the mass density profile of NGC 1399shows that additional external dynamical mechanisms are required to limit the GC size in the galaxy halo regionstorh2 pc. We suggest that this may be realized by an exotic GC orbit distribution function, an extended darkmatter halo, andor tidal stress induced by the increased stochasticity in the dwarf halo substructure at largergalactocentric distances. We compare our results with the GCrhdistribution functions in various galaxies and findthat the fraction of extended GCs withrh5 pc is systematically larger in late-type galaxies compared with GCsystems in early-type galaxies. This is likely due to the dynamically more violent evolution of early-type galaxies.We match our GCrhmeasurements with radial velocity data from the literature and split the resulting sample at

  15. Wide-field Hubble space telescope observations of the globular cluster system in NGC 1399

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive high spatial resolution imaging study of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 1399, the central giant elliptical cD galaxy in the Fornax galaxy cluster, conducted with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Using a novel technique to construct drizzled point-spread function libraries for HST/ACS data, we accurately determine the fidelity of GC structural parameter measurements from detailed artificial star cluster experiments and show the superior robustness of the GC half-light radius, rh , compared with other GC structural parameters, such as King core and tidal radius. The measurement of rh for the major fraction of the NGC 1399 GC system reveals a trend of increasing rh versus galactocentric distance, R gal, out to about 10 kpc and a flat relation beyond. This trend is very similar for blue and red GCs, which are found to have a mean size ratio of r h, red/r h, blue = 0.82 ± 0.11 at all galactocentric radii from the core regions of the galaxy out to ∼40 kpc. This suggests that the size difference between blue and red GCs is due to internal mechanisms related to the evolution of their constituent stellar populations. Modeling the mass density profile of NGC 1399 shows that additional external dynamical mechanisms are required to limit the GC size in the galaxy halo regions to rh ≈ 2 pc. We suggest that this may be realized by an exotic GC orbit distribution function, an extended dark matter halo, and/or tidal stress induced by the increased stochasticity in the dwarf halo substructure at larger galactocentric distances. We compare our results with the GC rh distribution functions in various galaxies and find that the fraction of extended GCs with rh ≥ 5 pc is systematically larger in late-type galaxies compared with GC systems in early-type galaxies. This is likely due to the dynamically more violent evolution of early-type galaxies. We match our GC rh measurements with radial velocity data from

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE STELLAR DISTRIBUTION NEAR Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Bushouse, H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wardle, M. [Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Maquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Sgr A* is embedded within the nuclear cluster, which consists of a mixture of evolved and young populations of stars dominating the light over a wide range of angular scales. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS data to study the surface brightness distribution of stellar light within the inner 10'' of Sgr A* at 1.45 {mu}m, 1.7 {mu}m, and 1.9 {mu}m. We use these data to independently examine the surface brightness distribution that had been measured previously with NICMOS and to determine whether there is a drop in the surface density of stars very near Sgr A*. Our analysis confirms that a previously reported drop in the surface brightness within 0.''8 of Sgr A* is an artifact of bright and massive stars near that radius. We also show that the surface brightness profile within 5'' or {approx}0.2 pc of Sgr A* can be fitted with broken power laws. The power laws are consistent with previous measurements, in that the profile becomes shallower at small radii. For radii >0.''7, the slope is {beta} = -0.34 {+-} 0.04, where {Sigma} is {proportional_to}r{sup {beta}} and becomes flatter at smaller radii with {beta} = -0.13 {+-} 0.04. Modeling of the surface brightness profile gives a stellar density that increases roughly as r{sup -1} within the inner 1'' of Sgr A*. This slope confirms earlier measurements in that it is not consistent with that expected from an old, dynamically relaxed stellar cluster with a central supermassive black hole. Assuming that the diffuse emission is not contaminated by a faint population of young stars down to the 17.1 mag limit of our imaging data at 1.70{mu}m, the shallow cusp profile is not consistent with a decline in stellar density in the inner arcsecond. In addition, converting our measured diffuse light profile to a stellar mass profile, with the assumption that the light is dominated by K0 dwarfs, the enclosed stellar mass within radius r {approx}< 0.1 pc of Sgr A* is Almost

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE STELLAR DISTRIBUTION NEAR Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgr A* is embedded within the nuclear cluster, which consists of a mixture of evolved and young populations of stars dominating the light over a wide range of angular scales. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS data to study the surface brightness distribution of stellar light within the inner 10'' of Sgr A* at 1.45 μm, 1.7 μm, and 1.9 μm. We use these data to independently examine the surface brightness distribution that had been measured previously with NICMOS and to determine whether there is a drop in the surface density of stars very near Sgr A*. Our analysis confirms that a previously reported drop in the surface brightness within 0.''8 of Sgr A* is an artifact of bright and massive stars near that radius. We also show that the surface brightness profile within 5'' or ∼0.2 pc of Sgr A* can be fitted with broken power laws. The power laws are consistent with previous measurements, in that the profile becomes shallower at small radii. For radii >0.''7, the slope is β = –0.34 ± 0.04, where Σ is ∝rβ and becomes flatter at smaller radii with β = –0.13 ± 0.04. Modeling of the surface brightness profile gives a stellar density that increases roughly as r–1 within the inner 1'' of Sgr A*. This slope confirms earlier measurements in that it is not consistent with that expected from an old, dynamically relaxed stellar cluster with a central supermassive black hole. Assuming that the diffuse emission is not contaminated by a faint population of young stars down to the 17.1 mag limit of our imaging data at 1.70μm, the shallow cusp profile is not consistent with a decline in stellar density in the inner arcsecond. In addition, converting our measured diffuse light profile to a stellar mass profile, with the assumption that the light is dominated by K0 dwarfs, the enclosed stellar mass within radius r ∼4 M☉(r/0.1 pc)2.1.

  18. Changes in observed climate extremes in global urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies of observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few, even though more than half of the global population now resides in urban areas. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973–2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes, estimated as the result of a 40 year linear trend, differed for urban and non-urban pairs, while changes in indices of extreme precipitation showed no clear differentiation for urban and selected non-urban stations. (letter)

  19. Multi-wavelength study of Mrk 421 TeV flare observed with \\emph{TACTIC} telescope in February 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, K K; Chandra, P; Sahayanathan, S; Bhatt, N; Rannot, R C; Tickoo, A K; Koul, R

    2014-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength study of intense flaring activity from a high frequency peaked BL Lac object Mrk 421. The source was observed in its flaring state on February 16, 2010 with the $TACTIC$ at energies above 1.5 TeV. Near simultaneous multi-wavelength data were obtained from high energy (MeV-GeV) $\\gamma$--ray observations with \\emph{Fermi}--LAT, X--ray observations by the \\emph{Swift} and \\emph{MAXI} satellites, optical V-band observation by SPOL at \\emph{Steward Observatory} and radio 15 GHz observation at OVRO 40 meter-telescope. We have performed a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of $TACTIC$, \\emph{Fermi}--LAT and \\emph{Swift}--XRT observations of Mrk 421 during February 10--23, 2010 (MJD 55237-55250). The flaring activity of the source is studied by investigating the properties of daily light curves from radio to $TeV$ energy range and we present the correlation and variability analysis in each energy band. The $TeV$ flare detected by $TACTIC$ on February 16, 2010 is well cor...

  20. Off-limb EUV observations of the solar corona and transients with the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope-coronagraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Slemzin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The SPIRIT telescope aboard the CORONAS-F satellite (in orbit from 26 July 2001 to 5 December 2005, observed the off-limb solar corona in the 175 Å (Fe IX, X and XI lines and 304 Å (He II and Si XI lines bands. In the coronagraphic mode the mirror was tilted to image the corona at the distance of 1.1...5 Rsun from the solar center, the outer occulter blocked the disk radiation and the detector sensitivity was enhanced. This intermediate region between the fields of view of ordinary extreme-ultraviolet (EUV telescopes and most of the white-light (WL coronagraphs is responsible for forming the streamer belt, acceleration of ejected matter and emergence of slow and fast solar wind. We present here the results of continuous coronagraphic EUV observations of the solar corona carried out during two weeks in June and December 2002. The images showed a "diffuse" (unresolved component of the corona seen in both bands, and non-radial, ray-like structures seen only in the 175 Å band, which can be associated with a streamer base. The correlations between latitudinal distributions of the EUV brightness in the corona and at the limb were found to be high in 304 Å at all distances and in 175 Å only below 1.5 Rsun. The temporal correlation of the coronal brightness along the west radial line, with the brightness at the underlying limb region was significant in both bands, independent of the distance. On 2 February 2003 SPIRIT observed an expansion of a transient associated with a prominence eruption seen only in the 304 Å band. The SPIRIT data have been compared with the corresponding data of the SOHO LASCO, EIT and UVCS instruments.

  1. The Cassini Campaign observations of the Jupiter aurora by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Pryor, Wayne; Esposito, Larry; Stewart, Ian; McClintock, William; Gustin, Jacques; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, J.-C.; Clarke, John T.

    2005-11-01

    We have analyzed the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) observations of the Jupiter aurora with an auroral atmosphere two-stream electron transport code. The observations of Jupiter by UVIS took place during the Cassini Campaign. The Cassini Campaign included support spectral and imaging observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). A major result for the UVIS observations was the identification of a large color variation between the far ultraviolet (FUV: 1100-1700 Å) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV: 800-1100 Å) spectral regions. This change probably occurs because of a large variation in the ratio of the soft electron flux (10-3000 eV) responsible for the EUV aurora to the hard electron flux (˜15-22 keV) responsible for the FUV aurora. On the basis of this result a new color ratio for integrated intensities for EUV and FUV was defined ( 4πI/4πI) which varied by approximately a factor of 6. The FUV color ratio ( 4πI/4πI) was more stable with a variation of less than 50% for the observations studied. The medium resolution (0.9 Å FWHM, G140M grating) FUV observations (1295-1345 Å and 1495-1540 Å) by STIS on 13 January 2001, on the other hand, were analyzed by a spectral modeling technique using a recently developed high-spectral resolution model for the electron-excited H 2 rotational lines. The STIS FUV data were analyzed with a model that considered the Lyman band spectrum (B Σu+1→XΣg+1) as composed of an allowed direct excitation component (X Σg+1→BΣu+1) and an optically forbidden component (X Σg+1→EF,GK,HH¯,…Σg+1 followed by the cascade transition Σg+1→BΣu+1). The medium-resolution spectral regions for the Jupiter aurora were carefully chosen to emphasize the cascade component. The ratio of the two components is a direct measurement of the mean secondary electron energy of the aurora. The mean secondary electron energy of the aurora varies between 50 and 200 eV for the polar

  2. Observations of the Crab pulsar and the Crab nebula with the MAGIC telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crab Pulsar has been detected by MAGIC both in mono-mode and in stereo mode. The mono-mode observations measure the energy spectrum from 25 GeV to 100 GeV, while the stereo mode observations covers from 50 GeV to 400 GeV. The measured energy spectrum deviates significantly from the exponential cutoff spectrum which had been predicted by many theoretical models and inferred from the Fermi-LAT observations. With the stereo system, MAGIC could also measure the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula from 50 GeV to 45 TeV. Combined with the Fermi-LAT measurements, the IC peak was estimated with a high precision. Here we report on the details of these observations and theoretical interpretation of the measured spectra.

  3. Whole Earth Telescope observations of the hot helium atmosphere pulsating white dwarf EC 20058-5234

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, D J; O'Donoghue, D; Winget, D E; Kilkenny, D; Van Wyk, F; Kanaan, A; Kepler, S O; Nitta, A; Kawaler, S D; Montgomery, M H; Nather, R E; O'Brien, M S; Bischoff-Kim, A; Wood, M; Jiang, X J; Leibowitz, E M; Ibbetson, P; Zola, S; Krzesínski, J; Pajdosz, G; Vauclair, G; Dolez, N; Chevreton, M

    2008-01-01

    We present the analysis of a total of 177h of high-quality optical time-series photometry of the helium atmosphere pulsating white dwarf (DBV) EC 20058-5234. The bulk of the observations (135h) were obtained during a WET campaign (XCOV15) in July 1997 that featured coordinated observing from 4 southern observatory sites over an 8-day period. The remaining data (42h) were obtained in June 2004 at Mt John Observatory in NZ over a one-week observing period. This work significantly extends the discovery observations of this low-amplitude (few percent) pulsator by increasing the number of detected frequencies from 8 to 18, and employs a simulation procedure to confirm the reality of these frequencies to a high level of significance (1 in 1000). The nature of the observed pulsation spectrum precludes identification of unique pulsation mode properties using any clearly discernable trends. However, we have used a global modelling procedure employing genetic algorithm techniques to identify the n, l values of 8 pulsat...

  4. Spectropolarimetric observations of an arch filament system with the GREGOR solar telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Balthasar, H; Manrique, S J González; Kuckein, C; Kavka, J; Kučera, A; Schwartz, P; Vašková, R; Berkefeld, T; Vera, M Collados; Denker, C; Feller, A; Hofmann, A; Lagg, A; Nicklas, H; Suárez, D Orozco; Yabar, A Pastor; Rezaei, R; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sigwarth, M; Sobotka, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; von der Lühe, O; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    Arch filament systems occur in active sunspot groups, where a fibril structure connects areas of opposite magnetic polarity, in contrast to active region filaments that follow the polarity inversion line. We used the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) to obtain the full Stokes vector in the spectral lines Si I 1082.7 nm, He I 1083.0 nm, and Ca I 1083.9 nm. We focus on the near-infrared calcium line to investigate the photospheric magnetic field and velocities, and use the line core intensities and velocities of the helium line to study the chromospheric plasma. The individual fibrils of the arch filament system connect the sunspot with patches of magnetic polarity opposite to that of the spot. These patches do not necessarily coincide with pores, where the magnetic field is strongest. Instead, areas are preferred not far from the polarity inversion line. These areas exhibit photospheric downflows of moderate velocity, but significantly higher downflows of up to 30 km/s in the chromospheric helium line. Our f...

  5. Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830~\\AA\\ using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yan; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles which have adverse effects in the near Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6~m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, here we show a striking "negative" flare with a narrow, but unambiguous "dark" moving front observed in He I 10830 \\AA, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in H-alpha and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 \\AA\\ can be produced under special circumstances, by nonthermal-electron collisions, or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomi...

  6. Flows in and around active region NOAA12118 observed with the GREGOR solar telescope and SDO/HMI

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, M; Balthasar, H; Kuckein, C; Manrique, S J González; Sobotka, M; González, N Bello; Hoch, S; Diercke, A; Kummerow, P; Berkefeld, T; Collados, M; Feller, A; Hofmann, A; Kneer, F; Lagg, A; Löhner-Böttcher, J; Nicklas, H; Yabar, A Pastor; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Schubert, M; Sigwarth, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; von der Lühe, O; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurements of magnetic and velocity fields in and around solar active regions are key to unlocking the mysteries of the formation and the decay of sunspots. High spatial resolution image and spectral sequences with a high cadence obtained with the GREGOR solar telescope give us an opportunity to scrutinize 3-D flow fields with local correlation tracking and imaging spectroscopy. We present GREGOR early science data acquired in 2014 July - August with the GREGOR Fabry-P\\'erot Interferometer and the Blue Imaging Channel. Time-series of blue continuum (? 450.6 nm) images of the small active region NOAA 12118 were restored with the speckle masking technique to derive horizontal proper motions and to track the evolution of morphological changes. In addition, high-resolution observations are discussed in the context of synoptic data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  7. Ultra-Narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the1.6m New Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He I 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in solar flares.

  8. Observation of radiation environment in the International Space Station in 2012–March 2013 by Liulin-5 particle telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkova Jordanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since June 2007 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, located in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station (ISS, has been making measurements of the local energetic particle radiation environment. From 27 December 2011 to 09 March 2013 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the MIM1 module of the ISS. In this paper Liulin-5 dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays and South Atlantic Anomaly trapped protons, measured during that period are presented. Particularly, dose rates and particle fluxes for the radiation characteristics in the phantom during solar energetic particle (SEP events occurring in March and May 2012 are discussed. Liulin-5 SEP observations are compared with other ISS data, GOES proton fluxes as well as with solar energetic particle measurements obtained onboard the Mir space station during previous solar cycles.

  9. Probing quantum gravity using photons from a flare of the active galactic nucleus Markarian 501 observed by the MAGIC telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea del Pozo, E; Delgado Mendez, C; de los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; García-López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Göbel, F; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Huber, S; Jogler, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Otte, N; Oya, I; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R; Pérez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prada, F; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saitô, T; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sartori, P; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tluczykont, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Venturini, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wittek, W; Zabalza, M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Mavromatos, N E; Nanopoulos, D V; Sakharov, Alexander S; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E

    2008-01-01

    We use the timing of photons observed by the MAGIC gamma-ray telescope during a flare of the active galaxy Markarian 501 to probe a vacuum refractive index ~ 1-(E/M_QGn)^n, n = 1,2, that might be induced by quantum gravity. The peaking of the flare is found to maximize for quantum-gravity mass scales M_QG1 ~ 0.4x10^18 GeV or M_QG2 ~ 0.6x10^11 GeV, and we establish lower limits M_QG1 > 0.26x10^18 GeV or M_QG2 > 0.39x10^11 GeV at the 95% C.L. Monte Carlo studies confirm the MAGIC sensitivity to propagation effects at these levels. Thermal plasma effects in the source are negligible, but we cannot exclude the importance of some other source effect.

  10. The Uffo Slewing Mirror Telescope for Early Optical Observation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Jiwoo; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K.;

    2013-01-01

    While some space born observatories, such as SWIFT and FERMI, have been operating, early observation of optical after grow of GRBs is still remained as an unexplored region. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) project is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of GRBs, aiming to explore th...

  11. The UFFO slewing mirror telescope for early optical observation from gamma ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NAM, JIWOO; AHMAD, S.; AHN, K.;

    2013-01-01

    While some space born observatories, such as SWIFT and FERMI, have been operating, early observation of optical after grow of GRBs is still remained as an unexplored region. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) project is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of GRBs, aiming to explore th...

  12. Resolving the Extragalactic γ -Ray Background above 50 GeV with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Britto, R. J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Iafrate, G.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, C.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schmid, J.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Yassine, M.; Zimmer, S.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration has recently released a catalog of 360 sources detected above 50 GeV (2FHL). This catalog was obtained using 80 months of data re-processed with Pass 8, the newest event-level analysis, which significantly improves the acceptance and angular resolution of the instrument. Most of the 2FHL sources at high Galactic latitude are blazars. Using detailed Monte Carlo simulations, we measure, for the first time, the source count distribution, d N /d S , of extragalactic γ -ray sources at E >50 GeV and find that it is compatible with a Euclidean distribution down to the lowest measured source flux in the 2FHL (˜8 ×10-12 ph cm-2 s-1 ). We employ a one-point photon fluctuation analysis to constrain the behavior of d N /d S below the source detection threshold. Overall, the source count distribution is constrained over three decades in flux and found compatible with a broken power law with a break flux, Sb, in the range [8 ×10-12,1.5 ×10-11] ph cm-2 s-1 and power-law indices below and above the break of α2∈[1.60 ,1.75 ] and α1=2.49 ±0.12 , respectively. Integration of d N /d S shows that point sources account for at least 8 6-14+16% of the total extragalactic γ -ray background. The simple form of the derived source count distribution is consistent with a single population (i.e., blazars) dominating the source counts to the minimum flux explored by this analysis. We estimate the density of sources detectable in blind surveys that will be performed in the coming years by the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  13. Searching for dwarf spheroidal galaxies and other galactic dark matter substructures with the Fermi large area telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-08-01

    Over the past century, it has become clear that about a quarter of the known universe is composed of an invisible, massive component termed ''dark matter''. Some of the most popular theories of physics beyond the Standard Model suggest that dark matter may be a new fundamental particle that could self-annihilate to produce γ rays. Nearby over-densities in the dark matter halo of our Milky Way present some of the most promising targets for detecting the annihilation of dark matter. We used the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for γ rays produced by dark matter annihilation in Galactic dark matter substructures. We searched for γ-ray emission coincident with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies, which trace the most massive Galactic dark matter substructures. We also sought to identify nearby dark matter substructures that lack all astrophysical tracers and would be detectable only through γ-ray emission from dark matter annihilation. We found no conclusive evidence for γ-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and we set stringent and robust constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. While γ-ray searches for dark matter substructure are currently the most sensitive and robust probes of dark matter annihilation, they are just beginning to intersect the theoretically preferred region of dark matter parameter space. Thus, we consider future prospects for increasing the sensitivity of γ-ray searches through improvements to the LAT instrument performance and through upcoming wide- field optical surveys.

  14. Resolving the Extragalactic γ-Ray Background above 50 GeV with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bregeon, J; Britto, R J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Costanza, F; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Mauro, M; Di Venere, L; Domínguez, A; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Green, D; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hays, E; Horan, D; Iafrate, G; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Kuss, M; La Mura, G; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Magill, J; Maldera, S; Manfreda, A; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Negro, M; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okada, C; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Romani, R W; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schmid, J; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Simone, D; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Yassine, M; Zimmer, S

    2016-04-15

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration has recently released a catalog of 360 sources detected above 50 GeV (2FHL). This catalog was obtained using 80 months of data re-processed with Pass 8, the newest event-level analysis, which significantly improves the acceptance and angular resolution of the instrument. Most of the 2FHL sources at high Galactic latitude are blazars. Using detailed Monte Carlo simulations, we measure, for the first time, the source count distribution, dN/dS, of extragalactic γ-ray sources at E>50  GeV and find that it is compatible with a Euclidean distribution down to the lowest measured source flux in the 2FHL (∼8×10^{-12}  ph cm^{-2} s^{-1}). We employ a one-point photon fluctuation analysis to constrain the behavior of dN/dS below the source detection threshold. Overall, the source count distribution is constrained over three decades in flux and found compatible with a broken power law with a break flux, S_{b}, in the range [8×10^{-12},1.5×10^{-11}]  ph cm^{-2} s^{-1} and power-law indices below and above the break of α_{2}∈[1.60,1.75] and α_{1}=2.49±0.12, respectively. Integration of dN/dS shows that point sources account for at least 86_{-14}^{+16}% of the total extragalactic γ-ray background. The simple form of the derived source count distribution is consistent with a single population (i.e., blazars) dominating the source counts to the minimum flux explored by this analysis. We estimate the density of sources detectable in blind surveys that will be performed in the coming years by the Cherenkov Telescope Array. PMID:27127954

  15. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi; Prof. N. D. Dhoot

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  16. The MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2005-01-01

    MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescope) is presently the largest ground-based gamma ray telescope. MAGIC has been taking data regularly since October 2004 at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma. In this paper the MAGIC telescope status, its performances and some preliminary results on observed gamma ray sources are presented.

  17. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  18. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E-2 eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10-4 m-2 s-1 GeV-1 in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  19. Very high energy gamma-ray follow-up observations of novae and dwarf novae with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    López-Coto, R; Bednarek, W; Desiante, R; Longo, F

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the Fermi-LAT instrument has detected GeV gamma-ray emission from several novae. Such GeV emission can be interpreted in terms of inverse Compton emission from electrons accelerated in the shock or in terms of emission from hadrons accelerated in the same conditions. The latter might reach much higher energies and could produce a second component in the gamma-ray spectrum at TeV energies. We perform follow-up observations of selected novae and dwarf novae in search of the second component in TeV energy gamma rays. This can shed light on the acceleration process of leptons and hadrons in nova explosions. We have performed observations with the MAGIC telescopes of 3 sources, a symbiotic nova YY Her, a dwarf nova ASASSN-13ax and a classical nova V339 Del, shortly after their outbursts. We did not detect TeV gamma-ray emission from any of the objects observed. The TeV upper limits from MAGIC observations and the GeV detection by Fermi constrain the acceleration parameters for electrons and h...

  20. Limitations Placed on the Time Coverage, Isoplanatic Patch Size and Exposure Time for Solar Observations Using Image Selection Procedures in the Presence of Telescope Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J. M.; Rimmele, T. R.

    1996-12-01

    Image selection, adaptive optics and post-facto image restoration methods are all techniques being used for diffraction limited imaging with ground-based solar and stellar telescopes. Often these techniques are used in a hybrid form like e.g. the application of adaptive optics and/or post-facto image restoration in combination with already good images obtained by image selection in periods of good seeing. Fried (JOSA 56, 1372, 1966), Hecquet and Coupinot (J. Optics/Paris 16, 21, 1985) and Beckers ("Solar and Stellar Granulation", Kluwer, Rutten & Severino Eds, 55, 1988) already discussed the usefulness of image selection, or the "Lucky Observer" mode, for high resolution imaging. All assumed perfect telescope optics. In case of moderate telescope aberrations image selection can still lead to diffraction limited imaging but only when the atmospheric wavefront aberration happens to compensate that of the telescope. In this "Very Lucky Observer" mode the probability of obtaining a good image is reduced over the un-aberrated case, as are the size of the isoplanatic patch and the exposure time. We describe an analysis of these effects for varying telescope aberrations. These result in a strong case for the removal of telescope aberrations either by initial implementation or by the use of slow active optics.

  1. Recent observations of 1ES2344+514 using the Whipple gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BL Lacertae objects are a class of AGN which are believed to be highly beamed. Very high energy gamma-rays emitted from such objects provide important information that improves our understanding of this class of objects. Only two AGNs, Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, are well established TeV emitters in the northern hemisphere. The Whipple collaboration previously reported a weak signal from the BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514. This object has been extensively monitored with atmospheric Cherenkov experiments from 1997 to 1999 with no other reported detection. The results of observations in 1999-2001 of 1ES 2344+514 taken with the new Whipple 490 pixel camera are presented. These observations resulted in a detection at the 3 σ level

  2. A Stacked Analysis of Brightest Cluster Galaxies Observed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Dutson, K L; Edge, A C; Hinton, J A; Hogan, M T

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from a large sample of galaxy clusters sharing the properties of three existing Fermi-LAT detections (in Perseus, Virgo and Abell 3392), namely a powerful radio source within their brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). From a parent, X-ray flux-limited sample of clusters, we select 114 systems with a core-dominated BCG radio flux above 50 or 75 mJy, stacking data from the first 45 months of the Fermi mission, to determine statistical limits on the gamma-ray fluxes of the ensemble of candidate sources. For a >300 MeV selection, the distribution of detection significance across the sample is consistent with that across control samples for significances 4 sigma signals which are not associated with previously identified gamma-ray emission. Modelling of the data in these fields results in the detection of four non-2FGL Fermi sources, though none appear to be unambiguously associated with the BCG candidate. A search at energies >3 GeV hints at emissio...

  3. Observations of Extrasolar Planets During the non-Cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas; Knutson, Heather; Marengo, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Precision infrared photometry from Spitzer has enabled the first direct studies of light from extrasolar planets, via observations at secondary eclipse in transiting systems. Current Spitzer results include the first longitudinal temperature map of an extrasolar planet, and the first spectra of their atmospheres. Spitzer has also measured a temperature and precise radius for the first transiting Neptune-sized exoplanet, and is beginning to make precise transit timing measurements to infer the...

  4. VHE gamma-ray observations of transient and variable stellar objects with the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Barral, A; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Torres, D F; Fruck, C; Hadasch, D; López-Oramas, A; Munar-Adrover, P

    2015-01-01

    Galactic transients, X-ray and gamma-ray binaries provide a proper environment for particle acceleration. This leads to the production of gamma rays with energies reaching the GeV-TeV regime. MAGIC has carried out deep observations of different transient and variable stellar objects of which we highlight 4 of them here: LSI+61 303, MWC 656, Cygnus X-1 and SN 2014J. We present the results of those observations, including long-term monitoring of Cygnus X-1 and LSI+61 303 (7 and 8 years, respectively). The former is one of the brightest X-ray sources and best studied microquasars across a broad range of wavelengths, whose steady and variable signal was studied by MAGIC within a multiwavelength scenario. The latest results of an unique object, MWC 656, are also shown in this presentation. This source is the first high-mass X-ray binary system detected that is composed of a black hole and a Be star. Finally, we report on the observations of SN 2014J, the nearest Type Ia SN of the last 40 years. Its proximity and e...

  5. Multiple Asteroid Systems: Dimensions and Thermal Properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marchis, F; Emery, J P; Mueller, M; Baek, M; Pollock, J; Assafin, M; Martins, R Vieira; Berthier, J; Vachier, F; Cruikshank, D P; Lim, L; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; LaCluyz, A

    2016-01-01

    Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each of these asteroids, representing three main taxonomic groups: C, S, and X. For large (volume-equivalent system diameter Deq $\\lt$ 130 km) binary asteroids, the TPM analysis indicates a low thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$ < $\\sim$100 J s-1/2K-1m-2) and their emissivity spectra display strong mineral features, implying that they are covered with a thick layer of thermally insulating regolith. The smaller (surface-equivalent system diameter Deff $\\lt$17 km) asteroids also show some emission lines of minerals, but they are signif...

  6. Mass and energy of erupting solar plasma observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Reeves, Katharine K; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2014-01-01

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light CME features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the XRT temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ~3x10 13 - 5x10 14 g, are smaller in their upper limit than total masse...

  7. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Maogui Hu; Jianghao Wang; Yong Ge; Mengxiao Liu; Shaomin Liu; Ziwei Xu; Tongren Xu

    2015-01-01

    Sensible heat flux (H) plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC) to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS) and remote sensing (RS) products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method per...

  8. Bent-Tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Siamak; Franzen, Thomas M O; Norris, Ray P; Miller, Neal A

    2015-01-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), supplemented with the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 bent-tailed sources, four diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (one relic, two halos, and one unclassified object), and a further seven complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range $10^{22} \\leq$ $\\textrm{P}_{1.4 \\textrm{ GHz}} \\leq 10^{26}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kpc up to about one Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here one is the most distant bent-tailed source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be as...

  9. Thin fused silica optics for a few arcsec angular resolution and large collecting area x-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, O.; Civitani, M. M.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Campana, S.; Conconi, P.; Ghigo, M.; Mattaini, E.; Moretti, A.; Parodi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The implementation of a X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (SMART-X project, led by CfA and involving several other US Institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy in order to achieve the 1 arc sec HEW requirement. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. We will present the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than 10 times larger than Chandra and an angular resolution of 1 arcsec HEW on axis and of a few arcsec off-axis across a large field of view (1 deg in diameter).

  10. Cosmological observations with a wide field telescope in space: Pixel simulations of EUCLID spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observations of the supernovae, the cosmic microwave background, and more recently the measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations and the weak lensing effects, converge to a Lambda CDM model, with an accelerating expansion of the today Universe. This model need two dark components to fit the observations, the dark matter and the dark energy. Two approaches seem particularly promising to measure both geometry of the Universe and growth of dark matter structures, the analysis of the weak distortions of distant galaxies by gravitational lensing and the study of the baryon acoustic oscillations. Both methods required a very large sky surveys of several thousand square degrees. In the context of the spectroscopic survey of the space mission EUCLID, dedicated to the study of the dark side of the universe, I developed a pixel simulation tool for analyzing instrumental performances. The proposed method can be summarized in three steps. The first step is to simulate the observables, i.e. mainly the sources of the sky. I work up a new method, adapted for spectroscopic simulations, which allows to mock an existing survey of galaxies in ensuring that the distribution of the spectral properties of galaxies are representative of current observations, in particular the distribution of the emission lines. The second step is to simulate the instrument and produce images which are equivalent to the expected real images. Based on the pixel simulator of the HST, I developed a new tool to compute the images of the spectroscopic channel of EUCLID. The new simulator have the particularity to be able to simulate PSF with various energy distributions and detectors which have different pixels. The last step is the estimation of the performances of the instrument. Based on existing tools, I set up a pipeline of image processing and performances measurement. My main results were: 1) to validate the method by simulating an existing survey of galaxies, the WISP survey, 2) to determine the

  11. DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS: OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 μm of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% ± 6.8%, have excesses at 24 μm at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity on the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.

  12. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  13. Observation of Gamma Rays from the Galactic Center with the MAGIC Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Asensio, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartelt, M; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Bavikadi, R; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bisesi, E; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Böck, R K; Camara, M; Chilingarian, A A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S C; Contreras, J l; Cortina, J; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Delosreyes, R; Delotto, B; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Göbel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Hose, J; Höhne, D; Jacon, P; Kalekin, o; Kranich, D; Laille, A; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Longo, F; Lorenz, E; Lucarelli, F; López, J; López, M; Majumdar, P; Maneva, g; Mannheim, K; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mase, K; Mazin, D; Merck, M; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J m; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Oña-Wilhelmi, E; Orduna, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pavel, N; Pegna, R; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prandini, E; Rhode, W; Rico, J; Riegel, B; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanp, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Stepanian, A; Sánchez, A; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, A; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vardanyan, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zapatero, J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the Galactic Center has been reported to be a source of very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays by the VERITAS, CANGAROO and HESS experiments. The energy spectra as measured by these experiments show substantial differences. In this Letter we present MAGIC observations of the Galactic Center, resulting in the detection of a differential gamma-ray flux consistent with a steady, hard-slope power law, described as dN/(dA dt dE) = (2.9+/-0.6)*10^{-12} (E/TeV)^{-2.2+/-0.2} cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1}. The gamma-ray source is centered at (Ra, Dec)=(17h 45m 20s, -29deg 2'. This result confirms the previous measurements by the HESS experiment and indicates a steady source of TeV gamma-rays. We briefly describe the observational technique used, the procedure implemented for the data analysis, and discuss the results in the perspective of different models proposed for the acceleration of the VHE gamma-rays.

  14. A return to strong radio flaring by Circinus X-1 observed with the Karoo Array Telescope test array KAT-7

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, R P; Nicolson, G D; Ratcliffe, S; Linares, M; Horrell, J; Richter, L; Schurch, M P E; Coriat, M; Woudt, P; Jonas, J; Booth, R; Fanaroff, B

    2013-01-01

    Circinus X-1 is a bright and highly variable X-ray binary which displays strong and rapid evolution in all wavebands. Radio flaring, associated with the production of a relativistic jet, occurs periodically on a ~17-day timescale. A longer-term envelope modulates the peak radio fluxes in flares, ranging from peaks in excess of a Jansky in the 1970s to an historic low of milliJanskys during the years 1994 to 2007. Here we report first observations of this source with the MeerKAT test array, KAT-7, part of the pathfinder development for the African dish component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), demonstrating successful scientific operation for variable and transient sources with the test array. The KAT-7 observations at 1.9 GHz during the period 13 December 2011 to 16 January 2012 reveal in temporal detail the return to the Jansky-level events observed in the 1970s. We compare these data to contemporaneous single-dish measurements at 4.8 and 8.5 GHz with the HartRAO 26-m telescope and X-ray monitoring from...

  15. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J; Fruchter, A S; Hjorth, J; Pian, E; Mazzali, P; Perley, D A; Cano, Z; Graham, J; Hounsell, R A; Cenko, S B; Fynbo, J P U; Kouveliotou, C; Pe'er, A; Misra, K; Wiersema, K

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunit