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Sample records for area southern mexico

  1. Stratigraphic assessment of the Arcelia Teloloapan area, southern Mexico: implications for southern Mexico's post-Neocomian tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Lang, H. R.; Harrison, C. G. A.

    2000-10-01

    Stratigraphic assessment of the "Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex" (TCMC) between Arcelia and Teloloapan in southern Mexico, based on photo interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and field mapping at the 1:100,000 scale, tests different tectonic evolution scenarios that bear directly on the evolution of the southern North American plate margin. The regional geology, emphasizing the stratigraphy of a portion of the TCMC within the area between Arcelia and Teloloapan is presented. Stratigraphic relationships with units in adjacent areas are also described. The base of the stratigraphic section is a chlorite grade metamorphic sequence that includes the Taxco Schist, the Roca Verde Taxco Viejo Formation, and the Almoloya Phyllite Formation. These metamorphic units, as thick as 2.7 km, are covered disconformably by a sedimentary sequence, 2.9 km thick, composed of the Cretaceous marine Pochote, Morelos, and Mexcala Formations, as well as undifferentiated Tertiary continental red beds and volcanic rocks. The geology may be explained as the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary environments developed upon attenuated continental crust. Our results do not support accretion of the Guerrero terrane during Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) time.

  2. Evolution and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Pinar Del Rio area, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Fernandez-Carmona, J.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.

    1996-09-01

    The evolution of Southeast Gulf of Mexico comprises three main periods: pre-orogenic, syn-orogenic and post-orogenic. During pre-orogenic time, from Lower Jurassic to Campanian, the stages are the rift of Pangaea and the thermal subsidence (or drift). In drift stage two domains interacted in the space; the carbonate platforms (Bahamas, Yucatan, Organos and others), and the deepwater basins. These fluctuations were dictated by the differential subsidence and horizontal displacements of basement blocks as well as by the eustatic movements of the ocean. The Organos platform, for example, was entirely drowned since Upper Jurassic and the sedimentation continued in deepwater environment. The collision between Great Antilles Volcanic Arc and the continental margins since Upper Cretaceous modeled the Cuban orogen. Here, the southern facies thrusted over the northern section with simultaneous strike-slip movements. The interaction suddenly ceased in Eocene. The source rock levels are considerably more frequent in the deepwater domain than in the platforms. The Lower and Upper Jurassic as well as Lower and Middle Cretaceous horizons contain very high levels of organic matter. The offshore seismic shows the transition from the thrusted belt to the foreland basin with a typical triangle zone configuration. Reservoirs are expected in the Cretaceous section covered by seals conformed by early foreland basin sediments of Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene age. Foothill structures has a great potential for hydrocarbon exploration.

  3. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  4. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  5. Tuberculosis Treatment Completion Rates in Southern New Mexico Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Maria Arroyo; Huttlinger, Kathleen; Schultz, Pamela; Mullins, Iris; Forster-Cox, Sue

    2016-04-01

    TB medication completion treatment rates for active TB patients living in impoverished US-Mexico border communities called colonias in southern New Mexico counties are unknown. It might be suspected that residents of colonias have lower completion rates than those living in incorporated and medically more accessible areas. A retrospective record review of closed TB case records from 1993 to 2010 of southern New Mexico border counties, was conducted using a modified version of the New Mexico Department of Health Tuberculosis Targeted Health Assessment/History form (Appendix 1). Study findings reveal that despite their unincorporated status, poorer living conditions and questionable legal status, colonia TB patients had a higher medication completion rate than their non-colonia counterparts. A robust New Mexico TB treatment program contributed to high completion rates with death being the number-one reason for treatment non-completion in both colonia and non-colonias.

  6. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  7. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... CODE 3410-11-P...

  8. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in..., Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  9. Geochronology, structural evolution of the Tierra Colorada area, and tectonic implications for southern Mexico and Chortís block connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L. A.; Torres de Leon, R.; Hernandez Pineda, G.; Sole', J.; Solis Pichardo, G.; Hernandez Treviño, T.

    2006-05-01

    The Tierra Colorada area is considered the best exposure of the northern limit between the Xolapa Complex and the Paleozoic-Precambrian Mixteca and Zapotecan terranes of southern Mexico. Geochemistry (major, trace, and REE) and geochronology on deformed granitoids in Tierra Colorada area show evidence of subduction-related magmatism during Mesozoic and Cenozoic. El Pozuelo granite, dated at 129 Ma (concordant U-Pb single-zircon age) is a foliated body, with local porphyric facies. Foliation is penetrative and characterized by oriented micas and stretched quartz. Geochemically it shows a metaluminous character, with arc-related trace and REE patterns. Because it cuts across high-grade gneisses of the Xolapa Complex, its intrusion postdates the second phase of metamorphism in the Xolapa Complex (> 130 Ma), which generated the orthogneisses-migmatites sequence. El Salitre granite (55 Ma, Rb-Sr 4 point isochron) is a foliated peraluminous body with a pronounced negative Zr anomaly. The protomylonitic Las PiÑas granite (54 +/- 6 Ma, U-Pb lower intercept) is characterized by ductile fabric, recognized by cinematic indicators such as mica fish, and indicates a top-to-the NNW sense of shear, dated at 50 +/- 1 Ma and 45.3 +/- 2 Ma (K-Ar on Bt, and Rb-Sr Bt-WR isochron, respectively), ages that indicate the time of ductile deformation along La Venta shear zone, as N-dipping detachment under low greenschist facies conditions. El Salitre and Las PiÑas granites are linked because of their similar HREE patterns. The Tierra Colorada, Xaltianguis and San Juan del Reparo granites, with calcalkaline subduction-related geochemistry, lack of penetrative deformation, and their ages of 30-34 Ma (U-Pb on zircons) constitute the last recognized granitic pulse in this area, post-dating the S-verging thrust of the Morelos limestones on top of sheared granites and volcanics. Together with previously published ages of magmatism in the studied area, we demonstrate here that calcalkaline

  10. Final report to DOE [Global guardianship initiative in southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this project is to establish models for community renewable energy deployment as a strategy for protected area management and an alternative to grid extension in developing countries in Latin America and Asia. Working together with the Nature Conservancy, the Center for Resource Solutions chose Southern Mexico and its 10 protected areas to launch this program. DOE funds supported Phase One activities: establishment of an advisory committee and selection of six to ten communities for renewable energy plans.

  11. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to estimate premining conditions at sites with similar geologic and hydrologic conditions. For example, the US Geological Survey was asked to estimate premining ground-water chemistry at the Questa Mo mine, and

  12. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... sessions. July 6, 2010. Alan E. Koss, Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  13. 47 CFR 22.950 - Provision of service in the Gulf of Mexico Service Area (GMSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geographical area within the Gulf of Mexico Service Area that lies between the coastline line and the southern... due south from the coastline boundary of the States of Florida and Alabama, and continuing along...

  14. Area Handbook for Mexico. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Morris; And Others

    This volume on Mexico is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University. It is designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Mexico. The emphasis is on…

  15. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  16. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  17. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  18. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Abel Vaca

    Full Text Available Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC. This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001 overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through

  19. Protected Areas Database for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by USGS GAP, that illustrates and describes public land ownership, management...

  20. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  1. Economic Structure, Productivity, and Infrastructure Quality in Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Uwe; Fay, Marianne; Koo, Jun; Lall, Somik V.

    2002-01-01

    There are large and sustained differences in the economic performance of sub-national regions in most countries. The authors examine the economic structure and productivity in Southern Mexico and compare it with the rest of the country. The authors use firm level data from Mexican manufacturing to test the relative importance of firm level characteristics (such as human capital and technol...

  2. 76 FR 46722 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The... teleconference by calling the conference bridge number at 1-877-855-4797 and authorization code 6540381V...

  3. Habitat characteristics and environmental parameters influencing fish assemblages of karstic pools in southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Vega-Cendejas; Mirella Hernandez de Santillana; Steven Norris

    2013-01-01

    Fish assemblage structure was evaluated and compared among 36 karstic pools located within protected areas of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (southern Mexico) and unprotected adjacent areas beyond the Reserve. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS), indicator species analysis (ISA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to identify which environmental factors reflected local influences and to evaluate the correlation of these variables with fish assemblages structure. Thirty...

  4. Literary consumption in indigenous languages: revitalization experiences from Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Córdova Hernández

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes, from several ethnographic experiences in Southern Mexico, the way in which agents for language revitalization design the programs or projects of literacy in indigenous languages. From the field of revitalization, promotion of literacy is a prerequisite for the production and consumption of literature in these languages. Mainly, this article discusses the production of literary goods from the reading skills of potential consumers. In addition, it interrogates how literac...

  5. Kimmeridgian pliosaurids (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca, southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jair Israel Barrientos-Lara; Marta S Fernández; Jesús Alvarado-Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Fossil remains of two specimens of the family Pliosauridae aredescribed in the present manuscript. These fossils are from theKimmeridgian shallow marine strata belonging to the informallyknown Sabinal formation deposited in the Tlaxiaco Basin, which areexposed in Yosobé, near Tlaxiaco town, Oaxaca State, southern Mexico.The first of these specimens consists of a fragment of premaxilla withteeth, which show diagnostic characters that allow its taxonomicalidentification as member of the genus L...

  6. Literary consumption in indigenous languages: revitalization experiences from Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Córdova Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, from several ethnographic experiences in Southern Mexico, the way in which agents for language revitalization design the programs or projects of literacy in indigenous languages. From the field of revitalization, promotion of literacy is a prerequisite for the production and consumption of literature in these languages. Mainly, this article discusses the production of literary goods from the reading skills of potential consumers. In addition, it interrogates how literacy is imagined as an education process that at the end does not result in the training of readers.

  7. USDA FS Inventoried Roadless Areas in New Mexico, Sept. 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all National Forest Inventoried Roadless Areas (IRAs) for New Mexico. The IRA data was originally submitted to GSTC by all national forests...

  8. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  9. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-01-01

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  10. Sources of environmental radioactivity in sediments of the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment radioactivity studies in sediments of the Southern of Gulf of Mexico were carried out to understand the distribution and concentration pattern of natural radionuclides in the Mexican marine sedimentary environment. These studies are unique in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty three USNEL BoxCore sediments were collected in water depths between 20 to 2000 meters in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The USNEL BoxCore sediments were collected aboard R/V Justo Sierra during the OGMEX XI, XII and XIII oceanographic cruises for the summers of 1993, 1994 and 1995. The 30-cm deep sediment cores were sub sampled in 2-cm thick slides, and frozen for later analyses. The natural 40K, 208Tl, 210Pb 212Pb, 214Bi, 214Pb, and 228Ac, radionuclide concentrations were measured using a Ge-Li Hp Gamma-Spectrometer, and counting intervals of 50-60000 seconds with ±5 to 30% of uncertainty in the concentration, and 95% limit of in the determination of the photo peaks. The measurements were made at the Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del Centro de Cienfuegos, Cuba. On the basis of the measured natural radionuclide concentrations, three provinces were identified: continental shelf, continental slope, and carbonate provinces. The distribution and concentration of natural radionuclides is a function of fluvial, fluvial-lagoonal sediment discharges, and horizontal water mass circulation patterns (geostrophic and wind-driven). The highest natural radionuclide concentrations were found in sediments at water depths of 300 to 1500 m. This may be attributed to incoming Loop Current vortices which interact with bottom topography and collide with the western and southern Gulf of Mexico boundaries, decreasing their circulation energy and consequently allowing for the deposition of the natural radionuclides contained within the rings' water mass. (author)

  11. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbeln, D.; C. Wienberg; P. Wintersteller; Freiwald, A.; De Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; G. P. Eberli; S. Glogowski; L. Matos; Forster, N; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.

    2014-01-01

    With an extension of > 40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20–40 m-high elongated coral mounds that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The mounds are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper fla...

  12. Late Cretaceous Breakup of the Pacific Margin of Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Garcia, J. C.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2006-12-01

    As geological, geophysical and geochemical evidence keeps accumulating over the years, there seems to be a growing general acceptance that the Chortis block (nuclear Central America) occupied a position further to the NW along the present-day margin of southwestern Mexico, sometime between Early Jurassic and Neogene time. The controversy resides no longer in the sense of motion along the coast but on the timing of events and in the latitude that the Chortis block occupied at the time of detachment. Previous studies mainly confined to the northern margin of the Chortis block, confirmed a left-lateral displacement of 130 km in Neogene time. Further studies made northwestward along the Mexican coast provided a better understanding of magmatic and metamorphic processes in the area, and suggested times of detachment increased to 30 Ma (Wadge and Burke, 1983), 40 Ma (Schaaf and others, 1995), and 66 Ma (Herrmann and others, 1994). The pre- detachment westernmost position of the block has changed, depending on the model chosen, from Puerto Vallarta and beyond, to the current position. We contend that several indicators, namely: (1) the truncated nature of the Pacific coast of SW Mexico; (2) the genesis of the Kula-Farallon ridge at 85 Ma; (3) the 2,600 km of northward transport of Baja British Columbia from the present-day latitude of the Baja California Peninsula, beginning at 85 Ma; (4) the paleomagnetic counterclockwise rotations of areas both in the Chortis block and along the Mexican coast, during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene time, and (5) the systematic NW-SE decrease of radiometric dates beginning at 85 Ma in Puerto Vallarta, point to this time and region for the onset of strike- slip drifting of the Chortis block toward its current position.

  13. Habitat features and predictive habitat modeling for the Colorado chipmunk in southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivieccio, M.; Thompson, B.C.; Gould, W.R.; Boykin, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Two subspecies of Colorado chipmunk (state threatened and federal species of concern) occur in southern New Mexico: Tamias quadrivittatus australis in the Organ Mountains and T. q. oscuraensis in the Oscura Mountains. We developed a GIS model of potentially suitable habitat based on vegetation and elevation features, evaluated site classifications of the GIS model, and determined vegetation and terrain features associated with chipmunk occurrence. We compared GIS model classifications with actual vegetation and elevation features measured at 37 sites. At 60 sites we measured 18 habitat variables regarding slope, aspect, tree species, shrub species, and ground cover. We used logistic regression to analyze habitat variables associated with chipmunk presence/absence. All (100%) 37 sample sites (28 predicted suitable, 9 predicted unsuitable) were classified correctly by the GIS model regarding elevation and vegetation. For 28 sites predicted suitable by the GIS model, 18 sites (64%) appeared visually suitable based on habitat variables selected from logistic regression analyses, of which 10 sites (36%) were specifically predicted as suitable habitat via logistic regression. We detected chipmunks at 70% of sites deemed suitable via the logistic regression models. Shrub cover, tree density, plant proximity, presence of logs, and presence of rock outcrop were retained in the logistic model for the Oscura Mountains; litter, shrub cover, and grass cover were retained in the logistic model for the Organ Mountains. Evaluation of predictive models illustrates the need for multi-stage analyses to best judge performance. Microhabitat analyses indicate prospective needs for different management strategies between the subspecies. Sensitivities of each population of the Colorado chipmunk to natural and prescribed fire suggest that partial burnings of areas inhabited by Colorado chipmunks in southern New Mexico may be beneficial. These partial burnings may later help avoid a fire

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-11 - From approved areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From approved areas of Mexico. 319.8-11 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-11 From approved areas of Mexico. (a) Entry... in, and which were produced and handled only in approved areas of Mexico 5 may be authorized...

  15. Examining the Obstacles and Possible Solutions for Improving Science Education in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith Juliana; Avila, Maria Teresa Lopez; Lara, Mario Baas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain a better understanding of the obstacles and possible solutions for improving science education in Southern Mexico. It provides information about the challenges faced by teachers and school administrators, and possible alternatives for improving the quality of teaching after ten years of a…

  16. Ordovician and Late Paleozoic Early Mesozoic tectonothermal history of the La Noria area, northern Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico: Record of convergence in the Rheic and paleo-Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Prieto, H. R.; Nance, R. D.; Keppie, J. D.; Dostal, J. V.; Ortega-Rivera, A.; Lee, J. K. W.

    2008-12-01

    The La Noria area lies in the northern part of the polydeformed Acatlán Complex, (southern Mexican Mixteca terrane), and the rocks record the following sequence of events: (i) Early-Middle Ordovician deposition of the volcaniclastic El Epazote and Las Calaveras units; (ii) late Middle Ordovician intrusion of the 467 ± 16 Ma megacrystic, peraluminous, rift-related granitoids; (iii) late Devonian, D 1, greenschist facies deformation; (iv) intrusion of the Los Malpasos leucogranite and associated minor intrusions; (v) Middle Mississippian, D 2, dextral N-S deformation also under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions; and (vi) undated D 3 kink band development. U-Pb LA-ICPMS detrital zircon ages: (a) the El Epazote unit yielded: a mean 206Pb/ 238U age from the youngest five concordant 206Pb/ 238Pb age of 488 ± 10 Ma, with other age peaks at ca. 506, ca. 1077, and ca. 1779 Ma and a few concordant Neoproterozoic ages: and (b) the Las Calaveras unit yielded a mean 206Pb/ 238U age from the sixteen youngest detrital zircons of 466 ± 10 Ma with other population age peaks ca. 1111, and ca. 1753 Ma. These data imply that granitoid intrusion was roughly synchronous with deposition of some of the host rocks. Whereas sources for most of the detrital zircons may be found in either the Acatlán and Oaxacan complexes, Laurentia or Gondwana, a Neoproterozoic source is most likely in Amazonia. The rocks record three low-grade deformational episodes: (i) D 1 produced a weak compositional banding and/or schistosity (S 1) under greenschist facies conditions; (ii) D 2, also occurred under greenschist facies conditions, and developed tight to isoclinal folds (F 2) in S 1 and an axial planar spaced-cleavage (S 2) that is co-planar with S 1; and (iii) D 3 produced reverse and conjugate kink bands (F 3) that deform the S 1/S 2 composite foliation. The leucogranite and related dikes that intrude the complex record only the latter two deformational events. Ca. 330 Ma 40Ar/ 39Ar

  17. The ecology of trachoma: an epidemiological study in southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Hugh R.; Velasco, Francisco M.; Sommer, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    A total of 1097 people in two communities in Chiapas, Mexico, were examined for trachoma, and information was obtained about personal and family hygiene. Trachoma was hyperendemic; approximately 25% of those under 10 years old were found to have significant inflammatory trachoma and almost 100% of those aged over 40 years had cicatricial trachoma, although the prevalence of trachoma differed significantly between the two communities. Risk factor analysis was performed by contingency table ana...

  18. Studies on picophytoplankton in the southern Gulf of Mexico: recognition of picoprokaryotes and abundances of picophytoplankton during "dry season"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Aquino-Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of total autotrophic picophytoplankton (PFP, temperature, salinity, PAR, and chlorophyll a were determined in two presumably contrasting environments: (1 two coastal areas (close to the mouths of three rivers, and (2 one oceanic area (Campeche Canyon, of the southern Gulf of Mexico, during the "dry season" (June-July, 2004. The picoprokaryotes Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were identified by TEM, whereas Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes populations were also recognized by flow cytometry. The highest PFP abundance (1.67×105 cells ml-1 was found in shallow waters (~10 m depth around the Grijalva-Usumacinta river mouth, followed by that found at a station close to the Coatzacoalcos River (1.19×105 cells ml-1; PFP abundances in the Campeche Canyon were usually lower (maximum 1.53×104 cells ml-1. Greater variability in PFP abundances was found in coastal stations than in oceanic waters, and weak relationships appeared between the patterns of chlorophyll a and PFP abundance. Peaks of PFP were detected in both coastal and more oceanic areas, but in the Campeche Canyon they were located deeper (60 m, relatively closer to the deep maximum of chlorophyll (located at about 75 m. Results suggest that PFP populations include a substantial photosynthetic component in both coastal and oceanic waters of the southern Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Environmental forcing of the Campeche cold-water coral province, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Freiwald, A.; Becker, M.; Beuck, L.; Dullo, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Glogowski, S.; Matos, L.; Forster, N.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Taviani, M.

    2014-04-01

    With an extension of > 40 km2 the recently discovered Campeche cold-water coral province located at the northeastern rim of the Campeche Bank in the southern Gulf of Mexico belongs to the largest coherent cold-water coral areas discovered so far. The Campeche province consists of numerous 20-40 m-high elongated coral mounds that are developed in intermediate water depths of 500 to 600 m. The mounds are colonized by a vivid cold-water coral ecosystem that covers the upper flanks and summits. The rich coral community is dominated by the framework-building Scleractinia Enallopsammia profunda and Lophelia pertusa, while the associated benthic megafauna shows a rather scarce occurrence. The recent environmental setting is characterized by a high surface water production caused by a local upwelling center and a dynamic bottom-water regime comprising vigorous bottom currents, obvious temporal variability, and strong density contrasts, which all together provide optimal conditions for the growth of cold-water corals. This setting - potentially supported by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Campeche area - controls the delivering of food particles to the corals. The Campeche cold-water coral province is, thus, an excellent example highlighting the importance of the oceanographic setting in securing the food supply for the development of large and vivid cold-water coral ecosystems.

  20. Habitat characteristics and environmental parameters influencing fish assemblages of karstic pools in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Vega-Cendejas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage structure was evaluated and compared among 36 karstic pools located within protected areas of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (southern Mexico and unprotected adjacent areas beyond the Reserve. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS, indicator species analysis (ISA, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA were used to identify which environmental factors reflected local influences and to evaluate the correlation of these variables with fish assemblages structure. Thirty-one species were encountered in these karstic pools, some for the first time within the Reserve. These aquatic environments were separated into three groups based on physico-chemical characteristics. Although CCA identified significant associations between several fish species (based on their relative abundance and environmental variables (K, NH4, NO3, and conductivity, the most abundant species (Astyanax aeneus, Poecilia mexicana, and Gambusia sexradiata occur in most pools and under several environmental conditions. Baseline data on fish diversity along with a continued monitoring program are essential in order to evaluate the conservation status of fish assemblages and their habitats, as well as to measure the influence of anthropogenic impacts on pristine habitats such as the karstic pools of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

  1. Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area - Sierra Nevada [ds568

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area encompasses the known occupied range of the Pacific fisher in the Sierra Nevada. This consists of an elevational band...

  2. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carol L.; Whittier, Jack; Witcher, James C.; Schoenmackers, Rudi

    1990-08-01

    An economic evaluation of three low-temperature geothermal sites in New Mexico were performed. A hypothetical geothermal system was designed to supply sufficient energy to satisfy thermal loads for one, four, ten, and fifteen acre commercial greenhouses. Geothermal sites were evaluated to identify the important infrastructure requirements. Capital and operating costs were estimated. Annual levelized costs were calculated for the provision of hot water and fresh water for each site. Geothermal costs were compared with annual levelized costs for a natural gas system to supply the equivalent thermal load. Calculated results indicate that geothermal systems may be competitive with natural gas for larger installations. It is not economically attractive to develop a small geothermal system because the initial capital costs are not recovered with reduced operating costs, relative to natural gas.

  3. Popularising eye health services in southern Mexico: community workers meet a felt need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Michon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Programmes for blindness prevention in southern Mexico face multiple challenges. The people in greatest need live in remote rural villages. Mountain ranges and bad roads make access to these villages difficult. Multiple languages (16 distinct languages in the state of Oaxaca alone along with a diversity of customs and beliefs, make effective communication challenging. It is impossible for an ophthalmologist acting alone to gain the access needed to serve these communities well.

  4. Popularising eye health services in southern Mexico: community workers meet a felt need

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Michon; Joseph Michon

    2006-01-01

    Programmes for blindness prevention in southern Mexico face multiple challenges. The people in greatest need live in remote rural villages. Mountain ranges and bad roads make access to these villages difficult. Multiple languages (16 distinct languages in the state of Oaxaca alone) along with a diversity of customs and beliefs, make effective communication challenging. It is impossible for an ophthalmologist acting alone to gain the access needed to serve these communities well.

  5. Geophysical Modeling of Tectonostratigraphic Terrane Boundaries and Crustal Structure Across a Pacific Ocean-Gulf of Mexico Transect, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Flores-Ruiz, J. H.; Spranger, M.

    2006-12-01

    Geophysical models of terrane boundaries and lithospheric structure beneath southern Mexico derived from gravity and aeromagnetic surveys are presented. The transect crosses southern Mexico from the active Pacific margin to the passive Gulf of Mexico margin, across four distinct terranes (Xolapa, Oaxaca, Juarez and Maya) with Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic basements and contrasting tectonostratigraphic records. The crust/mantle boundary displays a smooth large amplitude variation along the transect from Puerto Escondido at the Pacific margin to Los Tuxtlas-Alvarado at the Gulf of Mexico, roughly between 28 km and 44 km deep. Crustal thickness variations correspond well with inferred terrane distribution and major surface discontinuities. Suture zones are complex as a result of the kinematics of terrane accretion, contrasting crustal rheological properties, shallow level detachments, post-accretion deformation, thermal conditions and characteristics of relative terrane/plate motions. Pre-suturing characteristics of terranes including crustal structure are difficult to document because of deformation resulting from suturing and any subsequent post-accretion processes. In a simplified way, gravity anomalies from the Pacific margin to the Gulf of Mexico show: large positive 50 mgal anomaly above the continental slope units and the intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Xolapa complex, then anomalies increasingly negative (with minimum values of -180 mgal over the Acatlan and Oaxaca metamorphics. The Juchatengo mylonitic zone is characterized by a gradient change, while minimum gravity values approximately coincide with the wide mylonitic zone north of Oaxaca city. The Juarez terrane and the region over the Sierra de Juarez is characterized by positive gradient. Finally, the Gulf coastal plain is marked by a positive anomaly in the order of -40 mgal. Geophysical models are combined with the seismic models of the Geolimex profile and used to evaluate the crustal

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  7. Asbestos in seashore Southern area of Bari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari seashore was place, in the past, of uncontrolled waste disposal. The importance of such situation became evident when Bari Municipal Administration attempted the recovery of Torre Quetta beach. Sampling and analysis in the area showed the presence of quantities of asbestos residues probably coming from Fibronit, an asbestos-cement industry in Bari closed since 1985 and, at present, polluted site of national relevance

  8. Correlation between seismicity and the distribution of thermal and carbonate water in southern and Baja California, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastil, Gordon; Bertine, Kathe

    1986-04-01

    A comparison of the distribution of thermal and thermal-related springs and wells in southern California, United States, and Baja California, Mexico, with the abundance of earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater shows as close a relationship between thermal waters and the distribution of seismicity as to the distribution of active faults. It appears that the distribution of thermal water variations in the geothermal gradient in turn influences the stress accumulation capability of the rocks at depth. Thus, areas with abundant thermal waters (and hence steep geothermal gradients) release stress by frequent moderate earthquakes; areas lacking thermal waters, such as the central Transverse Ranges, accumulate stresses that are released by infrequent large earthquakes.

  9. Seismicity and Stress in the Southern Jalisco Block, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J. J.; Núñez-Cornũ, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Fault plane solutions for a group of 41 earthquakes with Mw magnitudes between 4.9 and 8.0, detected between November 1980 and May 2007, were extracted from the CMT catalog and used to investigate possible spatial and temporal variations of stress in the south part of the Jalisco Block. Using rigorous statistical tests we decide on the quality and variability of the earthquake source mechanisms and with the use of FMSI and LSIB stress tensor inversion techniques and cumulative misfit analysis find, at the 95% confidence level or more, significantly different regions and periods of stress regime. An important difference in seismicity and stress between the southern and northern regions of the Jalisco Block is highlighted by the regular occurrence of earthquakes to the south, in stark contrast with the scarcity of seismicity with Mw > 4.9 north of 19.36°N, a region that is illuminated with smaller earthquakes when local temporal or permanent deployments of seismographs are used, as noted by previous studies. We conclude that the region located near the coordinates 105°W and 18.43°N appears as a particularly diffuse zone affected by various stress styles and that the period following the great Mw 8.0 earthquake on October 9, 1995 appears as a short-lived change in stress induced by the great shock.

  10. The buried southern continuation of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and Oaxaca Fault, southern Mexico: Magnetotelluric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo-Camargo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Keppie, J. D.; Arango-Galván, C.; Unsworth, M.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.

    2013-04-01

    Thirty magnetotelluric soundings were made along two NW-SE profiles to the north and south of Oaxaca City in southern Mexico. The profiles crossed the N-S Oaxaca Fault and the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary defined by the Juarez mylonitic complex. Dimensionality analysis of the MT data showed that the subsurface resistivity structure is 2D or 3D. The Oaxaca and correlative Guichicovi terranes consist of ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulitic continental crust overlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, characterized by high and low resistivities, respectively. The Juarez terrane consists of oceanic Mesozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, characterized by a low to medium resistivity layer, that is approximately 10 km thick. The Oaxaca Fault is a Cenozoic aged, normal fault that reactivated the dextral and thrust Juarez mylonitic complex north of Oaxaca City: its location south of Oaxaca City is uncertain. In the southern profile, the MT data show a ca. 20-50 km wide, west-dipping, relatively low resistivity zone material that extends through the entire crust. This is inferred to be the Juarez terrane bounded on either side by the ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulites. The Oaxaca Fault is imaged only by a major electrical resistivity discontinuity (low to the west, high to the east) along both the western border of the Juarez mylonitic complex (northern profile) and the San Miguel de la Cal mountains (southern profile) suggesting continuity.

  11. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls and ridges in water depths from 1230 to 3150 m. In particular the deeper sites (Chapopopte and Mictlan knolls) were characterized by asphalt deposits accompanied by extrusion of liquid oil in form of whips or sheets, and in some places (Tsanyao Yang, Mictlan, and Chapopote knolls) by gas emission and the presence of gas hydrates in addition. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of gaseous hydrocarbons suggest their primarily thermogenic origin. Relatively fresh asphalt structures were settled by chemosynthetic communities including bacterial mats and vestimentiferan tube worms, whereas older flows appeared largely inert and devoid of corals and anemones at the deep sites. The gas hydrates at Tsanyao Yang and Mictlan Knolls were covered by a 5-to-10 cm-thick reaction zone composed of authigenic carbonates, detritus, and microbial mats, and were densely colonized by 1-2 m-long tube worms, bivalves, snails, and shrimps. This study increased knowledge on the occurrences and dimensions of asphalt fields and associated gas hydrates at the Campeche Knolls. The extent of all discovered seepage structure areas indicates that emission of complex hydrocarbons is a widespread, thus important feature of the southern Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Subduction of the Tehuantepec oceanic fracture zone and the relationship with a seismic gap in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Manea, Marina; Taras, Gerya; Valenzuela, Raul W.

    2016-04-01

    It is accepted that key constraints on the size and recurrence time of large subduction earthquakes originate from the degree of locking between the subducting and overriding plates. Since the interseismic locking degree is influenced by the rheological properties of crustal and mantle rocks, any variations along strike will result in significant changes in seismic behavior due to a change in frictional stability. Additionally, recent seismic studies show that the subduction of hydrothermally altered oceanic fracture zones induces strong pore-fluid pressure variations that control the degree of interseismic locking. The Mexico Subduction Zone (MSZ) is characterized by major along-strike changes in subduction geometry, as well as important structural variations of the incoming oceanic plate. One of the main tectonic features of the Cocos plate is the Tehuantepec fracture zone (FZ) that is currently subducting beneath southern Mexico. The analysis of seismicity revealed that the area around where Tehuantepec fracture zone is currently subducting is conspicuously quiet and considered a seismic gap. Here, no significant quake (Ms ≥ 7.0) has occurred in more than 100 years, and the origin of Tehuantepec Seismic Gap (TSG) has not been elucidated yet. Based on the dimensions of the Tehuantepec gap (125 km length and 80 km width), an earthquake of Mw = 8.0 may be possible. This study aims to shed some light on the relationship between the TSG with the subduction of Tehuantepec oceanic fracture zone. Previous studies show that the uppermost oceanic lithosphere beneath the Tehuantepec FZ is partially serpentinized due to seawater infiltrations along faults. Using high-resolution three-dimensional coupled petrological-thermomechanical numerical simulations specifically tailored for the subduction of the Tehuantepec FZ at MSZ we show that the weakened serpentinized fracture zone is partially scraped out in the forearc region because of its low strength and positive buoyancy

  13. Household Land Management and Biodiversity: Secondary Succession in a Forest-Agriculture Mosaic in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates anthropogenic and ecological dimensions of secondary forest succession in Mexico's southern Yucatán peninsular region, a hotspot of biodiversity and tropical deforestation. Secondary succession in particular constitutes an ecologically and economically important process, driven by and strongly influencing land management and local ecosystem structure and dynamics. As agents of local land management, smallholding farmers in communal, i.e., ejido lands affect rates of forest change, biodiversity, and sustainability within and beyond their land parcels. This research uses household surveys and land parcel mapping in two ejidos located along the buffer of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve to analyze how household socioeconomics and policy institutions drive allocations to successional forests in traditional crop fallows and in enriched fallows. Results indicate that household tenancy, livestock holdings, labor-consumer ratios, and receipts of agricultural subsidies are the strongest determinants of traditional fallow areas. Whereas the latter two factors also influence enriched successions, local agroforestry and reforestation programs were the strongest drivers of fallow enrichment. Additionally, the study conducts field vegetation sampling in a nested design within traditional and enriched fallow sites to comparatively assess biodiversity consequences of fallow management. Although enriched fallows display greater species richness in 10x10 m plots and 2x2 m quadrats, plot-scale data reveal no significant differences in Shannon-Wiener or Simpson's diversity indices. Traditional fallows display greater species heterogeneity at the quadrat scale, however, indicating a complex relationship of diversity to fallow management over time. The article discusses the implications of the social and ecological analyses for land change research and conservation policies.

  14. Lithological and Petrographic Analyses of Carbonates and Sandstones From the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Avendaño, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present results of sedimentological and petrological studies of drill cores from the Bay of Campeche in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Based on reports on drill cores obtained from oil exploratory wells in the Cantarell Complex located 80 kilometres offshore in the Bay of Campeche and studies related to regional geology composite simplified stratigraphic columns for offshore Campeche region have been constructed up to depths of approximately 5000 m. The stratigraphic column is formed by a thick sediment sequence of Middle Jurassic age (evaporites, Callovian), Late Jurassic (terrigenous, calcareous clays and calcareous layers), Lower Cretaceous (carbonates), Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene (calcareous breccias), Paleogene-Neogene (terrigenous-carbonates intercalations) and Quaternary (terrigenous). The core samples studied come from wells in the Sihil and Akal fields in Cantarell. Analysis of reports on lithological descriptions indicates that these wells sample dolomitized sedimentary breccias from the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene and fine-grained sandstones from the Late Jurassic Tithonian, respectively. Based on results of petrographic studies, the texture, cementing material and porosity of the units have been documented. The thin sections for carbonates were classified based on their texture according to Dunham (1962) for carbonate rocks, classified according to their components using the ternary diagrams of Folk (1974). Percentages refer to the data presented in tables, which were obtained by point-counting technique (with a total 250). Photomicrographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) provide magnification for easy documentation of crystalline arrangements and description of micro-porous for different types of carbonates such as dolomite, in addition to the morphology of authigenic clays. Results of these studies and previous works in the area permit characterization of diagenetic processes of the carbonate sediments in the Campeche Bay, and provide

  15. Determining Deep Basin Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (Mexico border.

  16. Seismic Noise Studies of Urbanized Areas at Puerto Vallarta Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Huerta, K. C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.; Madrigal, L.

    2014-12-01

    The application of seismic noise techniques in urbanized environment becomes a valuable tool to obtain information that is critical in areas exposed to earthquakes. Damage distribution during large earthquakes is frequently conditioned by site effects, in this way we determine site effect using ambient noise measurements in the area of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. We focus our microtremor measurements to the estimation of a subsoil structure. To perform this we use three different techniques H/V spectral ratios, array measurements of microtremors applying the SPAC and F-k techniques. This work discusses the results that were obtained applying these techniques to the urbanized areas of Puerto Vallarta city. We present a series of maps showing the result as well as analyzed its application to risk assessment.

  17. GPS constraints on the Mw = 7.5 Ometepec earthquake sequence, southern Mexico: coseismic and post-seismic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Shannon E.; DeMets, Charles; Cabral-Cano, Enrique; Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Cotte, Nathalie; Brudzinski, Michael; McCaffrey, Robert; Salazar-Tlaczani, Luis

    2014-10-01

    We use continuous GPS measurements from 31 stations in southern Mexico to model coseismic slip and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 March 20 Mw = 7.5 Ometepec earthquake, the first large thrust earthquake to occur below central Mexico during the modern GPS era. Coseismic offsets ranging from ˜280 mm near the epicentre to 5 mm or less at sites far from the epicentre are fit best by a rupture focused between ˜15 and 35 km depth, consistent with an independent seismological estimate. The corresponding geodetic moment of 1.4 × 1020 N·m is within 10 per cent of two independent seismic estimates. Transient post-seismic motion recorded by GPS sites as far as 300 km from the rupture has a different horizontal deformation gradient and opposite sense of vertical motion than do the coseismic offsets. A forward model of viscoelastic relaxation as a result of our new coseismic slip solution incorrectly predicts uplift in areas where post-seismic subsidence was recorded and indicates that viscoelastic deformation was no more than a few per cent of the measured post-seismic deformation. The deformation within 6 months of the earthquake was thus strongly dominated by fault afterslip. The post-seismic GPS time-series are well fit as logarithmically decaying fault afterslip on an area of the subduction interface up to 10 times larger than the earthquake rupture zone, extending as far as 220 km inland. Afterslip had a cumulative geodetic moment of 2.0 × 1020 N·m, ˜40 per cent larger than the Ometepec earthquake. Tests for the shallow and deep limits for the afterslip require that it included much of the earthquake rupture zone as well as regions of the subduction interface where slow slip events and non-volcanic tremor have been recorded and areas even farther downdip on the flat interface. Widespread afterslip below much of central Mexico suggests that most of the nearly flat subduction interface in this region is conditionally stable and thus contributes measurable

  18. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  19. Preliminary results from a new large-aperture seismic and GPS array in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Demets, C.; Brudzinski, M.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Correa-Mora, F.

    2006-12-01

    A multi-year deployment of a large aperture seismic and GPS array in southern Mexico, for the purpose of studying the Oaxaca segment of the Middle America subduction zone, entered its second development phase during the summer of 2006. The Oaxaca segment is one of the few places on earth where land-based geophysical observations can be used to study both the locked, seismogenic area of a subduction interface and region of deeper transitional slip, where episodic tremor and slip may originate. The newly expanded array, consisting of eight broad-band seismic and nine continuous GPS stations, measures deformation in the state of Oaxaca and adjacent areas. Important goals of the deployment are to better understand the spatial and temporal histories of episodic slip transients, and their role in either relieving or increasing strain accumulating along the seismogenic portion of a subduction interface. The combined GPS and seismic arrays will be a powerful tool for studying slow slip and non-volcanic tremor, as well as imaging spatial and temporal variations in frictional coupling along the locked and transitional zones beneath our network. Preliminary analysis of seismic data indicates that the seismic stations are uniformly characterized by low noise in the non-volcanic tremor passband of 1-5 Hz, accomplishing an important goal of our site selection. We attribute this to our use of a newly developed, on-site 'listening test' in which our seismic equipment was used to record 30-60 minutes of data before the vault was excavated at a potentially low noise site. The data were processed on site with newly developed software to determine whether the amplitude of the background noise within the frequency band of non-volcanic tremors was low enough to observe the amplitude of tremors previously recorded in Cascadia. Using this test, we confirmed in advance that our selected seismic sites had sufficiently low noise to observe non-volcanic tremor if it is similar to that in

  20. Seismic structure along transitions from flat to normal subduction: central Mexico, southern Peru, and southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Sara L.

    The fine-scale seismic structure of the central Mexico, southern Peru, and southwest Japan subduction zones is studied using intraslab earthquakes recorded by temporary and permanent regional seismic arrays. The morphology of the transition from flat to normal subduction is explored in central Mexico and southern Peru, while in southwest Japan the spatial coincidence of a thin ultra-slow velocity layer (USL) atop the flat slab with locations of slow slip events (SSEs) is explored. This USL is also observed in central Mexico and southern Peru, where its lateral extent is used as one constraint on the nature of the flat-to-normal transitions. In western central Mexico, I find an edge to this USL which is coincident with the western boundary of the projected Orozco Fracture Zone (OFZ) region. Forward modeling of the 2D structure of the subducted Cocos plate using a finite-difference algorithm provides constraints on the velocity and geometry of the slab's seismic structure in this region and confirms the location of the USL edge. I propose that the Cocos slab is currently fragmenting into a North Cocos plate and a South Cocos plate along the projection of the OFZ, by a process analogous to that which occurred when the Rivera plate separated from the proto-Cocos plate 10 Ma. In eastern central Mexico, observations of a sharp transition in slab dip near the abrupt end of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) suggest a possible slab tear located within the subducted South Cocos plate. The eastern lateral extent of the USL is found to be coincident with these features and with the western boundary of a zone of decreased seismicity, indicating a change in structure which I interpret as evidence of a possible tear. Analysis of intraslab seismicity patterns and focal mechanism orientations and faulting types provides further support for a possible tear in the South Cocos slab. This potential tear, together with the tear along the projection of the OFZ to the northwest

  1. [AIDS cases in the rural area in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis-Rodríguez, C; del Río-Zolezzi, A; Valdespino-Gómez, J L; García-García, M de L

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the AIDS epidemic in rural areas of Mexico. Information from the National AIDS Registry and the 1990 XI National Census was used. Rural AIDS cases and urban cases were compared regarding notification time, sex, risk categories and migration information. Of the 19,090 AIDS cases reported to the first of July 1994, 699 (3.7%) were rural cases. The first five of these cases were reported in 1986, three years after the first cases had been reported in Mexico. The number of AIDS cases has been growing each year but in 1991. Cases have been reported by all Mexican states. The state with the highest prevalence was Nayarit with 102 cases per million inhabitants, followed by Morelos with 99, Jalisco with 90, and Colima and Tlaxcala with 84. A total of 25% of the rural cases are migrants who have been to the US, against 6.1% of cases from urban areas. The distribution by sex shows 21.3% of women affected against 14.4% of urban cases (p < 0.05). The rural female to male ratio is 1:4, while the urban ratio is 1:6. The prevalence rates are almost three times greater in men than in women. The rural AIDS pattern represents a problem not because of the number of people affected but because of the heterosexual way of transmission. We do not think that migration to the US is going to change. The rural AIDS epidemic is more recent and growing faster than that occurring in the urban setting.

  2. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  3. Detrital and delayed CRM acquisition in redbeds: the Lower Cretaceous Zicapa Formation, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Zicapa Formation is characterized by hematite-cemented clastic rocks interbeded with limestone and volcanic rocks, deposited in continental to transitional-marine environments. The paleomagnetic data presented here correspond to exposures in the San Juan de las Joyas locality, in the Mixteca terrain of southern Mexico. Hematite cement is derived from an important input of primary volcanic material contemporaneous with deposition and from mafic to intermediate metavolcanic sources. We sampled 17 sites in a 110 m segment of continuous depositation of fine to coarse, red to purple, lithic sandstone and siltstone. The natural magnetization is multivectorial, and AF demagnetization suggests that it resides primarily in hematite. One magnetization component is unblocked below 200C is north-directed and positive. A low-unblocking temperature magnetization (LT) is unblocked between 250-500C, and a high-unblocking-temperature component (HT) is defined between about 600-650C. Both, the LT and HT components are dual-polarity and form nearly antipodal groups of WNW (ESE) directions. NRM demagnetization and rock magnetic data suggest the presence of two kinds of particles carrying the LT and HT components. Polarity changes in the section sampled are characterized by sites that register in the HT component the magnetic field previous to the transition of polarity (which is detrital magnetization residing in specular hematite), whilst the LT registers the magnetic field after the polarity transition. Typically, in the overlying (post-transition) site the LT and HT components are of the same polarity. This suggests that the LT component is a late (or delayed) CRM that resides in small particles of pigmentary hematite. The accepted sites yield a tilt corrected mean of declination Dec= 273 degrees, inclination Inc= 33.1 degrees (α95=11.7 y k=18).The mean directions are discordant with respect to expected North America reference for Early Cretaceous indicating a

  4. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism

  5. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism.

  6. Seismic stratigraphy of northern Green Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.G.; Bryant, W.R.

    1986-05-01

    The Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico is an active frontier exploration area of the continental slope underlain by relatively shallow salt or shale diapirs and ridges forming large intraslope basins and troughs. Analysis of more than 200 multichannel seismic profiles in this area show several seismic sequences within each basin or trough. The depositional history of the area is interpreted from the seismic sequences and seismic facies distribution within each basin. These facies are based on reflection configuration and include parallel to subparallel reflections, prograding clinoforms, hummocky clinoforms, chaotic zones, and acoustically semitransparent zones. Sigmoid and oblique progradational clinoforms are found at the shelf edge where outbuilding and aggradation occur. Hummocky clinoforms are widespread in each basin and occur in thick sequences. These grade vertically and laterally into parallel or semitransparent zones resulting in alternating reflection patterns. The parallel reflections can be interpreted as low-energy turbidites deposited during lower sea level. Chaotic zones show contorted stratal surfaces suggesting mass movement deposits. The evolution of each basin is unique. Structure and isopach maps of each sequence along with the facies distribution indicate several depositional mechanisms. These are possibly related to sea level fluctuations and shifting sediment supply. Correlation of sequences between basins and troughs is hampered in the western half of the area because of the presence of shallow subsurface diapirs and ridges, and large growth faults, and the absence of well data. Diapirs in the eastern half are less numerous and more isolated, with thicker sedimentary troughs between them because of the eastward migration of the Mississippi fan across this area in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

  7. Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

  8. New records of temperate mollusks in two Late Pleistocene terrestrial localities from northeastern Oaxaca, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalía; Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; García-Barrera, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    The Mixteca Alta Oaxaqueña is in the state of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. This region is characterized by numerous Pleistocene fossiliferous localities. The objective of this study is to describe a diverse assemblage of Late Pleistocene freshwater and terrestrial mollusks in two localities from northeastern Oaxaca, Coixtlahuaca District. We identified 10 taxa of gastropods and one of bivalves. By the sedimentological characteristics and the mollusks assemblage, it is possible to relate the first locality with meandriform river deposits, without vegetation. The second locality was associated with a floodplain with short-lived associated vegetation. Five identified species constitute the most austral records of these taxa in Neartic Realm. In all the taxa, the Late Pleistocene occurrences constitute the last records of the identified mollusks in the study zone.

  9. Paleogeography of the northern portion of the Mixteca terrain, southern Mexico, during the Middle Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Miranda, C.; Morán-Zenteno, D. J.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Silva-Romo, G.; Böhnel, H.; Jurado-Chichay, Z.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    A preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the northern Mixteca terrain in southern Mexico is presented for the Middle Jurassic. The reconstruction is derived from combined analyses of spatial distribution of marine-continental Jurassic sedimentary units, identification of sediment source, and observations based on sedimentary indicators of environment and transport directions, as well as paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results. There is an overall agreement between the AMS magnetic fabric results and the sedimentary indicators of current directions and paleogeographic elements. The results suggest a coastline at the south-southwest portion of this terrain, a general transport of fluvial sediments to the south and southwest, and marine influxes from the south. A Pacific margin provenance is supported by the paleomagnetic results for the northern portion of the Mixteca terrain.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  11. High-temperature process-steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico (solar energy in the oil patch). Phase I design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-31

    Southern Union Refining Company's Famariss Energy Refinery has worked diligently with Monument Solar Corporation in the conceptual and detail design for this unique application of solar generated steam. An area closely adjacent to the refinery and fronting New Mexico State Highway No. 18 has been designated for the solar collector array. Space planned for the demonstration parabolic trough array is sufficiently large to handle an array of 25,200 square feet in size - an array more than twice the size of the 10,080 square feet proposed originally. The conceptual design, performance, safety, environmental impact, and economic analysis are described. Engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  12. Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle Flow Driven by the Cocos Slab Under Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-López, Leslie A.; Garibaldi, Berenice R.; León Soto, Gerardo; Valenzuela, Raúl W.; Escudero, Christian R.

    2015-12-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements were made using SKS and SKKS waves recorded by the Meso-American Subduction Experiment, which was deployed in southern Mexico starting at the coast of the Pacific Ocean and running north toward the Gulf of Mexico. In this segment of the Middle America Trench the oceanic Cocos plate subducts under the continental North American plate. The active volcanic arc is located at the southern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Unlike most subduction zones, however, the volcanic arc is not subparallel to the trench. In the fore-arc, between the trench and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the Cocos slab subducts subhorizontally. Beneath the volcanic belt, however, the slab dives steeply into the mantle. A marked difference in the orientation of the fast polarization directions is observed between the fore-arc and the back-arc. In the fore-arc the fast axes determined using SKS phases are oriented NE-SW, in the same direction as the relative motion between the Cocos and North American plates, and are approximately perpendicular to the trench. Physical conditions in the subslab mantle are consistent with the existence of A-type olivine and consequently entrained mantle flow is inferred. Strong coupling between the slab and the surrounding mantle is observed. In the back-arc SKS fast polarization directions are oriented N-S and are perpendicular to the strike of the slab. Given the high temperatures in the mantle wedge tip, the development of A-type, or similar, olivine fabric throughout the mantle wedge is expected. The orientation of the fast axes is consistent with corner flow in the mantle wedge.

  13. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. PMID:19356832

  14. ETHNICITY AND INCOME IMPACT ON BMI AND STATURE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVING IN URBAN SOUTHERN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Nina; Barrera-Pérez, The Late Mario; Palma-Solis, Marco; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Dickinson, Federico; Azcorra, Hugo; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Mexico, a middle-income country, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children. Merida is the most populated and growing city in southern Mexico with a mixed Mayan and non-Maya population. Local urbanization and access to industrialized foods have impacted the eating habits and physical activity of children, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to contribute to the existing literature on the global prevalence of overweight and obesity and examined the association of parental income, ethnicity and nutritional status with body mass index (BMI) and height in primary school children in Merida. The heights and weights of 3243 children aged 6-12 from sixteen randomly selected schools in the city were collected between April and December 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the prevalence of BMI and height categories (based on WHO reference values) by ethnicity and income levels. Of the total students, 1648 (50.9%) were overweight or obese. Stunting was found in 227 children (7%), while 755 (23.3%) were defined as having short stature. Combined stunting and overweight/obesity was found in 301 students (9.3%) and twelve (0.4%) were classified as stunted and of low weight. Having two Mayan surnames was inversely associated with having adequate height (OR=0.69, pMexican families of all ethnic groups, particularly those of lower income. PMID:26041567

  15. Interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year. None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives. PMID:18625327

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Gravity and Magnetic Survey of the Oaxaca-Juarez Terrane Boundary (Oaxaca Fault), Southern Mexico: Evidence for three Half Grabens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Belmonte-Jimenez, S. I.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.; Keppie-Moorhouse, J. D.; Martinez-Silva, J.; Martinez-Serrano, R.

    2007-05-01

    A geophysical survey of the Oaxaca Fault boundary between the Oaxaca (Oaxaquia) (Zapoteco) and Juarez (Cuicateco) terranes along the Etla and Zaachila valleys area, southern Mexico shows a series of NW-SE Bouguer and magnetic anomalies with stronger gradients towards the east. The basement from the Oaxaca terrane has a high density (2.8 gr/cm3 ) and magnetic susceptibility of up to 0.0051 cgs units, which contrast with the Juarez basement that has a lower density (2.67 gr/cm3) and a higher magnetic susceptibility (values ranging between 0.0025 to 0.0045 cgs units). The magnetic susceptibility is similar south of the Donaji fault. Interpretation of six combined gravity and magnetic NE-SW profiles perpendicular to the valleys indicates the presence of a composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins with the Etla and Zachila sub-basins located at the northern and southern portions, respectively, separated by a third sub-basin relatively displaced westwards. They are bounded on the east by the steeply W-dipping Oaxaca master fault, and on the west by the gently E-dipping Huitzo-Zimatlan fault. Two interpretations are suggested for the southward continuation of the Oaxaca Fault: 1) it continues southwards at depth with the same strike. Together the Bouguer and total field magnetic anomalies suggest that the Oaxaca fault is continuous from Etla via Oaxaca City and Ocotlán de Morelos probably to Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz, and 2) it continues with the same strike but is displaced eastwards ~20 km along a sinistral transfer fault, which forms the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin.

  4. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to detect factors contributing to hypoxic events in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Johansen, A.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Taggart, M.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and analyzing harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxic events in the southern coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is important for watershed management and mitigation of environmental degradation. This study uncovered trends and dynamic characteristics of chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration, sea surface temperature (SST), colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR); as evident in 8-day standard mapped image (SMI) products from the MODIS instrument on the Aqua platform from 2002-2015 using Clark Labs TerrSet Earth Trends Modeler (ETM). Predicted dissolved oxygen images were classified using a Multi-Layer Perceptron regression approach with in-situ data from the northern GoM. Additionally, sediment and nutrient loading values of the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed were modeled using the ArcGIS Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Lastly, A Turbidity Index was generated using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes for 2014-2015. Results, tools, and products will assist local environmental and health authorities in revising water quality standards and mitigating the impacts of future HABs and hypoxic events in the region. This project uses NASA's earth observations as a viable alternative to studying a region with no in-situ data.

  5. Gulf of Mexico Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart B - Reef Fish...

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  7. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving... Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a point...

  8. Land Abandonment in an Agricultural Frontier After a Plant Invasion: The Case of Bracken Fern in Southern Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Laura; Geoghegan, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions and their impact on land use pose difficult research questions, due to the complex relationships between the ecological nature of the invasion and the human responses to the invasion. This paper focuses on the linkages between an invasion of bracken fern and land use decisions in an agricultural frontier in southern Mexico. Agriculture in this region is practiced on an extensive basis, using traditional slash-and-burn techniques of temporary cultivation and continuous rotation...

  9. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  10. Net Exchange Ecossistem in Subtropical Agriculture Area in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.

  11. Tidal effects on ichthyoplankton aggregation and dispersion in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adela Monreal Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of vertical barotropic and baroclinic tidal forcing in the aggregation and dispersion of ichthyoplankton in the Southern Gulf of Mexico was analyzed in this study. Samplings of ichthyoplankton and the determination of hydrographic parameters were performed during September 1992 at a single point of 180 m depth, near the shelf break (19º32'N - 92º38.5'W. A 24 h CTD yo-yoing casting and biological samples were taken every 2 h and these measurements were combined with water velocity and density simulations from the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS. One thermocline and two haloclines were depicted. The Froude number increased with a 2 h lag with respect to the maximal barotropic tide, suggesting the existence of a baroclinic tide. Aggregation and dispersion of the ichthyoplankton showed vertical oscillations in the abundance and the numbers of taxa and larvae with a 5 h lag with respect to the maximal barotropic tide and were in phase with the thermocline oscillation. The vertical oscillation was attributed to a hydraulic control forced by the internal tide.

  12. The acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazua-Duran, Carmen

    2005-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins live in a variety of habitats of the world's oceans using their acoustic repertoire to communicate and inspect their environment. This work investigates the acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins that inhabit a coastal lagoon of the southern Gulf of Mexico, the Laguna de Terminos and how it may relate to the dolphins' general behavioral state and herd size, and to the general characteristics of the habitat, such as visibility, depth, and sea state. Preliminary results show that bottlenose dolphins produce by far more clicks than whistles in all behavioral states (feeding, resting, social, and travel) and herd sizes, which may correlate with the decreased visibility and shallow depth of the Laguna de Terminos. Additionally, silence was found during all behavioral states, but very seldom in herds of large size. These preliminary results suggest that bottlenose dolphins are choosing when and where to produce their phonations. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to understand how these animals are using their acoustic sense to communicate and inspect their environment. [Work supported by CONACyT-Gobierno Edo. de Campeche and PAPIIT, UNAM.

  13. Identification of sensitive parameters of a tropical forest in Southern Mexico to improve the understanding of C-band radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Jimenez-Escalona, J. C.; Ramos, J.; Zempoaltecatl-Ramirez, E.

    2013-05-01

    Forest areas cover the 32% of the Mexican territory. Due to their geographical location, Mexico presents heterogeneous climatic and topographic conditions. The country is divided into two different regions: an arid /semiarid zone (North) and a tropical/temperate zone (South). Due to the effects of climate change, Mexico has been affected in two ways. In the North, there has been a desertification of regions as result of the absence of rainfall and a low rate of soil moisture. On the other hand, in the South, there has been an increase in the intensity of rainfall causing serious flooding. Another effect is the excessive deforestation in Southern Mexico. The FAO has determined that Mexico could present one of the highest losses of forest areas mainly in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. The Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul is the protected area with the largest surface of tropical forest in Mexico. The Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul is located in the state of Campeche that the flora and fauna are being affected. The type of vegetation located in the reserve of Calakmul Biosphere is rainforest with high spatial density and highly heterogeneous due to multiple plant species and the impact of human activities in the area. The satellite remote sensing techniques becomes a very useful tool to monitor the area because a large area can be covered. To understand the radar images, the identification of sensitive parameters governing the radar signal is necessary. With the launch of the satellites Radarsat-2, ASAR-Envisat and ALOSPalSAR, significant progress has been done in the interpretation of satellite radar images. Directly applying physical models becomes a problem due to the large number of input parameters in the models, together with the difficulty in measuring these parameters in the field. The models developed so far have been applied and validated for homogeneous forests with low or average spatial density of trees. This is why it is recommended in a comprehensive

  14. Organizing in a National Sacrifice Area: the radioactive waste campaign in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizing in a National Sacrifice Area concerns a citizens' campaign to affect the development of a Federal radioactive waste disposal facility in New Mexico. This facility, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), is intended to be the first permanent radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States. The three principal elements of this work are: (1) demographic, economic and attitudinal information providing the social context for the citizens' campaign; (2) the theory and practice of community organizing with respect to the New Mexico radioactive waste disposal project; and (3) the history of citizen activities to affect the New Mexico state legislature on this issue. The demographic and attitudinal information include: survey research conducted previously concerning nuclear waste and nuclear power; demographic and economic data for New Mexico principally from the 1970 Census; a secondary analysis of a base-line survey concerning nuclear development in New Mexico; and original qualitative and survey research dealing with public attitudes in the state on the WIPP project. The attitude change and maintenance literature are also reviewed. This dissertation covers the events constituting the establishment of the WIPP project in New Mexico and citizen activities both opposed to and in support of the radioactive waste disposal project. In addition, citizen activity to influence the New Mexico state legislature in 1979 with regard to radioactive waste disposal is reviewed. An analysis of the New Mexico state legislature in terms of this issue is made also

  15. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellink, Eric, E-mail: emellink@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Riojas-Lopez, Monica E., E-mail: meriojas@cucba.udg.m [Departamento de Ecologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5 Carretera a Nogales, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Luevano-Esparza, Jaime, E-mail: jluevano@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  16. Potentiometric surfaces, summer 2013 and winter 2015, and select hydrographs for the Southern High Plains aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Jake

    2016-04-07

    Cannon Air Force Base (Cannon AFB) is located in the High Plains physiographic region of east-central New Mexico, about 5 miles west of Clovis, New Mexico. The area surrounding Cannon AFB is primarily used for agriculture, including irrigated cropland and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for Cannon AFB, for the nearby town of Clovis, and for local agriculture and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer in the vicinity of Cannon AFB consists of three subsurface geological formations: the Chinle Formation of Triassic age, the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age, and the Blackwater Draw Formation of Quaternary age. The Ogallala Formation is the main water-yielding formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer. Groundwater-supplied, center-pivot irrigation dominates pumping from the Southern High Plains aquifer in the area surrounding Cannon AFB, where the irrigation season typically extends from early March through October. The U.S. Geological Survey has been monitoring groundwater levels in the vicinity of Cannon AFB since 1954 and has developed general potentiometric-surface maps that show groundwater flow from northwest to southeast in the study area. While previous potentiometric-surface maps show the general direction of groundwater flow, a denser well network is needed to show details of groundwater flow at a local scale. Groundwater levels were measured in 93 wells during summer 2013 and 100 wells during winter 2015.The summer and winter potentiometric-surface maps display the presence of what is interpreted to be a groundwater trough trending from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. This groundwater trough may be the hydraulic expression of a Tertiary-age paleochannel. Groundwater north of the trough flows in a southerly direction into the trough, and groundwater south of the trough flows in an easterly direction into the trough.During the 18-month period between summer 2013 and winter 2015, changes

  17. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  18. Wisconsinan-Holocene seismic stratigraphy of the Keathley Canyon Area and vicinity, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwang Hoon; Bryant, W.R.; Watkins, J.S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The lower continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico is characterized by a hummocky topography with shallow salt masses interspersed by numerous salt-withdrawal basins containing thick Plio-Pleistocene and older sediments. Analysis of over 7500 km of multichannel seismic reflection data from the Keathley Canyon Area and vicinity defined the Wisconsinan-Holocene sequence and its seismic facies. In interbasinal areas and in the southern part of the study area where salt is shallow, the Wisconsinan-Holocene sequence consists mainly of low-amplitude (LA) facies underlain by strong basal-reflection (SBR) facies. The LA facies occasionally show subtle onlaps against SBR facies and grade upward into a draping pattern. Onlapping LA facies are interpreted to be a lowstand systems tract deposited by widespread low-energy turbidity currents. Draping LA facies at the top may consist of hemipelagic or pelagic sediments. The SBR facies are interpreted to consist of condensed sections formed during sea-level rises and highstands. Within basins, moderate-to-high amplitude-continuous (MHC) and hummocky-to-chaotic (HC) facies occur below LA facies. The MHC facies show a pattern of flat-lying or gently dipping reflections that onlap SBR facies. Onlapping MHC facies often grade upward into a conformable pattern and are obscured by transition into LA facies. The MHC facies are interpreted as alternating coarse- and fine-grained turbidites deposited during sea-level falls and/or lowstands. The HC facies occur commonly associated with MHC facies. The HC facies may represent slope fans formed by mass-transport processes or gravity flows during sea-level falls and/or lowstands.

  19. Consensus on Criteria for Potential Areas for Wolf Reintroduction in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Araiza, M.; Carrillo, L.; List, R.; González, C.A.L.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, Patricia G.; Moctezuma, O.; Sánchez-Morales, N.; Servín, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Given the conflict with human interests that in many cases results in the extirpation of large carnivores, acceptance of their reintroduction is a considerable challenge. By the 1980s Mexican wolves (Canis lupus) were extinct in the wild. In 1998 a population was reintroduced in the Blue Range Mountains of New Mexico (U.S.A.). Efforts to reintroduce the species in Mexico have been ongoing since the late 1980s. Four teams working independently identified 6 areas in northern Mexico in the histo...

  20. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409

  1. Age of menarche in Oaxaca, Mexico, schoolgirls, with comparative data for other areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, R M; Chumlea, C; Stepick, C D; Lopez, F G

    1977-11-01

    Status quo menarcheal information was collected for a mixed urban colonia and rural sample of 315 girls in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Comparative status quo data for girls from four major urban centres in Mexico, and for a rural sample were also analysed. Median age at menarche (estimated by probit analysis) for Oaxaca girls was 14.27 +/- 0.20 years, about 0.5 year later than that for the rural sample from Tampico-Altamira, Tamaulipas (13.79 +/- 0.20 years), and approximately 1.5 years later than that for girls from the four urban centres in Mexico (12.55 +/- 0.10, 12.61 +/- 0.08, 12.75 +/- 0.10, 12.76 +/- 0.07 years). The timing of menarche in Oaxaca girls is similar to that for rural Mayans in Guatemala. Ages at menarche for urban Mexican girls are somewhat lower than those for girls of North-west European ancestry and of North American girls of European ancestry. PMID:596820

  2. Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial stratigraphy of southern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinao, José Luis; McDonald, Eric; Rhodes, Edward J.; Brown, Nathan; Barrera, Wendy; Gosse, John C.; Zimmermann, Susan

    2016-08-01

    A late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial stratigraphy has been established for the basins of La Paz and San José del Cabo, in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Six discrete alluvial units (Qt1 through Qt6) were differentiated across the region using a combination of geomorphologic mapping, sedimentological analysis, and soil development. These criteria were supported using radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic depth-profile geochronology. Major aggradation started shortly after ∼70 ka (Qt2), and buildup of the main depositional units ended at ∼10 ka (Qt4). After deposition of Qt4, increasing regional incision of older units and the progressive development of a channelized alluvial landscape coincide with deposition of Qt5 and Qt6 units in a second, incisional phase. All units consist of multiple 1-3 m thick alluvial packages deposited as upper-flow stage beds that represent individual storms. Main aggradational units (Qt2-Qt4) occurred across broad (>2 km) channels in the form of sheetflood deposition while incisional stage deposits are confined to channels of ∼0.5-2 km width. Continuous deposition inside the thicker (>10 m) pre-Qt5 units is demonstrated by closely spaced dates in vertical profiles. In a few places, disconformities between these major units are nevertheless evident and indicated by partly eroded buried soils. The described units feature sedimentological traits similar to historical deposits formed by large tropical cyclone events, but also include characteristics of upper-regime flow sedimentation not shown by historical sediments, like long (>10 m) wavelength antidunes and transverse ribs. We interpret the whole sequence as indicating discrete periods during the late Pleistocene and Holocene when climatic conditions allowed larger and more frequent tropical cyclone events than those observed historically. These discrete periods are associated with times when insolation at the tropics was

  3. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region. PMID:24647442

  4. Petroleum degradation and associated microbial signatures at the Chapopote asphalt volcano, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Florence; Lipp, Julius S.; Elvert, Marcus; Kasten, Sabine; Mollar, Xavier Prieto; Zabel, Matthias; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2011-08-01

    At the Chapopote Knoll in the Southern Gulf of Mexico, deposits of asphalt provide the substrate for a prolific cold seep ecosystem extensively colonized by chemosynthetic communities. This study investigates microbial life and associated biological processes within the asphalts and surrounding oil-impregnated sediments by analysis of intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs), petroleum hydrocarbons and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ 13C) of hydrocarbon gases. Asphalt samples are lightly to heavily biodegraded suggesting that petroleum-derived hydrocarbons serve as substrates for the chemosynthetic communities. Accordingly, detection of bacterial diester and diether phospholipids in asphalt samples containing finely dispersed gas hydrate suggests the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Biological methanogenesis contributes a substantial fraction to the methane captured as hydrate in the shallow asphalt deposits evidenced by significant depletion in 13C relative to background thermogenic methane. In sediments, petroleum migrating from the subsurface stimulates both methanogenesis and methanotrophy at a sulfate-methane transition zone 6-7 m below the seafloor. In this zone, microbial IPLs are dominated by archaeal phosphohydroxyarchaeols and archaeal diglycosidic diethers and tetraethers. Bacterial IPLs dominate surface sediments that are impregnated by severely biodegraded oil. In the sulfate-reduction zone, diagnostic IPLs indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in petroleum degradation. A diverse mixture of phosphohydroxyarchaeols and mixed phospho- and diglycosidic archaeal tetraethers in shallow oil-impregnated sediments point to the presence of anaerobic methane-oxidizing ANME-2 and ANME-1 archaea, respectively, or methanogens. Archaeal IPLs increase in relative abundance with increasing sediment depth and decreasing sulfate concentrations, accompanied by a shift of archaeol-based to tetraether-based archaeal IPLs. The

  5. Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  6. Boundary delimiting the area within which coal resources were calculated, southern Wasatch Plateau (wsbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage that outlines the area underlain by coals in the lower Blackhawk Formation, southern Wasatch Plateau coal assessment area. The...

  7. Devonian-Ordovician Magmatism in Chiapas Massif, Southern Maya Block, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa-Mera, V.; Schaaf, P.; Weber, B.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif (CM) is located in SE Mexico and extends over an area of more than 20,000 Km2 parallel to the Pacific coast between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Guatemalan border. It constitutes the largest batholitic complex in Mexico and belongs to the Maya Block. The CM is predominantly formed by igneous, metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks. In the central CM several magmatic and metamorphic events have been identified in igneous rocks between Late Permian and Triassic times (220-240 Ma), together with a Jurassic tectonothermal event. Recent geochronological studies have been focused on granitic rocks from the central-southeastern CM and from this area, single grain zircon ages were also obtained from metasedimentary rocks. The results suggest that the basement rocks of the eastern CM and the Maya Block underwent several tectonothermal events since Ordovician and Devonian times. In this work, we present new data of magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the easternmost part of CM which confirms this hypothesis. Additionally, we present a semi-detailed geological map of this area showing some field relationship between the different units. We identified a new basal sequence significantly older than the Santa Rosa Formation, which has been considered up to now as forming the major underlying sequence of the CM, as well as the occurrence of several magmatic events in the Maya Block and in rocks from surrounding areas. The petrological, geochemical and geochronological features of these rocks show continuous crust recycling, the occurrence of within-plate magmatism in some parts with inherited Greenvillian and Archaean zircon grains as well as the occurrence of arc magmatism previous to accretion, deformation and terrane separation of the crustal blocks. Our new geochronological results obtained from the south easternmost part of the CM include a Rb-Sr biotite-muscovite age of 392+/-9 Ma and an Ar-Ar muscovite age of 406+/- 4 Ma from a tectonized granitic

  8. April 2008 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an area...

  9. Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) activity, foraging and seed dispersal patterns in shaded cocoa plantations versus rainforest in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Diego A; Andresen, Ellen; Estrada, Alejandro; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that primates worldwide use agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Detailed information on how these primates are using these systems is scant, and yet their role as seed dispersers is often implied. The main objective of this study was to compare the activity, foraging patterns and seed dispersal role of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting shaded cocoa plantations and rainforest in southern Chiapas, Mexico. We gathered data on three monkey groups living in shaded cocoa plantations and three groups living in rainforest, using focal sampling, and collecting fecal samples. General activity and foraging patterns were similar in both habitats, with the exception that monkeys in the cocoa habitat spent more time feeding on petioles. Monkeys in shaded cocoa plantations dispersed 51,369 seeds (4% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 16 plant species. Monkeys in the rainforest dispersed 6,536 seeds (78% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 13 plant species. Our data suggest that the difference between habitats in the proportion of large versus small seeds dispersed reflects differences in fruit species abundance and availability in cocoa versus forest. Mean seed dispersal distances were statistically similar in both habitats (cocoa = 149 m, forest = 86 m). We conclude that the studied cocoa plantations provide all elements necessary to constitute a long-term permanent habitat for black howler monkeys. In turn, howler monkeys living in these plantations are able to maintain their functional role as seed dispersers for those native tree and liana species present within their areas of activities.

  10. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  11. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  12. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material.

  13. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  14. Mesquite encroachment impact on southern New Mexico rangelands: remote sensing and geographic information systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed H.; Holechek, Jerry L.; Bailey, Derek W.; Campbell, Carol L.; Demers, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) invasion can negatively impact grazing capacity, spatial livestock distribution, and forage production in Chihuahuan Desert rangelands. High spatial resolution remote sensing data can be used to develop maps of shrub encroachment for arid rangelands. The objective of this study was to map changes in honey mesquite abundance and to evaluate honey mesquite impacts on perennial grass production at the Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center in south-central New Mexico using high resolution satellite imagery. The project employed QuickBird ortho-ready satellite imagery with spatial resolution of 2.4 m in multispectral bands and panchromatic resolution of 0.6 m for the study area on May 19, 2009. We used a maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm to distinguish honey mesquite from other land cover categories. We then measured grass production (kg/ha) in May, 2009 on 10 permanent, evenly spaced key areas in each pasture. We identified 12×60 m plots from the classified map and used these to calculate honey mesquite canopy cover on the 40 transects across the study area. Areas classified as dominated by honey mesquite estimated from image analyses encompassed 143, 50, 92, and 136 hectares in pastures 1, 4, 14, and 15, respectively. Regression analyses showed that increasing levels of honey mesquite canopy cover corresponded to lower perennial grass forage production (r2 = 0.73, n = 40). Our findings indicate that classification of high-resolution satellite imagery is a very useful tool for mapping invasive shrubs and determining their influence on forage production in desert landscapes.

  15. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Soto, E U; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Valenzuela-Quintanar, A I; Félix-Fuentes, A; Grajeda-Cota, P; Balderas-Cortes, J J; Osorio-Rosas, C L; Acuña-García, G; Aguilar-Apodaca, M G

    2011-11-01

    Although, the Yaqui and Mayo valleys are the most important agricultural areas in Sonora, there is only limited data of the pesticides residue in soils in these valleys. This study measured the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 234 soil samples (residential and agricultural) from 24 communities. The global results (mean, range) indicated that benzene hexachloride (19.2, ND-938.5 μg g(-1)), endrin (6.6, ND-377.3 μg g(-1)) and DDTs (36.45, ND-679.7 μg g(-1)) were the dominant contaminants. Soil is one of the most important routes of exposure to OCPs in the population of southern Sonora and this study can be used to establish background levels of OCPs.

  16. Hydrogeochemical processes in ground water in a tropical karst environment of Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Sandra; Escolero, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    The karstic aquifers are of a great strategic importance in many regions along the world. These aquifers belong to carbonated formations which have been affected by fissuration and dissolution (karstification) processes. The specific organization of the flows in this type of aquifer determines the methodologies to be used in its exploration, although much still unknown about the processes occurring in tropical environments. This research has the overall aim to identify the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater in the Rio Grande Basin of Comitan, in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. In the Rio Grande Basin are delimited 54 sub-basins having an area of 6126.67 km2. The geology of the area is characterized by lithology dominated by Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Lower Cretaceous series, clastic and carbonate rocks limestone-dolomite type are the oldest. Another lithological association present in the area is limestone-shale. Consistent with the previous unit, a deposit of sediments consisting of shale, sandstone and limestone occurs. On these previous formations layers of siltstone and sandstone with interbedded limestone were deposited. Deep and shallow wells used to supply water to the population, were used to establish a monitoring network aimed at identifying the types of groundwater and the processes occurring in the karstic aquifer. For the development of this work was carried out sampling September 2014, where 50 sites used for groundwater extraction were sampled, of which 20 are deep wells and 30 shallow wells. The physicochemical parameters were measured in the field, while the chemical constituents were analyzed in the laboratory. The data obtained were drawn diagrams to identify hydrogeochemical facies of groundwater sampled, and contour maps of chemical content and some measured parameters. Likewise, the field data have been interpreted with the help of hydrogeochemical models to identify the processes that may be changing water quality in the

  17. [Specific bacterial diversity in bats of different food guilds in Southern sierra Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Mónica Marcela; Buenrostro, Alejandra; García, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    Specific bacterial diversity in bats of different food guilds in Southern sierra Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats have different ecologic roles in variable ecosystems that have been already described. They have been linked to several zoonoses, however little is known about the relationship between bat microbiota and their diet, and studies on the bacterial ecology of the microbiota in bats are limited. To contribute with the description of this important interaction between microbiota and host, the aim of this work was to characterize the composition and bacterial diversity in the oral and anal regions of 10 species of bats, in relation to food guild. For this monthly samplings were conducted using four mist nets (19:00-24:00h) from February to October 2012; nets were reviewed every 45 minutes. Each captured organism was sampled in the oral and anal cavities with sterile swabs; these were placed in pre-enrichment media and stored at 4°C. Bacterial samples were studied which through selective media, chromogenic and biochemical tests. We obtained samples from 502 frugivorous, 29 hematophagous and 11 nectivorous bats. We found a total of 26 bacterial species, with the predominant phylum Proteobacteria and the family Enterobacteriaceae. Statistically significant differences were observed between oral and anal microhabitats: frugivorous (t = -3.516, g.1 = 14.761, p = 0.003), hematophagous (t = -3.320, g.l = 19.262, p = 0.003), and nectivorous (t = -2.497, g.l = 11.933, p = 0.026), and in some guilds [frugivorous and nectivorous in the anal region (t = 2.274, g.l = 29.660, p = 0.030), hematophagous and nectivorous anal region (t = 2.077, g.l = 29.904, p = 0.049)]. It was also shown that there is bacteria specificity in some guilds such as nectivorous and frugivorous with Bacillus cereus, B. sp. X. sp., as well as, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Aeromonas hydrophyla in hematophagous. Bacterial presence can be explained by the type

  18. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  19. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Otero County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. New Mexico, 2010 Census Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area (CBSA) State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  2. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Stratigraphy, geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Oligocene magmatic rocks of western Oaxaca, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Barbara; Martínez-Serrano, Raymundo G.; Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Macías-Romo, Consuelo; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2000-03-01

    volcanic rocks, from 0.7042 to 0.7046 and 0 to +2.6. The range of these isotope ratios and those reported for the basement rocks in this region suggest a relatively low degree of old crustal involvement for most of the studied rocks. The Pb isotopic compositions of the Tertiary magmatic rocks also show a narrow range [( 206Pb/ 204Pb)=18.67-18.75; ( 207Pb/ 204Pb)=15.59-15.62; ( 208Pb/ 204Pb)=38.44-38.59], suggesting a similar source region for the volcanic and plutonic rocks. Trace elements and isotopic compositions suggest a mantle source in the subcontinental lithosphere that has been enriched by a subduction component. General tectonic features in this region indicate a more active rate of transtensional deformation for the inland volcanic region than along the coastal margin during the main events of Oligocene magmatism. The lower degree of differentiation of the inland volcanic sequences, particularly the upper unit of the northern sector, compared to the plutons of the coastal margin, suggests that the differentiation of the Tertiary magmas in southern Mexico was controlled to a great extent by the characteristics of the different strain domains.

  4. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  5. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  6. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  7. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation or danger markings must be installed as required by 33 CFR Subchapter C. (c) Special Conditions...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 166.200, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  8. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Evaluation of Environmental Hazard Assessment Procedures for Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (Abstract). To be presented at the Annual Meeting of the the Australasian Society of Ecotoxicology, July 2004, Gold Coast, Australia. 1 p. (ERL,GB R98...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Grant County, Central and Southern Parts, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  11. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chaves County, New Mexico, Southern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  14. Silvopastoral systems of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in southern Mexico: Strategies with a traditional basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, Ana Genoveva; Levy Tacher, Samuel Israel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Nahed Toral, José; González Espinosa, Mario; Rendón Carmona, Nelson

    2016-10-01

    Silvopastoral systems combine trees and/or shrubs with grazing cattle. In the municipality of Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico, some indigenous communities have developed silvopastoral systems based on their traditional knowledge regarding use of local natural resources. Through analysis of classification based on the composition of tree vegetation, two groups of grazing units were identified in the study area. Different attributes of tree and herbaceous vegetation, as well as of agricultural management and production, were compared between the two groups. Results indicate that at least two strategies of silvopastoral management exist. The first - LTD - is characterized by an average density of 22 adult trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 22.4 ha. The second - HTD - has an average of 54.4 trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 12.2 ha. Average richness per grazing unit for the LTD strategy was 7.2 species, and for HTD strategy it was 12.7 species. Average basal area for LTD was 1.7 m2 ha(-1), and for HTD 3.8 m2 ha(-1). Finally, the average level of fixed carbon for LTD was 2.12 mg ha(-1), and for HTD 4.89 mg ha(-1). For all variables, there was a significant difference between the two strategies. In addition, both strategies differ in prairie management. In the HTD strategy, growers spare their preferred spontaneously growing tree species by clearing around them. Many of these species, particularly those harvested for timber, belong to the original vegetation. In these prairies, average coverage of native grasses (60.8 ± 7.85) was significantly greater than in the LTD strategy (38.4 ± 11.32), and neither fertilizers nor fire are used to maintain or improve the pastures; by contrast, in HTD prairies, introduced grasses, principally Cynodon plectostachyus, have a higher average coverage (43.4 ± 13.75) than in the LTD prairies (17.08 ± 9.02). Regardless of the differences in composition of tree and

  15. Silvopastoral systems of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in southern Mexico: Strategies with a traditional basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, Ana Genoveva; Levy Tacher, Samuel Israel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Nahed Toral, José; González Espinosa, Mario; Rendón Carmona, Nelson

    2016-10-01

    Silvopastoral systems combine trees and/or shrubs with grazing cattle. In the municipality of Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico, some indigenous communities have developed silvopastoral systems based on their traditional knowledge regarding use of local natural resources. Through analysis of classification based on the composition of tree vegetation, two groups of grazing units were identified in the study area. Different attributes of tree and herbaceous vegetation, as well as of agricultural management and production, were compared between the two groups. Results indicate that at least two strategies of silvopastoral management exist. The first - LTD - is characterized by an average density of 22 adult trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 22.4 ha. The second - HTD - has an average of 54.4 trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 12.2 ha. Average richness per grazing unit for the LTD strategy was 7.2 species, and for HTD strategy it was 12.7 species. Average basal area for LTD was 1.7 m2 ha(-1), and for HTD 3.8 m2 ha(-1). Finally, the average level of fixed carbon for LTD was 2.12 mg ha(-1), and for HTD 4.89 mg ha(-1). For all variables, there was a significant difference between the two strategies. In addition, both strategies differ in prairie management. In the HTD strategy, growers spare their preferred spontaneously growing tree species by clearing around them. Many of these species, particularly those harvested for timber, belong to the original vegetation. In these prairies, average coverage of native grasses (60.8 ± 7.85) was significantly greater than in the LTD strategy (38.4 ± 11.32), and neither fertilizers nor fire are used to maintain or improve the pastures; by contrast, in HTD prairies, introduced grasses, principally Cynodon plectostachyus, have a higher average coverage (43.4 ± 13.75) than in the LTD prairies (17.08 ± 9.02). Regardless of the differences in composition of tree and

  16. An Exploratory Study of Internal Migration and Substance Use Among an Indigenous Community in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Sim, D Eastern Kang; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Luisa Zuñiga, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the association between internal migration experience within Mexico and lifetime substance use among a sample of 442 indigenous persons from Yucatan, Mexico. Adjusting for potential confounding, correlates of lifetime substance use were assessed among participants with and without internal migration experience. Internal migration to a tourist destination was independently associated with higher odds (adjusted odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-3.4) of reporting lifetime substance use. Findings suggest that environmental contexts of internal migration may be of importance in shaping vulnerability to substance use. PMID:26605952

  17. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  18. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  19. Ictioplancton del sur del Golfo de México: Un compendio Ichthyoplankton of the southern Gulf of Mexico: A compendium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Flores-Coto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El laboratorio de Zooplancton del Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la UNAM, ha estudiado por más de 25 años el ictioplancton del sur del Golfo de México. Los objetivos han sido determinar qué especies existen, dónde se distribuyen, cuál es su abundancia, qué comunidades forman, cuál es y a qué se debe su variación espacio-temporal. Se ha registrado la presencia de al menos 306 especies, 283 géneros y 120 familias de larvas de peces. La diversidad de especies y la abundancia de larvas aparecen como parámetros opuestos; la mayor densidad de organismos ocurre en áreas costeras y en plataforma media y disminuye hacia la zona oceánica; la diversidad en cambio es mayor en áreas oceánicas, al borde de la plataforma continental y se reduce hacia estaciones costeras. En general, la distribución de la abundancia de las larvas tiene un patrón recurrente y está determinada por las áreas y épocas de desove de las especies, por la disponibilidad de alimento y los procesos físicos, principalmente corrientes, descargas de agua continental y mezcla. La distribución de las larvas en la columna de agua parece depender del hábitat de sus adultos, aquellas cuyos adultos viven la zona costera se encuentran primordialmente en los primeros 30 m; las de origen oceánico ocupan generalmente capas con profundidades mayores a 50 m. Todas tienden a una mayor dispersión en la columna durante la noche. Se ha determinado la presencia recurrente de cuatro comunidades: a Costera, b Nerítica Interna, c Nerítica Externa y d Oceánica.The Zooplankton laboratory of the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, had studied for about 25 years the ichthyoplankton from the southern Gulf of Mexico. The objectives have been to determine which species exist, where are they distributed, their abundance, which communities form, how do they vary and why. It has been recorded the presence of at least 306 species, distributed on 283 genus and

  20. The role of climate and emission changes in future air quality over southern Canada and northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tagaris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Potential impacts of global climate and emissions changes on regional air quality over southern (western and eastern Canada and northern Mexico are examined by comparing future summers' (i.e., 2049–2051 average regional O3 and PM2.5 concentrations with historic concentrations (i.e., 2000–2002 summers. Air quality modeling was conducted using CMAQ and meteorology downscaled from the GISS-GCM using MM5. Emissions for North America are found using US EPA, Mexican and Canadian inventories and projected emissions following CAIR and IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Higher temperatures for all sub-regions and regional changes in mixing height, insolation and precipitation are forecast in the 2049–2051 period. Future emissions are calculated to be lower over both Canadian sub-regions, but higher over northern Mexico. Global climate change, alone, is predicted to affect PM2.5 concentrations more than O3: M8hO3 concentrations are estimated to be slightly different in all examined sub-regions while PM2.5 concentrations are estimated to be higher over both Canadian sub-regions (8% over western and 3% over eastern but 11% lower over northern Mexico. Climate change combined with the projected emissions lead to greater change in pollutant concentrations: M8hO3 concentrations are simulated to be 6% lower over western Canada and 8% lower over eastern Canada while PM2.5 concentrations are simulated to be 5% lower over western Canada and 11% lower over eastern Canada. Although future emissions over northern Mexico are projected higher, pollutant concentrations are simulated to be lower due to US emissions reductions. Global climate change combined with the projected emissions will decrease M8hO3 4% and PM2.5 17% over northern Mexico.

  1. A Community of Practice among Educators, Researchers and Scientists for Improving Science Teaching in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.; Lopez-Avila, Maria T.; Barrera-Bustillos, Maria E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a project aimed to improve the quality of science education in Southeast Mexico by the creation of a community of practice among scientists, researchers and teachers, involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of a professional development program for mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics secondary…

  2. Late Cretaceous dwarf decapods from Guerrero, southern Mexico and their migration patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, R.H.B.; Vega, F.J.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Garibay-Romero, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two new brachyuran species are described for the Upper Cretaceous Mexcala Formation, Guerrero State, Mexico. Longusorbis quadratus new species (Coniacian, Temalac region) is the oldest and southernmost record for the genus. Xanthosia zoquiapensis new species (Campanian, Zoquiapa region) is the first

  3. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Burke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: C. tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; C. ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; C. gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and C. mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated.

  4. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  5. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Haliotrematoides spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of grunts (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Reyes-Lizama, C; González-Solís, D

    2009-12-01

    One previously described species, Haliotrema striatohamus Zhukov, 1981, found off the coast of Cuba and Campeche (Gulf of Mexico), is redescribed and transferred to Haliotrematoides Kritsky, Yang and Sun, 2009, as Haliotrematoides striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. This transfer is based on the study of new specimens of this species found in the gill lamellae of grunts, i.e., Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier, Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède), and Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) (Haemulidae), all from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico. In addition, another previously described species, Haliotrema brevispirocirrus Zhukov, 1981 from Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus) from Havana, Cuba, is also transferred to Haliotrematoides based on the comparative morphology of its original description. Data are provided for prevalence and mean intensity as well as for the morphologic and biometric variability of H. striatohamus from different hosts. The new replacement of H. striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. and H. brevispirocirrus (Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. infecting these taxa represents the first known species of Haliotrematoides on these fishes and new geographical records for these dactylogyrid monogenoids. PMID:19463040

  7. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  8. Bacterial symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels and Escarpia tubeworms from Chapopote, an asphalt seep in the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, L; Schubotz, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Dubilier, N; Petersen, J M

    2013-07-01

    Chemosynthetic life was recently discovered at Chapopote, an asphalt hydrocarbon seep in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Preliminary morphological analyses indicated that one tubeworm and two mussel species colonize Chapopote. Our molecular analyses identified the tubeworm as Escarpia sp., and the mussels as Bathymodiolus heckerae and B. brooksi. Comparative 16S rRNA analysis and FISH showed that all three species harbour intracellular sulfur-oxidizing symbionts highly similar or identical to those found in the same host species from northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM). The mussels also harbour methane-oxidizing symbionts, and these shared highly similar to identical 16S rRNA sequences to their nGoM conspecifics. We discovered a novel symbiont in B. heckerae, which is closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria of the genus Cycloclasticus. In B. heckerae, we found key genes for the use of aromatic compounds, and its stable carbon isotope values were consistently higher than B. brooksi, indicating that the novel symbiont might use isotopically heavy aromatic hydrocarbons from the asphalt seep. This discovery is particularly intriguing because until now only methane and reduced sulfur compounds have been shown to power cold-seep chemosynthetic symbioses. The abundant hydrocarbons available at Chapopote would provide these mussel symbioses with a rich source of nutrition. PMID:23279012

  9. Temperature anomaly in the volcano Popocatepetl area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsarenko, A.; Grimalsky, V.; Yutsis, V.; Lavana Cardenas, J. C.; Chavez, O.; Sojo-Amezquita, A., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Anomaly changes in the diurnal behavior of the temperature measured in the near-surface soil (30-40 cm) in Tlamacas monitoring site, volcano Popocatepetl area, are presented. Results of statistical analysis show 2 essential changes for the temperature characteristics observed during 2007-2009 and 2013-2014 monitoring periods: 1.) Minimum and maximum of the diurnal temperature have moved approximately to the 14 LT and to midnight, 24 LT, respectively (Fig 1., c). Under the "normal" condition, the absolute minimum of daily temperature is observed during sunrise (about 7 LT) for the atmosphere measurements and with certain time lag (about 9 LT, Fig.1,b) for the measurements in soil (depending on the depth), and absolute temperature maximum is observed in time when Solar radiation is not enough to provide heating of the atmosphere (about 16 LT) or the Earth surface (about 17 LT, Fig.1,b). Dispersion of the residual temperature (24-hours running trend of the temperature substituted) is 6 times lower for the period of monitoring 2013-2014 (Fig.1, g and h) in comparison with a period 2007-2009 (Fig.1, e and f). In other words, a temperature variation between the maximum and minimum during the day became 6 times lower that it was before.

  10. [Acceptability of medroxyprogesterone acetate in rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Murillo, V; Cervantes Bustamante, A; Correu Azcona, S; García López, E

    1981-03-01

    361 retrospective surveys were carried out among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) given in a trimestral regimen of 150 mg/dose in rural areas of 3 Mexican states. Gynecology-obstetric antecedents, previous experience with oral contraceptives (OCs), effects of injections on the menstrual cycle, causes of method suspension, and opinion concerning administration of medication were analyzed. 78.6% of the patients were multigravidae with 4 or more pregnancies; 39.1% were former users of OCs, and 23.4% had stopped taking them because of side effects. The side effects of MPA on the menstrual cycle were: amenorrhea (19.8%); hemorrhage/cycle of 10-30 days in 14.7%; and hemorrhage/cycle of 30 or more days in 11.6%. Only 14.7% of users stopped the injections and of these, 80.3% did so due to menstrual cycle disorders. 99.7% of the users thought the method was comfortable as a family planning procedure. (author's) PMID:6459270

  11. Can Continental Shelf River Plumes in the Northern and Southern Gulf of Mexico Promote Ecological Resilience in a Time of Climate Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paul Kemp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deltas and estuaries built by the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River (MAR in the United States and the Usumacinta/Grijalva River (UGR in Mexico account for 80 percent of all Gulf of Mexico (GoM coastal wetlands outside of Cuba. They rank first and second in freshwater discharge to the GoM and owe their natural resilience to a modular geomorphology that spreads risk across the coast-scape while providing ecosystem connectivity through shelf plumes that connect estuaries. Both river systems generate large plumes that strongly influence fisheries production over large areas of the northern and southern GoM continental shelves. Recent watershed process simulations (DLEM, MAPSS driven by CMIP3 General Circulation Model (GCM output indicate that the two systems face diverging futures, with the mean annual discharge of the MAR predicted to increase 11 to 63 percent, and that of the UGR to decline as much as 80 percent in the 21st century. MAR delta subsidence rates are the highest in North America, making it particularly susceptible to channel training interventions that have curtailed a natural propensity to shift course and deliver sediment to new areas, or to refurbish zones of high wetland loss. Undoing these restrictions in a controlled way has become the focus of a multi-billion-dollar effort to restore the MAR delta internally, while releasing fine-grained sediments trapped behind dams in the Great Plains has become an external goal. The UGR is, from an internal vulnerability standpoint, most threatened by land use changes that interfere with a deltaic architecture that is naturally resilient to sea level rise. This recognition has led to successful efforts in Mexico to protect still intact coastal systems against further anthropogenic impacts, as evidenced by establishment of the Centla Wetland Biosphere Preserve and the Terminos Lagoon Protected Area. The greatest threat to the UGR system, however, is an external one that will be imposed by the

  12. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  13. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF MICROENTREPRENEURS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO CITY: INFLUENCE OF APPRECIATED LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Arcelia López-Cabello; María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo; Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2015-01-01

    The strategies of family reproduction are various ways in which families cope with the problems of everyday life, where the preservation of life and development of essential economic practices is ensured to optimize the material and non-material conditions of the family unit and of each of its members. Through in-depth interviews it was learned how some microentrepreneurs in Mexico City, have used their knowledge appreciated to implement various business generates economic resources to surviv...

  14. Animations and modeling of the 2012 slow slip event beneath southern Mexico and the accompanying 20 March 2012 Mw=7.4 Ometepec earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, S. E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Cotte, N.; Radiguet, M.; Walpersdorf, A.; Santiago, J.; Brudzinski, M. R.; McCaffrey, R.; DeMets, C.

    2012-12-01

    We model continuous GPS observations of a slow slip event (SSE) beneath southern Mexico, spanning late-2011 to mid-2012, to evaluate whether it had a spatial and/or temporal relationship with the 20 March 2012 Mw=7.4 subduction earthquake beneath the Oaxaca-Guerrero border. Although ~10 SSEs have been recorded beneath the southern Mexico subduction zone since the late 1990s, the 2012 SSE was the first to coincide with a large subduction thrust earthquake. Resolving the relationship between SSE and seismogenesis, if any, is critical given the vulnerability of much of southern and central Mexico, including Mexico City, to large earthquakes in the Guerrero seismic gap. Preliminary modeling of coseismic offsets measured at 22 continuous GPS sites operating during the 20 March earthquake indicates two slip patches centered at ~18 and ~ 25 km depth, spanning approximately 15-30 km depth along the plate interface, with an average slip of 1 m, maximum slip of 3.8 m, and seismic moment 1.46E20 N m (Mw=7.38). An animation of the observed SSE and earthquake will be presented, as will best-fitting slip distributions and stress change calculations to test the triggering hypothesis. Time permitting, animations of previous SSEs will also be presented to highlight the differences between shallower, larger magnitude SSEs beneath Guerrero and deeper, smaller magnitude SSEs beneath Oaxaca.

  15. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s). PMID:26397475

  16. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s).

  17. 77 FR 40376 - Outer Continental Shelf, Oil and Gas Lease Sales in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (76 FR 14040). The March 2011 Call identified the area under... the Multipurpose Marine Cadastre (MMC) Web site for the Gulf of Mexico. You can ] view the...

  18. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  19. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  20. 77 FR 40380 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231...

  1. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  2. Continuation, south of Oaxaca City (southern Mexico) of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and of the Oaxaca Fault. Based in MT, gravity and magnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Belmonte-Jimenez, S.; Arango-Galván, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone constituting the boundary-suture between the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes (southern Mexico). South of Oaxaca City, the fault trace disappears and there are not clear evidences for its southward continuation at depth. The crust in southern México has been studied through seismic refraction, and seismological and magnetotelluric (MT) studies. The refraction studies did not image the Oaxaca Fault. However, previous regional MT studies suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary lies to the east of the Zaachila and Mitla sub-basins, which implies sinistral displacement along the Donaji Fault. Campos-Enriquez et al. (2009) established the shallow structure of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary based in detailed gravity and magnetic studies. This study enabled: 1) to establish the shallow structure of the composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. According to the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. At the same time,, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of a horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. This model implies that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault. A constraint for the accreation of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes. Thirty MT soundings were done in the area of the Central Valleys, Oaxaca City (southern Mexico). In particular we wanted to image the possible southward continuation of the Oaxaca Fault. 22 Mt sounding are located along two NE-SW profiles to the northern and to the south of the City of Oaxaca. To the north of Oaxaca City, the electrical resistivity distribution obtained show a clear discontinuity across the superficial trace of the Oaxaca

  3. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  4. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti

    2014-01-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that o...

  5. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  6. An Indo-Pacific damselfish well established in the southern Gulf of Mexico: prospects for a wider, adverse invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, D. Ross; Simoes, Nuno; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Carla; PIÑEROS, VICTOR J.; Perez-España, Horacio; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-west Pacific damselfish Neopomacentrus cyanomos was first recorded in the West Atlantic in 2013, when it was found to be common on reefs near Coatzacoalcos, in the extreme southwest corner Gulf of Mexico. During 2014–2015, this species also was found on reefs farther afield in that area, but not in the northwest Gulf, nor the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula. These data, and information from public databases on invasive reef fishes, indicate that N. cya...

  7. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  8. Gravity and magnetic survey of the Oaxaca city region: Cenozoic horst-and-graben structure superimposed on the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Arzate, J. A.; Martínez-Silva, J.; Martínez-Serrano, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    A geophysical survey of the Oaxaca Fault along the north-trending Etla and Zaachila valleys area, southern Mexico, shows a series of NNW-SSE Bouguer and magnetic anomalies with steeper gradients towards the east. The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone that constitutes the boundary between the Oaxaca and Juárez terranes. Cooperative interpretation of six combined gravity and magnetic NE-SW profiles perpendicular to the valleys indicates the presence of a composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. The Etla sub-basin is bounded by the moderately E-dipping, Etla Fault and the more steeply W-dipping Oaxaca Fault, which together constitute a graben that continues southwards into the Atzompa graben. The deeper Zaachila sub-basin, south of Oaxaca city, is a wide V-shaped graben with a horst in the middle. The new geophysical data suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. On the other hand, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of the horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. The sinistral movement may have taken place either during the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic, Laramide Orogeny as a lateral ramp in the thrust plane or under Miocene-Pliocene, NE-SW extension. The former suggests that the Donají Fault is a transcurrent fault, whereas the latter implies that it is a transfer fault. The models imply that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault and provide a constraint for the accretion of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes.

  9. Short-Term Economic Impact of New Mexico State University at Grants on the Cibola County Service Area. A Report to the Citizens of Cibola County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Ron; And Others

    A study was conducted by the Grants Campus of New Mexico State University to determine the campus' economic impact on its service area. Data from the 1993-94 academic year were gathered from state, county, and institutional reports, and surveys conducted of students and college employees. Economic data were analyzed on three levels: level I funds,…

  10. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio-Mejía Lina Sofía

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural. RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year. On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5. Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population. CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.

  11. Assessing morphological, climatic and structural factors controlling water discharge and sediment load of rivers flowing from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to the Pacific Coast (Southern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC) is a steep mountain range located in the south-western part of Mexico with elevations higher than 2000 m. The SMC is ~30 km off the Pacific Coast and it is oriented parallel to the coast. The annual rainfall exceeds 6 m and most of this takes place during summer season when low-pressure systems and cyclones are frequent. The rivers in SMC incise into the granite and transport large volumes of sediment. Even though rivers can be regarded as bedrock bedrock channels these suddenly change to alluvial-type rivers when these flow in the coastal plain which is ~10 km from the headwater of rivers. There are not data available of the sediment yield of rivers, however, the well-broad coastal plain and the wide continental shelf suggest that the sediment transport from the mountain area to the lowlands is significantly high. Here we assess the main morphological, climatic and structural factors controlling water discharge and sediment load of the rivers flowing from the SMC to the Pacific Coast by means of (1) topographical analysis on a high-resolution DEM, (2) grain-size and OSL analysis on sediment extracted from the riverbed of the main rivers and (3) time-series analysis from the available data of sediment discharge and sediment load. Our results indicate that the river incision and sediment transport is particularly high at the southern sector of the SMC where the topographic and climatic factors promote higher erosion rates.

  12. Assessing sedimentation rates at Usumacinta and Grijalva river basin (Southern Mexico) using OSL and suspended sediment load analysis: A study from the Maya Classic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Sanderson, D.; Kinnaird, T.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2013-12-01

    Studying sedimentation rates on floodplains is key to understanding environmental changes occurred through time in river basins. The Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers flow most of their travel through the southern part of Mexico, forming a large river basin, crossing the states of Chiapas and Tabasco. The Usumacinta-Grijalva River Basin is within the 10 major rivers of North America, having a basin area of ~112 550 km2. We use the OSL technique for dating two sediment profiles and for obtaining luminescence signals in several sediment profiles located in the streambanks of the main trunk of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers. We also use mean annual values of suspended sediment load spanning ~50 years to calculate the sedimentation rates. Our OSL dating results start from the 4th Century, when the Maya Civilization was at its peak during the Classic Period. Sedimentation rates show a notable increase at the end of the 19th Century. The increase of the sedimentation rates seems to be related to changes in land uses in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Altos de Chiapas, based on deforestation and land clearing for developing new agrarian and pastoral activities. We conclude that the major environmental change in the basin of the Usumacinta and Grijalva Rivers since the Maya Classic Period was generated since the last Century as a result of an intense anthropogenic disturbance of mountain rain forest in Chiapas.

  13. A suggested local regions in the Southern Gulf of Mexico using a diatom database (1979-2002) and oceanic hidrographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licea, Sergio; Zamudio, Ma E; Moreno-Ruiz, J L; Luna, R

    2011-07-01

    A diatom data-base of 255 species obtained from 14 oceanographic cruises (14801 entries of 647 sampling sites) together with the analysis of oceanic features were used to establish four local regions in the southern Gulf of Mexico. In addition, common species for each region were designated. This study is based on the application of cluster analysis and the species frequency data. Material for this undertaking consisted of water and net samples obtained between June 1979 and December 2002. Results show that the most frequent species (> 40%) were: Asterionellopsis glacialis, Bacteriastrum delicatulum, B. hyalinum, Chaetoceros affinis, C. coarctatus, C. compresus, C. curvisetus, C. danicus, C. decipiens, C. diversus, C. lorenzianus, C. pelagicus, C. peruvianus, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Cylindrotheca closterium, Guinardia flaccida, Hemiaulus hauckii, H. membranaceus, H. sinensis, Leptocylindrus danicus, Neocalyptrella robusta, Nitzschia bicapitata, Pleurosigma diverse-striatum, Proboscia alata, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, Rhizosolenia imbricata, R. setigera, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema bacillare, T frauenfeldii, T nitzschioides and Thalassiosira eccentrica. The species composition for each region and season are discussed. Itis concluded that sampling site assemblages are related to oceanographic conditions. A total list of species composition is given, forty-seven species taxa being new records for this area. PMID:22315823

  14. Nano particles as the primary cause for long-term sunlight suppression at high southern latitudes following the Chicxulub impact - evidence from ejecta deposits in Belize and Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajda, Vivi; Ocampo, Adriana; Ferrow, Embaie;

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth was sharply disrupted 66 Ma ago as an asteroid hit the sea-floor in what is today Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Approximately 600 km3 of sedimentary rock were vapourized, ejected into the atmosphere and subsequently deposited globally as an ejecta apron and fallout layer. Proximal ejecta...... deposits occur in Belize and southern Mexico where the so called Albion island spheroid bed is superimposed on the target rock (the Barton Creek Formation). We analysed the spheroid bed via Mössbauer spectroscopy, petrology, XRD, and palynology at several sites ~ 350-500 km distance from the crater centre....... Our results show that the relative concentrations of Fe in nano-phase goethite (α-FeOOH) are very high in the spheroid bed samples from Albion Island (Belize) and from Ramonal South (Mexico), but are low to absent in the spheroid bed at Ramonal North, and in the Cretaceous target rock. Moreover, our...

  15. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  16. 77 FR 51568 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231 (WPA/CPA Supplemental EIS) (77 FR 40380). Due to a BOEM... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of...

  17. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF MICROENTREPRENEURS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO CITY: INFLUENCE OF APPRECIATED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcelia López-Cabello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of family reproduction are various ways in which families cope with the problems of everyday life, where the preservation of life and development of essential economic practices is ensured to optimize the material and non-material conditions of the family unit and of each of its members. Through in-depth interviews it was learned how some microentrepreneurs in Mexico City, have used their knowledge appreciated to implement various business generates economic resources to survive, but also have inherited the children. Technical and family secrets on how to make some product knowledge are transmitted from generation to generation, and part of the heritage of a family, becoming livelihood strategies.

  18. Metals in the caudal scutes of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillanes, C E; Pérez-Jiménez, J C; Rosíles-Martínez, R; González-Jáuregui, M

    2014-10-01

    Caudal scutes were collected from 92 Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) between May and August 2012, in three Wildlife Management and Use Units (UMAs, from its name in Spanish) and three wild sites in Campeche, Mexico. The UMAs are intensive, with an ex situ approach to manage crocodiles in captivity. The concentrations of arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium were analyzed in each sample. As and Pb were detected in all samples, Hg in 86 and Ni in 74. The metal concentrations estimated were higher than most of the concentrations reported for skin, tail tip and caudal scutes in other crocodilians around the world. The concentration of As, Pb and Ni was significantly greater in the free-ranging groups than in the captive groups in UMAs (p moreletii is exposed to metals contamination and more studies are necessary to establish if represents a risk to their populations. PMID:25134925

  19. Rapid suppression of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in two communities of the Southern Chiapas focus, Mexico, achieved by quarterly treatments with Mectizan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Lutzow-Steiner, Miguel A; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Lizarazo-Ortega, Cristian; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Richards, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Hernández-Hernández, Raymundo

    2008-08-01

    The impact of quarterly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatments on transmission, microfiladermia, and ocular lesions was evaluated in two formerly hyperendemic communities (Las Golondrinas and Las Nubes II) located in the main endemic focus for onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. The data suggest that Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been suppressed after elimination of microfiladermia in these two communities. Increasing the frequency of Mectizan treatment to four times per year appears to have resulted in the rapid suppression of transmission in communities with residual transmission.

  20. Efficacy and non-target impact of spinosad, Bti and temephos larvicides for control of Anopheles spp. in an endemic malaria region of southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marina, Carlos F; Bond, J. Guillermo; Muñoz, José; Valle, Javier; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background The larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of Anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. Effects on non-target insects were also determined. Methods A field trial was performed in replicated temporary pools during the rainy season, in southern Mexico. Pools were treated with 10 ppm a.i. spinosad (Tracer 480SC), Bti granules applied at 2 kg/ha (VectoBac WDG, ABG-...

  1. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae) from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    František Moravec; Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado; Juan M Caspeta-Mandujano

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo) (Atherinopsidae) of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically...

  2. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and associated culicidae fauna in a urban area of southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J; da Silva, M A; Borsato, A M; de Oliveira, V D; Oliveira, F J

    1993-10-01

    Some aspects of the ecology of eleven species of Culicidae that were found breeding in recipients in an urban area of Southern Brazil are presented. A great variety of recipients were listed as efficient breeding sites. Apparently Aedes aegypti has been recently introduced into the region and was limited to two areas of the city. Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, Ae. aegypti, Ae. fluviatilis e Limatus durhamii were the predominant species.

  3. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Salvatore Faugno; Stefania Pindozzi; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2010-01-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European D...

  4. Distribution pattern of picoplankton carbon biomass linked to mesoscale dynamics in the southern gulf of Mexico during winter conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, Lorena; Lara-Lara, Rubén; Camacho-Ibar, Víctor; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Bazán-Guzmán, Carmen; Ferreira-Bartrina, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    In order to characterize the carbon biomass spatial distribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton populations linked to mesoscale dynamics, an investigation over an extensive open-ocean region of the southern Gulf of Mexico (GM) was conducted. Seawater samples from the mixed layer were collected during wintertime (February-March 2013). Picoplankton populations were counted and sorted using flow cytometry analyses. Carbon biomass was assessed based on in situ cell abundances and conversion factors from the literature. Approximately 46% of the total picoplankton biomass was composed of three autotrophic populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and pico-eukaryotes), while 54% consisted of heterotrophic bacteria populations. Prochlorococcus spp. was the most abundant pico-primary producer (>80%), and accounted for more than 60% of the total pico-autotrophic biomass. The distribution patterns of picoplankton biomass were strongly associated with the mesoscale dynamics that modulated the hydrographic conditions of the surface mixed layer. The main features of the carbon distribution pattern were: (1) the deepening of picoplankton biomass to layers closer to the nitracline base in anticyclonic eddies; (2) the shoaling of picoplankton biomass in cyclonic eddies, constraining the autoprokaryote biomasses to the upper layers, as well as accumulating the pico-eukaryote biomass in the cold core of the eddies; and (3) the increase of heterotrophic bacteria biomass in frontal regions between counter-paired anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Factors related to nutrient preferences and light conditions may as well have contributed to the distribution pattern of the microbial populations. The findings reveal the great influence of the mesoscale dynamics on the distribution of picoplankton populations within the mixed layer. Moreover, the significance of microbial components (especially Prochlorococcus) in the southern GM during winter conditions was revealed

  5. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  6. Spatial risk for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Rion

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an indicator for evaluating accessibility to improved health care services. We constructed spatially smoothed risk maps for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China comprising both urban and rural areas and identified ecological factors of gender-specific mortality across societies. Results The study analyzed the data of the Hechi Prefecture in southern in China. An average of 124,204 people lived in the area during the study period (2002–2004. Individual level data for 2002–2004 were grouped using identical rectangular cells (regular lattice of 0.25 km2. Poisson regression was fitted to the group level data to identify gender-specific ecological factors of adult (ages 15– Conclusion We found a disparity in mortality rates between rural and urban areas in the study area in southern China, especially for adult men. There were also differences in mortality rates between poorer and wealthy populations in both rural and urban areas, which may in part reflect differences in health care quality. Spatial influences upon adult male versus adult female mortality difference underscore the need for more research on gender-related influences on adult mortality in China.

  7. The Festival of San Gregorio Atlapulco, Mexico. Play area cultural and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Landázuri Benítez

    2012-01-01

    In the middle of a crisis in Mexican’s rural area, native communities located in the southern part of México City find an alternative in cultural resistance and in the recuperation of historic, economic, natural and cultural heritage.In particular, there is a contrast between religious feasts and the current historical moment, where Mexican situation is often characterized through poverty, unemployment, insecurity and social dislocation.In the village of San Gregorio Atlapulco, the celebratio...

  8. Left-lateral transtension along the Tierra Colorada deformation zone, northern margin of the Xolapa magmatic arc of southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riller, U.; Ratschbacher, L.; Frisch, W.

    1992-05-01

    Structural analysis of steeply NNW-dipping tectonites along the northern margin of the Xolapa magmatic arc, southern Mexico, reveals progressive deformation involving ductile and brittle deformation mechanisms. Ductile deformation detached Cretaceous cover rocks from the Xolapa basement along a crustal-scale mylonite zone with normal fault geometry. Normal faults dissected the mylonite zone into blocks which rotated a minimum of 35° to the north. Stress tensors calculated from fault-striae data show subhorizontal, roughly N/S-trending principal extension. Deformation resulted from differential uplift of the Xolapa magmatic arc with respect to its northern hinterland (Mixteca terrane). The oblique normal fault geometry of the mylonites conforms with strike-slip and dip-slip movements along the faults. Left-lateral transtension commenced ductilely between 90 Ma (age of deformed cover rocks) and 34 Ma (U/Pb zircon age of an undeformed pluton cutting the mylonite zone) and continued brittlely into the late Tertiary (tilted Miocene volcanic rocks). We argue that deformation resulted from the interaction of a left-lateral strike-slip regime established during formation of the Caribbean, and an extensional collapse of the Xolapa magmatic arc resulting from a change in steady-state plate-boundary conditions in the early Tertiary.

  9. Seismicity in the Raton Basin of Southern Colorado and Northern New Mexico, USA, as Recorded by a Local Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macartney, H.

    2013-12-01

    Microseismic events (southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, USA, over a period of 18 months following the occurrence of a 5.3 magnitude event near Trinidad CO in August, 2011. Micro-seismicity was observed in the region, concentrated in six clusters at depths of 6-12 km below the surface, deep in the basement, and 4-10 km below zones used for fluid disposal from an overlying coalbed methane natural gas field. Clusters are separated from disposal zones by large aseismic intervals. The clusters are mixed in character; both planar and elongate amorphous swarms, some continually active and some as short-lived bursts, with larger initial events tending to occur deeper and smaller after-shocks propagating upward and away from the nucleating events. Magnitudes range between 0 and 3, with the vast majority being less than 1.5M. Most of the clusters have no disposal wells above and no seismic activity was correlated with changes in fluid disposal. No seismicity was detected from hydraulic fracturing operations.

  10. Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area: Influence of the transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The troposphere is subject to continuous inputs, production and removal processes of ozone and its precursors from natural processes and human activities acting together within a very complex system. In order to assess the behaviour of background ozone in the Mediterranean area, a description of trends, seasonal and diurnal behaviours of free tropospheric ozone is provided. In the Mediterranean area and southern Europe the background tropospheric ozone concentration appears significantly affected by three main air mass transport processes: (i) transport of polluted air masses on regional and long-range scales, (ii) downward transport of stratospheric air masses, and (iii) transport of mineral dust from the Sahara desert. In this review of the literature of the last two decades, we present an overview of these phenomena, mainly monitored at high baseline mountain stations representative of background atmospheric conditions. - How background ozone is influenced by vertical and horizontal transport processes in the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area.

  11. Tectonic control of the damaged areas by land subsidence: Ameca, Jalisco Mexico, a study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Malagon, A.; Maciel, R.; Alatorre, M. A.; Perez, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), one of the largest mexican volcanic arcs built on the North America plate, covers about 1000 km along central Mexico from the Pacific ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The structure of west-central Mexico is dominated by a complex assemblage of crustal blocks bounded by major tectonic structures of the TMVB. These are the NW-SE Tepic-Zacoalco, the N-S Colima, and the E-W Chapala grabens, which separate the Jalisco and Michoacan blocks from the stable North American plate. The three grabens join south of Guadalajara to form what has been long interpreted as an active triple junction. The Tepic-Zacoalco rift is composed of the eastern part of the Plan de Barrancas-Santa Rosa graben and by the Ameca and Zacoalco half-grabens. The Ameca city is located in the Ameca half-graben. From 80´s several houses and buildings (more than 300) have been affected by land subsidence for more than two decades. The damage area follows a specific pattern with NW trend which is similar to the regional faults. The land subsidence is associated with the water extraction. We suggest that the distribution of the damage area is controlled by the fault system in combination with the water extraction. Because of the Ameca half-graben has been affected by historical and present day earthquakes and considering the subsurface geology (sandstones, siltstone intercalated with conglomerates) sudden collapses can be expected.

  12. Multilevel Governance for Forests and Climate Change: Learning from Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Rantala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ involves global and national policy measures as well as effective action at the landscape scale across productive sectors. Multilevel governance (MLG characterizes policy processes and regimes of cross-scale and cross-sector participation by multiple public and private actors for improved legitimacy and effectiveness of policy. We examine multilevel, multi-actor engagement in REDD+ planning in Quintana Roo, Mexico, to find out how local perspectives align with the national policy approach to REDD+ as an integrating element of holistic rural development at territorial scale, and how current practices support procedurally legitimate MLG required to implement it. We find that there is wide conceptual agreement on the proposed approach by a variety of involved actors, in rejection of the business-as-usual sectoral interventions. Its implementation, however, is challenged by gaps in horizontal and vertical integration due to strong sectoral identities and hierarchies, and de facto centralization of power at the federal level. Continued participation of multiple government and civil society actors to contribute to social learning for locally appropriate REDD+ actions is likely to require a more balanced distribution of resources and influence across levels. Meaningfully engaging and ensuring the representation of local community interests in the process remains a critical challenge.

  13. Dinosaur Footprints in Lower Cretaceous Beds in San Juan Raya, Southern Mexico and the Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves, D.

    2008-12-01

    Dinosaur footprints were traced at San Juan Raya, an important site in Mexico, a world fossil site. This site is found at South-west of the State of Puebla, within the Biosphere Reserve of Tehuacan-Cuitcatlán, to the southwest of the Tehuacan valley. These footprints were recorded by tracing them on transparent paper at Barranca Agua Nueva, at point 18°18.56´N 97°37´W. Using Jacob´s staff a stratigraphic register was generated from 50 m ascending and descending in stratigraphically direction from the bed where footprints were founded. Bivalbes, nerineas, shell fragments, and trigonias were founded in this sequence as well as cross bedding of clays and fine grain sand, some which display ripples. Fifty two footprints were recorded and five different tracks identified, observing two different sizes. The tracks of dinosaur footprints present the common Teropode ichnites. The succession where dinosaur footprints have been found, are interpreted as a peritidal environment. This investigation contributes to an eco-tourism project of San Juan Raya.

  14. Regional variations of seismic attenuation of Lg waves in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DomíNguez, Tonatiuh; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Castro, Raúl R.

    1997-12-01

    Attenuation of Lg waves is estimated using 61 events located in the subduction zone of the Middle American trench and recorded by the seismic network of Laguna Verde, Veracruz, Mexico. We estimate the anelastic attenuation coefficient γ of Lg waves or, equivalently, QLg by calculating the rate of acceleration spectra decay with distance. We consider paths from two regions: Guerrero-Veracruz (NE-SW direction) and Oaxaca-Veracruz (North-South direction). Assuming a frequency dependence of γ of the form γ(ƒ) = γ0ƒη, we find that η=0.175±0.05 for both regions and that γ0 was lower for paths from Guerrero to Veracruz (γ0=0.0071±0.002) than for paths from Oaxaca to Veracruz (γ0=0.0161±0.003) in the frequency range from 2 to 7 Hz. In terms of the quality factor QLg, values of QLg= 134±30ƒ0.83±0.2 and QLg=59±10ƒ0.81±0.2 were found for the Guerrero-Veracruz and the Oaxaca-Veracruz paths, respectively. This difference in attenuation may be due to the state of stresses that prevails in both regions including the density and fluid content of fractures, which are attenuation mechanisms also suggested for other regions [Mitchell, 1995].

  15. Time-lapse seismic study of levees in southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Sonora, Mexico, source for the Eocene Poway Conglomerate of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Patrick L.; Smith, T. E.

    1989-04-01

    Alluvial-fan conglomerates of the Eocene Poway Group are composed largely of exotic rhyolite and dacite clasts derived from far to the east of their Eocene depositional site. Remnants of the Upper Jurassic bedrock source of the Poway rhyolite clasts may yet be exposed in hills in Sonora, Mexico. For this study, pieces of bedrock were taken from hills 13 km west of El Plomo in Sonora. Clasts texturally and mineralogically similar to the Sonoran bedrock were collected from the apex of the Eocene alluvial fan in San Diego County, California Nine couplets of bedrock and conglomerate clast samples (textural twins) were analyzed for 16 trace elements selected for their wide range of behaviors during magmatic and alteration processes. Statistical comparisons of the trace-element data, by using the standard error-of-the-difference method, show that there are no significant differences between the two populations. These data strongly suggest that the rhyolitic bedrock hills west of El Plomo were part of the source terrane for the Eocene conglomerate in San Diego. The latitudinal separation between bedrock source and the site of deposition is only the 2° created by the opening of the Gulf of California This implies that any boundary separating a paleomagnetically efined, Baja-Borderland terrane from the craton since Eocene time was at least 100 km east of the Gulf of California in northernmost Sonora.

  17. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  18. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  19. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Anita G.; Poole, Forrest G.; Repetski, John E.

    2003-12-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest.

  20. Vertical dipoles to detect self potential signals in a seismic area of southern Italy: Tito station

    OpenAIRE

    G. Colangelo; V. Lapenna; L. Telesca

    2005-01-01

    Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy) installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with lo...

  1. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite fur...

  2. Competitiveness of Southern Metropolitan Areas: The Role of New Economy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dudensing, Rebekka M.; Barkley, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of regional competitiveness is increasingly popular among academics and policymakers as indicated by reports that rank or grade regional economies. Competitiveness in these studies generally is measured by growth rates in population, employment, and per capita income. This paper explores the relationships between New Economy development policies (innovation, entrepreneurship, and human capital development) and changes in competitiveness outcomes for Southern metropolitan areas. Ou...

  3. Preliminary Source Characterization and Tsunami Modeling of Submarine Landslides along the Yucatan Shelf/Campeche Escarpment, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Geist, E. L.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2014-12-01

    Using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry recently collected by the R/V Falkor, we evaluated the morphology, size, and tsunami-generating potential of a number of large, previously unknown, submarine landslides that excavated sections of the submerged Yucatan Shelf/carbonate platform above the Campeche Escarpment. Landslide evacuations appear to be primarily restricted to the later Cenozoic sections of the margin, removing pelagic sediments deposited above the Cretaceous shallow water carbonates exposed along the face of the escarpment. The largest landslides have evacuated areas of the shelf between 130 and 1,100 km2, possibly removing as much as 70 km3 of material in a single event. Based on the morphology of the evacuated areas, the primary mode of failure appears to be translational and retrogressive, with slide thickness primarily stratigraphically controlled. Displaced material appears to be present within some of the evacuation zones, but because sediments from the Mississippi Fan onlap the base of the Campeche Escarpment, mass-transport deposits from individual landslides have not been identified and therefore run-outs are poorly constrained. The evacuation zones are used to specify the initial conditions for tsunami modeling. Both regional, Gulf of Mexico and near-field simulations are performed to determine the severity and wave-height distribution for six slide scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that the location of maximum wave heights associated with the slide scenarios depend on the direction on down-slope slide movement, although there are significant refraction effects during basin-wide propagation. There is also significant energy dissipation during cross-shelf propagation, with wider shelves lessening the severity of tsunami runup compared to runup at coastal locations adjacent to narrower shelves. Future tsunami hazard assessments in the Gulf of Mexico should account for these large, newly discovered submarine landslides.

  4. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  5. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geoenvironmental issues in far west Texas and southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana Evangelina

    The primary goal of this dissertation was to utilize a geographic information system (GIS) to better understand geological, geophysical, forestry and environmental issues in the west Texas-New Mexico region. Studies such as these are especially important in the border region where economic limitations are usually a factor in studying and solving some of these problems. The availability of satellite imagery through the Pan-American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), data from the Geospatial Center and the collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Forest entities (Guadalupe and Lincoln Ranger Districts) enhance the value of our investigation. Research was conducted in two distinct areas: Cloudcroft-Ruidoso, New Mexico, and the Salt Flat basin of southwest Texas (Figure 1). The dissertation will be presented as a set of independent chapters. Chapter 1. A GIS and remote sensing investigation of the effects of interactions of terrain, soil, and other physiographic factors on the Pine Community of Lincoln National Park in the Sacramento Mountains of Southwest New Mexico. This study utilized GIS and remote sensing to better understand the dynamics of White Pine Blister Rust (WPBR) infestation in the white pine community of the Sacramento Mountains of southwest New Mexico. Both field spectral sampling of the needles and imagery analysis were incorporated to better understand the infestation, progression and vulnerability of the forest to this and other diseases. A major contribution of this study was to construct a GIS database, which was utilized to analyze USDA, elevation, satellite imagery, geological, and hydrological data to produce a hazard-rating map. The GIS environment also allowed for a 3-D perspective on the data, which was very useful in spatial visualization. Chapter 2. An integrated study of the basin structure of the Salt Flat basin. In this study we utilized, gravity and magnetic data, satellite

  6. The Berriasian-Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) boundary transition at Santa Catarina Ticuá, Oaxaca state, southern Mexico: Ammonites, bivalves, calpionellids and their paleobiogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Patrick; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Seija; Adatte, Thierry; Hering, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Ammonites, bivalves and calpionellids of the late Berriasian-early Valanginian from southern Mexico are poorly known; those here described are from the Sabinal Formation at Santa Catarina Ticuá, Oaxaca state. Samples were collected and analyzed bed-by-bed. Ammonite assemblages correlate to the West Mediterranean late Berriasian Subthurmannia boissieri and early Valanginian Thurmanniceras pertransiens and Neocomites neocomiensiformis zones and contain taxa, which are majorly endemic, although a few European species are also identified. The bivalve Arctotis cretacea (Felix, 1891) is common in several horizons throughout the section. Calpionellids are present in the upper part of the Santa Catarina Ticuá section and are indicative of the middle Berriasian Remaniella cadischiana Subzone, the late Berriasian Calpionellopsis Zone (including the Calpionellopsis simplex and Cs. oblonga subzones) and the early Valanginian Calpionellites darderi Subzone. Our data indicate that biogeographic correlation of faunal and environmental changes is possible across the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary between southern Mexico and faunal realms of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico and the western Tethys, and thus throughout the western hemisphere.

  7. Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís P Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010, along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

  8. Late Quaternary geology of a potential wind-farm area in the Kattegat, southern Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leth, J.O.; Novak, B.

    2010-07-15

    Following the proposal of the offshore Anholt wind-farm project with an energy capacity of 400 megawatt in the Kattegat, southern Scandinavia, an evaluation of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface of the area is required. As a first step to map the seabed geology the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) conducted a geophysical survey which, together with cone penetration tests and data from boreholes, lead to a greater understanding of the geological architecture and development of the 144 km2 survey area. (original)

  9. The Festival of San Gregorio Atlapulco, Mexico. Play area cultural and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Landázuri Benítez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of a crisis in Mexican’s rural area, native communities located in the southern part of México City find an alternative in cultural resistance and in the recuperation of historic, economic, natural and cultural heritage.In particular, there is a contrast between religious feasts and the current historical moment, where Mexican situation is often characterized through poverty, unemployment, insecurity and social dislocation.In the village of San Gregorio Atlapulco, the celebration of their local patron saint is a way to endure centuries-old traditions. In the celebration, we find cultural elements that have withstood the ravages of colonialism, modernity and urbanization.

  10. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072...

  11. Dynamics of thermal inversions on Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R.; Tereshchenko, I.; Perez, D. A.; Lizarraga, S. J.; Thermal Inversions, Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara

    2013-05-01

    This work attempts an analysis of the dynamics of the meteorological variables in the lower troposphere in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (ZMG), Jalisco, Mexico. It was used the radiosonde database 2000-2012, and a classification of synoptic situations typical for different inversions occurring. Preliminary results indicate that surface temperature inversions dominate the climate of the study area, mainly recorded two times during the year. An investment without matching the rainy season and covers the months of June to September where investments are recorded at a frequency below 41%. And a station with investments in the type of radiation surface which covers the months of January to May and November to December, with a frequency above 86% in October as month leaving transition with a frequency of 64%. As surface temperature inversions which most affect human activity in the ZMG by not allowing the dispersion of pollutants, the results show that these investments have a thickness ranging from 50 to 250 meters high, covering this range for 85% of the investments registered with respect to the temperature difference between the base and the apex of the observed reversal of between 1°C to 12°C, where the average is 5°C and 7 °C. While this shows that during most of the year there are temperature inversions in the ZMG, this does not mean that every day you will have concentration of pollutants above the norm, this is due to the influence of synoptic scale phenomena mainly to a combination of large anticyclonic systems of the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic, affecting mostly Mexico during the months of December to February, alternating with waves of Western middle latitudes.

  12. Hazard analysis in active landslide areas in the State of Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Martina; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Rodriguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Solleiro Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Sedov, Sergey; Terhorst, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    The year 2013 was characterized by strong storms and hurricanes like the Hurricanes Barbara and Ingrid and the tropical storms Barry and Fernand, which occurred between June and November affecting especially the coastal regions of Mexico. First of all, the State of Veracruz experienced a series of intense rainfalls and as consequences of these events over 780 landslides were registered. More than 45000 people suffered from evacuations. Located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz has a wide range of altitude differences. The area with the highest elevations reaches from 5675 m.a.s.l. (Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain of Mexico) to approximately 3000 m.a.s.l. and is characterized by steep slopes and V-shaped valleys. The mountains are part of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Plateaus and rounded hills are typical for the intermediate zones (3000 - 500 m.a.s.l.). The lowest zone (from 500 m.a.s.l. to sea level) is defined by moderate slopes, large rivers and coastal plain areas. The geology shows a variety and complexity of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The sedimentary formations comprise claystones, siltstones, sandstones and calcareous rocks. Plateaus of basalts and andesites and deposits of ignimbrites are representative for this area. Even though Veracruz is a region highly endangered by landslides, currently there are no susceptibility maps or any other relevant information with high spatial resolution. Because of the lack of high definite information about the landslide hazards in this area, detailed investigations about the conditions (geology, geomorphology, thresholds, etc.) are indispensable. A doctoral grant from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) allowed to carry out investigations in areas affected by large landslides in the year 2013. The selected study sites comprise damaged infrastructures and settlements. With a multi-methodological and interdisciplinary approach different processes and types of

  13. Trophic level and isotopic composition of 13C and 15N of pacific angel shark, Squatina californica (Ayres, 1859), in the Southern Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Sánchez, Ofelia; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    δ13C and δ1NN stable isotopes were used to determine trophic level and the assimilated food components of Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica and its variation between size, sexes and seasonally in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. Muscle tisúes were collected during 2001 to 2003. The quantification of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes was realizad by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The values of stable isotope of carbon (δ13C) ranged from -16.55 to -15.06% (average -15.94% + 0.34) ...

  14. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area. PMID:27418073

  15. Diversity and conservation status of the herpetofauna for an area from north of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Badillo-Saldaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation measures currently lack adequate information to assign some species of amphibians and reptiles in the categories of protection. In this study we analyzed and compared the herpetofauna of mountain cloud forest (MCF and tropical evergreen forest (TEF in an area north of Hidalgo. For this study, we conducted fieldwork (24 sites and a literature review. In addition, the conservation status of species was analyzed. The herpetofauna of the municipality of Tepehuacan de Guerrero, Hidalgo, Mexico consists of 70 species (20 amphibians and 50 reptiles, nine of which are historical records that were not found in the present study. Cloud forest was more diverse (39 species than TEF (37 species. There are discrepancies between national and international agencies of conservation regarding the threatened status of these species. The high biodiversity recorded in MCF and TEF in the study area indicates the importance of this area for conservation. In this study, we propose to reassess the conservation category of Hidalgo state herpetofauna.

  16. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  17. Can we expect to protect threatened species in protected areas? A case study of the genus Pinus in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aguirre Gutiérrez; J.F. Duivenvoorden

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of 56 Pinus species in Mexico was modelled with MAXENT. The pine species were classified as threatened according to IUCN criteria. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not threatened pine species were adequately represented in protected areas. Almost 70% of the species had less than

  18. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... making its decision, BOEM considered alternatives to the proposed action and the potential impacts as... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area...: Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision. SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a Record of Decision (ROD)...

  19. Vertical segregation of holoplanktonic molluscs in the epipelagic layer, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvicente-Añorve, L.; Lemus-Santana, E.; Flores-Coto, C.; Alatorre-Mendieta, M.

    2013-06-01

    The small-scale vertical distribution of five genera of holoplanktonic molluscs inhabiting the upper oceanic layer (0-105 m) was analysed to test whether evident distribution patterns could be attributed to habitat partitioning. Zooplankton samples were taken over neritic waters during the day and night using a 505-μm multiple closing net at five levels (0-6, 6-12, 12-18, 45-55 and 95-105 m) of the water column. Flowmeters were placed in each net to estimate the amount of filtered water. From the 55,654 identifiable specimens of holoplanktonic molluscs, only 6.2 % were in juvenile stage, and Cavolinia, Diacavolinia, Diacria, Oxygyrus and Clio were the most abundant genera. Adults of these genera comprised 3 % of the total abundance. The abundance data were examined using a spatial segregation index, and its significance was tested with null model methods based on Monte Carlo randomizations. Results indicated that adults showed a much more overlapped distribution in the water column than the in the earlier stages. Indeed, juveniles of Cavolinia, Diacavolinia and Oxygyrus were mainly found in the 0-18-m layer, whereas Diacria and Clio were recorded in the 45-105-m stratum. Null model arguments revealed a significant vertical segregation among them. Potential ecological factors involve preferential spawning areas of adults, avoidance of competition for feeding and spatial resources, use of visual capabilities in searching prey, brood protection and avoidance of strong turbulence conditions.

  20. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  1. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

  2. Ground water hydrochemical characteristics:seawater intruded area in eastern and southern coast of Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern and southern coastal zones of Laizhou Bay are the mostrepresentative seawater intruded areas in the world, with two intrusion sources of contemporary seawater and paleobrine. In order to reveal the complicated hydrochemical changing process and the mechanism of fresh groundwater being polluted by saltwater, we conducted long-term observation and hydroehemical analysis at four observing sections of typical salt-fresh water transitional zone. The study indicates that seawater and brine intrusion processes have different hydrochemical features, and that ion exchange and adsorption actions between water and aquifer produce great influence on the intrusion.

  3. Investigation of an Outbreak of Hepatitis A in a Coastal Area, Kerala, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Sandhya; Rakesh, P S; Dev, Soumya; Vijayakumar, Nithin; Prasannakumar, Prathibha

    2016-10-01

    An outbreak investigation was initiated following an unusual occurrence of hepatitis A reported among people residing in the coastal belt of Vadi to Vedikunnu area, Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. The time frame of disease occurrence, pattern of its distribution, and the incubation period of hepatitis A infection indicated the probability of occurrence of the outbreak as a result of pipe line water contamination due to mixing of sewage from a canal. The results add evidence to the epidemiology of hepatitis A in the state and warrant the establishment of an efficient water quality surveillance system.

  4. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  5. Shallow structure of the Chichinautzin Range, southern Mexico basin, central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A gravity and seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Lermo-Samaniego, J. F.; Antahyua-Vera, Y. T.; Chavacan, M.; Ramón, V. M.; Hernández-García; Pita, C.

    2013-12-01

    Chichinautzin Range (ChR) closes to the S the Mexico Basin (MB). Initially based on height differences between MB and the to-he S-located Morelos Plataform (MP) , a major S-dipping fault was proposed. Depths differences to the limestone basement beneath MB and MP respectively supported its existence. This assumed fault was named La Pera. Earlier studies reported the existence of several faults affecting the ChR. New studies were focused to analyze the cinematic and dynamic character of faults to the W of ChR (Tenango Fault System) and of southern Sierra de la Cruces Range. Also based on a gravity study (Campos-Enríquez et al., 2000), the existence of a major N-dipping fault was inferred to delimit the MB to the S (i.e., delimiting the ChR to the N). Our study is based on gravity modelling, and local seismicity analysis. Accordingly, Mezosoic sandstones above metamorphic rocks constitute the basement underlying ChR. This structural high is faulted to the N and S. To the N, fault blocks displace the basement to larger depths (2-4 km). To the S the basement is shallower. The faults of the gravity model correlate with all reported faults, which collectively are refferred to as Aztlan Fault System. Two N-S MT profiles confirm the model. Several of these faults are associated with seismic activity with a N-S extension and a left-lateral component. The seismic event were located at depths of 7-15 km (i.e. the brittle crust). The system can be traced from the Nevado de Tolca volcano up to the Popocatépetl volcano and even further eastwards. The system is about 200 km long, 30-40 km wide, tectonically active. It enabled the fast emplacement of the ChR volcanic rocs. A flower-type structure was inferred to the S of ChR, further south, the profile is cut by faults belonging either to the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende Fault System or to the Chapala-Oaxaca Fault System. This profile shows how the transpressive tectonics, to the S, accomodates, with the N-S extension affecting

  6. Fission track dating of the Cenozoic uplift in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN YanFen; HAN ZhuJun; WAN JingLin

    2008-01-01

    The apparent ages of samples are obtained from fission track dating of apatite samples collected from the fault zones in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province.In addition, thermal history is simulated from the obtained data by applying AFTSolve Program, to acquire the thermal evolution history of the samples.The result shows that tectonically the Mabian area was relatively stable between 25 and 3 Ma, compared to the inner parts and other marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau.The studied area had little response to the rapid uplift events that occurred for several times in the Tibetan Plateau during 25-3 Ma.The latest thermal event related to the activity of the Lidian fault zone (about 8 Ma) is later than that of the Ebian fault zone (18-15 Ma ) to the west, indicating to some extent that the evolution of fault activity in the Mabian area has migrated from west to east.The latest extensive tectonic uplift occurred since about 3 Ma.As compared with the Xianshuihe fault zone, the Mabian area is closer to the eastern margin of the plateau, while the time of fast cooling event in this area is later than that in the southeast segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone (3.6-3.46 Ma).It appears to support the assumption of episodic uplift and stepwise outward extension of the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic.

  7. The deglacial retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet's southern margin: Meltwater provenance insights from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Brown, E. A.; Hastings, D. W.; Lowell, T. V.; Shiller, A. M.; Shevenell, A.; Flower, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) sediments document abrupt millennial-scale variability that may be linked to Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) melting and significant changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the last deglaciation and Holocene (24-7 ka). To investigate the deglacial response of the southern margin of the LIS, the impact of meltwater on the GOM, and the influence of GOM meltwater events on the AMOC, we undertook a multi-proxy (foraminiferal δ18O, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca) geochemical study of a high-resolution (45 cm/kyr) sedimentary sequence from core MD02-2550, recovered from Orca Basin (2248 m water depth) in the GOM. Paired G. ruber (white and pink, separately) δ18O and Mg/Ca analyses allow us to use Mg/Ca paleothermometry to remove the temperature component of the δ18O signal, leaving behind a record of seawater δ18O (δ18Osw). After correcting the δ18Osw record for global ice volume, the resulting GOM δ18Oivc-sw record is primarily influenced by LIS meltwater. To assess how meltwater pulses influenced GOM salinity during deglaciation, we paired our δ18Oivc-sw record with a foraminiferal Ba/Ca record that reflects river discharge-induced salinity changes. Mississippi River Ba concentrations are elevated relative to GOM seawater (400 vs. 85 nM) and modern seawater Ba/Ca (Ba/Casw) exhibits a linear relationship with salinity (>20 psu). Because foraminiferal Ba/Ca exhibits a predictable relationship to Ba/Casw, it may be used to calculate changes in salinity arising from deglacial variations in Mississippi River discharge. A complicating factor for Ba/Ca-based salinity interpretations is that Ba concentrations vary spatially throughout the Mississippi River watershed. For example, modern Missouri and Upper Mississippi River Ba concentrations (633 and 436 nM, respectively) are higher than that of the Ohio River (253 nM). Thus, GOM Ba/Ca variability could reflect changes in total Mississippi River input and/or shifts in the dominant

  8. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. The Natural Background Gamma Radiation Exposure in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mary Feild

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for "real-time" measurements was a portable NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 (mu)Rh('-1). The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 (mu)Rh('-1), the outdoor reading 7.5 (mu)Rh('-1). Results of one-way and multi-way analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  13. Description of piezometers installed in the Duranes well field area, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1993, the aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of ground-water/surface-water interactions. Twenty-one piezometers were installed during January and February 1997 at five sites in the Duranes well field area in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to allow for concentrated collection of hydraulic-head data. This concentrated collection of shallow hydraulic-head data may lead to a better understanding of the effects of ground-water production on the Rio Grande near a City of Albuquerque well field. Each piezometer was installed in a hole augered by a rig using hollow-stem auger flights. All piezometers are constructed of flush-joint polyvinyl chloride casing with 5-foot polyvinyl chloride screens. The uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing is covered by a steel casing with a locking lid. Driller's logs and geophysical logs were collected from the deepest hole and piezometer, respectively, at each site. This report describes the piezometers installed and presents initial water- level data for all piezometers.

  14. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  15. Environmental geochemistry for surface and subsurface waters in the Pajarito Plateau and outlying areas, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, W.D.; Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Counce, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides background information on waters in the Los Alamos and Santa Fe regions of northern New Mexico. Specifically, the presented data include major element, trace element, and isotope analyses of 130 water samples from 94 different springs, wells, and water bodies in the area. The region considered in this study extends from the western edge of the Valles Caldera to as far east as Santa Fe Lake. For each sample, the presented analysis includes fourteen different major elements, twenty-six trace elements, up to five stable isotopes, and tritium. In addition, this data base contains certain characteristics of the water that are calculated from the aforementioned raw data, including the water`s maximum and minimum residence times, as found from tritium levels assuming no contamination, the water`s recharge elevation, as found from stable isotopes, and the charge balance of the water. The data in this report are meant to provide background information for investigations in groundwater hydrology and geochemistry, and for environmental projects. For the latter projects, the presented information would be useful for determining the presence of contamination it any one location by enabling one to compare potential contaminant levels to the background levels presented here. Likely locations of interest are those possibly effected by anthropogenic activities, including locations in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, White Rock Canyon, and developed areas in the Rio Grande Valley.

  16. Earliest Marine beds in the Jurassic sedimentary record near the Huajuapan-Petlalcingo region, southern Mexico and their paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contla, D.

    2008-12-01

    A paleogeographic model of Jurassic-Cretaceous is presented, the study area is the region near Huajuapan de Leon in the Mixteca Terrane, Mexico where a sedimentary successions constituted by interlayered terrestrial and marine beds, provides evidence of transgression and regression episodes. The sediments in the study zone were deposited over a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, the Acatlan Complex. The stratigraphic features in the Middle Jurassic of the terrestrial beds indicate a depositional elements varying from alluvial fans to floodplains and channel deposits, represented by conglomerates, sandy conglomerates and sandstones. After, in the same epoch (Bajocian and Bathonian age) a transgression coming from the Pacific Ocean covered the region. A transitional zone between continental and marine sediments is situated between Tezoatlan and Petlalcingo, the actual cross section consists in the earliest marine beds: limestones interlayered with terrestrial beds. Fossil contents in this beds indicate an age between the Oxfordian and the Tithonian. During this period of transgression the paleogeography was dominated by a small bay with shallow waters connected in the south with the Pacific Ocean, represented principally by limestone and dolomite units. At the end of the transgression, volcanic episodes occurred and the land emerged again. The sedimentary beds were later affected by tectonic activity that produced a normal fault near Zapotitlan, putting the metamorphic basement in contact with the sedimentary sequence.

  17. Seismic and Gravity Investigations of the Caja del Rio Geothermal Area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Burke, B.; Butler, E.; Harper, C.; Livermore, J.; McGlannan, A.; Wasik, A.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D. K.; Snelson, C. M.; Sussman, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new seismic and gravity data in 2012 in the Caja del Rio area of northern New Mexico. The area, about 25 km NW of Santa Fe, has been identified as a potential geothermal resources area based on relatively high temperature gradients in drill holes. The SAGE 2012 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2011. Seismic data consisted of a 6.4 km SE to NW profile (80 three-component stations, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated cover over a thin volcanic layer) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of the refraction and reflection arrivals. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods. The reflection data were processed to produce a CMP stacked record section. Strong, NW-dipping reflectors, interpreted as from the Espinaso formation, are visible at about 1.4 seconds two-way time. One hundred and sixty-four new gravity measurements (detailed data at 500 m spacing along the seismic profile and regional stations) were collected and combined with existing regional data for modeling. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. The sedimentary basin interpreted from the seismic and gravity data, along with existing geological and geophysical information, consists of a thick section of Tertiary rift fill (capped by a thin layer of volcanic rocks), over Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks, with a total basin thickness of about 3 km.

  18. A hierarchical classification of benthic biodiversity and assessment of protected areas in the Southern Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda L Douglass

    Full Text Available An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided.

  19. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Driraa, Z.; Kmiha-Megdichea, S.; Sahnounb, H.; Hammamic, A.; Allouched, N.; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadia, H.

    2016-01-01

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal ar...

  20. Electrification of rural area Los Sabinos Mexico : 12 years after; Electrificacion del poblado los Sabinos Mexico: 12 anos despues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, D. J.; Munguia, R. G. del; Guillen, S. O.; Huacuz, V. J.; Mata, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    The rural community of Los Sabinos in west Mexico was electrified with PV systems at the end of 1991, in compliance with the compromises acquired by the national utility during the construction of the Aguamilpa Hydropower Plant. Among the options originally considerate to provide electricity services to the community were: a grid extension, installation of a gen-set with a mini-grid, and the utilization of renewable energy conversion systems. This paper presents the results obtained from the evaluation of the PV systems chosen as the preferred option to electrify Los Sabinos. Results presented here include some relevant aspects found during the commissioning of the systems, the second evaluation carried out 30 months after the installations and the last carried out at the end of 2003. (Author)

  1. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  2. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-04-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities

  3. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 yr−1 was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 yr−1 due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m−3 yr−1 was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of

  4. Self-potential time series analysis in a seismic area of the Southern Apennines: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-potential time series recorded during the period May 1991 - August 1992 by an automatic station, located in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, is analyzed. We deal with the spectral and the statistical features of the electrotellurie precursors: they can play a major role in the approach to seismic prediction. The time-dynamics of the experimental time series is investigated, the cyclic components and the time trends are removed. In particular we consider the influence of external noise, related to anthropic activities and meteoclimatic parameters, and pick out the anomalies from the residual series. Finally we show the preliminary results of the correlation between the anomalies in the time patterns of self-potential data and the earthquakes which occurred in the area.

  5. Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon in limestone Mediterranean mountains areas, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juan; Jordan, Antonio; Martínez-Zavala, Lorena; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2015-04-01

    Normally, soil organic carbon (SOC) investigations are related to fertility and/or soil quality so refer to surface horizon. In other cases, soil control sections or soil horizons are used to study soil carbon pool, especially in forest areas. In this line, in order to provide quantitative data of organic carbon in soils and sediments in relation to depth, the organic carbon vertical distribution was studied in selected areas of southern Spain. Significant variations in depth of organic carbon may be related with different vegetation and/or land use changes, so it can be used to select sampling points for studying these changes through pollen analysis. For this study, ten sinkholes in hard limestone Mediterranean mountains areas of southern Spain have been selected following scientific interest criteria and/or minimal human influence. Soil and sediment samples extraction was carried out using tensile steel drills up to four meters in deep driven by an electric striking hammer. Once extracted the soil columns, soil control sections are taken every 5 cm, obtaining 470 samples in the ten sinkholes selected and making four replications for each soil control section. The soil and sediments exploration in different sinkholes highlights the karst heterogeneity formations, especially in terms of its depth. Thus, it was possible to take samples of varying depth, ranging between 1 and 5 m, being the limiting factor the hard pan forming which can be soil nature (petrocalcic horizon) or lithological nature (hard limestone). SOC in every sampling point varied between 2.5 and 16.7 g kg-1. In general, SOC concentrations decreases progressively in depth, although in some sampling point 10 g kg-1 were obtained at 200 cm in depths. On the other hand, it had been observed significant increases at 100 cm in deep, sometimes repeating at high deep, which could be related to ancient sedimentary past or with edaphogenic processes past. Definitely more comprehensive studies could shed new

  6. A spatially comprehensive, hydrometeorological data set for Mexico, the U.S., and Southern Canada 1950–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Livneh, Ben; Bohn, Theodore J.; Pierce, David W.; Munoz-Arriola, Francisco; Nijssen, Bart; Vose, Russell; Cayan, Daniel R.; Brekke, Levi

    2015-01-01

    A data set of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, gridded to a 1/16° (~6 km) resolution, is described that spans the entire country of Mexico, the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), and regions of Canada south of 53° N for the period 1950–2013. The dataset improves previous products in spatial extent, orographic precipitation adjustment over Mexico and parts of Canada, and reduction of transboundary discontinuities. The impacts of adjusting gridded precipitation for orograp...

  7. Occurrence and genetic variability of Phlebotomus papatasi in an urban area of southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phlebotomine sand fly was noticed in the second floor of an old building in a highly urbanized area of southern Italy. A short-term entomological survey was carried out in the subsequent weeks to this event, allowing the collection of additional phlebotomine sand flies that were later identified as Phlebotomus papatasi. We assessed the genetic variability among P. papatasi sequences obtained in this study and those available from Italy using a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA fragment (from cytochrome b gene to NADH1 and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 as genetic markers. Results From 9 June to 19 July, eight males and seven females (two blood-fed of P. papatasi were collected in the old town of Bari (southern Italy. The insects were found near the bed and in the bathroom and potential blood sources (e.g., pigeons and dogs for them were common in the neighbourhood. Again, five females of P. papatasi collected in Valenzano, another urban area in the province of Bari, were also identified and included in the genetic study. The mtDNA sequences (945 bp obtained from Bari and Valenzano were identical except for a single transition (T ↔ C at the 793 nucleotide residue. Pairwise comparison of the last 440 bp of the mtDNA fragment analyzed herein with other sequences of P. papatasi from Italy revealed a nucleotide variation ranging from 0.2 to 1.3%. Three ITS2 sequence types were detected within specimens collected in Valenzano, one of them identical to that from Bari. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 sequences of P. papatasi from Italy revealed a nucleotide variation up to 1.8%. Conclusions This study reports the occurrence of P. papatasi in an urban area of southern Italy and shows a low nucleotide difference among ITS2 and mtDNA sequences of this species available from Italy. The presence of P. papatasi in urban areas might represent a risk for human health, particularly for the potential transmission of sandfly fever viruses.

  8. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  9. [Bullying in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega López, María Guadalupe; González Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Valle Barbosa, María Ana; Flores Villavicencio, María Elena; Vega López, Agustín

    2013-08-01

    This paper seeks to determine the prevalence of victims of school bullying among youth enrolled in public secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico and to identify the factors associated with being a victim of bullying in the period 2009-2011. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out. A multistage probability sampling was designed for the public secondary schools, in which 1,706 students between 11 and 16 years old were studied. A questionnare with four sections was applied in order to identify victims of bullying. A logistic regression model was then used to measure the association between the factors analyzed and being a victim of bullying. The prevalence of school bullying was 17.6% (95% CI 15.8; 19.5). Personal factors, such as the feeling of not being accepted by peers or not spending much time with friends, were the factors with the strongest statistically significant association with being a victim of bullying.

  10. Comprehensive baseline environmental audit of former underground test areas in Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of Former Underground Test Areas (FUTAS) in the States of Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. DOE and contractor systems for management of environmental protection activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were not within the scope of the audit. The audit was conducted May 16-May 26, 1994, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). DOE 5482.1 B, open-quotes Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Programclose quotes, establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is to enhance environmental protection and minimize risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission using systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE's environmental programs within line organizations and supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. These evaluations function as a vehicle through which the Secretary and program managers are apprised of the status and vulnerabilities of Departmental environmental activities and environmental management systems. Several types of evaluations are conducted, including: (1) comprehensive baseline environmental audits; (2) routine environmental audits; (3) environmental management assessments; and (4) special issue reviews

  11. Behaviour of the groundwater system in the Santa Catarina area, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the southeast area of Mexico City a line of 14 wells exist and are used as a potable water supply for surrounding towns. The average distance between each well is approximately 400 m. Each well was drilled to an approximate depth of 400 m. The results of vertical electrical soundings, performed as part of another study, indicated the presence of mineralized water down to a depth of approximately 200 m with potable water beneath. The granular aquifer is bounded by basaltic flows related to the Sierras de Santa Catarina in the north and the Chichinautzin in the south. To aid in the determination of the age and origin of the different groundwaters indicated by the geophysics, a geochemical and isotopic monitoring program was completed. Geochemical analysis was limited to the major ions. Isotopic analysis included 18O, 2H, 3H, 34S and 14C. Geochemical and isotopic data was significantly varied within the well field. The geochemical, isotopic and geophysical data was combined to produce a hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical qualitative model for the aquifer that exists around the Santa Catarina well field. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  12. Background radiation in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A., area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background radiation levels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area are elevated when compared to much of the US. Soil K, U, and Th are somewhat elevated compared to average values in this country and generate roughly 60 mrem per year to the average resident. Cosmic ray contribution, due to the mean elevation of 5,200 ft above sea level, is 80 mrem/yr-well over the average for the US. Thirty percent of the homes in Albuquerque contain indoor radon levels over the EPA action level of 4 pCi/l compared to 10-12% of homes for the entire US. Indoor radon contributes about 100-300 mrem/yr. Total contributions from other minor sources are under 10 mrem/yr. Thus total background radiation received by Albuquerque residents is about 330-530 mrem/yr, well in excess of the rest of the US. The spread in mrem values is due to variations in the contribution from indoor radon

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of using natural gas in vehicles of the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.; Trinidad-Garcia, H.G.; Diaz, L.; Perdomo, V.; Castillo, H.; Schifter, I. [Istituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) authorities the transport sector causes 75% of total pollutant emissions to the atmosphere, that is why to mitigate pollution several programs focus on reducing emissions from mobile sources, one of these programs promotes the use of Natural Gas (NG) in vehicles of the MCMA instead of gasoline or diesel. This work shows the cost-benefit analysis results of this program. The analysis considered the period 1999-2014. Projections for the MCMA vehicular fleet, and for the type and number of vehicles that would switch from gasoline or diesel to NG were made. To obtain the change in exhaust emissions, measurements were performed using the U. S. Federal Test Procedure 75 in vehicles consuming gasoline and NG Vehicle conversion, conversion shops, and gas station costs were considered in the analysis The estimated benefits stemmed from fuel price and efficiency differential, vehicle taxes, maintenance costs, and pollutant emission reductions. The Benefit/Cost ratio found was 3.79, and the vehicles suggested for conversion were those of intensive use circulating exclusively in the MCMA. Even though ozone formation simulations were done using the CIT trajectory model, the changes in ozone concentrations observed were smaller than the model resolution, mainly because the change in ozone precursors due to the fuel change in some of the MCMA vehicles, was less than 1% of total emissions. (authors)

  14. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  15. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  16. Aerosol spectral absorption in the Mexico City area: results from airborne measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Bergstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents estimates of the spectral solar absorption due to atmospheric aerosols during the 2006 MILAGRO/INTEX-B (Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment field campaign. The aerosol absorption was derived from measurements of the spectral solar radiation and the spectral aerosol optical depth made on the J31 aircraft flying over the Gulf of Mexico and over Mexico City. We present the spectral single scattering albedo (SSA and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD for two flights over the Gulf of Mexico and three flights over Mexico City for wavelengths from 350 to approximately 1650 nm. The spectral aerosol optical properties of each case are different and illustrate the variability of the aerosol optical properties in the Mexico City area.

    The results can be described in terms of three different wavelength region: The 350–500 nm region where the aerosol absorption often falls off sharply presumably due to organic carbonaceous particles and windblown dust; the 500–1000 nm region where the decrease with wavelength is slower presumably due to black carbon; and the near infrared spectral region (1000 nm to 1650 nm where it is difficult to obtain reliable results since the aerosol absorption is relatively small and the gas absorption dominates. However, there is an indication of a small and somewhat wavelength independent absorption in the region beyond 1000 nm.

    For one of the flights over the Gulf of Mexico near the coastline it appears that a cloud/fog formation and evaporation led to an increase of absorption possibly due to a water shell remaining on the particles after the cloud/fog had dissipated. For two of the Mexico City cases, the single scattering albedo is roughly constant between 350–500 nm consistent with other Mexico City results. In three of the cases a single absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE fits the aerosol

  17. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  18. Key Biodiversity Areas: Rapid assessment of phytoplankton in the Mesopotamian Marshlands of southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasak Al-Obaidi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the summers of 2005 and 2007, studies have been conducted for five seasons in several marsh locations in southern Iraq. During five surveys, 317 taxa of phytoplankton belonging to six major groups were identified. These included: 204 taxa of Bacillariophyceae (represented by 13 Centrales and 191 Pennales, thus 14% and 27% respectively of all taxa recorded, 59 Chlorophyta (28%, one Cryptophyta (4%, 39 Cyanophyta (21%, 10 Euglenophyta (2% and four Pyrrophyta (4% of all the taxa recorded. The Central Marsh, Hammar Marsh and the Hawizeh Marsh had higher phytoplankton populations compared to all other studied sites. The dominant phytoplankton groups throughout the study area were the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. The dominant species were Cyclotella meneghiniana, Kirchneriella irregularis and Nitzschia palea. A progression in the richness and biodiversity of species occurred during winter. These three phytoplankton groups were dominant in waters of southern Iraq and were responsible for most of the species richness and diversity observed. Generally, sites changed from summer to winter according to the changing conditions associated with nutrients, salinity, temperature, and light intensity. These controlling factors influenced phytoplankton biomass from season to season.

  19. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  20. The Models for the Development of Specialty Agriculture in the Hilly Areas of Southern Ningxia: Are They Truly Effective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; SUN; Qing; TANG; Yong; XU; Lijuan; DANG

    2013-01-01

    The development of specialty agriculture is of great significance to western China’s agricultural structure adjustment,and it’s an essential way for the construction of ecological agriculture in Southern Ningxia mountainous area.This paper makes a summary about the development status of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area and put forward the basic benefit goal and problems needing attention.On this basis,the paper studies the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area from the aspects of production factors and industry.This paper suggests that the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should combine the regional agricultural pattern and innovative organization structure pattern,demonstration agriculture and market-directing pattern,engineering agricultural pattern and enterprise-driven pattern.The development of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should promote the three patterns,in order to achieve the construction of ecological agriculture and agricultural structure adjustment.

  1. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Dona Ana County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. New Mexico, 2010 Census Combined Statistical Area (CSA) State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  5. Current Urban Areas for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Urban Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sierra County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Ute Mountain Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for McKinley County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Current Core Based Statistical Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mora County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Current Urban Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Core Based Statistical Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Urban Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Miguel County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe County, Area New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. 2000 Census Urban Areas for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for De Baca County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Tucumcari Area, Northern Quay County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mescalero-Apache Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. 2000 Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current Urban Areas for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. New Mexico, 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Combined Statistical Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current Urban Areas for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Socorro County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. New Mexico 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  18. Ozone forming potential and sulfur effects on in-use vehicles of the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest urban areas of Mexico cities have witnessed high levels of air pollution in the past few decades. The most important air pollutants are ozone and particulate matter with levels that are still far above current air quality standard, In this work we studied exhaust and evaporative emissions of Mexico City metropolitan area (MAMC) vehicles using fuels in which sulfur content was varied from 89×10-6 to 817×10-6, and calculated the ozone forming potential of emissions as well as the specific reactivity of the exhaust for each average fleet-fuel combinations. Data on emission levels were compared to those obtained in 2000 for the same vintage of vehicles. The almost twofold increase in emissions found could be due to degradation of the exhaust emissions control systems.

  19. The epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in a rural and an urban area of Mexico. A pilot survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeaunt, P G; Williams, J E; Bhojnani, R; Campos, J E; Gomez, A

    1982-01-01

    Stocks of intestinal amoebae grown in monoxenic culture, were compared against each other and against those previously reported from Mexico City. These were isolated from subjects in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas (rural area) and hospital patients in Merida, Yucatan (urban area). Electrophoretic patterns of the four enzymes: glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), L-malate: NADP+ oxido-reductase (oxalacetate-decarboxylating) (ME) and hexokinase (HK) demonstrated the presence of five groups (zymodemes) of Entamoeba histolytica already described from Mexico City, together with two new zymodemes, one of which gave a recognizable pathogenic pattern, whilst the other gave a contradictory pattern. Zymodemes of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba buetschlii and Dientamoeba fragilis, previously described were also isolated. One new zymodeme of D. fragilis was demonstrated. PMID:6285556

  20. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  1. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    David Barton Bray; Elvira Duran; Oscar Molina

    2012-01-01

    Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs) in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the im...

  2. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernández Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of research and publication on the investigative field of Didactics and on the dimension of its foundation, but very little on the disciplinary and professional fields and on the conditions and ways of teaching. It is noteworthy that only a transformative practice can help change the reality of the school, the quality of teacher formation, of learning and mental development of the students.

  3. Forest classes and tree cover gradient: tick habitat in encroached areas of southern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S

    2016-03-01

    Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient. PMID:26692382

  4. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  5. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymon Baud

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative δ13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

  6. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Freitas da Silveira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.

  7. Real-Time Shake Maps In The Southern Alps-Dinarides Junction Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhadolc, P.; Costa, G.; Moratto, L.; Sandron, D.

    2007-12-01

    Shake maps are generated for the Southern Alps-Dinarides Junction area within 5 minutes from the earthquake occurrence. They are based on the TriNet "ShakeMap" software (Wald et al., 1999) interfaced with the Antelope real-time system (ARTS) installed at DST in the framework of an EU Interreg project. The system retrieves the real time waveforms and the results are posted automatically on the Department web pages (www.dst.units.it/RAF06). For the calibration of the Shake Maps regional model we use the NEHRP classification and two ground-motion relations for different magnitude ranges. The regional ground-motion relations (Costa et al., 2006), computed using strong-motion data recorded from the Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Italian National Accelerometric integrated network, are used for moderate (ML6.3 events. The system has been successfully tested for medium to moderate events (MLCauzzi, 2006; Kastli and Fah, 2006).

  8. Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rabeh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

  9. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  10. [Risk factors for unfavorable birth weight in areas surrounding Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, G J; Vega-López, M G

    1995-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the incidence of unfavorable birth weight (UBW) -UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors, in Tlaquepaque and Tonal , outlying areas of Greater Metropolitan Guadalajara, Mexico. A sample of live-born infants in 1991, children of mothers covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security were selected from the study area; through multistage probabilistic sampling, random selection was made of Family Medical Units within the study areas, and of physicians' offices within those selected units; finally, all the liveborn infants in 1991 from these selected physicians' offices were studied: a total of 141 newborns were studied Mothers of the newborns chosen were interviewed; a questionnaire with different biomedical, socioeconomic, and demographic items was applied by social workers specially trained for the purpose. Logistic regression models were used lo estimate odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The probability that a child would have UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors were also calculated. The results show that 22% of the infants studied were born weighing less than 3000 grams; four risk factors were statistically associated with UBW: mother's age of 35 or older (OR=18.47, CL 1.86-83.54); mother worked outside the home (OR= 3.14, C1:1.15-8.59); mother's pre-pregnancy low weight (OR= 5.04, CL1.04-24.47); and late detection of pregnancy (OR=2.64, CI: 1.02-6.84). In the presence of all the risk factors identified, there is a very high probability (0.97) that a child be born with birthweight less than 3000 g, and in the absence of these factors the probability is reduced substantially (0.04). The findings indicate the magnitude of the problem studied, but also the possibility of health services acting in a timely fashion, since the identified risk factors make it possible lo predict, with relative certainty, the birth of a child weighing less than 3000 g.

  11. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  12. Time series analyses for PM10 and ozone in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icaza del Rio, G. de; Choularton, T.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in a U shape valley at the foothills of the Anahuac cordilleras. Although situated in the tropical latitudes it has the climate of a temperate urban agglomeration. The topography of the valley is dominated by its high altitude, on the average of 2400 m above the mean sea level (msl), and its surrounding mountains that reach to more than 5300 m above msl. Overall the climate on the valley floor is semiarid with an accumulated annual mean precipitation over the city dropping from about 900 to 400 mm as one travels from west to east while the wet and dry seasons are fairly well defined, April to September and October to March respectively. The annual variation of temperature is relatively small but the diurnal range is large. Because of its geographic location, among other factors, the MCMA suffers from severe pollution problems. The altitude of the valley provides abundant solar radiation and its shape reduces the dispersion capabilities of the basin. Ozone and PM10 have been characterized as two of the most dangerous pollutants, because of both their high concentrations and their inherent chemical composition. Trends of both pollutants are examined for the period 1994-96 and the relation with some of their associated pollutants is analyzed. The results from this study show that the concentration of PM10 has increased in the three years and that the ozone concentrations have decreased slightly over the same period. Furthermore, meteorological parameters are incorporated into the analyses to help explain some of the deviations within the time series.

  13. September 2008 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  14. November 2007 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  15. March 2009 Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) Lidar of the Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar point data set was collected during low tide conditions along an approximately 500-700 meter wide strip of the Southern California coastline within an...

  16. Description of piezometers installed in the middle Rio Grande basin area, 1997-99, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, J.R.; Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1993, the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of how ground- water levels are changing over time. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, installed nine piezometers during 1998-99 at five sites in and near the margin of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. In addition, the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer installed another nine piezometers at three sites during 1997. These piezometers allow for collection of ground-water-level data in areas for which little information is available. Most of the piezometers were constructed of 2.5-inch-diameter flush-joint polyvinyl chloride (PVC) schedule 80 casing with 10-foot stainless steel screens; the shallow piezometer at the Tome site has a 40-foot screen, and the single piezometers at the Dome Road and Phoenix Road sites have steel casing with welded joints and a 10- and a 20-foot screen, respectively. Steel casing with a locking lid covers the uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing. Drillers' logs and petrophysical logs were collected from the deepest borehole at each site.

  17. Seismic and geological interpretation on petroleum exploration in the Cuban economic area in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sora Monroy, America; Lopez, Sofia; Dominguez, Rene; Socorro, Rafael; Sanchez, Jorge; Toucet, Sonia [Cupet -Companhia Cubana de Petroleo, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    From the decade of the 50'up to now, many seismic survey were acquired in the Cuban Economic area in the Gulf of Mexico, both, deep water and near short along the littoral, which have contribute to prepare the structural model as well the evolutional one. During the period comprise from June to December 2000, 7330 Km. of seismic lines were acquired over 70 lines in an area of 110000 square Km. that covers the Exclusive Economic area of Cuba. In this area the water depth varies from 500 m to 3500 m. The biggest depth is located at the central part of the whole area. The depth decreases toward the shell and the island's littoral (up to less than 1000 m). Seismic data were processed at CGG' processing in France. Geovector Plus was used as seismic processing software. All the information was calibrate by the wells in the area. The principal wells were DP535 and DP540. The general featuring of seismic image let us to get the map from the main geological elements in this area. In the area we were following two principal horizons: the green one associated to the Middle Cretaceous and the blue one associated to the top of Jurassic. We made the structural maps from the Middle Cretaceous and the Top of Jurassic, and did the seism stratigraphic analysis. We found 16 sequences. We did the chronograph table in this area and we made six maps from different seismic sequences. This analysis let us to define the most important area to continue studying in the Cuban economic area in the Gulf of Mexico on the petroleum exploration. (author)

  18. Glacial geology and till geochemistry in ore exploration in the Tervola area, southern Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala, P.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Glacial geology and till geochemistry were studied in an ore exploration project in the Palaeoproterozoic Peräpohja Schist Belt in the Tervola area of southern Finnish Lapland. The starting point for the exploration were numerous Au-Cu-rich erratics, the source rock of which was unknown. The mapping of the glacial landforms was based on aerial photo interpretation. The structure, texture, lithology and geochemistry of the till were studied using test pits. Three sieved fractions together with a heavy mineral fraction of the till were analyzed chemically. The glacial landforms of the area include cover and ground moraines, drumlins, flute ridges and Rogen moraines. The ridges of the Rogen moraine were found to be composed of three different till beds. The surficial parts of the Rogen ridges showed very short transport distance, whilst the lower till was of more distant derivation. Gold and Cu contents in the till are above their regional background level sin every analyzed fraction in the two case study areas of Petäjävaara and Vammavaara. High metal contents in till are associated with basic volcanic rocks and their contact zones with quartzite in bedrock. Metal anomalies in till are usually very sharp-contrasted and dilute quickly with increasing distance from the source rock. The most useful indicator elements in till geochemistry, in addition to Au, are Cu, Te and Co. The combination of careful studies of glacial geology and till geochemistry proved to be a powerful means in locating source rock of glacially transported ore boulders in this area. As a result of the exploration, Cu-Au mineralization was localized at Petäjävaara.

  19. Deep-water bivalve mollusks collected during the TALUD XV cruise off the west coast of the southern Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich-Scott, Paul; Suárez-Mozo, Nancy Yolimar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background During the TALUD XV research cruise off the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, samples of macro-invertebrates obtained in the deep-sea (296–2136 m) revealed a rich fauna of bivalves (17 species belonging to 10 families). The number of species per station varied from one to five. The richest families were Nuculidae, Nuculanidae, Neilonellidae, Limidae, and Cuspidariidae. Solemyidae, Lucinidae, Poromyidae, Verticordiidae, and Pectinidae were each represented by a single species. Some species groups need a thorough revision and were tentatively identified (Nuculana cf. hamata, Limatula cf. saturna). New information Significant new distribution information is provided for two species, both recorded for the first time from off western Mexico: Ennucula panamina with an extension of its known distribution over 20° of latitude north and Jupiteria callimene with an extension of 16° 42' of latitude to the north. One species (Ennucula taeniolata) is reported in shallower depth and one in deeper water (Acesta sphoni). New records are provided for an additional nine species. Environmental and habitat conditions are given for the first time for many of the bivalve species. PMID:27346956

  20. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Moravec

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo (Atherinopsidae of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or erroneously reported features of S. osorioi, such as the location of the vulva, the actual number and distribution of postanal papillae and phasmids and the presence of a short median cuticular ridge anterior to the cloacal opening (in addition to two long subventral ridges. The recorded somewhat shorter spicules (420-465 and 105-111 μm and mostly smaller eggs (33-36 × 18-20 μm as compared to the original species description may be due to a different type of host, geographical region or generally smaller body measurements of these specimens. These biometrical differences are considered to be within the limits of the intraspecific variability of S. osorioi. A key to species of Spinitectus parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico is provided.

  1. Old and juvenile source of Paleozoic and Mesozoic basaltic magmas in the Acatlán and Ayú complexes, Southern Mexico: Nd isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Dostal, Jaroslav; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic Acatlán Complex and the Mesozoic Ayú Complex of southern Mexico consist of clastic rocks and rift-related igneous rocks inferred to have originated along a rifted passive margin in southwestern Mexico, either in an inactive (Neoproterozoic-Ordovician) or an active (Devonian-Carboniferous and Triassic-Early Jurassic) tectonic setting. The latter formed on the inner margin of a backarc basin. These passive margin rocks were partly underthrust beneath the Acatlán Complex, into which they were subsequently extruded: extrusion was synchronous with the backarc basin development. Thus, (i) the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician rocks underwent underthrusting, high-pressure metamorphism, and extrusion during the Late Devonian-Carboniferous (365-330 Ma); (ii) the Carboniferous rocks underwent underthrusting, amphibolite facies metamorphism, and extrusion during the Permian and Triassic; and (iii) the Triassic-Lower Jurassic rocks underwent underthrusting, amphibolite facies metamorphism, and extrusion during the Jurassic. Nd isotopic data from tholeiitic mafic rocks on either side of the HP extrusion zone reveal that both were underlain by similar peri-Rodinian subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician, which was supplemented in the Devonian-Carboniferous and Triassic-Early Jurassic by a juvenile depleted mantle source. The alternation of underthrusting and backarc rifting accompanied by extrusion may be related to flattening and steepening of the Beniof zone, respectively.

  2. Tomographic analysis of self-potential data in a seismic area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piscitelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The time and space anomalous behaviour of the Self-Potential (SP field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, Italy, is discussed. The SP data were collected in the period June 1992-November 1994 along a profile located north of the town of Potenza in the Basilicata region, Italy. The profile is perpendicular to an active fault system, where a W-E directed strike-slip structure has been identified from recent earthquakes. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows us to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.

  3. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  4. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen-feng; LIU Kang; WANG Xiao-rong; HUANG Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources ofatmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high,reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southem Jiangsu Province.

  5. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  6. Estimates of groundwater recharge rates and sources in the East Mountain area, Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Steven E.; Crilley, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bernalillo County Public Works Division, has conducted a monitoring program in the East Mountain area of eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, since 2000 to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the East Mountain area and to provide scientific information that will assist in the sustainable management of water resources. This report presents estimates of groundwater recharge to the aquifers that supply water to a network of springs that discharged within the East Mountain area of eastern Bernalillo County during 2005–12. Chloride concentration, the mass ratio of chloride to bromide, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen were used to estimate annual groundwater recharge rates and to identify the sources and timing of recharge to the aquifers in the East Mountain area. Groundwater recharge rates were estimated by using a chloride mass-balance (CMB) method applied to data from selected springs located in the study area.

  7. Summary of marine mammal and seabird surveys of the Southern California Bight area, 1975-1978. Volume III - investigators' reports. Part I - pinnipeds of the Southern California Bight. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnell, M.L.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Pierson, M.O.; Dettman, D.H.; Farrens, G.D.

    1981-04-01

    This volume contains the findings of a three year study of the Pinnipedia of the Southern California Bight area. The distribution, abundance, movements, seasonality and reproductive status of the pinnipedia of the SBC area are discussed.

  8. Lessons from a study in a rural community from southern Mexico: risk factors associated to transmission and reinfection of gastrointestinal parasites after albendazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Pérez MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez1, Juan Antonio Pérez-Vega2, José Francisco Cen-Aguilar3, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul21Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad Reynosa, Tamaulipas, 2Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida Yucatán, 3Oficina de Investigación y validación, Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico y Agropecuario (CBTA 13, Xmatkuil, Mérida, Yucatán, MexicoPurpose: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and evaluate the effect of a single dose of treatment with albendazole in a sentinel group from a rural community in southern Mexico.Methods: Stool samples were collected from 1456 individuals aged ≥1 year during consecutive days, and examined for helminth infection using the modified Stoll dilution method. Additionally, 104 individuals were treated with a single dose of albendazole and evaluated over 21 weeks to assess reinfection. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography, and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for reinfection after albendazole administration were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.56%–76.14%. Albendazole was 100% effective, but eggs began to be detected by 9–12 weeks posttreatment, increasing to 100% after 21 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that all individuals from this study had a probability of reinfection of 1.65× each week after treatment. The prevalence of Trichuris trichiura was 57.2% (95% CI = 54.62%–59.77% and chemotherapy was 34.7% effective. The prevalence for other minor gastrointestinal parasites ranged from 0.2% to 29.7%.Conclusion: This was a comprehensive study on gastrointestinal parasites in a rural community from southern Mexico and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first time that the effect

  9. Abundance and parity rate of Lutzomyia cruciata (Diptera: Psychodidea) in an endemic focus of localized cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southern Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    REBOLLAR, EDUARDO; REYES, FILIBERTO; FERNANDEZ, ILDEFONSO; Andrade, J.

    1996-01-01

    Human bait catches were carried out from 5 through 27 March 1994 in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Females of Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) were dissected and 67% were parous. The number of total and parous females collected per day was analyzed by time series, but neither the gonotrophic cycle length nor survivorship could be estimated. However, a survival rate per oviposition cycle the least square regression of parous on total females. Additi...

  10. Thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) in a semiarid region of southern Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña; JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Luis Oliver-López; Felipe Correa-Sánchez; Tizoc A. Altamirano-Álvarez; Raymundo Montoya-Ayala

    2012-01-01

    We studied the thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus gadoviae from Puebla, Mexico. Mean body temperature (Tb) was 31.5 ± 0.3˚C. A multiple regression suggested that Tb was affected by substrate temperature and solar insolation, and minimally affected by ambient temperature (Ta), sex, and body size. However, body temperature was higher in females than males, and higher in gravid females than non-gravid females. We also found significant differences in Tbs of lizards occupying microhabitats ...

  11. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  12. A spatially comprehensive, hydrometeorological data set for Mexico, the U.S., and Southern Canada 1950-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Ben; Bohn, Theodore J; Pierce, David W; Munoz-Arriola, Francisco; Nijssen, Bart; Vose, Russell; Cayan, Daniel R; Brekke, Levi

    2015-01-01

    A data set of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, gridded to a 1/16° (~6 km) resolution, is described that spans the entire country of Mexico, the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), and regions of Canada south of 53° N for the period 1950-2013. The dataset improves previous products in spatial extent, orographic precipitation adjustment over Mexico and parts of Canada, and reduction of transboundary discontinuities. The impacts of adjusting gridded precipitation for orographic effects are quantified by scaling precipitation to an elevation-aware 1981-2010 precipitation climatology in Mexico and Canada. Differences are evaluated in terms of total precipitation as well as by hydrologic quantities simulated with a land surface model. Overall, orographic correction impacts total precipitation by up to 50% in mountainous regions outside CONUS. Hydrologic fluxes show sensitivities of similar magnitude, with discharge more sensitive than evapotranspiration and soil moisture. Because of the consistent gridding methodology, the current product reduces transboundary discontinuities as compared with a commonly used reanalysis product, making it suitable for estimating large-scale hydrometeorologic phenomena. PMID:26306206

  13. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  14. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18~March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19~March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19~March plume and to help interpret

  15. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  16. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  17. Paleosecular variation record of geomagnetic full vector during late Miocene, from the Nayarit area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva Valdivia, Luis M.; Elguera, Jose Rosas; Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia; Cervantes, Miguel Angel; Morales, Juan

    2002-11-01

    We have sampled a sequence of 45 late Miocene consecutive lava flows in the Tepic area (Nayarit State, Mexico). The age of the volcanic units lies between 8 and 9 million years (Ma) according to available radiometric data. All samples were stepwise demagnetized, partly with alternating field (AF), partly thermally with very similar results. Most of the rocks exhibited well-defined one component remanent magnetisation with high unblocking temperatures (mostly above 525 °C) and high median destructive fields (MDF) (40-50 mT). Rock-magnetic experiments combined with microscopy show that, in most cases, the main magnetic mineral is Ti-poor titanomagnetite associated with exsoluted ilmenite. Continuous susceptibility measurements with temperature and hysteresis experiments yield in most cases nearly reversible curves with Curie points close to that of magnetite and pseudo-single-domain characteristics. Characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM) isolated after the first steps of demagnetisation are all normal polarity. According to the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) directions, paleosecular variation was abnormally lower than the one observed in general during Miocene. Considering our paleomagnetic results together with available radiometric data, it seems that the volcanic units have been emplaced during a very short time span of about 0.08 million years. The mean paleomagnetic directions obtained from this study do not differ significantly from that expected for the middle Miocene. Thirty-one samples from eight individual flows yielded acceptable paleointensity estimates. The site mean paleointensities range from 27.8±0.9 to 42.0±7.9 μT. The virtual dipole moments (VDM) range from 5.9 to 9.5×10 22 Am 2. This corresponds to a mean value of 7.6±1.4×10 22 Am 2, which is higher than the average VDM value for late Miocene. Altogether our data suggest the existence of relatively high geomagnetic field strength undergoing low fluctuations. These

  18. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  19. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  20. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  1. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  2. Multibeam mapping of selected areas of the outer continental shelf, northwestern Gulf of Mexico; data, images, and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Beaudoin, Jonathan D.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Dartnell, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Following the publication of high-resolution (5-meter spatial resolution) multibeam echosounder (MBES) images of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary area of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (Gardner et al., 1998), the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) have been interested in additional MBES data in the area. A coalition of FGBNMS, MMS, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was formed to map additional areas of interest in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1) in 2002. FGBNMS chose the survey areas, and the USGS chose the MBES. MMS and FGBNMS funded the mapping, and the USGS organized the ship and multibeam systems through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the University of New Brunswick. The objective of the cruise was to map 12 regions of interest to MMS and the FGBNMS, including Alderdice, Sonnier, Geyer, Bright, Rankin (1 and 2), Jakkula, McNeil, Bouma, McGrail, Rezak, and Sidner Banks.

  3. Air quality assessment in the periurban area of Mexico Megacity during dry hot season in 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reynoso, Agustin; Santos Garcia-Yee, Jose; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Gerardo Ruiz-Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Air quality is a human health threat not only in urbanized areas, it also affects the surrounding zones. Interaction between urban and rural areas can be evaluated by measurements and using models for regional areas that includes in its domain the peri-urban regions. The use of monitoring sites in remote areas is useful however it is not possible to cover all the region the use of models can provide valuable information about the source and fate of the pollution and its transformation. In order to evaluate the influence of the Mexico Megacity in the air quality of the region, two field campaigns were performed during the dry hot season during 2011 and 2012. Meterological and pollutant measurements were made during February and march 2011, in three sites towards the south east of Mexico Megacity, and from march to April 2012 towards the west after the Popocatepetl-Iztaccihuatl mountain range. Air quality modeling were performed by using the National Emissions Inventory 2008 during the studied periods, a comparison between measurements and the air quality model was performed. This type of studies can offer information about the pollutant distribution, the meteorological conditions and the exactness of emissions inventories. The latest can be useful for emissions inventory developers and policy makers.

  4. Steps Towards the Implementation of a Tsunami Detection, Warning, Mitigation and Preparedness Program for Southwestern Coastal Areas of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreras, Salvador; Ortiz, Modesto; Gonzalez, Juan I.

    2007-03-01

    The highly vulnerable Pacific southwest coast of Mexico has been repeatedly affected by local, regional and remote source tsunamis. Mexico presently has no national tsunami warning system in operation. The implementation of key elements of a National Program on Tsunami Detection, Monitoring, Warning and Mitigation is in progress. For local and regional events detection and monitoring, a prototype of a robust and low cost high frequency sea-level tsunami gauge, sampling every minute and equipped with 24 hours real time transmission to the Internet, was developed and is currently in operation. Statistics allow identification of low, medium and extreme hazard categories of arriving tsunamis. These categories are used as prototypes for computer simulations of coastal flooding. A finite-difference numerical model with linear wave theory for the deep ocean propagation, and shallow water nonlinear one for the near shore and interaction with the coast, and non-fixed boundaries for flooding and recession at the coast, is used. For prevention purposes, tsunami inundation maps for several coastal communities, are being produced in this way. The case of the heavily industrialized port of Lázaro Cárdenas, located on the sand shoals of a river delta, is illustrated; including a detailed vulnerability assessment study. For public education on preparedness and awareness, printed material for children and adults has been developed and published. It is intended to extend future coverage of this program to the Mexican Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas.

  5. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial variability and risk areas of southern root-knot nematodes in relation to soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, B.V.; Perry, C.; Goovaerts, P.; Vellidis, G.; Sullivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the spatial variability and risk areas for southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] (RKN) is key for site-specific management (SSM) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the soil properties that influence RKN occurrence at different scales; and (ii) delineate risk areas of RKN by indicator kriging. The study site was a cotton field located in the southeastern coastal plain region of the US...

  6. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rutter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March, 2006.

    Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows:

    i Urban site: PHg=187±300 pg m−3, RGM=62±64 pg m−3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m−3.

    ii Rural site: GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m−3.

    Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM, and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg and RGM were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  7. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rutter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March 2006.

    Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i urban site; PHg=187±300 pg m−3, RGM=62±64 pg m−3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m−3, and; ii rural site; GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m−3.

    Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM, and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg+RGM were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  8. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  9. Southern Adriatic Sea as a Potential Area for CO2 Geological Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpi V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7 European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene. In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick caprock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emittor where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions.

  10. Grassland Species Collected in an Area of the Amazon Dense Rain Forest Southern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Florentino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The knowledge related to floristic composition and all strata, including herbaceous, are needed to characterize and understand the dynamics of tropical forests. This study aimed to investigate the floristic composition of herbs in an area of ??tropical rain forest of Mato Grosso, producing a list of herbaceous species are on site. All individuals and herbaceous hemiepiphytes above 5 cm were recorded. Inventoried 7,965 individuals, representing 70 species. The angiosperms were represented by 10 families, with the most representative families in number of species Cyperaceae and Poaceae. Ferns were represented by 13 families, the family Pteridaceae as the richest in species. These results reinforce the need to increase the sampling effort for the herbaceous layer, especially floristic surveys for Southern Amazon as of 70 species inventoried 11espies not have records for the state of Mato Grosso. The Amazon of Mato Grosso suffers severe pressure from deforestation, as part of the region known as the Arc of Deforestation. This fact combined with the results of this work shows the urgency to intensify the sampling effort in this region that presents itself as a void in terms of surveys of plant diversity.Keywords: floristic composition, plant diversity, ferns

  11. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  12. Southern Adriatic sea as a potential area for CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions. (authors)

  13. Soil acidity status in polluted and non-polluted areas in southern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 359 study plots on coniferous forest soil in southern Finland, 232 humus and 359 mineral soil (top 5 cm) samples were taken in 1991 and analyzed for their cation exchange capacity, base saturation, pH, total S content (humus samples only), and extractable Al, Fe and Mn concentrations in order to assess the impact of acidic air pollution on soil acidity. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Although concentrations of S in the humus layer were 8% higher near the emission sources, it was concluded that air pollution has not resulted in a detectable increase in soil acidity. Mean values for humus layer pH (BaCl2), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation, and extractable Al concentration for the overall study area were 2.9 (0.2), 310 (50) meq kg-1, 48 (12)% of CEC, and 530 (340) mg kg-1. The respective values for the mineral soil layer were 3.3 (0.3), 56 (19) meq kg-1, 13 (8)% of CEC, and 320 (130) mg kg-1. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. 24 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Upper crustal structure in the Potenza area (Southern Apennines, Italy using Sp converted wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jongmans

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the records of the two Potenza seismic sequences (Southern Apennines, Italy which occurred in 1990 and 1991, in order to obtain information on the upper crustal structure in this area. The hypocentral depths are mainly concentrated below 10 km which is the supposed upper limit of the crystalline basement. The seismograms recorded at temporary arrays deployed during the two sequences clearly show on the vertical component, an intermediary phase between the P and S waves. For the investigated epicentral distances (less than 30 km the delay between this secondary phase and the direct S wave arrival is almost constant at each station, suggesting that the observed intermediary phase might be an S to P conversion at a discontinuity shallower than the hypocentral depth. This interpretation has been supported by polarisation analysis and numerical modelling results. Considering the regional geological structure, these latter have also shown that the interface generating strong converted waves could be the top of the Apulian carbonate platform overlaid with recent clay deposits and flysch sediments. 1D inversion of the travel-time data was performed in order to evaluate a local vertical upper crustal profile.

  15. Magmatic Source Composition and Magmatism of the Volcanic Rocks in the Area of Kuruktag, Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Changyi; BAI Kaiyin; HI Aizhi; ZHAO Xiaoning; ZHANG Hongbo

    2001-01-01

    In the Sinian-Cambrian strata in the area of Kuruktag, southern Xingjiang, four layers of volcanic rocks occurred in the Early Sinian Beiyixi Formation, Late Sinian Zhamoketi Formation and Shuiquan Formation, and Early Cambrian Xishanbulake Formation, respectively. Volcanics of the Shuiquan Formation and Xishanbulake Formation are of alkali basalt series, those of the Zhamoketi Formation are of alkali basalt series and tholeiite series, and those of the Beiyixi Formation are obviously characterized by bimodal assemblage and mostly belong to alkali volcanics. Multi-element distribution patterns of the rocks show continental tumescence characters of interplate basalt.Fractional crystallization of plagioclase led to negative Eu-anomalies of some volcanics and the cumulation of olivine resulted in high MgO and low SiO2 content of some volcanic rocks. The SiO2 saturability of volcanic rocks of the Xishanbulake Formation and Shuiquan Formation is lower than that of tholeiite of the Zhamoketi Formation. Correspondingly, the abundance of incompatible elements in the first two formations is higher than those in the last formation, and the differences can be attributed to the different degrees of partial melting. The intense fractionation of REE and the obvious depletion of HREE suggest that these volcanic rocks were derived from garnet Iherzolite of the mantle in the continental lithosphere. The Ba/Nb, La/Nb, Ba/La, Ba/Th and Rb/Nb rations demonstrate that these volcanic rocks were exclusively derived from the enriched mantle, mainly the EMI type mantle.

  16. Application of agrometeorological spectral model in rice area in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2015-10-01

    The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.

  17. Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in a Zn-Pb-Cu mining area in the State of Mexico (central Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Mendiola, L; González-Sandoval, M R; Durán-Domínguez, M C; Márquez-Herrera, C

    2009-08-01

    The geochemical behavior of zinc, lead and copper from sulfidic tailings in a mine site with potential to generate acidic drainage (pyrite (55%) and sphalerite (2%)) is reported in this paper. The mining area is divided in two zones, considering the topographic location of sampling points with respect to the tailings pile: (a) outer zone, out of the probable influence of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution, and (b) inner zone, probably influenced by AMD pollution. Maximum total ions concentrations (mg/L) measured in superficial waters found were, in the outer zone: As (0.2), Cd (0.9), Fe (19), Mn (39), Pb (5.02), SO4(2-) (4650), Zn (107.67), and in the inner zone are As (0.1), Cd (0.2), Fe (88), Mn (13), Pb (6), SO4(2-) (4,880), Zn (46). The presence of these ions that exceeding the permissible maximum limits for human consume, could be associated to tailings mineralogy and acid leachates generated in tailings pile.

  18. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability.

  19. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. PMID:26837269

  20. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha, livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00, nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year. The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should

  1. Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue LI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution mechanism of hydrochemical field and to promote unpredictable benefits to the living standards of local people and to the local economy in the southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China. Based on the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in Pengyang County, the chemical evolution characters of groundwater in the plain area were analyzed. PHREEQC geochemical modeling software was used to perform a hydrochemical modeling for water-rock interaction and to analyze quantitatively the evolution processes and the forming mechanism of the local groundwater. Geochemical modeling results showed that along path ①, Na+ adsorption played the leading role in the precipitation process and its amount was the largest, up to 6.08 mmol/L, cation exchange was obvious on path ①, while on simulated path ② albite took up the largest amount of dissolution, reaching 9.06 mmol/L, the cation exchange was not obvious along path ②. Some conclusions were summarized according to the modeling results that along the groundwater flow path, calcite and dolomite in the whole simulation showed oversaturated status with a precipitation trend, while the fluorite and gypsum throughout the simulated path were not saturated and showed a dissolution trend. Total dissolved solids (TDS increased and water quality become worse along the flow path. Dissolution reactions of albite, CO2 and halite, exchange adsorption reaction of Na+ as well as precipitation action of sodium montmorillonite and calcite are the primary hydrogeochemical reactions which resulted in changes of hydrochemical ingredients.

  2. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  3. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above. PMID:27656665

  4. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  5. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J. C.; E. I. Kassianov; Ackerman, T. P.; K. Johnson; Zuberi, B.; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2007-01-01

    During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC) specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g). The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These re...

  6. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J. C.; E. I. Kassianov; Ackerman, T. P.; K. Johnson; Zuberi, B.; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2007-01-01

    During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC) specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g). The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These results are reasonab...

  7. Assessment of the sustainability of dual-purpose farms by the IDEA method in the subtropical area of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Reyes, Isela Guadalupe; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sustainability of 10 dual-purpose cattle farms in a subtropical area of central Mexico. The IDEA method (Indicateurs de Durabilité des Exploitations Agricoles) was applied, which includes the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic scales (scores from 0 to 100 points per scale). A sample of 47 farms from a total of 91 registered in the local livestock growers association was analysed with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. From results, 10 farms were selected for the in-depth study herein reported, being the selection criterion continuous milk production throughout the year. Farms had a score of 88 and 86 points for the agroecological scale in the rainy and dry seasons. In the socio-territorial scale, scores were 73 points for both seasons, being the component of employment and services the strongest. Scores for the economic scale were 64 and 56 points for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, when no economic cost for family labour is charged, which decreases to 59 and 45 points when an opportunity cost for family labour is considered. Dual-purpose farms in the subtropical area of central Mexico have a medium sustainability, with the economic scale being the limiting factor, and an area of opportunity. PMID:25958175

  8. Early Mesozoic reconstructions, tectonics and paleogeography of Caribbean-Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, R.W.; Norton, I.O.

    1985-01-01

    Five plate reconstructions with paleogeography show the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean-Atlantic from Late Triassic through Late Jurassic time. The reconstructions are constrained by oceanic geophysical data, by the distribution of Paleozoic tectonic belts and early Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks, and by restoration of post-Jurassic faulting. Late Triassic rifting formed grabens in which continental sediments and tholeiitic volcanics accumulated. Overlying salt was deposited from ingression of Tethyan waters into circum-Atlantic grabens. Oceanic crust formed in the Atlantic about 165 m.y. ago, followed by a spreading-center jump about 160 m.y. ago. The NA/SA-Africa plate boundary was a zone of intracontinental faulting from the left-lateral Bahama fracture zone to a zone of normal and strike-slip faulting in the Gulf, to the left-lateral Mojave-Sonora megashear. Sea-floor spread in began in the proto-Caribbean in the middle Jurassic, while only rifting occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Louann salt was deposited from Pacific waters. In the late Jurassic, steepening of the Pacific subduction zone resulted ion back-arc extension in Mexico. At the same time, sea-floor spreading began in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in marine transgression. In the late Oxfordian, spreading center reorganization occurred in the Gulf. Movement ceased on the Mojave-Sonora megashear and began on the Salina Cruz right-lateral fault. In latest Jurassic spreading ceased in the Gulf, but continued in the proto-Caribbean.

  9. Geological determination of the limits, area and volume of the geothermal reservoir of the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Determinacion geologica de los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Hernandez, Daniel [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A geologic analysis to determine the limits, area and volume of the exploitable reservoir of the Los Humeros Geothermal Field, in Puebla, Mexico was carried out. We defined the structural boundaries, both at surface and at deep that seem to control the distribution of the fluids of high enthalpy and favor or limit the production of steam. With 40 wells drilled to date, an average thickness of the lithological producer Unit of 1 163 m has been estimated. A surface of 12.54 km{sup 2} was calculated, that with the estimated thickness, gives a volume of the reservoir of 14.6 km{sup 3}. We consider that there are two main production sectors in the Geothermal Field: The Central Collapse and The Mastaloya Corridor. [Spanish] Se realizo un analisis geologico para determinar los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento explotable del campo geotermico de Los Humeros en Puebla, Mexico. Se definen las barreras estructurales, tanto superficiales como del subsuelo, que controlan la distribucon de los fluidos de alta entalpia que favorecen o limitan la produccion de vapor. Con los 40 pozos perforados hasta la fecha, se estima un espesor promedio de la unidad productora de 1 163 m. Se calculo una superficie de 12.54 km{sup 2}, la que con el espesor mencionado, da un volumen del yacimiento de 14.6 km{sup 3}. Se plantea que dentro del campo existen dos sectores principales de produccion. El Colapso Central y el Corredor de Mastaloya.

  10. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection. PMID:25742275

  11. An oilspill risk analysis for the eastern Gulf of Mexico (proposed sale 65) Outer Continental Shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Timothy; Slack, James R.

    1978-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed the probability of spill occurrence, likely paths of the spills, and locations in space and time of such objects as recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the proposed lease area. This risk is compared to the existing oilspill risk from existing leases in the area. The analysis implicitly includes estimates of weathering rates and slick dispersion and an indication of the possible mitigating effects of cleanups.

  12. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Mikery Pacheco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet (98.8%, Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc (0.8%, Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf (0.3% and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León (0.1%. Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection.

  13. Using Landsat 5 TM Data to Identify and Map Areas of Mangrove in Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachum, Samuel Standish

    Mangroves are recognized worldwide as a major ecosystem that provides significant ecosystem services. They are threatened due to rising pressures from human overpopulation and economic development. The Caribbean Coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains mangrove habitat that have been negatively impacted by the development of the region's tourist industry. However, little research has been done to map and quantify the extent of mangrove in the region. This study used remote sensing techniques to identify mangrove in the Municipality of Tulum located in Quintana Roo, and to produce an accurate vector based thematic map that inventories these areas. Anatomical differences were analyzed and related to high-resolution field spectral data for each mangrove species. A vector map of mangrove habitat, including areas of inland mangrove, was produced with an overall accuracy of 88%. The 19,262 ha. of mangrove identified by this study represents a 140% increase in area over previous studies.

  14. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  15. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  16. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  17. Geochemistry of fluids discharged over the seismic area of the Southern Apennines (Calabria region, Southern Italy): Implications for Fluid-Fault relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive geochemical data-set of the fluids circulating over a 14,000 km2-wide seismic-prone area of the Southern Apennines, Calabria Region (Italy), is presented here. The geochemical investigations were carried out with the twofold aim of constraining the origin and interactions of the circulating fluids and to investigate possible relationships with local faults. Sixty samples of both thermal and cold waters were collected, from which the dissolved gases were extracted. The geochemical features of the water samples display different types and degrees of water-rock interactions, irrespective of the outlet temperature. The calculated equilibrium temperatures of the thermal waters (60-160 deg. C) and the low heat flow of the whole study area, are consistent with a heating process due to deep water circulation and rapid upflow through lithospheric structures. The composition of the dissolved gases reveals that crustal-originating gases (N2 and CO2-dominated) feed all the groundwaters. The 3He/4He ratios of the dissolved He, in the range of 0.03-0.22Rac for the thermal waters and 0.05-0.63Rac for the cold waters (Rac = He isotope ratio corrected for atmospheric contamination), are mainly the result of a two-component (radiogenic and atmospheric) mixing, although indications of mantle-derived He are found in some cold waters. As the study area had been hit by 18 of the most destructive earthquakes (magnitude ranging from 5.9 to 7.2) occurring over a 280-a time span (1626-1908) in the Southern Apennines, the reported results on the circulating fluids may represent the reference for a better inside knowledge of the fault-fluid relationships and for the development of long-term geochemical monitoring strategies for the area.

  18. Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil

  19. Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale in La Ventana Mesa area, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, James D.; Bachman, George O.; Read, Charles B.; Moore, George W.

    1953-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal, carboanceous shale, and carboaceous sandstone of Upper Cretaceous age occur on and adjacent to La Ventana Mesa, Sandoval County, New Mexico.  The geologic features of the uranium deposits are described and a hypothesis for the origin and control of the uranium deposits are described and a hypothesis for the origin and control of the uranium deposits is given.  On the basis of recent sampling and analyses the uranium content in coal is found to be as much as 0.62 percent, whereas the coal ash has a uranium content that is as much as 1.34 percent.

  20. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Maupome; E. Angeles Martínez-Mier; Alanna Holt; Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís; Andrés Mantilla-Rodríguez; Brittany Carlton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score) among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years) was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76). The variables that had th...

  1. A ten-month diseases survey on wild Litopenaeus setiferus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Enrique; Pech, Daniel; Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia Araceli; Gomez-Solano, Monica Isela; Sosa-lopez, Atahualpa

    2013-09-01

    The development of shrimp aquaculture in Mexican coasts of the Gulf of Mexico began to be explored using the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the mid 90's. Many concerns over the risk of disease transmission to the economically important native penaeids, have been the main deterrent for the aquaculture of L. vannamei in the region. Concurrently, more than 10 years of research experience on the aquaculture suitability of the native Litopenaeus setiferus from the Terminos Lagoon, in the Yucatán Peninsula, have been accumulated. The aim of this study was then to determine the seasonal variations of the naturally acquired diseases and the possible detection of exotic pathogens. For this, random subsamples (n-60) of juveniles L. setiferus were collected from monthly captures. In order to detect the widest range of pathogens, including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome (WSSV) viruses, both histopathological and molecular methods were employed. Monthly prevalence (%) was calculated for every finding. We were able to detect a total of 16 distinct histological anomalies, most of which the presumptive aetiological agent was readily identified. PCR results for viruses were negative. For some pathogens and symbionts, the prevalence was significantly different between the adult and juvenile populations. Prevalence of diseases tended to be higher in juvenile shrimp than in adults. The results of this study indicated that L. setiferus carry a wide variety of pathogens and symbionts that seem to be endemic to penaeids of the Gulf of Mexico, and those juveniles were more conspicuous to acquire pathogens and symbionts than adults. PMID:24027916

  2. Options and Consequences: Water Banking/Leasing Issues Explored for the Rio Grande in Southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, D. S.; Coursey, D.; Dimint, A.; Tidwell, V.

    2004-12-01

    Since 1950, the demand for water has more than doubled in the United States. Historically, growing demands have been met by increasing reservoir capacity and through groundwater mining, often at the expense of environmental and cultural concerns. The future is expected to hold much the same. Demand for water will continue to increase particularly in response to the expanding urban sector, while growing concerns over the environment are prompting interest in allocating more water for in-stream uses. So, where will this water come from? Virtually all water supplies are allocated. Providing for new uses requires a reduction in the amount of water dedicated to existing uses. The water banking/leasing model is formulated within a system dynamics context using the object oriented commercial software package, Powersimä Studio 2003. System dynamics provides a unique mathematical framework for integrating the natural and social processes important to managing natural resources and can provide an interactive interface for engaging the public in the decision process. These system level models focus on capturing the broad structure of the system, specifically the feedback and time delays between interacting subsystems. The spatially aggregated models are computationally efficient allowing simulations to be conducted on a PC in a matter of seconds to minutes. By employing interactive interfaces, these models can be taken directly to the public or decision maker. To demonstrate the water banking/leasing model, application has been made to potential markets on the Rio Grande. Specifically, the model spans the reach between Elephant Butte Reservoir (central New Mexico) and the New Mexico/Texas state line. Primary sectors in the model include climate, surface and groundwater, riparian and aquatic habitat, watershed processes, water quality, water demand (residential, commercial, industrial, institution, and agricultural), economics, policy, and legal institutions. Within the model

  3. Synthesis and tectonic interpretation of the westernmost Paleozoic Variscan orogen in southern Mexico: From rifted Rheic margin to active Pacific margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Dostal, Jaroslav; Murphy, J. Brendan; Nance, R. Damian

    2008-12-01

    Paleozoic rocks in southern Mexico occur in two terranes, Oaxaquia (Oaxacan Complex) and Mixteca (Acatlán Complex) that appear to record: (1) Ordovician rifting on the southern margin of the Rheic Ocean, (2) passive drifting with Amazonia during the Silurian, (3) Devonian-Permian subduction beneath southern Mexico producing an arc complex that was partially removed by subduction erosion, subjected to HP metamorphism and Mississippian extrusion into the upper plate, followed by reestablishment of a Permian arc. In the Oaxaquia terrane, the 920-1300 Ma basement is unconformably overlain by a ˜ 200 m uppermost Cambrian-lowest Ordovician shelf sequence containing Gondwanan fauna (Tiñu Formation), unconformably overlain by 650 m of shallow marine-continental Carboniferous sedimentary rocks containing a Midcontinent (USA) fauna. In the Mixteca terrane, the low-grade Paleozoic sequence is composed of: (a) a ?Cambrian-Ordovician clastic sequence intruded by ca. 480-440 Ma bimodal, rift-related igneous rocks; and (b) a latest Devonian-Permian shallow marine sequence (> 906 m) consisting of metapsammites, metapelites and tholeiitic mafic volcanic rocks. High pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks in the Mixteca terrane consists of: (i) a Cambro-Ordovician rift-shelf intruded by bimodal rift-related intrusions that are similar to the low-grade rocks; (ii) periarc ultramafic rocks, and (iii) arc and MORB rocks. The Ordovician granitoids contain concordant inherited zircons that range in age from ca. 900 to 1300 Ma, indicating a source in the Oaxacan Complex. Concordant ages of detrital zircons in both the low- and high-grade Cambro-Ordovician metasedimentary rocks indicate a provenance in local Ordovician plutons and/or ca. 1 Ga Oaxacan basement, and distal northwestern Gondwana sources with a unique source in the 900-750 Ma Goiás magmatic arc within the Brasiliano orogen. These data combined with the rift-related nature of the Cambro-Ordovician rocks are most consistent with an

  4. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M

    1991-09-15

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of {sup 222} Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  5. Gulf of Mexico sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Sections IV.D through IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The report provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it discusses the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  6. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1. Sections I through IV.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The report provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it discusses the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  7. Population parameters of an exploited population of Isostichopus fuscus (Holothuroidea) in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Bonilla, H.; Herrero Perezrul, María Dinorah

    2003-01-01

    This study presents data on size structure, growth, natural and fishing mortality rates, probability of capture and seasonal recruitment to the fishery of an exploited stock of the holothurian Isostichopus fuscus from San Gabriel Bay, southern Gulf of California, México, sampled in 1992-1993 (259 specimens), and analyzed with size frequency methods. Mean±S.E. length and weight (19.27±0.29 cm; 338.17±9.31 g) indicated that individuals from the population were smaller than those from the northe...

  8. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...

  9. Mapping and identification of hotspot areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in cork oak woodlands of southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Briñas Garcia, Berta

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado Erasmus Mundus: Mediterranean Forestry and Natural Resources Management (MEDfOR) - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Cork oak woodlands or montados are ecosystems of high conservation and socio-economic importance. The present work aimed at 1) identifying and mapping biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in main area of distribution of cork oak montado in Southern Portugal 2) assessing how the distribution of these conservation values relates with the distribution of the netw...

  10. Study on the Countermeasures of Eco-environment Conservation in the Mountainous Areas of Southern Ningxia under New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the implementation of principal functional zoning,further promotion of western development,regional migration,new countryside construction,global warming and so on,the spatial adjustment of regional industry and its structure must be enforced.The spatial adjustment and arrangement of population and economy in the mountainous areas of southern Ningxia could create tremendous opportunity for its eco-environment conservation.Based on analysis on the opportunity and challenge of eco-environment conservati...

  11. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Snyman

    2014-01-01

    In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order ...

  12. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  13. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites.

  14. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites

  15. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  16. Web Application to Access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects Information for the Rio Grande Basin, Southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  17. Contribution of metapelitic sediments to the composition, heat production, and seismic velocity of the lower crust of southern New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.R.; Hart, S.R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Padovani, E.R.; Wandless, G.A. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Granulite xenoliths erupted at Kilbourne Hole maar were recently extracted from the lower crust of southern New Mexico. Garnet- and silimanite-bearing quartzofeldspathic xenoliths had pelitic protoliths and were probably emplaced in the lower crust by tectonic underplating at a lower Proterozoic subduction zone. Thus the Kilbourne Hole metapelitic xenoliths illustrate the potential role of tectonosedimentary processes at convergent margins in determining the ultimate composition of the crust. Average P-wave velocities for metapelitic xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole are {approx equal} 7 km/s at 6 kbar, like those of mafic metagabbros and anorthosites. However, in contrast to mafic lithologies, the major element composition of the representative pelitic paragneiss (RPP) described in this paper is relatively siliceous and like that of average upper crust. Except for depletions of U and Cs, the trace element characteristics of the RPP are like those of pelitic sediments and are 3-10 times higher than those typically estimated for the lower crust. The heat production of the RPP is high (1.0 {mu}W/m{sup 3}) as are those of many granulite- and amphibolite-grade metapelites. In general, portions of the lower crust in which sediments are present may be high in light ion lithophile and rare earth element abundances, heat production, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr. Moreover, the high Pb contents and unradiogenic Pb isotope signatures of metapelites provide an important reservoir for unradiogenic Pb in the earth as a whole. (orig.).

  18. Contribution of metapelitic sediments to the composition, heat production, and seismic velocity of the lower crust of southern New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M.R.; Hart, S.R.; Padovani, E.R.; Wandless, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Granulite xenoliths erupted at Kilbourne Hole maar were recently extracted from the lower crust of southern New Mexico. Garnet- and sillimanite-bearing quartzofeldspathic xenoliths had pelitic protoliths and were probably emplaced in the lower crust by tectonic underplating at a lower Proterozoic subduction zone. Thus the Kilbourne Hole metapelitic xenoliths illustrate the potential role of tectonosedimentary processes at convergent margins in determining the ultimate composition of the crust. Average P-wave velocities for metapelitic xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole are ??? 7 km/s at 6 kbar, like those of mafic metagabbros and anorthosites. However, in contrast to mafic lithologies, the major element composition of the representative pelitic paragneiss (RPP) described in this paper is relatively siliceous and like that of average upper crust. Except for depletions of U and Cs, the trace element characteristics of the RPP are like those of pelitic sediments and are 3-10 times higher than those typically estimated for the lower crust. The heat production of the RPP is high (1.0 ??W/m3) as are those of many granulite- and amphibolite-grade metapelites. In general, portions of the lower crust in which sediments are present may be high in light ion lithophile and rare earth element abundances, heat production, ??18O, and 87Sr 86Sr. Moreover, the high Pb contents and unradiogenic Pb isotope signatures of metapelites provide an important reservoir for unradiogenic Pb in the earth as a whole. ?? 1989.

  19. Eastern tropical Pacific vegetation response to rapid climate change and sea level rise: A new pollen record from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, I. L.; Minckley, T. A.; Whitlock, C.

    2016-08-01

    A 30,000-year-long pollen record from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico shows the varying influence of air temperature, precipitation and eustatic sea-level rise on changes in coastal and upland vegetation patterns. During the late-glacial period, pine-juniper forests grew in the Sierra Madre del Sur along the Pacific Slope with broadleaf forests present at low elevations. Coastal wetland and riparian vegetation were limited in distribution. Significant cooling associated with Heinrich 1 (17,000-15,000 cal yr BP) resulted in an expansion of pine-juniper woodland. By the time of Bølling-Allerød warming (14,700-13,000 cal yr BP), extensive mangrove forest development was assisted by sea-level rise and reduced precipitation associated with a more southerly position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) than at present. Concurrently, the expansion of oak into pine woodlands was promoted by warmer conditions than before. Increased summer precipitation in the early Holocene and stabilizing sea levels limited mangrove forests along the coast and allowed mixed conifer and hardwood forest to become more widespread inland. The onset of a more seasonal climate, driven by a weakening of the Mexican monsoon and a southerly shift in ITCZ position led to the establishment of modern open forests of pine and oak after 4300 cal yr BP.

  20. Evaluation of chloride mass balance of pore water as an indicator of groundwater recharge to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Pasten, Ernesto; Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is the third largest metropolitan area and one of the most important industrial sites of Mexico. Groundwater constitutes 40% of the water supply to this urban area. This supply is under constant stress due to the population increase. The unsaturated zone at six sites along two cross-sections was characterized to evaluate the potential of chloride concentration as an indicator of recharge. The selected sites include the range of topographic elevations, vegetation, and annual precipitation of the study area. In each site, boreholes up to 5 m deep were drilled and soil was sampled every 0.5 m. The grain size of each soil sample was determined and pore water extracted to determine the water content percentage, and the chloride, sulfate and nitrate concentration of the pore water. The undersaturated zone consists of alluvial deposits with an average gravel and sand content greater than 60% for all but one of the sampling sites. The pore water content varies from 0.4 to 25% by weight with a decreasing trend as depth increases in areas with agriculture. Sulfate has the highest anion concentration in the pore waters, ranging from 42 to 45,000 mg/L and no apparent distribution pattern along the soil profile columns. Chloride concentration ranges from 8 to 3600 mg/L with an increase in concentration below 1.5 m depth in all the profiles. Chloride and sulfate concentrations with depth are directly correlated suggesting a common input, possibly dissolution-precipitation of evaporite minerals from nearby outcrops or an anthropogenic input. Hence, it is unlikely that chloride behaves as a conservative ion. As a result, its concentration is not likely to be a good indicator of groundwater recharge. Finally; the nitrate concentration ranges from 2 to 96 mg/L nitrate, without a clear pattern along the soil profiles. Low concentration of nitrate in the soil profiles below agricultural areas may suggest denitrification as suggested

  1. Variation Characteristics of Hydrothermal Resources Effectiveness Under the Background of Climate Change in Southern Rice Production Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.

  2. Spatio-temporal changes of forest and vineyard surfaces in areas with sandy soils from southern Oltenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus PRĂVĂLIE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest and vineyard areas in the last three decades in areas occupied by sandy soils in southern Oltenia. Areas with sandy soils in this zone are considered vulnerable elements of the environment as a result of deflation phenomenon that occurs after the disappearance of vegetation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the current state of sandy soils covered by forest vegetation and vineyards, these two categories of vegetation playing a vital role in their stabilization. The results obtained show that in the last three decades forest areas decreased by approx. 2700 ha (11.6% being replaced by sandy soils, while vineyards areas have diminished with 22% (1638 ha, with negative consequences of ecological, climatic and social nature

  3. Reproductive parameters of the southern stingray Dasyatis americana in southern gulf of Mexico Parámetros reproductivos de la raya látigo americana Dasyatis americana en el sur del golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Ramírez-Mosqueda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The southern stingray Dasyatis americana (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928 is the most landed elasmobranch by small-scale fleets in southern gulf of Mexico. However, little is known of its life history parameters in this region. In this study, a total of 900 specimens were collected from February 2006 to December 2008 to determine the reproductive parameters needed for population assessments by means of ecological risk assessments or demographic analysis. Results suggested that females of D. americana reproduce annually, with a gestation of 7-8 months. The reproductive cycle of females is asynchronous, with ovulation and parturition occurring throughout the year. Females and males matured at 764 and 517 mm disc width (DW50 respectively. D. americana has one of the highest fecundity among dasyatids, from 2 to 7 embryos, with a sex ratio of embryos of 1:1. A linear relationship between maternal DW and fecundity was estimated, the larger females contain more embryos. The status of the population of D. americana is a cause of concern in the southern gulf of Mexico due to its high frequency of capture in artisanal fisheries and its apparently low biological productivity.La raya látigo americana Dasyatis americana (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928, conocida como balá en México, es el elasmobranquio más capturado y desembarcado por flotas artesanales en el sur del golfo de México. Sin embargo, se conoce poco de sus parámetros de historia de vida en esta región. En este estudio, fueron analizados 900 ejemplares entre febrero 2006 y diciembre 2008 para determinar los parámetros reproductivos necesarios para evaluaciones poblacionales por medio de análisis demográficos o evaluaciones de riesgo ecológico. Los resultados sugieren que las hembras de D. americana se reproducen anualmente, con una gestación de 7-8 meses aproximadamente. El ciclo reproductivo de las hembras es asincrónico, con la ovulación y alumbramiento ocurriendo a lo largo de todo el

  4. Environmental baseline study of the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project area of New Mexico: a progress report. An addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, has been conducting exploratory drilling operations for a Waste Isolation Pilot Program Eddy and Lea counties in southeast New Mexico for almost two years. Prior to the establishment of such a program, an environmental study has been carried out as a baseline for evaluation of the impact of future activities in the Los Medanos area. Data are presented on the geology; topography; climate; vegetation; and population density, diet, and seasonal movements of mammals, lizards, snakes, birds, insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods of the study area

  5. Movements and foraging areas of naive, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B; Fedak, M; Burton, HR; Engelhard, GH; Reijnders, PJH

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of surviving their first year. But in order to understand what

  6. Movements and foraging areas of naove, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B.; Fedak, M.; Burton, H.R.; Engelhard, G.H.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. ) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of survivingtheir first year. But in order to understand what

  7. Acanthamoeba spp. in domestic tap water in houses of contact lens wearers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Ramírez-Bautista, Gerardo A; Zamora-Muñoz, Claudia; Ibarra-Montes, María Del Rocío; Ramírez-Flores, Elizabeth; Hernández-Martínez, María Dolores

    2010-09-01

    A survey was carried out in the metropolitan area of Mexico City to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the tap water of houses of contact lens wearers. Water samples were taken from the mains water entry, bathroom sinks and storage containers (roof tanks, cisterns) of 27 houses; and from the solution contained in the contact lens cases. Samples were filtered and cultured onto NNE medium. The isolates were identified based on their morphological features and pathogenicity. Total and fecal coliforms, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and residual free-chlorine were measured by standard methods. Forty five isolates of Acanthamoeba from 200 water samples were obtained. The highest number of amoebae was isolated from cisterns and roof tanks. Most Acanthamoeba isolates were non-pathogenic, however, their presence in tap water is a potential hazard since some species can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. PMID:19995560

  8. Chronological evaluation of urban growth and area expansion in Aguascalientes, Mexico using remotely sensed and ancillary mapped data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquier, Leticia G.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Pelletier, Ramona E.

    1990-01-01

    The study describes some efforts to assist the mapping procedure of Mexican towns and cities by focusing on the analysis of urban changes that have occurred in the city of Aguascalientes. To evaluate urban growth trends in Aguascalientes, historic maps of land cover, aerial photography, and SPOT data were reviewed between the period of 1857 and 1988 to determine urban boundaries. Additional analyses focused on identifying the extent and pattern of growth in reference to urban development plans initiated in 1978, and on assessing the impact of relocating people and industry after the Mexico City earthquake. Results from the study indicate a steady growth in areal expansion and population in the Aguascalientes area between 1978 and 1988.

  9. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP) was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological pr...

  10. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  11. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  12. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Louis Phipps

    Full Text Available Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus. We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2 and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape.

  13. A reconnaissance geochemical study of La Primavera geothermal area, Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, G.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Templos, M.L.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Sierra La Primavera, a late Pleistocene rhyolitic caldera complex in Jalisco, Me??xico, contains fumaroles and large-discharge 65??C hot springs that are associated with faults related to caldera collapse and to later magma insurgence. The nearly-neutral, sodium bicarbonate, hot springs occur at low elevations at the margins of the complex, whereas the water-rich fumaroles are high and central. The Comisio??n Federal de Electricidad de Me??xico (CFE) has recently drilled two deep holes at the center of the Sierra (PR-1 and Pr-2) and one deep hole at the western margin. Temperatures as high as 285??C were encountered at 1160 m in PR-1, which produced fluids with 820 to 865 mg/kg chloride after flashing to one atmosphere. Nearby, PR-2 encountered temperatures to 307??C at 2000 m and yielded fluids with chloride contents fluctuating between 1100 and 1560 mg/kg after flashing. Neither of the high-temperature wells produced steam in commercial quantities. The well at the western margin of the Sierra produced fluids similar to those from the hot springs. The temperature reached a maximum of 100??C near the surface and decreased to 80??C at 2000 m. Various geothermometers (quartz conductive, Na/K, Na-K-Ca, ??18O(SO4-H2O) and D/H (steam-water) all yield temperatures of 170 ?? 20??C when applied to the hot spring waters, suggesting that these spring waters flow from a large shallow reservoir at this temperature. Because the hot springs are much less saline than the fluids recovered in PR-1 and PR-2, the mixed fluid in the shallow reservoir can contain no more than 10-20% deep fluid. This requires that most of the heat is transferred by steam. There is probably a thin vapor-dominated zone in the central part of the Sierra, through which steam and gases are transferred to the overlying shallow reservoir. Fluids from this reservoir cool from ???170??C to 65??C by conduction during the 5-7 km of lateral flow to the hot springs. ?? 1983.

  14. Radiogenic and Stable Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of Groundwater, Pajarito Plateau and Surrounding Areas, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Longmire, Michael Dale, Dale Counce, Andrew Manning, Toti Larson, Kim Granzow, Robert Gray, and Brent Newman

    2007-07-15

    From October 2004 through February 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Environment Department-Department of Energy Oversight Bureau, and the United States Geological Survey conducted a hydrochemical investigation. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate groundwater flow paths and determine groundwater ages using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 along with aqueous inorganic chemistry. Knowledge of groundwater age and flow paths provides a technical basis for selecting wells and springs for monitoring. Groundwater dating is also relevant to groundwater resource management, including aquifer sustainability, especially during periods of long-term drought. At Los Alamos, New Mexico, groundwater is either modern (post-1943), submodern (pre-1943), or mixed (containing both pre- and post-1943 components). The regional aquifer primarily consists of submodern groundwater. Mixed-age groundwater results from initial infiltration of surface water, followed by mixing with perched alluvial and intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer. No groundwater investigation is complete without using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 dating methods to quantify amounts of modern, mixed, and/or submodern components present in samples. Computer models of groundwater flow and transport at Los Alamos should be calibrated to groundwater ages for perched intermediate zones and the regional aquifer determined from this investigation. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the occurrence of multiple flow paths and groundwater ages occurring within the Sierra de los Valles, beneath the Pajarito Plateau, and at the White Rock Canyon springs. Localized groundwater recharge occurs within several canyons dissecting the Pajarito Plateau. Perched intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer beneath Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos Canyon, Sandia Canyon, Mortandad Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, and Canon de Valle contain a modern component. This modern component consists

  15. Analysis of the arboreal diversity in restorated after-fire areas in the ecological park Chipinque, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research assessed the diversity of the arboreal component of areas, with and without ecological restoration, after being impacted by a wildfire in the Ecological Park Chipinque (PECh), in Northeastern Mexico. Two areas were analyzed, one facing northeast and the other Northwest in the Sierra Madre Oriental, in each facing were assessed two areas, one of them where there were not practices of ecological restoration (control) and other one in which these practices were carried out. Within each area, four sites were selected. Plots were 10 m x 10 m, in a mixed ecosystem pine-oak, ranging in height from 1000 to 1150 m above sea level; all trees with a diameter equal to 0.10 m ≥1.5 cm were assessed, and were obtained parameters of height (h) and diameter (d0.10). The diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H') and Margalef (Da) and an analysis of Bray-Curtis was used to determine the diversity according to the similarity-dissimilarity between the ecosystems of both exposures. To evaluate the vertical distribution of species Pretzsch index was estimated, and species were distributed in different zones of altitude. The family Fagaceae was the predominant group in both areas. According to the analysis of diversity, sampled areas showed a decrease on richness and diversity. The species with the highest ecological weight in both aspects (NE and NO) and in both treatments (with and without restoration) was Quercus rysophylla; while Pinus pseudostrobus was the second specie in the restored areas due to the re-vegetation practices.

  16. Crustal Structure across Southern Islas Marías (Nayarit, Mexico) from Wide-Angle Data (TSUJAL Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, D.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Danobeitia, J.; Garcia Millan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Pacific Margin is an interesting geological and tectonic study region due to the subduction processes that involve Rivera plate, North American plates and Jalisco Block. This region has been recently studied by the TSUJAL geophysical experiment during 2014. The main goal of this project is to achieve a better knowledge about this active margin and the seismic and tsunamigenic potential structural sources. To carry out this objective a set of multibeam bathymetric, potential fields, high resolution seismic, MCS and WAS data were obtained. In the frame of this study, we present the most significant results of wide angle seismic profile RTSIM04 carried out across the southern region of Islas Marías perpendicular to the coast towards Tepic in Nayarit with 220 km of length and SW-NE orientated. This profile is made of by a network of 4 OBS and 30 land seismic stations, deployed specially for this project, which registered the air gun shots provided by RRS James Cook every 120 s. Data obtained after processing and interpretation characterize seismically the contact zone between Rivera and North American plates from 30 to 60 km of model distance. Moreover, a cortical thickening from 9 to 20 km is observed towards to the coast. In the upper mantle, P-wave velocities of 7.9-8.4 km/s up to maximum depth of 50 km have been determined.

  17. On the Paleotectonic Evolution of the Pacific Margin of Southern Mexico, the Maya and Juchatengo Terranes and Chochal Formation Guatemala:Insights from Paleomagnetic and Isotopic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Garcia, J. C.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the paleogeographic reconstruction of Mexico and northern Central America, evidence shows that the entire region is a collage of suspect terranes transported from abroad, whose timing and sense of motion are now beginning to be understood. Among these, the Chortis block and the Baja California Peninsula have been proposed as pieces of continent separated from the Pacific coast of southwestern Mexico, that have moved either southeastward by the Farallon plate or northwestward by the Kula plate. Isotopic mineral ages from coastal granites along the coast from Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco (80 Ma) to Puerto Angel, Oaxaca (11 Ma) record systematic decrease of cooling ages from NW to SE. These results also constrain the position of the Kula- Farallon spreading axis north of Puerto Vallarta. Previous studies mainly confined to the northern margin of the Chortis block, confirmed a left-lateral displacement of 130 km in Neogene time. Further studies suggested times of detachment increased to 30 Ma, 40 Ma, and 66 Ma. We conclude that several indicators, namely: (a) the truncated nature of the Pacific coast of SW Mexico; (b) the genesis of the Kula-Farallon ridge at 85 Ma; (c) the 2,600 km of northward transport of Baja British Columbia from the present-day latitude of the Baja California Peninsula, beginning at 85 Ma; (d) the paleomagnetic counterclockwise rotations of areas both in the Chortis block and along the Mexican coast, during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene time, and (e) the systematic NW-SE decrease of radiometric dates beginning at 85 Ma in Puerto Vallarta and ending at approximately 11 Ma in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca , point to this time and region for the onset of strike-slip drifting of the Chortis block toward its current position. On the other hand, in the reconstruction of past movements of tectonic plates, the determination of reliable paleomagnetic poles is of utmost importance. To achieve accurate results, a full knowledge of the rock magnetic properties of the

  18. The mineralogy, geochemistry and surface area of mudrocks from the London Clay Formation of southern England

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, S.J.; Wagner, D.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the results of mineralogical and geochemical analysis of a suite of mudstones from the London Clay Formation of southern and south-eastern England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing ‘Ground Movements: Shrink/Swell’ project under the Physical Hazards Programme. The first part of the report gives an introduction to the geology of the London Clay Formation and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employ...

  19. The mineralogy, surface area and geochemistry of samples from the Wealden Group of southern England

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, S.J.; Wagner, D.; Ingham, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of mineralogical and geochemical analysis of a suite of mudstones from the Wealden Group of southern England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing „Ground Shrinkage Hazards‟ project under the Land Use, Planning and Development Programme. The first part of the report gives an introduction to the geology of the Wealden Group and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employed (X-ray diffraction ...

  20. Evidence of pre-Columbian settlements in the forest of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Zamora-Camacho; Juan Manuel Espíndola; Peter Schaaf; Angel Ramírez; María de Lourdes Godínez Calderón

    2015-01-01

    The basaltic Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (LTVF) is located at the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico in the State of Veracruz, Mexico. The field is a massif composed of four large volcanic structures and hundreds of scoria cones, lava domes and maars. This area was in the past covered by a dense forest in whose margins flourished several of the ancient cities of importance in central and southern Veracruz. Within the forest no enduring archeological ruins have been found; but ...