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Sample records for area process trenches

  1. 300 Area process trench sediment analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling program for the sediments underlying the Process Trenches serving the 300 Area on the Hanford reservation. These Process Trenches were the subject of a Closure Plan submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and to the US Environmental Protection Agency in lieu of a Part B permit application on November 8, 1985. The closure plan described a proposed sampling plan for the underlying sediments and potential remedial actions to be determined by the sample analyses results. The results and proposed remedial action plan are presented and discussed in this report. 50 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-08-15

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ``co-operator.`` The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit.

  3. 300 Area Process Trenches Modified Closure/Postclosure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the contents of each chapter of this plan for the closure of the 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit. It also provides background information for this unit and discusses how its closure will be integrated with the remedial action for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 300- FF-1 Operable Unit. The 300 APT is located within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This area contained reactor fuel fabrication facilities and research and development laboratories. The 300 APT was constructed and began operations in 1975 as the 316-5 Process Trenches. Effluent was discharged to the trenches by way of the 300 Area process sewer system, which has been the sole source of effluent for the 300 APT. The 316-5 Process Trenches gained Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) interim status as the 300 APT TSD unit on November 11, 1985. The unit has been administratively closed to discharges of dangerous waste since 1985

  4. Interim characterization report for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Wallace, R.W.; Aaberg, R.L.; Airhart, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Cline, C.S.; Dennison, D.I.; Freshley, M.D.; Heller, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains information on the results of the Hazardous Waste Ground-Water Monitoring Compliance Program characterization studies of wastes disposed of in the 300 Area process trenches. The characterization of the 300 Area process trenches has been conducted as part of an effort initiated in June 1985, when a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented. The characterization effort is part of a regulatory ground-water monitoring compliance program for hazardous chemicals on the Hanford Site. The characterization work described in this document represents an expanded ground-water monitoring compliance effort, and incorporates or refers to previous studies useful in characterizing the 300 Area. This document is primarily a compendium of technical information on the 300 Area; therefore, data interpretations are limited to the most obvious conclusions. Final conclusions will not be presented until the analysis of data is completed in September 1989. 48 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure

  6. Vadose Zone Clean Closure Report for the 300 Area Process Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the achievement of closure performance standards for the 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) located within the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU). The report is intended to supplement the 300 Area Process Trenches Verification Package (BHI 1998C), which documents the achievement of the remedial action objectives specified in the 300-FF-1 Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) (DOE-RL 1997). Upon acceptance of this document by the Washington State Department of Ecology, a 60-day period will begin to certify closure of the the process trenches

  7. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. RESULTS OF GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR THE 183-H SOLAR EVAPORATION BASINS AND 300 AREA PROCESS TRENCHES JANUARY - JUNE 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) monitoring at the 183-H solar evaporation basins and the 300 Area process trenches. It fulfills the requirement of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-645(11)(g), 'Release from Regulated Units', to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from January through June 2008. The current objective of corrective action monitoring the 183-H basins is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste (Permit No. WA 7890008967)) and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends. The objective of groundwater monitoring at the 300 Area process trenches is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corrective action program by examining the trend of the constituents of interest to confirm that they are attenuating naturally. The overall concentration of uranium in network wells remained above the 30 (micro)g/L drinking water standard in the three downgradient wells screened at the water table. Fluctuations of uranium concentration are caused by changes in river stage. The concentration of cis-1,2-dichloroethene remained above the 70 (micro)g/L drinking water standard in one well (399-1-16B). Concentrations are relatively steady at this well and are not affected by river stage. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations were below detection limits in all wells during the reporting period

  9. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Locating buried trenches using an integrated geophysical study at the Parks Shallow Land Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Parks site, Western Pennsylvania, a geophysical survey was undertaken to determine the size and location of buried trenches containing radiological waste. Several geophysical techniques were used to non-intrusively locate the trench boundaries. The trenches outlines could be mapped from surface conductivity profiles. Magnetometer surveys identified much of the ferrous material buried within the trenches, and further defined the location of the trenches. Several vintages of ground penetrating radar were used, with the need for low frequency antenna demonstrated by testing. A 50 MHz GPR antenna was elected for a series of profiles across the trenches. By integrating interpretations from the total magnetic field, magnetic gradients, conductivity data and radar profiles it was possible to provide an accurate map of the trenches verified by subsequent drilling. Seismic and microgravity techniques were not able to verify the location of mine workings beneath the area of investigation

  11. ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area 6 trench photos and geologic descriptions, July 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated a photographic and descriptive geologic study of low-level waste trenches opened in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA-6). From July 1984 through September 1985, trenches were excavated, geologically described, and photographed before being filled and closed. Only three trenches (Nos. 438, 448, and 465) were excavated and closed before photography could be scheduled. It is recommended that the systematic trench characterization procedure outlined in this report be continued under the direction of ORNL's Operations Division with support from both Environmental Sciences and the Engineering divisions. Publication of such a compilation of trench photos on a yearly basis will serve not only as a part of Department of Energy trench documentation requirements but also as a component of a SWSA-6 geologic data base being developed for current research and development activities. 2 refs., 38 figs

  12. Process optimization of a deep trench isolation structure for high voltage SOI devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process reasons for weak point formation of the deep trench on SOI wafers have been analyzed in detail. An optimized trench process is also proposed. It is found that there are two main reasons: one is over-etching laterally of the silicon on the surface of the buried oxide caused by a fringe effect; and the other is the slow growth rate of the isolation oxide in the concave silicon corner of the trench bottom. In order to improve the isolation performance of the deep trench, two feasible ways for optimizing the trench process are proposed. The improved process thickens the isolation oxide and rounds sharp silicon corners at their weak points, increasing the applied voltage by 15-20 V at the same leakage current. The proposed new trench isolation process has been verified in the foundry's 0.5-μm HV SOI technology. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  14. THE BC CRIBS AND TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT: ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORD'S CLEANUP PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  15. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  16. Characterization of shallow trench isolation CMP process and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, ChunLei; Liu, JinBing; Liu, ZhengFang; Chen, Kuang Han; Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba; Ding, Hua; Li, Flora; Lee, Brian; Gower-Hall, Aaron; Chiu, Yang-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been a critical enabling technology in shallow trench isolation (STI), which is used in current integrated circuit fabrication process to accomplish device isolation. Excessive dishing and erosion in STI CMP processes, however, create device yield concerns. This paper proposes characterization and modeling techniques to address a variety of concerns in STI CMP. In the past, majority of CMP publications have been addressed on interconnect layers in backend- of-line (BEOL) process. However, the number of CMP steps in front-end-of-line (FEOL) has been increasing in more advanced process techniques like 3D-FinFET and replacement metal gate, as a results incoming topography induced by FEOL CMP steps can no longer be ignored as the topography accumulates and stacks up across multiple CMP steps and eventually propagating to BEOL layers. In this paper, we first discuss how to characterize and model STI CMP process. Once STI CMP model is developed, it can be used for screening design and detect possible manufacturing weak spots. We also work with process engineering team to establish hotspot criteria in terms of oxide dishing and nitride loss. As process technologies move from planar transistor to 3D transistor like FinFet and multi-gate, it is important to accurately predict topography in FEOL CMP processes. These incoming topographies when stacked up can have huge impact in BEOL copper processes, where copper pooling becomes catastrophic yield loss. A calibration methodology to characterize STI CMP step is developed as shown in Figure 1; moreover, this STI CMP model is validated from silicon data collected from product chips not used in calibration stage. Additionally, wafer experimental setup and metrology plan are instrumental to an accurate model with high predictive power. After a model is generated, spec limits and threshold to establish hotspots criteria can be defined. Such definition requires working closely with foundry

  17. Dependence of electric potentials at trench surfaces on ion angular distribution in plasma etching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palov, A. P.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Ion-stimulated etching of dielectrics in radio frequency plasma results in positive charging of a trench bottom because of the significant difference in the angular distribution functions of ions and electrons. They are anisotropic for ions and quasi-isotropic for electrons. The charging leads to a decrease in the energy of the ions bombarding the trench bottom and to undesirable sputtering of the walls near the trench bottom because of the curving of the ion trajectories. This process is normally investigated by Monte Carlo methods in the absence of experimental data. In this paper the analytical dependence of the ion flux bombarding the trench bottom on a trench aspect ratio and ion angular distribution function is obtained. Numerical calculations of the electric potential on the trench bottom for a set of trench aspect ratios and angles of the ion angular distribution function were performed based on a Monte Carlo method to demonstrate the ion flux and electric potential correlated well with each other. The proposed formula for an ion flux is suggested to be helpful for analyzing charging the trenches with different aspect ratios in plasma with an arbitrary angular ion distribution function.

  18. Formation of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Moonkeun; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Hong-Sik; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitor application. The deep Si trench via with size of 10.3 microm and depth of 71 microm were fabricated by Bosch process in deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) system. The aspect ratio was about 7. Then, nano-Ag ink and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) were used to form metal and dielectric liners, respectively. The thicknesses of the Ag and PVPh liners were about 144 and 830 nm, respectively. When the curing temperature of Ag film increased from 120 to 150 degrees C, the sheet resistance decreased rapidly from 2.47 to 0.72 Omega/sq and then slightly decreased to 0.6 Omega/sq with further increasing the curing temperature beyond 150 degrees C. The proposed liner formation method using solution process is a simple and cost effective process for the high capacity of deep trench capacitor. PMID:22966677

  19. Plastic pollution of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (NW pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viola; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Brenke, Nils; Schwabe, Enrico; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) to the northwest Pacific Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plain, we found several kinds and sizes of plastic debris ranging from fishing nets and packaging to microplastic in the sediment of the deep-sea floor. Microplastics were ubiquitous in the smaller fractions of the box corer samples from every station from depths between 4869 and 5766 m. They were found on the abyssal plain and in the sediments of the trench slope on both sides. The amount of microplastics differed between the stations, with lowest concentration of 60 pieces per m2 and highest concentrations of more than 2000 pieces per m2. Around 75% of the microplastics (defined here as particles deep sea of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area and what consequences the microplastic itself and its adsorbed chemicals will have on this very special and rich deep-sea fauna. But we herewith present an evaluation of the different kinds of plastic debris we found, as a documentation of human impact into the deep sea of this region of the Northwest Pacific.

  20. Refining seismic parameters in low seismicity areas by 3D trenching: The Alhama de Murcia fault, SE Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrater, Marta; Ortuño, Maria; Masana, Eulàlia; Pallàs, Raimon; Perea, Hector; Baize, Stephane; García-Meléndez, Eduardo; Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Echeverria, Anna; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Sharp, Warren D.; Medialdea, Alicia; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional paleoseismology in strike-slip faults with slip rates less than 1 mm per year involves a great methodological challenge. We adapted 3D trenching to track buried channels offset by the Alhama de Murcia seismogenic left-lateral strike-slip fault (SE Iberia). A fault net slip of 0.9 ± 0.1 mm/yr was determined using statistical analysis of piercing lines for one buried channel, whose age is constrained between 15.2 ± 1.1 ka and 21.9-22.3 cal BP. This value is larger and more accurate than the previously published slip rates for this fault. The minimum number of five paleo-earthquakes identified since the deposition of dated layers suggests a maximum average recurrence interval of approximately 5 ka. The combination of both seismic parameters yields a maximum slip per event between 5.3 and 6.3 m. We show that accurately planned trenching strategies and data processing may be key to obtaining robust paleoseismic parameters in low seismicity areas.

  1. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  2. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    overflow. Analyses of falling water tables after rain indicated slight clogging, but this effect is less important than the general lack of knowledge about soil permeability for normal design situations. The results indicate that the stormwater infiltration in central urban areas with compressed soils and......Two infiltration trenches were constructed in a densely built-up area in central Copenhagen and equipped with on-line sensors measuring rain, runoff flow from the connected surfaces and water level in the trenches. The paper describes the field site, the measuring system and the results from an...

  3. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5.

  4. Foraminifera of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area: The prospects of molecular study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejzerowicz, Franck; Voltski, Ivan; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Foraminifera remain poorly studied from deep-sea sediment settings, although they often dominate meiofaunal communities and represent an important part of the functional deep-sea diversity. Moreover, there is a striking gap in our knowledge of deep-sea Foraminifera since most of the foraminiferal diversity corresponds to single-chambered monothalamids displaying inconspicuous morphologies. The previous expeditions suggest that the foraminiferal biomass is large in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area, including many macrofaunal-size xenophyophoreans and komokiaceans. However, the on-site foraminiferal diversity remains poorly described and was never genetically examined. During the KuramBio expedition, we collected over 1400 specimens representing all major foraminiferal groups, focusing on monothalamids and particularly komokiaceans. From the deep-sea sediments, using four different sampling gears, we sorted, identified and photographed single specimens for DNA (or RNA) extraction. The material we report here will be used in our ongoing research on estimation and visualisation of the diversity of deep-sea monothalamous foraminifera and enigmatic taxa such as the komokiaceans, the origin of which is yet to be determined.

  5. Trench mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001044.htm Trench mouth To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Trench mouth is a painful bacterial infection that involves swelling ( ...

  6. Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC “ground truthing” exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity “target” in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical

  7. Source Process of The July 17, 2006 Java Earthquake by Using a Fine Crustal Structure Model of The Java Trench And a 2.5D FDM Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T.; Takenaka, H.

    2006-12-01

    The July 17, 2006 off Java Island earthquake occurred close to the Java trench and generated a large tsunami which caused hundreds of fatalities and devastating damages. It is important to understand source process of this event in studying the mechanisms of nucleation of such shallow earthquakes and excitation of tsunamis. We analyze the source process of this event with synthetic teleseismic body waveforms that incorporate the effect of laterally heterogeneous near-source structure of the Java trench. There are two major reasons for adapting such an approach. (1) It has been well known that there are large effect of laterally heterogeneous structure near oceanic trench on the teleseismic body waveforms (e.g., Wiens 1987, 1989; Okamoto 1989, 1993; Yoshida 1992). The non-flat bathymetry and the thick sedimentary layers near the source considerably distort the ray paths of the teleseismic waves, resulting in large later phases. Flat interface model can not reproduce such an effect. (2) Near the oceanic trenches, it is often difficult to precisely determine source depths based on global hypocentral analysis because of scarce station coverage near the source. This difficulty, together with the epicentral errors that are sometimes systematic due to large scale velocity anomalies such as the subducting plate (Engdahl et al. 1982), often prevents us from precisely estimating the depth and extent of the fault. We also note that the hypocenter is the point of rupture initiation and not the spatial centroid of the moment release. Our approach not only solves the problem (1), but also can overcome the problem (2): the source position can be relocated by waveform analysis because the structural effect is non-uniform with respect to the source location (Okamoto, 1994). In this paper, we assume a 2.5D model (i.e., uniform in trench-parallel direction but heterogeneous in trench-perpendicular direction and in vertical direction) of fine crustal structure based on a detailed

  8. Characterization of Secondary Solid Wastes in Trench Water in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other sites, can be treated at the existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet discharge requirements without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench and pilot-scale treatability studies have shown that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants and that the secondary solid wastes produced were not hazardous when treating water from two trenches in WAG 6. This study used WAG 6 trench water spiked with the minimum concentration of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents (chemicals that can make a waste hazardous) found in any groundwater samples at ORNL. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF), a 0.5 L/min pilot plant that simulates the treatment capabilities of the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWPT) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), was used for this test. This test system, which is able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for TCLP testing, was operated for a 59-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that WAG 6 trench waters, spiked with the minimum concentration of TCLP contaminants measured to date, can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet current discharge limits. The results of the TCLP analysis indicated that none of the secondary solid wastes produced during the treatment of these wastewaters will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  9. Three new species and one new genus of abyssal Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Anna V.; Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Only two species of crustacean Cumacea have been reported in publications for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area after nine expeditions on board of the RV "Vityaz". During the KuramBio expedition 2012 to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain at depths 4830-5780 m no less than 72 species of cumaceans from 23 genera and 6 families were sampled. Five genera were recorded for the first time in the studied region: the genera Pseudoleptostyloides and Platycuma were detected for the first time for the Pacific Ocean; Cyclaspoides, Bathylamprops and Styloptocuma were firstly sampled in North Pacific. About 90% of the sampled species appear to be new to science. Three new deep-sea cumacean species and one new genus from the Kurile Kamchatka area are described in the present paper: Abyssoleucon tzarevae gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the family Leuconidae, Cyclaspoides borisovetsi sp. n. and Bathycuma sonne sp. n. of the family Bodotriidae. A distribution map for the species of the genus Cyclaspoides is provided.

  10. Trench mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much. Risks include the following: Emotional stress Poor oral hygiene Poor nutrition Smoking Throat, tooth, or mouth infections ... prescribe antibiotics if you have a fever. Good oral hygiene is vital to the treatment of trench mouth. ...

  11. Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Truex, Michael J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Chang, Hyun-shik; Clayton, Ray E.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Baum, Steven R.; Smith, David M.

    2009-09-25

    This technical report documents the results of laboratory geochemical and hydrologic measurements of sediments collected from new borehole 299-E13-65 (C7047) and comparison of the results with those of nearby borehole 299-13E-62 (C5923) both drilled in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant-distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving baseline risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. Improved understanding of subsurface conditions and methods to remediate these principal contaminants can be also used to evaluate the application of specific technologies to other contaminants across the Hanford Site.

  12. SPECIAL ANALYSIS FOR SLIT TRENCH DISPOSAL OF THE REACTOR PROCESS HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.; Collard, L.; Aleman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Butcher, T.

    2012-06-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), in response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), conducted a Special Analysis (SA) to evaluate the performance of nineteen heat exchangers that are to be disposed in the E-Area low level waste facility Slit Trench 9 (ST 9). Although these nineteen heat exchangers were never decontaminated, the majority of the radionuclides in the heat exchanger inventory list were determined to be acceptable for burial because they are less than the 'generic' waste form inventory limits given in the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). However, as generic waste, the H-3 and C-14 inventories resulted in unacceptable sum-of-fractions (SOFs). Initial scoping analyses performed by SRNL indicated that if alterations were made to certain external nozzles to mitigate various potential leak paths, acceptable SOFs could be achieved through the use of a 'Special' waste form. This SA provides the technical basis for this new 'Special' waste form and provides the inventory limits for H-3 and C-14 for these nineteen heat exchangers such that the nineteen heat exchangers can be disposed in ST 9. This 'Special' waste form is limited to these nineteen heat exchangers in ST 9 and applies for H-3 and C-14, which are designated as H-3X and C-14X, respectively. The SA follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA and the 2008 SA except for the modeling enhancements noted below. Infiltration rates above the heat exchangers are identical to those used in the 2008 PA; however, flow through the heat exchangers is unique. Because it is unknown exactly how sealed heat exchanger openings will perform and how surface and embedded contaminants will be released, multiple base cases or scenarios were established to investigate a set of performances. Each scenario consists of flow options (based on the performance of sealed openings) and a near-field release of contaminants (based on corrosion and

  13. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5.

  14. The hydrological impact of contour trenching in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, K. E. R.; Ertsen, M. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.; de Laat, P.; Nonner, J.

    2009-04-01

    At the foothill in the driest rural area in Vietnam, at Ninh Thuan province, poor farmers cultivate up-land crops during the wet season. The area is about 9 hectares of deforested land with a slope up to 8% and has a geology surface of crusted sands and gravels. Water is scarce during the dry season and runs off rapidly during the wet season. Hence, to provide sustainable water resources and support crop growth, a project started in 2007 aiming introducing contour trenching. The main purpose of contour trenching is to trap run off, increase soil moisture for vegetation growth and recharge the groundwater. In order to investigate the impact of the trenches, a field monitoring program was initiated measuring rainfall, soil moisture content, surface water levels and groundwater levels. Recorded annual rainfall reached 600 mm. The groundwater levels are relatively deep and constant at -8 and -10 meters. The soil moisture content ranged from 3% at the driest condition to 37% below the trench at ponding. Water levels in trenches differed from uphill to downhill with higher levels at the first trench uphill. After ponding, water in the trenches infiltrates within a period of days. In this contribution, available field measurements are analyzed in two ways. First, runoff is analyzed. Immediately after significant rainfall events, the observed ponding levels in the trenches with defined uphill runoff areas can be related to the rainfall. The results show reduction of runoff coefficients per trench in downhill direction. Second, the two dimension numerical saturated-unsaturated model Hydrus 2-D was used to simulate the soil moisture content measurements. Model results confirm that infiltration is a quick process in this area with its loamy sand soils. Based on these analyzes, potential of contour trenches for local water retention and groundwater recharge will be discussed.

  15. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (the Authority) funded treatability study identified biotreatment as the best technology to reduce the hazardous constituent concentrations below discharge criteria. Ion exchange resins were shown to reduce strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations of a low-level radioactive waste disposal trench leachate below release limits. Based on the results of this treatability study, the Authority has funded the design of a leachate treatment system. An activated sludge bioreactor and ion exchange resin columns will be components of the treatment train. A discussion of the design and the design criteria for the treatment facility will be provided. Particular emphasis will be placed on the availability of the off-the-shelf equipment and the modifications that will be required. Other issues which will be discussed are: Tritium concentration concerns, secondary waste generation and processing, design codes, site layout and schedule

  16. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  17. Abyssal macrofauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (Northwest Pacific) collected by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N. O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O. A.; Lavrenteva, A. V.; Riehl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abyssal macrofaunal composition of 21 epibenthic sledge hauls from twelve stations taken in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) and at the adjacent abyssal plain, Northwest Pacific, is presented. Sampling with the fine meshed epibenthic sledge yielded higher abundances and species richness than was reported from previous expeditions from board of RV Vityaz. In total 84,651 invertebrates were sampled with RV Sonne between July and September of 2012 (31,854 invertebrates if standardised for 1000 m2 trawled distances) from 41 taxa of different taxonomic ranks (15 phyla, 28 classes, 7 orders) were sampled from a trawled area of 53,708 m² and have been analyzed. Few taxa were frequent and most taxa were rare in the samples, twelve taxa occurred with more than 1% frequency. Of these, the Polychaeta were most abundant followed by the benthic Copepoda and Isopoda. Total numbers of individuals varied between stations and were highest with 4238 individuals at station 2-10 close to the KKT in 4865 m depth and lowest with 374 individuals at station 6-11 in 5305 m depth. At this station also the lowest number of taxa occurred (18 taxa) while the highest number occurred with 31 taxa at station 3-9 in 4991 m depth. Numbers of individuals decreased with increasing depth between 4830 and 5780 m. Crustaceans of the superorder Peracarida were one of the dominating taxa with four orders occurring frequently in most samples. In total, Isopoda were most important and occurred with 59% of all peracarid orders sampled, followed by Amphipoda with 21%, Tanaidacea with 11%, Cumacea with 9%, and Mysidacea with abyssal area differ in terms of taxon composition from each other. A cluster analysis (nMDS) performed for all sampled stations revealed no clear pattern of community similarity between stations or hauls. All hauls close to the trench (2-9 and 2-10 close to the eastern slope of the KKT; and 3-9 and 4-3 at the western slope) were most different to the other hauls. Hauls 8-9 and 8-12 as

  18. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  19. Real feature of seismicity around Palau trench region, western Pacific: Is Palau trench aseismic silent plate boundary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Y.; Shito, A.; Tanaka, S.; Suetsugu, D.

    2012-12-01

    . Estimated depth is distributed from 20 to 30 km. The determination is inaccurate and sparse distributed, but simple seismograms mean that these are not shallow crustal event. P and S wave amplitude analysis says that dip-slip type fault mechanism is dominant. This seismic activity may be strongly related with subduction process. These earthquakes are magnitude of 2 to 3. Seismicity of Palau area is much higher than initial estimation based on earthquake catalogue. These results mean that Palau trench has latent active seismic process and suggest that the trench may have convergent plate process than general understanding.

  20. Refraction seismic surveys in the investigation trench TK3 area in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, the ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) conducted refraction seismic surveys at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The work was ordered by Posiva Oy. The field work was carried out during May and June 2004. On five profiles S70-S74 totally 1002.5 m was surveyed. The purpose of the work was to determine the overburden thickness and to study bedrock properties, e.g. eventual fractured zones. The work consisted of staking, levelling, seismic measurements, interpretation and reporting. Fieldwork and interpretation were concluded by May and June 2004. Previously in 2000 and 2002 Smoy has carried out 33.0 km of seismic surveys in the area. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Calcination and Milling Process Conditions for Ceria Slurry on Shallow-Trench-Isolation Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Kanemoto, Manabu; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

    2007-12-01

    To improve the performance of shallow trench isolation chemical-mechanical polishing (STI-CMP) in terms of the removal selectivity of oxide and nitride films and the formation of surface defects, we investigated the effects of the calcination and milling process conditions during ceria slurry synthesis. We have focused on the effects of particle size distribution, the large-particle size, and the dispersion stability in a ceria slurry. We determined the optimum bead size for milling and appropriate calcination temperatures in order to obtain a reasonable particle distribution, with lower numbers of fine primary particles and large, agglomerated particles, in ceria slurry. This was achieved by reducing the quantity of aggregated particles during milling and two-step calcination process generating higher-density particles. These results can be qualitatively explained by abrasive collisions occurring between the milling beads and the decarbonation of cerium carbonate through diffusion during the manufacturing process used for the ceria slurry.

  2. Wide-angle seismic survey in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Iwamaru, H.; Shirai, T.; Dannowski, A.; Thorwart, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Morgan, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Dehydration process within the subducting oceanic plate and expelled water from there affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes. This implies that the degree of hydration within the incoming oceanic plate just prior to subduction might be a key control factor on the regional variations in subduction zone processes like interplate earthquakes and arc volcanism. Recent advances in seismic structure studies in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan Trench have revealed that seismic velocities within the incoming oceanic plate become lower owing to the plate bending-related faulting, suggesting the hydration of the oceanic plate. If the degree of the oceanic plate hydration is one of key factors controlling the regional variations of the interplate earthquakes, the degree of the oceanic plate hydration just prior to subduction is expected to show the along-trench variation because the interplate seismicity in the forearc region of the Japan Trench show along-trench variations. However, we cannot discuss the along-trench variation of the incoming plate structure because seismic structure studies have been confined only to the northern Japan Trench so far.In 2014 and 2015, JAMSTEC and GEOMAR conducted wide-angle seismic surveys in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench to reveal the detailed seismic structure of the incoming oceanic plate. The western extension of our survey line corresponds to the epicenter of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquakes. We deployed 88 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) at intervals of 6 km and shot a tuned air-gun array of R/V Kairei at 200 m spacing. In this presentation, we will show the overview of our seismic survey and present seismic structure models obtained by the data of mainly 2014 seismic survey together with the several OBS data from 2015 survey. The preliminary results show P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle decreases toward the trench axis

  3. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 112: AREA 23 HAZARDOUS WASTE TRENCHES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA; FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 2003 - SEPTEMBER 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit located in Area 23 of the NTS. This annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for CAU 112. This report includes a summary and analysis of the site inspections, repair and maintenance, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 112 for the current monitoring period, October 2003 through September 2004. Inspections of the CAU 112 RCRA unit were performed quarterly to identify any significant physical changes to the site that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit. The overall condition of the covers and facility was good, and no significant findings were observed. The annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted on August 23, 2004, and the results indicated that no cover subsidence4 has occurred at any of the markers. The elevations of the markers have been consistent for the past 11 years. The total precipitation for the current reporting period, october 2003 to September 2004, was 14.0 centimeters (cm) (5.5 inches [in]) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory, Special Operations and Research Division, 2004). This is slightly below the average rainfall of 14.7 cm (5.79 in) over the same period from 1972 to 2004. Post-closure monitoring verifies that the CAU 112 trench covers are performing properly and that no water is infiltrating into or out of the waste trenches. Sail moisture measurements are obtained in the soil directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions for the first year of post-closure monitoring, which began in october 1993. neutron logging was performed twice during this monitoring period along 30 neutron access tubes to obtain soil moisture data and detect any changes that may indicate moisture movement

  4. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  5. Radionuclide migration in the experimental polygon of the Red Forest waste site in the Chernobyl zone – Part 1: Characterization of the waste trench, fuel particle transformation processes in soils, biogenic fluxes and effects on biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article introduces an experimental site located within the Chernobyl exclusion zone that is equipped to study radionuclide behavior in the environment after disposal of radioactive waste into shallow subsurface storage (trenches). This paper presents how the site is equipped and the methodology that was followed in order to understand and reproduce the observed 90Sr contaminant plume downstream from a shallow waste trench in an area about 2.5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), called the Red Forest. The main results include identification of the radionuclide source term (the distribution and inventories of radionuclides in the trench, the description of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel particles encountered in the waste trench) and a model of fuel particle dissolution and subsequent radionuclide leaching into the soil solution. The biogenic migration of radionuclides from the trench to, and effects of radiation on, plants (Scots pine) are also described.

  6. The impact of substrate bias on a remote plasma sputter coating process for conformal coverage of trenches and 3D structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the progression towards higher aspect ratios and finer topographical dimensions in many micro- and nano-systems, it is of technological importance to be able to conformally deposit thin films onto such structures. Sputtering techniques have been developed to provide such conformal coverage through a combination of coating re-sputtering and ionised physical vapour deposition (IPVD), the latter by use of a secondary plasma source or a pulsed high target power (HiPIMS). This paper reports on the use of an alternate remote plasma sputtering technique in which a high density (>1013 cm−3) magnetised plasma is used for sputter deposition, and additionally is shown to provide IPVD and a re-sputtering capability. From the substrate I–V characteristics and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) data, it is shown that remote plasma sputtering is an inherently continuous IPVD process (without the need of a secondary discharge). Through the reactive deposition of Al2O3 onto complex structures, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results demonstrate that applying a negative substrate bias during film growth can result in re-sputtering of deposited material and film growth on surfaces obscured from the initial sputter flux. Using 5 : 1 (height : width) aspect ratio trenches, the substrate bias was set to 0,−245 and  −334 V. At 0 V substrate bias, the alumina coating is predominantly deposited on the horizontal surfaces; at  −344 V, it is predominantly deposited onto the side walls and at  −245 V a more uniform layer thickness is obtained over the trench. The process was optimised further by alternating the substrate bias between  −222 and  −267 V, with a 50% residence time at each voltage, yielding a more uniform conformal coverage of the 5 : 1 aspect ratio structures over large areas. (paper)

  7. About stress in filled DRIE-trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bert; Drabe, Christian; Graßhoff, Thomas; Conrad, Holger; Schenk, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Filled DRIE-trenches are necessary within the SOI device layer of 2D micro scanning mirrors with independently actuated axes. These trenches serve the dual purpose of providing electrical isolation and mechanical stability. Recent developments show that the assumption of full single crystal silicon mechanical reliability is not further justified. In this work detailed FEA-models of filled trenches have been introduced. Extensive studies were done to optimize the mechanical behavior, i.e. increasing the strength. Simulation results are presented which show the critical role of the filling process of DRIE-trenches. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that stress concentration leads to extensive stress loads within the trench filling. Consequently, these trench regions have a high probability of crack initiation. A validation of the simulation method was done with fracture tests on already fabricated bending specimens. Measurements show good agreement with simulation results as well as previous results taken from literature.

  8. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  9. Post-Closure Inspection Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    This letter selves as the post closure monitoring letter report for the above CAU for the period October 2005 - September 2006. Quarterly inspections were conducted on December 12,2005, on March 23, 2006, on June 20,2006, and on September 19,2006, to observe the condition of the gate, use-restriction warning signs, monuments, fencing, trenches, soil covers, and monitoring well covers. The first inspection was conducted on December 12, 2005. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The second inspection was conducted on March 23, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The third inspection was conducted on June 20, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The fourth inspection was conducted on September 19, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended.

  10. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  11. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  12. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  13. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  14. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan

  15. Trench Foot or Immersion Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Trench Foot or Immersion Foot DISASTER RECOVERY FACT SHEET Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is trench foot? Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs ...

  16. Trench Foot or Immersion Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Trench Foot or Immersion Foot DISASTER RECOVERY FACT SHEET Recommend on Facebook ... is trench foot? Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs when the feet are wet for ...

  17. Properties of c-axis-aligned crystalline indium-gallium-zinc oxide field-effect transistors fabricated through a tapered-trench gate process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Yoshinobu; Kurata, Motomu; Okazaki, Yutaka; Higa, Eiji; Matsubayashi, Daisuke; Okamoto, Satoru; Sasagawa, Shinya; Moriwaka, Tomoaki; Kakehata, Tetsuya; Yakubo, Yuto; Kato, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Takashi; Sakakura, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2016-04-01

    To achieve both low power consumption and high-speed operation, we fabricated c-axis-aligned crystalline indium-gallium-zinc oxide (CAAC-IGZO) field-effect transistors (FETs) with In-rich IGZO and common IGZO (\\text{In}:\\text{Ga}:\\text{Zn} = 1:1:1 in atomic ratio) active layers through a simple process using trench gates, and evaluated their characteristics. The results confirm that 60-nm-node IGZO FETs fabricated through a 450 °C process show an extremely low off-state current below the detection limit (at most 2 × 10-16 A) even at a measurement temperature of 150 °C. The results also reveal that the FETs with the In-rich IGZO active layer show a higher on-state current than those with the common IGZO active layer and have excellent frequency characteristics with a cutoff frequency and a maximum oscillation frequency of up to 20 and 6 GHz, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that CAAC-IGZO FETs with trench gates are promising for achieving both low power consumption and high-speed operation.

  18. Composition and distribution of Munnopsidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota), collected during the KuramBio expedition 2012 from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutina, Marina V.; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The abyssal macrobenthos of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) area was sampled for the first time using a fine-meshed camera-epibenthic sledge (C-EBS) during the German-Russian KuramBio expedition 2012 (RV Sonne, 223 cruise). Crustaceans of the order Isopoda were one of the dominant macrobenthic taxa, and the family Munnopsidae was the most abundant and diverse among 17 collected asellotan families, comprising about 48% of all isopods. During the KuramBio expedition no less than 80 species of 28 genera and eight subfamilies of Munnopsidae were collected with 21 EBS hauls at 12 stations. About 80% species are new to science and half of the genera and the subfamily Lipomerinae are recorded for the first time in the Northwest Pacific. The most abundant and speciose subfamily was Eurycopinae (58% of all specimens and 29 % of species), followed by Ilyarachninae (12% and 16%). Most species are rare and occur with low abundance at one or few stations. Ten most numerous species belonging to the genera Eurycope (5 species), Microcope (2), Disconectes (1), Ilyarachna (1) and Aspidarachna (1) comprised 68% of all munnopsids. The species Eurycope sp.1 and Microcope ovata (Birstein, 1970) were the most abundant and frequent species, occurring at all stations. The highest abundance of Munnopsidae and high diversity, with 32 species, occurred at station 3-9 on the western slope of the KKT. The cluster analysis of the Bray-Curtis similarity shows a low similarity between stations. The least similar was station 1-10, with only 26% similarity with other stations. Low similarity also characterized station 3-9 (34%). The comparison with known data revealed differences in species composition of Munnopsidae of the abyssal plain of the KKT area and the fauna of adjacent bathyal and hadal zones. Similar ratios of the munnopsid subfamilies and genera and some similar species have been revealed for the KuramBio and ANDEEP areas.

  19. Hydrogeologic data for science trench boreholes at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program to conduct drilling, sampling, and laboratory testing was designed and implemented to obtain important physical, geochemical, and hydrologic property information for the near surface portion of thick unsaturated alluvial sediments at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). These data are required to understand and simulate infiltration and redistribution of water as well as the transport of solutes in the immediate vicinity of existing and future low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste disposal cells at the site. The program was designed specifically to meet data needs associated with a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for disposal of hazardous mixed waste, possible RCRA waivers involving mixed waste, DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191 requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. The hydrologic condition data, when combined with hydrologic property data, indicate that very little net liquid flow (if any) is occurring in the upper vadose zone, and the direction of movement is upward. It follows that vapor movement is probably the dominant mechanism of water transport in this upper region, except immediately following precipitation events

  20. 'Dodo-Goldilocks' Trench Elevation Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color-coded elevation map shows the 'Dodo-Goldilocks' trench dug by the Robotic Arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The trench, originally two separate trenches nicknamed 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks' (right), became one after further digging on the 18th Martian day, or Sol 18, of the mission (June 12, 2008). The trench is 7 to 8 centimeters (2.7 to 3 inches) at its deepest (blue). Because the terrain itself is inclined at a 14-degree angle, the highest areas (pink) are about 20 centimeters (7.8 inches) above the lowest areas. The trench is 22 centimeters (8.7 inches) wide and 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) long. Its deepest portion is closest to the lander. This picture was taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 19 (June 13, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  2. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Chicxulub Ejecta Impact Trenches And Terminal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    DISCOVERY During a Pacific voyage from E. Australia to the US on a small sailing research vessel what appears to be two Chicxulub impact trenches were discovered in the ocean floor at depths of 4,627m and 3,519m. DESCRIPTION Trench A begins at a depth of 4,627m, 704km from the Chicxulub impact and is 18km long, 5km wide and 225m deep. Trench B begins at a depth of 3,519m, 732km from the Chixculub impact and is 23km long, 7 km wide and 400m deep. At the end of Trench B is what appears to be a debris deposit 5km long. Their relationship to the Chicxulub impact seems confirmed by their central axis, which when extended intersect at the Chicxulub impact at N Lat 21.33, W Long 89.5. Down range 286km from the end of Trench B is what appears to be the terminal impact of the object that created the two trenches. This is in the form of several large boulders, small seamounts, and islands in shallower depths indicating breakup of the object 1040km from the Chicxulub impact. The trenches are in an area of the Caribbean where currents prevented them from being silted in, preserving their physical form on the ocean floor. The object that created the trenches could have been large ejecta from the impact or possibly part of the asteroid that separated before impact or upon impact and carried on 1000km down range. The trajectory of both trenches is an upward angle of about 3 degrees. This indicates that the trajectory of the object was at a low angle, very high velocity and was deflected slightly upward upon impact with the ocean floor 4,627 below sea level. RESEARCH The first two phases of 10 phases consisting of mapping, exploration, research, and documentation of the impacts have been completed. Phase 1 consisted of assembling available sea floor data of the area of the impacts. Phase 2 consisted of selecting aerial and under water images from Google Earth, preparing bathymetric mapping from a GEBCO_08. BODC raster analysis with 50m contour intervals of the impact area

  4. Chicxulub Ejecta Trenches and Terminal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R.

    2012-12-01

    DISCOVERY During a Pacific voyage from E. Australia to the US on a small sailing research vessel what appears to be two Chicxulub impact trenches were discovered in the ocean floor at depths of 4,627m and 3,519m. DESCRIPTION Trench A begins at a depth of 4,627m, 704km from the Chicxulub impact and is 18km long, 5km wide and 225m deep. Trench B begins at a depth of 3,519m, 732km from the Chixculub impact and is 23km long, 7 km wide and 400m deep. At the end of Trench B is what appears to be a debris deposit 5km long. Their relationship to the Chicxulub impact seems confirmed by their central axis, which when extended intersect at the Chicxulub impact at N Lat 21.33, W Long 89.5. Down range 286km from the end of Trench B is what appears to be the terminal impact of the object that created the two trenches. This is in the form of several large boulders, small seamounts, and islands in shallower depths indicating breakup of the object 1040km from the Chicxulub impact. The trenches are in an area of the Caribbean where currents prevented them from being silted in, preserving their physical form on the ocean floor. The object that created the trenches could have been large ejecta from the impact or possibly part of the asteroid that separated before impact or upon impact and carried on 1000km down range. The trajectory of both trenches is an upward angle of about 3 degrees. This indicates that the trajectory of the object was at a low angle, very high velocity and was deflected slightly upward upon impact with the ocean floor 3,519m below sea level. RESEARCH The first two phases of 10 phases consisting of mapping, exploration, research, and documentation of the impacts have been completed. Phase 1 consisted of assembling available sea floor data of the area of the impacts. Phase 2 consisted of selecting aerial and under water images from Google Earth, preparing bathymetric mapping from a GEBCO_08. BODC raster analysis with 50m contour intervals of the impact area

  5. Trench design and construction techniques for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on trench design and construction techniques which can be used in the disposal of LLW by shallow land burial. It covers practices currently in use not only in the LLW disposal field, but also methods and materials being used in areas of hazardous and municipal waste disposal which are compatible with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61. The complexity of a disposal site and its potential problems dictate the use of site-specific characteristics when designing a LLW disposal trench. This report presents the LLW disposal trench as consisting of various elements or unit processes. The term unit processes is used as it more fully relays the impact of the designer's choice of methods and materials. When choosing a material to fulfill the function of a certain trench element, the designer is also stipulating a portion of his operational procedure which must be compatible with the disposal operation as a whole. Information is provided on the properties, selection, and installation of various materials such as bentonite, soil-cement, polymeric materials, asphaltic materials, and geotechnical fabrics. This is not intended to outline step-by-step procedures. Basically, three time frames are addressed with respect to construction techniques; preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Within each of these time frames there are certain construction techniques which can be employed by the designer to enhance the overall ease of construction and ultimate success of the disposal facility. Among the techniques presented are precontouring the disposal area, alignment of the trench axis, sloping the trench bottom, incremental excavation, and surface water (runoff) management

  6. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m3 trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly 90Sr, in 25 m3 of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m3 was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10-7 m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m2) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Geochemical influence of waste trench no. 22T at Chernobyl Pilot Site at the aquifer: Long-term trends, governing processes, and implications for radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses and analyzes data for geochemical monitoring of groundwater, collected in 1998–2008 at the international experimental radioecological study site (Chernobyl Pilot Site) located in the Red Forest radioactive waste dump site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Groundwater in the zone of influence of the studied waste trench no. 22T was characterized by a specific geochemistry. Along with a high content of 90Sr (of an order of n × 1000–n × 10,000 Bq/L) groundwater showed elevated concentrations of Ca, K, NO3-, SO42- and of some trace elements (in particular stable Sr), and had more acidic pH values compared to “background” aquifer conditions. The observed water quality changes are apparently related to degradation of organic matter (pine forest remnants, litter, humus containing topsoil layer) buried inside trench no. 22T, which have lead to acidification of groundwater and leaching of cations adsorbed on the exchange complex of soils buried inside the trench. Regime monitoring data for the project period of 1998–2008 shows a progressive decrease of concentrations of the leached ions accompanied by an increase of pH in the chemical plume emerging from the trench. This can be explained by a combined effect of a gradual decrease of the inventory, humification of the original organic matter inside the trench, and of nutrient element uptake by roots of the newly planted pine forest on top of the trench. The identified trends of evolution of geochemical regime favor attenuation of subsurface migration of 90Sr from Red Forest waste dumps due to an increase of the 90Sr distribution coefficients, and stabilization of plumes of contaminated groundwater.

  8. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  9. Description and phylogenetic position of the first abyssal solitary kamptozoan species from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area: Loxosomella profundorum sp. nov. (Kamptozoa: Loxosomatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisanova, Anastasia O.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.; Neretina, Tatyana V.; Stupnikova, Alexandra N.

    2015-01-01

    One of two orders of a small phylum Kamptozoa, Solitaria, consisting of one family Loxosomatidae of about 140 species, has never been recorded deeper than 700 m. All known for the north-western Pacific loxosomatids (about 17 species) occur in shallow waters. The first abyssal solitary kamptozoan, Loxosomella profundorum sp. nov. is described herein. It was collected during the German-Russian deep-sea expedition KuramBio aboard RV Sonne in the summer of 2012 in the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. It is the deepest finding of Kamptozoa to date. The new species was found living on the anthozoan polyp Corallimorpharia. L. profundorum sp. nov. is a largest solitary kamptozoan species, up to 4 mm in length, with a stalk of up to 3.5 mm, with 10-12 tentacles, with two conspicuous lateral papillae, and a row of glandular cells in its stalk. A preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial 18S rDNA indicated that L. profundorum sp. nov. is a sister clade to the clade, which includes other Loxosomella and two species of Loxomitra.

  10. Post-Closure Inspection Letter Report for Corrective Action Unit 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter selves as the post closure monitoring letter report for the above CAU for the period October 2005 - September 2006. Quarterly inspections were conducted on December 12,2005, on March 23, 2006, on June 20,2006, and on September 19,2006, to observe the condition of the gate, use-restriction warning signs, monuments, fencing, trenches, soil covers, and monitoring well covers. The first inspection was conducted on December 12, 2005. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The second inspection was conducted on March 23, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The third inspection was conducted on June 20, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended. The fourth inspection was conducted on September 19, 2006. Signs, fencing, riprap, monuments, and monitoring well covers were in excellent condition. No cracking, erosion, or subsidence was observed on the covers. No issues or concerns were identified, and no corrective actions were recommended

  11. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. After grouting, soil-penetration tests disclosed that stability had been improved greatly. For example, refusal (defined as > 100 blows to penetrate 1 ft) was encountered in 17 of the 22 tests conducted within the trench area. Mean refusal depths for the two trenches were 3.5 and 2.6 m. Stability of the trench was significantly better than pregrout conditions, and at depths > 2.4 m, the stability was very near that observed in the native soil formation outside the trench. Tests within the trench showed lower stability within this range probably because of the presence of intermediate-sized soil voids (formed during backfilling) that were too small to be penetrated and filled by the conventional cement grout formulation. Hydraulic conductivity within the trench remained very high (>0.1 cm/s) and significantly greater than outside the trench. Postgrout air pressurization tests also revealed a large degree of intervoid linkage within and between the two trenches. To effectively reduce hydraulic conductivity and to develop stability within the upper level of the trench, injection of a clay/microfine cement grout into the upper level of the grouted trench is planned

  12. Storm-water management through Infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Chahar, Bhagu Ram; Graillot, Didier; Gaur, Shishir

    2012-01-01

    International audience With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration can occur is reducing. This is resulting in much less ground-water recharge and greatly increased surface run-off. Infiltration devices, which redirect run-off waters from the surface to the sub-surface environments, are commonly adopted to mitigate the negative hydrologic effects associated with urbanization. An infiltration trench alone or in combination with other storm water...

  13. Pipeman:Safety in Trenches

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Even though heavy construction equipment such as a crane or backhoe excavator, is used to perform the task of pipe laying in the trench, workers are required to be inside the trench to guide the excavation, pipe laying, and final alignment. Work place safety has become a major concern in the construction industry over the past few decades, and trench cave-ins have caused serious and often fatal injuries to workers in the United States. The Construction Automation and Robotics Laboratory(CARL)...

  14. WRAP process area development control work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.

  15. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  17. Reconstruction of ocean plate stratigraphy in the Gwna Group, NW Wales: Implications for the subduction-accretion process of a latest Proterozoic trench-forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hisashi; Okada, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazue; Sato, Tomohiko; Sawaki, Yusuke; Sakata, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori; Windley, Brian F.

    2015-11-01

    The Gwna Group in Anglesey island and Lleyn peninsula, Wales consists of a latest Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary trench mélange, which has a complicated accretionary structure, and is poorly constrained by isotopic ages. The mélange contains oceanic-trench rocks including pillow basalts, cherts, mudstones and sandstones, which have not previously been interpreted as ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). We reconstructed imbricated OPS at 5 localities in the coastal Lleyn peninsula. In order to constrain the depositional U-Pb age of the upper clastic sediments, detrital zircons, separated from 9 clastic sediments, were analyzed with a Nu AttoM single-collector inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The ages indicate that there are two Gwna Groups (maximum depositional ages of: 1 at 608-601 Ma, and 2 at 564-539 Ma) that were deposited between the late Neoproterozoic and the Middle Cambrian contemporaneously with dated calc-alkaline arc magmatism and regional metamorphism in the Anglesey-Lleyn complex. The age spectra of the detrital zircons show a prominent peak at ca. 650-600 Ma, and several Proterozoic and Archean ages. To account for the older ages, we integrated our new isotopic data with published radiometric and fossil ages, and conclude that the clastic sediments at the top of the OPS were deposited in a trench on the western active margin of Avalonia when it was close to the Amazonian craton, and that the Gwna Group OPS began to be incorporated into an accretionary wedge in an active subduction zone in the latest Proterozoic.

  18. Geodynamics of trench advance: Insights from a Philippine-Sea-style geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížková, Hana; Bina, Craig R.

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial parameter sets, trench retreat is found to be nearly ubiquitous and trench advance quite rare, largely due to rheological and ridge-push effects. Recently updated analyses of global plate motions indicate that significant trench advance is also rare on Earth, being largely restricted to the Marianas-Izu-Bonin arc. Thus, we explore conditions necessary for terrestrial trench advance through dynamical models involving the unusual geometry of the Philippine Sea region. In this subduction system, a slab-pull force from distal subduction is transmitted to the overriding plate at the Pacific trench. Our 2D modeling demonstrates that trench advance can occur for terrestrial rheologies in such special geometries. We observe persistent trench advance punctuated by two episodes of back-arc extension. Characteristic features of the model, such as time interval between extensional episodes, high back-arc heat flow, and stress state of Philippine plate correspond to processes recorded in the region.

  19. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration...... trenches using a 19. year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used...

  20. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  1. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - Source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This two volume report provides the necessary evaluations for the 290-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels, and is intended to serve as the technical basis for a request for approval of authorized limits of residual radioactive contamination levels associated with these facilities. Volume 2 contains the Source Term Determination. This volume contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and results of efforts to determine the radiological source terms. The source terms characterize the radionuclides and activity concentration levels for the facilities, and serves as input to the various radiation exposure pathways and scenarios used to estimate the individual radiation doses that could result from release of these facilities. Based on the results of these evaluations, it is determined that the application of the proposed authorized limits for the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels represents a safe and cost-effective approach to their final disposition

  2. Novel trench gate field stop IGBT with trench shorted anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xudong, Chen; Jianbing, Cheng; Guobing, Teng; Houdong, Guo

    2016-05-01

    A novel trench field stop (FS) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a trench shorted anode (TSA) is proposed. By introducing a trench shorted anode, the TSA-FS-IGBT can obviously improve the breakdown voltage. As the simulation results show, the breakdown voltage is improved by a factor of 19.5% with a lower leakage current compared with the conventional FS-IGBT. The turn off time of the proposed structure is 50% lower than the conventional one with less than 9% voltage drop increased at a current density of 150 A/cm2. Additionally, there is no snapback observed. As a result, the TSA-FS-IGBT has a better trade-off relationship between the turn off loss and forward drop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274080) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2013M541585).

  3. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation's activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation's activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0

  4. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures. PMID:19587416

  5. Novel, 130 V, Split Gate Trench Super Junction TFTs using Low Temperature Poly Crystalline Silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Dhyani, M.H.; Sweet, M.; Sankara Narayanan, E.M.; D. Green; Deane, S.C.; Young, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    We report a split gate concept to enhance the performance of TrenchSuper Junction Thin Film Transistors (Trench SJ-HVTFT) fabricated inLow temperature Poly-silicon (LTPS) technology. Biasing the controland trench gates independently, breakdown voltages can be enhancedby 25 % while reducing the area specific on-state resistance by 13%.This technology enables incorporation of high voltage power conversion circuitry as well low voltage devices for embedded power management in displays and Lab on...

  6. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  7. Numerical models of trench migration in continental collision zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Magni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Continental collision is an intrinsic feature of plate tectonics. The closure of an oceanic basin leads to the onset of subduction of buoyant continental material, which slows down and eventually stops the subduction process. We perform a parametric study of the geometrical and rheological influence on subduction dynamics during the subduction of continental lithosphere. In 2-D numerical models of a free subduction system with temperature and stress-dependent rheology, the trench and the overriding plate move self-consistently as a function of the dynamics of the system (i.e. no external forces are imposed. This setup enables to study how continental subduction influences the trench migration. We found that in all models the trench starts to advance once the continent enters the subduction zone and continues to migrate until few million years after the ultimate slab detachment. Our results support the idea that the trench advancing is favoured and, in part provided by, the intrinsic force balance of continental collision. We suggest that the trench advance is first induced by the locking of the subduction zone and the subsequent steepening of the slab, and next by the sinking of the deepest oceanic part of the slab, during stretching and break-off of the slab. The amount of trench advancing ranges from 40 to 220 km and depends on the dip angle of the slab before the onset of collision.

  8. TIS process supervisory local area network (LAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIS - the process supervisory LAN was installed at both the NPP V-1 twin-units of WWER-440/230 type and the NPP V-2 twin-units of WWER-440/213 type at Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovak Republic, in 1992. It represents a superstructure to the existing reactor unit process computers RPP-16S and IV 500 MA at the NPP V-1 and IVS Komplex Uran 2M and KVRK at the NPP V-2. The principal goal of TIS is to supply both the main control room staff and the NPP operation personnel and operation mode engineers with process information in a larger extent and on a higher level than the existing process computers do. TIS provides following process supervision functions: Taking over Data, Data Processing, Operative and Historical Data Collection, Active Alarm Management, Mimic Diagrams, REAL-time and Historical Trending, Horizontal Bargraphs, Data Tables, Report Generation, Shift Supervisor Support in case of Failure/Accident at NPP, User Database Applications, Computerized Operating Procedures, Programmable Prompts to Operator, ''Desk-top'' Calculator, Communication with Professional Departments, Auto-diagnostics. TIS is a PC local area network of QNX NET type, its data transmission rate being 2.5 Mbits/second. TIS is run under QNX operating system. Application software modules are written in QNX C and C-86 languages. Some functions were completed in OnCmd v.4.2 database environment. (author). 2 figs

  9. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect

  10. Incoming sediments and its deformation observed on high resolution seismic profiles in the northern Japan Trench axis region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.; Miura, S.; Fujie, G.; Strasser, M.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Usami, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Trench axis area has been intensively investigated since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake because the large slip reached to the vicinity of the trench axis. We have conducted three high resolution seismic cruises in the northern part of the Japan Trench axis region. The trench area between 38 - 40 N was covered by 81 E-W seismic lines with 2 - 4 km line interval. A 1200 m-long, 192 channel streamer cable and a cluster gun array with volume of 320 - 380 inch3 were used for these surveys. Post-stack time migrated sections provide detailed image of sediments above the subducting Pacific plate and its deformation by the bending-related normal faults on the outer trench slope, thrust faults and possible slope failures in the trench axis and inner trench slope. The deformation style of the sediments in the trench axis shows variation along the trench strike. To the south of the survey area in 38 - 39 N, the trench axis shows imbricate thrust-and-fold packages, which could be related to the interaction between the frontal prism toe and horst-graben structure. To the north around 40 N, the trench axis is located on a horst, and frontal thrust and imbricate structure are clearly observed on the seismic profiles. Around 39.5 N, the trench inner slope is very steep. It is suggested that slope failures as rotational slumps have occurred in this area. The trench axis is filled by slump deposits and debris with chaotic acoustic characteristics, which is similar with that in the seaward portion of the frontal prism. Seismic profiles on the outer trench slope show the variation on the thickness of the incoming sediments along the trench strike. It is thick, ~ 500 ms, in the northern part of the survey area around 40 N, and it is ~ 250 ms in the southern part around 38 N. The thickness is varied in the area between 38.5 - 39.5 N, and is very thin at 39.5 N. Sediments on the trench outer slope basically conformably cover the igneous basement of the Pacific plate and they were

  11. Remedial action planning for Trench 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes from Trench 1 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) will begin in June 1998. To ensure that the remedial action is conducted safely, a rigorous and disciplined planning process was followed that incorporates the principles of Integrated Safety Management and Enhanced Work Planning. Critical to the success of the planning was early involvement of project staff (salaried and hourly) and associated technical support groups and disciplines. Feedback was and will continue to be solicited, and lessons learned incorporated to ensure the safe remediation of this site

  12. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  13. KSC Launch Pad Flame Trench Environment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes conditions in the Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) flame trenches during a Space Shuttle Launch, as they have been measured to date. Instrumentation of the flame trench has been carried out by NASA and United Space Alliance for four Shuttle launches. Measurements in the flame trench are planned to continue for the duration of the Shuttle Program. The assessment of the launch environment is intended to provide guidance in selecting appropriate test methods for refractory materials used in the flame trench and to provide data used to improve models of the launch environment in the flame trench.

  14. A low on-resistance triple RESURF SOI LDMOS with planar and trench gate integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiao-Rong; Wei Jie; Yao Guo-Liang; Zhang Zheng-Yuan; Jiang Yong-Heng; Zhou Kun; Wang Pei; Wang Yuan-Gang; Lei Tian-Fei; Zhang Yun-Xuan

    2012-01-01

    A low on-resistance (Ron,sp) integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxidesemiconductor (LDMOS) is proposed and its mechanism is investigated by simulation.The LDMOS has two features:the integration of a planar gate and an extended trench gate (double gates (DGs)); and a buried P-layer in the N-drift region,which forms a triple reduced surface field (RESURF) (TR) structure.The triple RESURF not only modulates the electric field distribution,but also increases N-drift doping,resulting in a reduced specific on-resistance (Ron,sp)and an improved breakdown voltage (BV) in the off-state.The DGs form dual conduction channels and,moreover,the extended trench gate widens the vertical conduction area,both of which further reduce the Ron,sp.The BV and Ron,sp are 328 V and 8.8 mΩ·cm2,respectively,for a DG TR metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)by simulation.Compared with a conventional SOI LDMOS,a DG TR MOSFET with the same dimensional device parameters as those of the DG TR MOSFET reduces Ron,sp by 59% and increases BV by 6%.The extended trench gate synchronously acts as an isolation trench between the high-voltage device and low-voltage circuitry in a high-voltage integrated circuit,thereby saving the chip area and simplifying the fabrication processes.

  15. Molecular dynamics study on the C{sub 60} oscillator in a graphene nanoribbon trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won [Korea National University of Transportation, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Whan [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Here, we present a C{sub 60} oscillator encapsulated in a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) trench. The mechanisms of the C{sub 60}/GNR-trench oscillators are the same as those of the multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) oscillators. While the array synthesis of these CNT oscillators is very difficult, the same GNR trench array can be implemented by using current nanofabrication processes. The oscillatory behaviors of a C{sub 60} oscillator sucked into a GNR trench were investigated in impulse dynamics via classical molecular dynamics simulations. The oscillatory motions of the C{sub 60} oscillator in the GNR trench can be controlled by using the length and the width of the trench as structural parameters because the restoring forces acting on the C{sub 60} oscillator are related to the width of the GNR trench and the length of the GNR trench is the direct distance of motion of the C{sub 60} oscillator during translation. C{sub 60}/GNR-trench nanostructures have a wide range of applications in nanotechnology, such as shuttle memories and switches, sensors, and oscillators.

  16. Selective epitaxial growth of compressively strained Ge layers on Si in 40-nm trench arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the growth of the epitaxial Ge layers in a 40 nm wide SiO2 trench array on Si by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. If the thickness of Ge was less than the height of the SiO2 trenches, the Ge layers grew epitaxially by a selective epitaxial growth process without any detectable surface modification, which is due to the high interfacial energy between the SiO2 mask and Ge. We calculated the critical strain required to modify the Ge surface via 3-dimensional island transition (the minimum strain) as a function of the trench width. Considering the energies involved in the transition, we found that uniformly shaped Ge layers along the trenches were energetically more favorable than those with surface undulations as the width of the trench decreased. The strained Ge epilayers relaxed their energy by forming the defects, such as dislocations at the Ge/Si interfaces and stacking faults. From the strain analyses, the residual strains for parallel and perpendicular to the trench direction in the Ge layers were − 0.72% and − 0.22%, respectively. - Highlights: • The epitaxial Ge layers were grown on Si in 40-nm SiO2 trench arrays. • Surface stability of Ge epilayers in narrow SiO2 trenches was calculated. • Local strain variation was confirmed by using nanobeam electron diffraction. • Residual in-plane strain along the trench direction was − 0.72%

  17. Low-Loss Schottky Rectifier Utilizing Trench Sidewall as Junction-Barrier-Controlled Schottky Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Seong-Dong; Han, Min-Koo; Choi, Yearn-Ik

    1995-02-01

    A novel junction barrier contolled Schottky (JBS) rectifier structure, which has increased the Schottky contact area by utilizing the trench sidewall, has been proposed. The proposed device consists of a JBS rectifier positioned vertically along the trench sidewall as well as laterally along the surface. The additional sidewall Schottky contact reduces the forward voltage drop by enlarging the Schottky active area. The new trench structure shifts the peak electric field from Schottky contact surface to the silicon bulk and the leakage current by the barrier height lowering effect is decreased. An intensive 2-dimensional numerical simulation by MEDICI shows that the leakage current of the trenched JBS rectifier is less than 60% of that of the conventional Schottky rectifier, while the forward voltage drop of the trenched JBS rectifier is almost the same as that of the conventional Schottky rectifier.

  18. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations

  19. Surface Modulation of Graphene Field Effect Transistors on Periodic Trench Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun Eon; Choi, Jun Hee; Yun, Hoyeol; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Choi, Ajeong; Joo, Min-Kyu; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, Urszula; Roth, Siegmar; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2016-07-20

    In this work, graphene field effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated on a trench structure made by carbonized poly(methylmethacrylate) to modify the graphene surface. The trench-structured devices showed different characteristics depending on the channel orientation and the pitch size of the trenches as well as channel area in the FETs. Periodic corrugations and barriers of suspended graphene on the trench structure were measured by atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. Regular barriers of 160 mV were observed for the trench structure with graphene. To confirm the transfer mechanism in the FETs depending on the channel orientation, the ratio of experimental mobility (3.6-3.74) was extracted from the current-voltage characteristics using equivalent circuit simulation. It is shown that the number of barriers increases as the pitch size decreases because the number of corrugations increases from different trench pitches. The noise for the 140 nm pitch trench is 1 order of magnitude higher than that for the 200 nm pitch trench. PMID:27302334

  20. A trench accumulation layer controlled insulated gate bipolar transistor with a semi-SJ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high performance trench insulated gate bipolar transistor which combines a semi-superjunction structure and an accumulation channel (sSJTAC-IGBT) is proposed for the first time. Compared with the TAC-IGBT, the new device not only retains the advantages of the accumulation channel, but also obtains a larger breakdown voltage (BV), a faster turn-off speed and a smaller saturation current level while keeping the on-state voltage drop lower as the TAC-IGBT does as well. Therefore, the new structure enlarges the short circuit safe operating area (SCSOA) and reduces the energy loss during the turn-off process. (semiconductor devices)

  1. Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2014-12-01

    We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032

  2. Numerical investigation of silicon nitride trench waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Torun, Rasul; Rahman, Shah; Atasever, Tuva C.; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-08-01

    We numerically investigated optical properties, including evanescent intensity ratio (EIR), effective refractive index (Neff), dispersion coefficient (D), and mode area (Aeff) of the silicon nitride trench waveguides fabricated by using conventional lithography. The waveguides are etched 3 μm deep with potassium hydroxide for triangle and trapezoidal waveguides, which is then followed by 3 μm thermal oxidation and 725 nm silicon nitride deposition. The waveguide with 725 nm thickness has an EIR peak of 0.025 when its bottom width Wbtm equals 0.65 μm. A thinner waveguide has higher evanescent intensity ratio, which can be used in sensing applications. The locations of EIR peaks correspond to the quasi-TM and TE mode boundary. Narrower waveguides mainly support quasi-TM modes, whereas wider waveguides can support only TE modes. As the waveguide width increases, higher orders of TE modes emerge. In addition, a boundary of TE single mode and multimode can also be linearly curve fitted, according to the starting points of TE higher modes, in order to provide the single mode condition of the waveguide. The waveguide dispersion can be engineered to be in the anomalous region while at the same time remain close to zero. The waveguide with 725 nm thickness and 0.2 μm bottom width has its anomalous dispersion region between the wavelength of 1356 nm and 1462 nm. The mode area decreases with increasing waveguide width. This is the first time we have studied the mode properties of trench waveguides systematically. The waveguide will find more applications in sensing and nonlinear fields with the help of this mode analysis.

  3. A scaleable, radiation hardened shallow trench isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, F.T.; Maimon, J.D.; Hurt, M.J.

    1999-12-01

    Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) is rapidly replacing LOCOS (Local Oxidation of Silicon) as the device isolation process of choice. However, little work has been done to characterize the radiation-hardness capability of devices built with STI. In this paper, some of the basics of STI devices are examined, such as the radiation response of unhardened STI devices. The authors discuss several issues affecting the total dose hardness of unhardened STI. These issues have critical implications for the hardness of CMOS built using STI in commercial foundries. Finally, data from hardened STI devices are presented. Total dose hardened STI devices are demonstrated on devices with gate widths down to 0.5 {micro}m.

  4. Along-trench variations in the seismic structure of the incoming Pacific plate at the outer rise of the northern Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Gou; Kodaira, Shuichi; Sato, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate along-trench variations in the seismic structure of the incoming oceanic plate and their effect on water transportation by the oceanic plate, we conducted a wide-angle seismic survey of a trench-parallel transect 270 km long on the outer rise of the northern Japan Trench. The resulting seismic structure models show that the central part of the transect is characterized by rough topography, thick oceanic crust, low seismic velocities, and high Vp/Vs ratios, suggesting pervasive fracturing and high water content (hydration) there. These observations are consistent with the presence of an ancient fracture zone associated with ridge propagation. The trenchward extension of this fracture zone corresponds to an area of low interplate seismicity, low seismic velocities, and high Vp/Vs ratio around the depth of the subduction interface. Our results suggest that this ancient scar on the oceanic plate influences along-trench variations in interplate seismic coupling through its effect on water transportation.

  5. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Flores, R.S.

    1998-02-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide.

  6. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide

  7. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  8. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  9. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EarthSaw(trademark) is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file

  10. Process optimization in the head end area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measures to improve feed clarity and how they fit into the overall concept of the chemical head end are described as considerable changes in the head end. The effects which the conversion from the bundle shears to the individual rod shears has on the mechanical head end are also shown. The changes made, particularly in the chemical head end, are intended to increase the availability of the main process by improved feed clarity with a centrifuge, container and filter. (orig./DG)

  11. Color Image of Snow White Trenches and Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 31st Martian day of the mission, or Sol 31 (June 26, 2008), after the May 25, 2008 landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left), 'Snow White 2' (right), and within the Snow White 2 trench, the smaller scraping area called 'Snow White 3.' The Snow White 3 scraped area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The dug and scraped areas are within the diggiing site called 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trenches and scraping prove that scientists can take surface soil samples, subsurface soil samples, and icy samples all from one unit. Scientists want to test samples to determine if some ice in the soil may have been liquid in the past during warmer climate cycles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  12. A new shallow trench and planar gate MOSFET structure based on VDMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Cailin [Department of Electronics Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Sun Cheng, E-mail: wangcailin65@126.com [CSMC Technologies Corporation, Wuxi 214061 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a new shallow trench and planar gate MOSFET (TPMOS) structure based on VDMOS technology, in which the shallow trench is located at the center of the n{sup -} drift region between the cells under a planar polysilicon gate. Compared with the conventional VDMOS, the proposed TPMOS device not only improves obviously the trade-off relation between on-resistance and breakdown voltage, and reduces the dependence of on-resistance and breakdown voltage on gate length, but also the manufacture process is compatible with that of the VDMOS without a shallow trench, thus the proposed TPMOS can offer more freedom in device design and fabrication. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Annual report, RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the mercury landfill hazardous waste trenches for the period October 1995--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches were closed in-place in September 1993. Post-closure monitoring of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches began in October 1993. The post-closure monitoring program is used to verify that the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trench covers are performing properly, and that there is no water infiltrating into the waste trenches. The performance of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches is currently monitored using 30 neutron access tubes positioned on and along the margins of the covers. Soil moisture measurements are obtained in the soils directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions from the first year of post-closure operation. This report documents the post-closure activities between October 1995 and October 1996

  14. Towards the development of Hyperspectral Images of trench walls. Robotrench: Automatic Data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragona, D. E.; Minster, B.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fialko, Y.; Bloom, R. G.; Hemlinger, M.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies on imaging spectrometry of paleoseismological excavations (Ragona, et. al, 2003, 2004) showed that low resolution Hyperspectral Imagery of a trench wall, processed with a supervised classification algorithm, provided more stratigraphic information than a high-resolution digital photography of the same exposure. Although the low-resolution images depicted the most important variations, a higher resolution hyperspectral image is necessary to assist in the recognition and documentation of paleoseismic events. Because of the fact that our spectroradiometer can only acquire one pixel at the time, creating a 25 psi image of a 1 x 1 m area of a trench wall will require 40000 individual measurements. To ease this extensive task we designed and built a device that can automatically position the spectroradiometer probe along the x-z plane of a trench wall. This device, informally named Robotrench, has two 7 feet long axes of motion (horizontal and vertical) commanded by a stepper motor controller board and a laptop computer. A platform provides the set up for the spectroradiometer probe and for the calibrated illumination system. A small circuit provided the interface between the Robotrench motion and the spectroradiomenter data collection. At its best, Robotrench ?spectroradiometer symbiotic pair can automatically record 1500-2000 pixels/hour, making the image acquisition process slow but feasible. At the time this abstract submission only a small calibration experiment was completed. This experiment was designed to calibrate the X-Z axes and to test the instrument performance. We measured a 20 x 10 cm brick wall at a 25 psi resolution. Three reference marks were set up on the trench wall as control points for the image registration process. The experiment was conducted at night under artificial light (stabilized 2 x 50 W halogen lamps). The data obtained was processed with the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm. The image recovered from the data showed an

  15. Universal trench design method for a high-voltage SOI trench LDMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xiarong; Zhang Bo; Luo Xiaorong; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    The design method for a high-voltage SOl trench LDMOS for various trench permittivities,widths and depths is introduced.A universal method for efficient design is presented for the first time,taking the trade-off between breakdown voltage (BV) and specific on-resistance (Rs,on) into account.The high-k (relative permittivity)dielectric is suitable to fill a shallow and wide trench while the low-k dielectric is suitable to fill a deep and narrow trench.An SOI LDMOS with a vacuum trench in the drift region is also discussed.Simulation results show that the high FOM BV2/Rs,on can be achieved with a trench filled with the low-k dielectric due to its shortened cell-pitch.

  16. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  17. IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO MEASURE SUGARCANE LEAF AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay B. Patil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size hence from known reference area and pixel count, unit pixel size can calculate, so that it is easy to calculate leaf area by counting total pixel in leaf area region. The results are compared with the results of graphical area measurement method. The experimentally it is proved that image processing method for measuring sugarcane leaf area is accurate and strong practicabilitywith small relative error.

  18. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  19. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  20. High aspect ratio sub-15 nm silicon trenches from block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zuwei; Gunkel, Ilja; Chourou, S T; Hong, Sung Woo; Olynick, Deirdre L; Russell, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    High-aspect-ratio sub-15-nm silicon trenches are fabricated directly from plasma etching of a block copolymer mask. A novel method that combines a block copolymer reconstruction process and reactive ion etching is used to make the polymer mask. Silicon trenches are characterized by various methods and used as a master for subsequent imprinting of different materials. Silicon nanoholes are generated from a block copolymer with cylindrical microdomains oriented normal to the surface. PMID:22903820

  1. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  3. In Situ Grouting of Liquid Waste Disposal Trenches and Experimental Reactor Fuel Disposal Wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early to mid-1960's, liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were disposed of in specially-constructed, gravel-filled trenches within the Melton Valley watershed at the lab. The initial selected remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 was in situ vitrification; however, an amendment to the record of decision changed the remedy to in situ grouting of the trenches. The work was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout. At the HRE fuel wells, a 1-m ring of soil surrounding the fuel wells was grouted with acrylamide. The results of the hydraulic conductivity tests ranged from 4.74 x 10-6 to 3.60 x 10-7 cm/sec, values that were well below the 1 x 10-5 cm/sec design criterion. In summary: The ISG Project was conducted to decrease hydraulic conductivity and thereby decrease water flow and contaminate migration from the area of the trenches. The initial remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 in the Melton Valley ROD was for in situ vitrification of the trench matrix. The remedy was changed to in situ grouting of the trenches and HRE fuel wells through an amendment to the ROD after moisture was found in the trenches. The grouting of the trenches was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout to further reduce water infiltration. Soil backfill above each of the seven HRE fuel wells was removed to a depth of approximately 1 m by augering, and the soils were replaced with a cement plug to prevent water infiltration from migrating down the original borehole. Soil surrounding the fuel wells was then grouted with acrylamide to ensure water infiltration through the HRE fuel wells is prevented. A summary of the quantities used

  4. Groundwater suppression and diversion structures applied to closed shallow land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow depth to groundwater, surface drainage, and subsurface flow during storm events are major environmental concerns of low-level radioactive waste management operations in humid regions. At two waste disposal sites within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), groups of closed trenches have experienced these problems and have been shown to collect and hold intratrench water with seasonal fluctuations ranging from 1 to 2 m. In an attempt to correct these water-related problems, Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) was equipped in September 1975 with asphalt-lined drainage ways designed to prevent reinfiltration of storm drainage from the 13.8 ha upslope catchment. At 49-Trench Area of SWSA-6 the entire 0.44 ha trench area was capped with a bentonite clay cover in 1976. These early attempts at hydrologic isolation have not corrected the water problems. In September 1983, two similarly designed engineered drainage projects were initiated at the disposal sites. The SWSA-4 project was designed to divert surface runoff around the trench area and drain a portion of the shallow subsurface flow which originates upslope of the site. The second project, a passive French drain constructed in SWSA-6, was aimed strictly at suppressing the site water table thus preventing its intersection with the bottoms of disposal trenches. Post-construction monitoring for performance evaluation has shown that the water table in the 49-trench area has been suppressed to a depth >4.9 m below the ground surface over 50% of the site with a maximum drawdown of 4 m at the drains deepest point. The SWSA-4 project evaluation is just being completed and data show that 56 +/- 15% of the Winter-Spring 1984 runoff was diverted around SWSA 4. As a result, a 44% reduction in 90Sr flux was calculated from observed discharges and a previously established relation between flow rate and 90Sr concentration

  5. Studies on the removal of trace amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr from trench water using Zeolite 4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usability of synthetic Zeolite 4A, an aluminosilicate inorganic ion-exchanger, for the removal of trace levels of activity of water in the trench provided around the waste transit areas to detect and contain the ingress of radioactivity is carried out. Batch sorption experiments are followed by column studies under different experimental conditions to evaluate and establish suitable operating parameters for the removal of two most potentially mobile radionuclides viz. 137Cs and 90Sr from trench water at trace concentrations. Based on these findings an ion exchange barrier is suggested for the removal of these radionuclides from trench water. (author)

  6. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench

    OpenAIRE

    Usama Kadri

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detect...

  8. Trenches for building blocks of advanced planar components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Trenches are fundamental structures used to build advanced optical planar waveguide components. In this letter, the fabrication of trenches across silica-on-silicon waveguides using inductively coupled plasma etching is presented. These trenches were etched deep into the silicon substrate and their...

  9. Trenches for building blocks of advanced planar components

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Trenches are fundamental structures used to build advanced optical planar waveguide components. In this letter, the fabrication of trenches across silica-on-silicon waveguides using inductively coupled plasma etching is presented. These trenches were etched deep into the silicon substrate and their widths were varied between 24 and 100>tex/textex/tex

  10. Conditions and process of deglaciation in the Antarctic coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkulich, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    The existing paleogeographic data from Antarctic ice-free land areas were analyzed with the purpose to reveal influence of global changes and local factors on deglaciation processes. The initial phase of deglaciation (end of Late Pleistocene—ca. 7000 yrs BP) was characterized by rapid retreat of glaciers in all areas due to both global climate warming (11000-8500 yrs BP) and relative sea-level rise. During ca. 8000-5500 yrs BP, the climate was colder, and the relative sea- level rise (maximum 7500-6000 yrs BP) was replaced by fall. Such climatic conditions were still suitable for slow deglaciation process in the coasts (on the whole), but led to positive balance of glaciers in "mountain" areas. Additionally, in some coasts, limited re-advance of the floating glacier edges happened in the places where they turned on the uplifting land. During ca. 4500-2000 yrs BP, an essential warming had different influence: in the areas inside continent deglaciation was continued; in the "maritime" lowland areas this warming led to increase in precipitation/snow accumulation and to the limited expansion of local glaciers. Within last 1000 years, the limited re-advance of glaciers occurred in most of areas, likely corresponding to the Little Ice Age.

  11. Conscious and unconscious processing of nonverbal predictability in Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Grethe, A; Proper, S M; Mao, H; Daniels, K A; Berns, G S

    2000-03-01

    The association of nonverbal predictability and brain activation was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Participants regarded four squares displayed horizontally across a screen and counted the incidence of a particular color. A repeating spatial sequence with varying levels of predictability was embedded within a random color presentation. Both Wernicke's area and its right homolog displayed a negative correlation with temporal predictability, and this effect was independent of individuals' conscious awareness of the sequence. When individuals were made aware of the underlying sequential predictability, a widespread network of cortical regions displayed activity that correlated with the predictability. Conscious processing of predictability resulted in a positive correlation to activity in right prefrontal cortex but a negative correlation in posterior parietal cortex. These results suggest that conscious processing of predictability invokes a large-scale cortical network, but independently of awareness, Wernicke's area processes predictive events in time and may not be exclusively associated with language. PMID:10684898

  12. The alkaline magma squeezed upward by the plate flexure prior to subduction off the Chile and Japan Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, N.; Machida, S.; Abe, N.

    2010-12-01

    The petit-spot monogenetic volcanoes on the NW Pacific Plate represent a new type of volcanism on their tectonic settings (Hirano et al., 2006). The most important feature of petit-spot volcanoes is that they do not derive their heat supply from the deep mantle (in contrast to hotspot volcanoes), despite their occurrence as intra-plate volcanoes. Instead, the magma probably originates within the asthenosphere and erupts along fractures in the lithosphere where it is flexed prior to subduction. Although it is clear that the surface morphology and distribution of petit-spot volcanoes are influenced by cracks in the lithospheric that reach the surface, it remains uncertain whether petit-spot volcanoes form wherever the plate flexes and fractures. The project “Expedition of petit-spot VI” was carried out off the Chile Trench on March 2009 using R/V Mirai in order to find such young volcanoes. The area, off Valparaiso, Chile, is characterized by trench-parallel normal faults (horsts and graben) resulting from extensional bending of the subducting Nazca Plate. An important difference between the area with trench-parallel normal faults and other parts of the subducting plate is the presence of tiny knolls. Dredged rocks at the knoll are highly vesicular, and fresh specimens with quench features are associated with lava lobes and breccias within the pelagic sediments. The rock and bathymetry are similar to the petit-spot volcanoes on the NW Pacific Plate. Therefore, the widespread occurrence of petit-spot is indicated by the discovery of petit-spots at the Nazca Plate. The most important process to occur the petit-spot volcanoes could be the plate flexures and their tectonic forces.

  13. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  14. After Rasping by Phoenix in 'Snow White' Trench, Sol 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used the motorized rasp on the back of its robotic arm scoop during the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) to penetrate a hard layer at the bottom of a trench informally called 'Snow White.' This view, taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager and presented in approximately true color, shows the trench later the same sol. Most of the 16 holes left by a four-by-four array of rasp placements are visible in the central area of the image. A total 3 cubic centimeters, or about half a teaspoon, of material was collected in the scoop. Material in the scoop was collected both by the turning rasp, which threw material into the scoop through an opening at the back of the scoop, and by the scoop's front blade, which was run over the rasped area to pick up more shavings. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from deep-sea sediments of the Atacama Slope and Trench (South Pacific Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Gambi, C.; Vanreusel, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nematode assemblages were investigated (in terms of size spectra, sex ratio, Shannon diversity, trophic structure and diversity, rarefaction statistics, maturity index, taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness) at bathyal and hadal depths (from 1050 to 7800 m) in the deepest trench of the South Pacific Ocean: the Trench of Atacama. This area, characterised by very high concentrations of nutritionally-rich organic matter also at 7800-m depth, displayed characteristics typical of eutrophi...

  16. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m{ell}) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody.

  17. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m ell) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody

  18. 3D analysis of in-filled trench as passive barriers for ground vibration isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) problem of the ground vibration isolation by an in-filled trench as a passive barrier is studied theoretically. Integral equations governing Rayleigh wave scattering are derived based on the Green’s solution of Lamb prob-lem. The integral equations are solved accurately and efficiently with an iteration technique. They are used to evaluate the complicated Rayleigh wave field gener-ated by irregular scatterers embedded in an elastic half-space solid. The passive isolation effectiveness of ground vibration by the in-filled trench for screening Rayleigh wave is further studied in detail. Effects of relevant parameters on the effectiveness of vibration isolation are investigated and presented. The results show that a trench filled with stiff backfill material gets a better isolation effect than a soft one, and increasing the depth or width of the in-filled trench also improves its screening effectiveness. The effectiveness and the area of the screened zone are surging with the increase in the length of the in-filled trench.

  19. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago. PMID:27375211

  20. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    in occupancy of the top layer. Furthermore, sediment depth and abundance were strongly correlated, but the sediment texture itself and the grain sizes showed only slight correlations with abundance. In the trench slope no correlation between sediment texture and abundance was found. We suggest that sediment is not the only factor that affects meiofauna abundance in the study area. The results of our study were compared with other trench and nontrench studies, and in most cases, the abundance decreases with depth initially but increases again below a certain depth, especially in deep-sea trenches below productive waters. No generalization can be made, however, about the depth at which the reversal occurs; it depends on the area of investigation and on a mixture of many other factors (e.g., sediment heterogeneity, oxygen, redox potential, proximity to land masses, and season).

  1. Detection and delineation of waste trenches by geophysical methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection and delineation of waste trenches at hazardous waste sites are needed before actual implementation of site corrective measures. In a field study conducted in Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA4) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), surface geophysical techniques were used to assist in the delineation of waste trenches. A magnetometer/gradiometer survey was used to detect ferrous metals buried at the site. An electromagnetic ground conductivity survey was used to measure the electrical conductivity of the subsurface and aided in supporting the magnetometer/gradiometer results. Results from the two techniques were complimentary and easily integrated into a final interpretation. The reliability, efficiency, and worker safety benefits of these techniques offer a nondestructive surface technique for locating buried waste trenches

  2. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE OPERABLE UNIT-1 LANDFILL TRENCHES, MIAMISBURG CLOSURE PROJECT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the Miamisburg Closure Project (MCP) Site's Operable Unit-1 (OU-1) Landfill in Miamisburg, Ohio on April 14 and 15, 2010 to perform independent verification activities at the OU-1 Landfill Area excavated trenches. Verification activities were conducted in accordance with the ORISE Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) Program's Project-Specific Verification Plan, Survey Procedure,s and Quality Program Manuals (ORISE 2007 and 2008, and ORAU 2009). The collective site areas verified consisted of four trenches; of which, three trenches were along the southeast portion of the Landfill Area (Trenches 30, 31, and 32; Figure 3) and one along the northwest portion of the Landfill area (Trench 53; Figure 3). Due to the depth of the trenches and the potential for cave in, final status surveys (FSS) by the site decommissioning contractor and verification surveys by ORISE personnel, were conducted on the excavated soil piles. The bottom of the trenches and the excavated soil piles were inspected for evidence of any landfill wastes. ORISE did not observe any visible wastes within the soil piles or trenches. High density scans for gamma radiation were performed on accessible surfaces of the trench soil piles and in the immediate vicinity of the trench openings using NaI and FIDLER scintillation detectors. Gross gamma radiation scans ranged from 3,200 to 5,100 counts per minute (cpm) with the NaI scintillation detectors and 400 to 720 cpm with the FIDLER. Background gamma measurements were approximately 3,000 cpm for the NaI detectors and approximately 400 cpm with the FIDLER detectors. A random sequence generator (Random.org) was used to generate random sample locations in the four trenches. ORISE collected twelve random samples from among the site decommissioning contractor's soil sample locations. A static gamma count rate measurement was performed at each location prior to

  3. Simulation of interdigitated back contact solar cell with trench structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Min; Chun, Seungju; Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-Eun; Lee, Jong-Han; Boo, Hyunpil; Bae, Soohyun; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-02-01

    We performed two-dimensional technology computer-aided design simulations for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells with rear trench structures (TS), denoted here as TS-IBC solar cells. First, we calculated a reference simulation model for conventional IBC solar cells. We then assumed a trench structure at the rear surface of the IBC solar cell. For this structure, we analyzed solar cell performance as a function of various trench depths and type. It was found that emitter trench formation affects minority carrier collection, such that the short-circuit current density increases with increasing trench depth. However, the back-surface field (BSF) trench exhibited poor minority carrier collection, which reduced the conversion efficiency of the TS-IBC solar cells. It was also found that for the same trench depth (30 μm), the difference in conversion efficiencies of an IBC solar cell with an emitter trench and that with a BSF trench was 0.6%. We are thus convinced that the emitter trench structure is more important than the BSF trench structure.

  4. Vegetation succession process induced by reforestation in erosion areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feixin WANG; Zhaoyin WANG; Zhengming YANG; Xining JI

    2008-01-01

    Reforestation is one of the most important and efficient measures of water and soil conservation. Based on field investigations in the Shangyang Soil Conservation and Reforestation Station in Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, we studied the variation in vegetation development, vegetation succession processes and soil erosion. The regional vegetation consists mainly of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests (MEBF). The area was deforested and became a denuded hill area with extremely high soil erosion in the 1960s and 1970s. Then, the area was closed in order to allow recovery of the vegetation. Under natural condi-tions the vegetation development and succession processes were slow during which soil erosion and strong sunshine and evaporation slowed down the development of the vegetation. About 25 years later, the vegetation cover was still merely 35% or so. The dominant vegetation types were heliophilous herbage and shrubs which formed a poorly developed shrub-herbage community and erosion remained high. In contrast, reforestation with selected tree species dramatically speeded up the vegetation succession process. About 12 years after reforestation, vegetation cover of the Acacia auriculiformis plantations in the Shangyang Station was 90% and erosion was under control. After 23 years, understory vegetation, consisting of indigenous species, had developed in the plantations. The planted trees and naturally developing herbage, shrubs, bamboo, local trees and liana formed a complex vegetation community in three layers. It will take 60 years for the vegetation to succeed from bare land to a secondary growth forest under natural conditions. Reforestation may speed up the vegetation suc-cession process. The time may be reduced to 20 years. Reforestation is the most effective measure of vegetation restoration and erosion control in this area.

  5. Processes of deagrarization and urbanization of Slovene rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2015-01-01

    The treatise deals with elements of the processes of differentiation of Slovene rural areas which have been differentiated during the last four decades under the condition of industrialization and the concept of polycentric regional development into regions of urbanization, regions of transition and regions of depopulation. This differentiation was accompanied by the growth of the number of the population which was employed in industries and consequently quick decline in the percentage of agr...

  6. Trench-parallel flow and seismic anisotropy in the Mariana and Andean subduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Erik A; van Keken, Peter E

    2007-12-20

    Shear-wave splitting measurements above the mantle wedge of the Mariana and southern Andean subduction zones show trench-parallel seismically fast directions close to the trench and abrupt rotations to trench-perpendicular anisotropy in the back arc. These patterns of seismic anisotropy may be caused by three-dimensional flow associated with along-strike variations in slab geometry. The Mariana and Andean subduction systems are associated with the largest along-strike variations of slab geometry observed on Earth and are ideal for testing the link between slab geometry and solid-state creep processes in the mantle. Here we show, with fully three-dimensional non-newtonian subduction zone models, that the strong curvature of the Mariana slab and the transition to shallow slab dip in the Southern Andes give rise to strong trench-parallel stretching in the warm-arc and warm-back-arc mantle and to abrupt rotations in stretching directions that are accompanied by strong trench-parallel stretching. These models show that the patterns of shear-wave splitting observed in the Mariana and southern Andean systems may be caused by significant three-dimensional flow induced by along-strike variations in slab geometry. PMID:18097407

  7. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  8. GPS/Acoustic Observations Along the Japan Trench for Postseismic Deformation After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Tomita, F.; Osada, Y.; Fujimoto, H.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Iinuma, T.; Azuma, R.; Wada, I.

    2014-12-01

    After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake, we realized that the interplate coupling can be extended to the trench even for subducting slab of great age. Monitoring the recovering process of the coupling after the earthquake may provide important knowledge on the total perspective of this great earthquake. For this purpose, Japanese government decided to strengthen the monitoring systems by means of seafloor geodesy. Constructing a GPS/Acoustic network along the trench is one of these projects. Before the earthquake, only five (Japan Coast Guard) and three (Tohoku Univ.) benchmarks were working off-Tohoku area, however, in 2012, we have newly installed up to 20 benchmarks along the trench, especially close to the trench. We took place GPS/Acoustic surveys after the installation and have carried out four times of campaign surveys until 2013 (FY). Not all the benchmarks were measured in each campaign, however, three times of campaigns were made for most of the benchmarks ranging 1 or 1.5 years. Because of such a short period of data accumulation and hard conditions on the accuracy due to great depth (>5000 m) than before, the estimated errors in the obtained displacement vectors are typically 5-10 cm for most of the benchmarks, which are not enough to clearly address the postseismic deformation. Nevertheless, some benchmarks, one is at relatively close to the coast and the other is on the incoming Pacific plate off-Miyagi, show significant WNW-ward movements up to 17 cm/yr, which is much larger than interseismic subducting rate. This gives a strong constraint to evaluate the viscoelastic relaxation process after the earthquake. More campaign surveys are planned in the next year to accumulate the data for improvement of the total accuracy in the displacement vectors for all the benchmarks. In addition, we are dedicated in improving the analytic technique to reduce error sources, such as acoustic signal processing and sound speed correction to lessen the uncertainty in each

  9. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, M.; Rockhold, M.; Truex, M.; Thorne, P.; Last, G.; Rohay, V.

    2006-12-01

    Three-dimensional modeling was conducted with layered and heterogeneous models to enhance the conceptual model of CT distribution in the vertical and lateral direction beneath the 216-Z-9 trench and to investigate the effects of soil vapor extraction (SVE). This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Simulations targeted migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co-disposed organics in the subsurface beneath the 216-Z-9 trench as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Simulation results support a conceptual model for CT distribution where CT in the DNAPL phase is expected to have migrated primarily in a vertical direction below the disposal trench. Presence of small-scale heterogeneities tends to limit the extent of vertical migration of CT DNAPL due to enhanced retention of DNAPL compared to more homogeneous conditions, but migration is still predominantly in the vertical direction. Results also show that the Cold Creek units retain more CT DNAPL within the vadose zone than other hydrologic unit during SVE. A considerable amount of the disposed CT DNAPL may have partitioned to the vapor and subsequently water and sorbed phases. Presence of small-scale heterogeneities tends to increase the amount of volatilization. Any continued migration of CT from the vadose zone to the groundwater is likely through interaction of vapor phase CT with the groundwater and not through continued DNAPL migration. The results indicated that SVE appears to be an effective technology for vadose zone remediation, but additional effort is needed to improve simulation of the SVE process.

  10. Mycobiota in the processing areas of two different meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Jacobsen, Tomas; Nielsen, Per Væggemose;

    2008-01-01

    /P. bialowiezense and P. palitans. A screening for secondary metabolites showed that isolates of these species consistently produced mycophenolic acid and cyclopiazonic acid, respectively. Presence of these toxinogenic species in the processing areas implies a risk of mycotoxin contamination of the products if they...... were identified as Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Penicillium, Phaeoacremonium and Phoma. Of these, Penicillium and Eurotium were the most important for contamination of fermented sausage, whereas Penicillium and Cladosporium were most important for liver pâté. Cladosporium...... was isolated more frequently in the processing plants examined in the autumn than in the spring. The seasonal variation indicates that outdoor air is an important source for this contamination. Eurotium was isolated frequently at one of the fermented sausage plants. Penicillium was isolated frequently...

  11. Transient ALD simulations for a multi-wafer reactor with trenched wafers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, A.M.; Paarhuis, B.D.; Terhorst, H.J.C.M.; Simons, P.J.P.M.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    For a large multi-wafer vertical batch ALD reactor, transient, 3-dimensional, multi-scale simulations have been performed for the TEMAH pulse step during a HfO2 ALD process. A bi-directional, multi-scale coupling has been established between continuum reactor scale simulations and molecular trench s

  12. Significance of broad scale deformation of incoming plates at ocean trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Calahorrano, A.; Grevemeyer, I.; Barckhausen, U.; Reichert, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    caused by the relation between trench strike and pre-existing ocean plate structure. The data show that abrupt changes in the geometrical relationship along the subduction zone are accompanied by dramatic variations in the intensity of plate deformation along relatively short distances. The significance of this observations in a geodynamic setting becomes apparent when considering that incoming plates at subduction trenches occur along a ~55,000 km long system, where the width of the area of the active deformation ranges between about 100-200 km before the plate enters subduction. In that outer rise to trench region, tectonic deformation remains about 1-4 million years active, with the maximum depth of intense deformation and geochemical exchange between hydrosphere and lithosphere reaching ~15 to 30 km deep into the plate. In summary, this important region of the Earth lithosphere is currently poorly understood, but of a dimension comparable to the system of mid ocean ridges and perhaps implying globally comparable material fluxes and energy exchanges, that currently are poorly understood and possibly not correctly taken into account.

  13. Improving risk estimates of runoff producing areas: formulating variable source areas as a bivariate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoya; Shaw, Stephen B; Marjerison, Rebecca D; Yearick, Christopher D; DeGloria, Stephen D; Walter, M Todd

    2014-05-01

    Predicting runoff producing areas and their corresponding risks of generating storm runoff is important for developing watershed management strategies to mitigate non-point source pollution. However, few methods for making these predictions have been proposed, especially operational approaches that would be useful in areas where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff. The objective of this study is to develop a simple approach to estimate spatially-distributed risks of runoff production. By considering the development of overland flow as a bivariate process, we incorporated both rainfall and antecedent soil moisture conditions into a method for predicting VSAs based on the Natural Resource Conservation Service-Curve Number equation. We used base-flow immediately preceding storm events as an index of antecedent soil wetness status. Using nine sub-basins of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, we demonstrated that our estimated runoff volumes and extent of VSAs agreed with observations. We further demonstrated a method for mapping these areas in a Geographic Information System using a Soil Topographic Index. The proposed methodology provides a new tool for watershed planners for quantifying runoff risks across watersheds, which can be used to target water quality protection strategies. PMID:24632403

  14. Geochemistry and composition of the Middle Devonian Srbsko Formation in Barrandian Area, Bohemian Massif: A trench or fore-arc strike-slip basin fill with material from volcanic arc of continental margin?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, L.; Hladil, Jindřich

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2001), s. 111-114. ISSN 1210-9606. [Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /6./. Donovaly - Nízké Tatry, 03.05.2001-06.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Geochemistry * tectonic setting * Srbsko Formation of the Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume13/G13-111.pdf

  15. Structure and Kinematic History of the Japan Trench toe off Tohoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, B.; Moore, G. F.; Nakamura, Y.; Kodaira, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent slip models show that the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) ruptured to the trench. Differential bathymetric analysis from before and after the event confirms ~ 50 m of seaward displacement near the toe, which is predominantly responsible for the destructive tsunami. Interpretation of high-resolution depth migrated seismic reflection data across the Japan Trench near the 2011 earthquake epicentral region provide the structural context for subduction-related deformation. To constrain possible structural interpretations, we conducted fault restorations using Landmark's LithoTect software. The subducting Pacific plate is covered by ~400 m of pelagic and hemipelagic sediment. The outer trench slope margin is characterized largely by basement-displacing flexural related normal faults that generate horsts and graben. The morphologic trench in this area is a graben, conjugate to a subducted landward horst and an incoming seaward horst block. Seismic correlation across the seaward margin horst reveals displacement of ~140 m and shows that a small amount, less than ~50 m, of trench fill, likely deposited by slumping. The incoming sediment section in the trench is cut by landward-dipping thrusts that sole into a basal décollement, which ascends over the landward horst block, appearing to connect with the surface identified as the décollement at the J-FAST drill site. This décollement step down of ~200 m into the graben sediments is clearly imaged as a strong reflector with up to a ~20 degree seaward dip. Restoration along this fault plane step down creates an original steep inclination for the local seafloor, a potential driving force for slumping. Furthermore, this rupture pathway of down stepping into a graben may be a mechanism for the farther landward slumps and wedge morphology. Uplift at the toe is recorded by deformed offset horizons that coincide with local topographic highs of the seafloor. These compressional structures are interpreted to consist of

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision No.:0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  17. Combining seismic reflection and refraction data to investigate tectonic features of the Manila Trench offshore southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Liu, Char-Shine

    2015-04-01

    Disastrous earthquakes (Mw>8) were mostly megathrust earthquakes that slipped along plate boundaries as stresses can be easily accumulated in the megathrust fault zone between two plates. Some large thrust faults, called splay faults, have been suggested to emerge from the megathrust fault to the seafloor. The splay fault may enhance tsunami generation by raising the fault plane angle from a low angle megathrust fault to a high angle splay fault, which could increase the vertical displacement of the seafloor once the fault is activated. The Luzon subduction zone has been regarded as one of the high tsunami risk zones. South of Taiwan, the Luzon subduction zone consists of four morphotectonic units from west to east: the Manila Trench, the Hengchun Ridge (accretionary wedge), the North Luzon Trough (forearc basin) and the Luzon volcanic arc. The accretionary wedge can be further divided into a lower slope domain and an upper slope domain by a splay fault. This splay fault separates a folds and thrusts dominated lower slope domain of the accretionary wedge from an intensely deformed upper slope domain. This splay fault system extends from offshore southern Taiwan to offshore southwestern Taiwan in a SSE to NNW direction, and may connect to the Chi-Shan fault onshore. It has been suggested to be a major branch of the megathrust system in the Luzon subduction zone. In this study, we analyze several large-offset multi-channel seismic profile data collected during the TAIGER survey in 2009 across the Manila trench between 18.5°N to 21°N. Special processing procedures to attenuate multiples and to enhance deep signals on seismic reflection profile data have been performed to image tectonic features of the Luzon subduction zone. Velocity structural models from ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data are constructed for depth conversion. Finally, we map the geometries of decollement, subducting oceanic basement, splay faults, and other structural features across the Manila

  18. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina;

    2014-01-01

    In addition to high hydrostatic pressure, scarcity of food is viewed as a factor that limits the abundance and activity of heterotrophic organisms at great ocean depths, including hadal trenches. Supply of nutritious food largely relies on the flux of organic-rich particulate matter from the...... evaluating ratios of measured (sediment-derived) and expected (water-column-derived) sedimentary inventories of the naturally occurring and radioactive particulate-matter tracer Pb-210(xs). The sites comprise a broad range of surface-ocean productivity and physical-oceanographic regimes. Across the five...

  19. Jointly constructed gas utility trenches save installation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installing polyethylene (PE) gas main in a trench with cable TV, electric and telephone service cables has reduced Cincinnati Gas and Electric's (CG and E) construction costs. In 1993, CG and E installed 424,000 ft, about 55%, of its gas main extensions in joint trenches, saving about $1.7 million compared to laying the lines in a separate trench. CG and E serves gas and electric customers in southwestern Ohio, northern Kentucky and southeastern Indiana. In 1990, the Kentucky Public Service Commission required the company to investigate joint trenching to reduce costs. An internal task force was formed to determine feasibility and, if workable, to develop operating routines

  20. In-situ grouting of shallow landfill radioactive waste trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how a backfilled trench containing low-level radioactive waste was grouted with a particulate grout. The accessible void volume of the waste zone was estimated to be 20% or 28 m3, but 30.6 m3 of grout was infected into the trench. Part of the grout forced a path outside the trench. The water permeation into the trench from monitoring wells was reduced by two orders of magnitude. The grout costs only $0.055/L; but most of the cost was in manpower, 1220 man-hours for this demonstration

  1. Y sign: clinical indicator to stop trenching and start cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Mathew; Das, Sudeep; Umarani, B; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2013-04-01

    Phacoemulsification is challenging in soft cataracts due to the difficulty in cracking the nucleus by a divide-and-conquer technique or by chopping. We describe another technique, the Y sign for trenching endpoint: a clinical sign that indicates the surgeon should stop trenching and start cracking during classical divide-and-conquer nucleofractis emulsification using proximal downslope trenching. This technique exploits the morphological structure of the lens to precisely gauge the depth of the trench at which the surgeon can split even a soft nucleus into small wedges without instrument cheese-wiring and thus perform safer phacoemulsification while reducing the risk for posterior capsule rupture. PMID:23522581

  2. Effects of irradiation induced lattice defects on standard trench and fine pattern trench IGBT characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, M.; Ohyama, H.; Kaneko, T.; Hanano, K.; Rafi, J. M.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.

    2009-12-01

    A comparison is made of irradiation damage in standard trench and fine pattern trench IGBTs (Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors) by 2-MeV electron irradiation at room-temperature. The electron fluence ranged from 10 14 to 10 15 e/cm 2. Two different types of IGBTs are studied,with differences in trench depth, in trench width gate oxide thickness. For both types of devices the breakdown voltage is the same and 400 V. It is shown that in the range studied, the electron fluence dependency of the radiation-induced defects using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and the voltage shift due to the radiation-induced interface traps (ΔVit) and the voltage shift due to the radiation-induced oxide traps (ΔVot) are different. From the difference in post-rad C-V characteristics it is derived that in one type of devices the B dopants become deactivated by H released by the high-energy electrons from the Phosphorus-Silicate-Glass (PSG) passivation layer.

  3. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    A complex mixture of chlorinated organic compounds is located in an unconfined carbonated bedrock aquifer with low permeability in a former industrial area next to Barcelona (NE Spain). The site exhibited an especially high complexity due to the presence of multiple contaminant sources, wide variety of pollutants (mainly chlorinated ethenes but also chlorinated methanes) and unknown system of fractures (Palau et al., 2014). Interception trenches were installed in the place of the removed pollution sources and were filled with construction wastes with the aim of retaining and treating the accumulated contaminated recharge water before reaching the aquifer. Recycled concrete-based aggregates from a construction and demolition waste recycling plant were used to maintain alkaline conditions in the water accumulated in the trenches (pH 11.6±0.3) and thus induce chloroform (CF) degradation by alkaline hydrolysis. An efficacy of around 30-40% CF degradation in the interception trenches was calculated from the significant and reproducible CF carbon isotopic fractionation (-53±3o obtained in batch experiments (Torrentó et al., 2014). Surprisingly, although hydrolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CT) is extremely slow, a significant CT carbon isotopic enrichment was also observed in the trenches. The laboratory experiments verified the low capability of concrete to hydrolyze the CT and showed the high adsorption of CT on the concrete particles (73% after 50 days) with invariability in its δ13C values. Therefore, the significant CT isotopic fractionation observed in the interception trenches could point out the occurrence of other degradation processes distinct than alkaline hydrolysis. Geochemical speciation modelling using the code PHREEQC showed that water collected at the trenches is supersaturated with respect to several iron oxy-hydroxides and therefore, CT degradation processes related to these iron minerals cannot be discarded. In addition, the combination of alkaline

  4. Processes of deagrarization and urbanization of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatise deals with elements of the processes of differentiation of Slovene rural areas which have been differentiated during the last four decades under the condition of industrialization and the concept of polycentric regional development into regions of urbanization, regions of transition and regions of depopulation. This differentiation was accompanied by the growth of the number of the population which was employed in industries and consequently quick decline in the percentage of agrarian population. The numeric decline of agrarian population as well as decline in its percentage however opened numerous new problems (i.e. abandoning of the farm land, growing of the forests, growing of the greenlands which cause great problems with maintenance of cultural landscape especially at the regions of depopulation.

  5. Plasma diagnostics in large area plasma processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of plasma diagnostic have been carried out in our large area plasma processing system which is based on a modulated electron-beam produced plasma. These discharges were created in both electrically conducting and insulated vacuum chambers operated in 30-120 mTorr of pure gases (argon, oxygen, and nitrogen). Langmuir probes, microwave transmission, mass spectrometry, and external current sensors show robust discharges were made over fairly wide parameter ranges resulting in plasma densities of 1-4x1011 cm-3 and temperature ranging from 0.2 eV for the molecular gases and 1.4 eV for argon. The effects of various experimental techniques, parameters, and contamination issues are discussed in detail

  6. Assessment of the effect of a bentonite seal on groundwater storage in underlying waste disposal trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a 49-trench section that was sealed in Solid Waste Disposal Area 6, the water-table elevation was periodically measured to assess the effectiveness of the seal for controlling the intrustion of water. Water was found in a majority of trenches throughout the study period (May 1978-December 1979). Mean seasonal water-table fluctuations indicated an average rise of 131 +- 56 cm in waste trenches between October 30, 1978 (minimum level) and February 15, 1979 (maximum level). This mean difference corresponds to an estimated gain of 1000 m3 of groundwater storage in the trench area. The measured depths to water in the trenches showed a general correspondence with those in monitoring wells (augered during September 1979) outside the trenches in the undisturbed zone in the downslope southern half of the study area. In contrast, the measured depths to water were relatively greater in wells in the undisturbed zone in comparison with those in trenches in the upslope northern half of the study area. This suggests that perched water tables developed within the trenches in the upslope area. The groundwater table (potentiometric surface) contours essentially followed the topographic contours and indicated a predominant gradient toward the south-southwest, which is in the direction of a backfilled topographic draw with a known seep at its base. The reported hydrologic characteristics of the Oak Ridge area, laboratory studies in the development of bentonite application rates, and simulation studies using a hydrologic computer code suggested that a significant part of the groundwater observed in the study area was associated with groundwater intrusion from the surrounding upslope area

  7. Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from deep-sea sediments of the Atacama Slope and Trench (South Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, C.; Vanreusel, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nematode assemblages were investigated (in terms of size spectra, sex ratio, Shannon diversity, trophic structure and diversity, rarefaction statistics, maturity index, taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness) at bathyal and hadal depths (from 1050 to 7800 m) in the deepest trench of the South Pacific Ocean: the Trench of Atacama. This area, characterised by very high concentrations of nutritionally-rich organic matter also at 7800-m depth, displayed characteristics typical of eutrophic systems and revealed high nematode densities (>6000 ind. 10 cm -2). Nematode assemblages from the Atacama Trench displayed a different composition than at bathyal depths. At bathyal depths 95 genera and 119 species were found (Comesomatidae, Cyatholaimidae, Microlaimidae, Desmodoridae and Xyalidae being dominant), whereas in the Atacama Trench only 29 genera and 37 species were encountered (dominated by Monhysteridae, Chromadoridae, Microlaimidae, Oxystominidae and Xyalidae). The genus Monhystera (24.4%) strongly dominated at hadal depths and Neochromadora, and Trileptium were observed only in the Atacama Trench, but not at bathyal depths. A reduction of the mean nematode size (by ca. 67%) was observed between bathyal and hadal depths. Since food availability was not a limiting factor in the Atacama Trench sediments, other causes are likely to be responsible for the reduction of nematode species richness and body size. The presence of a restricted number of families and genera in the Atacama Trench might indicate that hadal sediments limited nematode colonisation. Most of the genera reaching very high densities in Trench sediments (e.g., Monhystera) are opportunistic and were responsible for the significant decrease of the maturity index. The dominance of opportunists, which are known to be characterised by small sizes, might have contributed to the reduced nematode size at hadal depths. Shannon diversity and species richness decreased in hadal water depth and this pattern

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  9. Chemical, geological, and hydrological factors governing radionuclide migration from a formerly used seepage trench: a field study. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 3.2 x 107 L of intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILW) generated from routine Oak Ridge National Laboratory operations, were disposed in Trench 7 between 1962 and 1966. The disposed ILW contained about 107 GBq of fission nuclides (primarily 137Cs and 90Sr), activation products (primarily 60Co), actinides (primarily 232Th and 238U decay series nuclides), and transuranics (primarily 241Pu-241Am). Gamma-log profiles of the wells near ILW Trench 7 indicate that the waste liquids seeped along discrete layers parallel to bedding and along the strikes of faults and folds. Although most of the radioactivity has been retained by sorption reactions with the trench fill, soils, and weathered bedrock, groundwater characteristics in the vicinity of ILW Trench 7 are still greatly influenced by the constituents of the waste liquids disposed two decades ago. Radionuclide concentrations in the groundwaters near the north end of ILW Trench 7 undergo seasonal variations, with the lowest activities occurring in fall and winter and the highest activities occurring in the spring and after prolonged rainstorm events. The rise in radioactivity in these wells correlates with a rise in the groundwater level and a concurrent increase in groundwater pH. Although ILW Trench 7 has worked effectively to retain most of the disposed radioactivity, two suspected transport pathways from the trench to a nearby seep area have been identified and both appear to be associated with fault zones. Only the pathway near the north end of the trench appears to be leaching alkalinity and thus affecting the retention capacity for 90Sr. A groundwater interceptor at the north end of ILW Trench 7 is one possible remedial action to help maintain a dry alkaline environment and ensure the integrity of the trench for nuclide retention

  10. Report of exploratory trenching for the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresen, M.D.; Weiss, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    Three exploratory trenches, totaling about 1,300 ft in length were excavated and logged across the site of a proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), to assess whether or not active Greenville fault zone, located about 4100 ft to the northeast, pass through or within 200 ft of the site. The layout of the trenches (12-16 ft deep) was designed to provide continuous coverage across the DWTF site and an area within 200 ft northeast and southwest of the site. Deposits exposed in the trench walls are primarily of clay, and are typical of weakly cemented silty sand to sandy silt with the alluvial deposits in the area. Several stream channels were encountered that appear to have an approximated east-west orintation. The channel deposits consist of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sand and gravel. A well-developed surface soil is laterally continuous across all three trenches. The soil reportedly formed during late Pleistocene time (about 35,000 to 40,000 yr before present) based on soil stratigraphic analyses. A moderately to well-developed buried soil is laterally continuous in all three trenches, except locally where it has been removed by channelling. This buried soil apparently formed about 100,000 yr before present. At least one older, discontinuous soil is present below the 100,000-yr-old soil in some locations. The age of the older soil is unknown. At several locations, two discontinuous buried soils were observed between the surface soil and the 100,000-yr-old soil. Various overlapping stratigraphic units could be traced across the trenches providing a continuous datum of at least 100,000 yr to assess the presence or absence of faulting. The continuity of stratigraphic units in all the trenches demonstrated that no active faults pass through or within 200 ft of the proposed DWTF site.

  11. Report of exploratory trenching for the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three exploratory trenches, totaling about 1,300 ft in length were excavated and logged across the site of a proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), to assess whether or not active Greenville fault zone, located about 4100 ft to the northeast, pass through or within 200 ft of the site. The layout of the trenches (12-16 ft deep) was designed to provide continuous coverage across the DWTF site and an area within 200 ft northeast and southwest of the site. Deposits exposed in the trench walls are primarily of clay, and are typical of weakly cemented silty sand to sandy silt with the alluvial deposits in the area. Several stream channels were encountered that appear to have an approximated east-west orintation. The channel deposits consist of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sand and gravel. A well-developed surface soil is laterally continuous across all three trenches. The soil reportedly formed during late Pleistocene time (about 35,000 to 40,000 yr before present) based on soil stratigraphic analyses. A moderately to well-developed buried soil is laterally continuous in all three trenches, except locally where it has been removed by channelling. This buried soil apparently formed about 100,000 yr before present. At least one older, discontinuous soil is present below the 100,000-yr-old soil in some locations. The age of the older soil is unknown. At several locations, two discontinuous buried soils were observed between the surface soil and the 100,000-yr-old soil. Various overlapping stratigraphic units could be traced across the trenches providing a continuous datum of at least 100,000 yr to assess the presence or absence of faulting. The continuity of stratigraphic units in all the trenches demonstrated that no active faults pass through or within 200 ft of the proposed DWTF site

  12. Activity of Small Repeating Earthquakes along Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Uchida, N.; Nakamura, W.; Matsushima, T.

    2014-12-01

    There are several subduction systems near the Japanese islands. The 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake occurred at the NE Japan (Tohoku) subduction zone. We have revealed a complementary relation between the slip areas for huge earthquakes and small repeating earthquakes (REs) in Tohoku. Investigations of REs in these subduction zones and the comparison with Tohoku area are important for revealing generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes. Our target areas are Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu subduction zones, which appear to generate no large interplate earthquake. To investigate coupling of plate boundary in these regions, we estimated spatial distribution of slip rate by using REs. We use seismograms from the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network (Hi-net), Full Range Seismograph Network of Japan (F-net), and permanent seismic stations of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tohoku University, University of Tokyo, and Kagoshima University from 8 May 2003 (Izu-Bonin) and 14 July 2005 (Ryukyu) to 31 December 2012 to detect REs along the two trenches, by using similarity of seismograms. We mainly follow the procedure adopted in Uchida and Matsuzawa (2013) that studied REs in Tohoku area to compare our results with the REs in Tohoku. We find that the RE distribution along the Ryukyu trench shows two bands parallel to the trench axis. This feature is similar to the pattern in Tohoku where relatively large earthquakes occur between the bands. Along the Izu-Bonin trench, on the other hand, we find much fewer REs than in Tohoku or Ryukyu subduction zones and only one along-trench RE band, which corresponds to the area where the subducting Pacific plate contacts with the crust of the Philippine Sea plate. We also estimate average slip rate and coupling coefficient by using an empirical relationship between seismic moment and slip for REs (Nadeau and Johnson, 1998) and relative plate motion model. As a result, we find interplate slip rate in the deeper band is higher than

  13. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached in...

  14. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC)

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is

  15. A numerical study of scaling issues for trench power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, J.; Cortés, I.; Jiménez, D.; Flores, D.; Iñiguez, B.; Hidalgo, S.; Rebollo, J.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of the scaling down on the electrical performance of trench power MOSFET structures is investigated in this work by means of numerical simulation tools. Layout dimensions of trench power MOSFETs have been continuously reduced in order to decrease the specific on-resistance, maintaining equal vertical dimensions. Nowadays, the last scaling efforts provide trench width and distance between two consecutive trenches in the submicron range. The resultant short distance between gates is expected to induce significant modifications in the device electrical performances, since the fully depletion condition will be feasible in the body region. Hence, the influence of the fully depleted body on the on-state resistance, threshold voltage, breakdown voltage, parasitic bipolar transistor and internal capacitances are features of particular interest. Furthermore, device reliability aspects, such as hot-carrier and self-heating effects, are evaluated by numerical simulation in trench power MOSFETs for the first time.

  16. A simulation study on a novel trench SJIGBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Wang; Jingfei, Tan; Wenliang, Zhang; Weili, Chu; Yangjun, Zhu

    2012-11-01

    An overall analysis of the trench superjunction insulated gate bipolar transistor (SJ IGBT) is presented and a detailed comparison between a trench SJ IGBT and a trench field stop IGBT is made by simulating with Sentaurus TCAD. More specifically, simulation results show that the trench SJ IGBT exhibits a breakdown voltage that is raised by 100 V while the on-state voltage is reduced by 0.2 V. At the same time, the turn-off loss is decreased by 50%. The effect of charge imbalance on the static and dynamic characteristics of the trench SJ IGBT is studied, and the trade-off between parameters and their sensitivity versus charge imbalance is discussed.

  17. Liquid-immersion laser micromachining of GaN trenches and its application in device fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, Giuseppe Y.; Lam, Edmund Y.; Choi, H.W. [Semiconductor Lighting and Display Laboratory, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (China)

    2011-07-15

    Trench formation for device isolation on GaN light-emitting diode (LED) wafer via nanosecond pulsed laser micromachining in deionized (DI) water is demonstrated. The basis of this technique relies on the large difference between the ablation thresholds of GaN and sapphire, so that the ablation can automatically terminate at the GaN/sapphire interface to produce a smooth and tapered trench. Compared with micromachining in ambient air, re-deposition and re-solidification of ablated material on the sidewalls are found to be greatly reduced in DI water. In addition, liquid immersion admits a larger focus offset tolerance and a better control of the trench width through adjustment of pulse energy. As an application in rapid device prototyping, a 5 x 7 dot-matrix microdisplay with laser-micromachined trenches for pixel separation is demonstrated, illustrating the effectiveness of this processing technique (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Animation of 'Dodo' and 'Goldilocks' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation A pan and zoom animation of the informally named 'Dodo' (on left) and 'Goldilocks' (on right) trenches as seen by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This animation was based on conditions on the Martian surface on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), the 17th Martian day of the mission. 'Baby Bear' is the name of the sample taken from 'Goldilocks' and delivered to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Equatorial trench at the magnetopause under saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, A; 10.1029/2012JA017834

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic data from GOES geosynchronous satellites were applied for statistical study of the low-latitude dayside magnetopause under a strong interplanetary magnetic field of southward orientation when the reconnection at the magnetopause was saturated. From minimum variance analysis, we determined the magnetopause orientation and compared it with predictions of a reference model. The magnetopause shape was found to be substantially distorted by a duskward shifting such that the nose region appeared in the postnoon sector. At equatorial latitudes, the shape of magnetopause was characterized by a prominent bluntness and by a trench formed in the postnoon sector. The origin of distortions was regarded in the context of the storm-time magnetospheric currents and the large-scale quasi-state reconnection at the dayside magnetopause.

  20. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  1. Process optimization in the main process area of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main process area contains the first extraction cycle, the plutonium and uranium cleaning and the concentration of the medium and high activity waste. Optimisation was carried out by: integration of uranium in the main process building, electrolytic Pu reduction in the plutonium cleaning, omission of the second medium activity waste evaporation line, the omission of high activity waste denitrating and the omission of high activity waste denitrating and the omission of the high activity waste buffer store and by improving the U/Pu separation in the first cycle. (orig./DG)

  2. DOSE ASSESSMENT OF THE FINAL INVENTORIES IN CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-05-02

    In response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), this study evaluates the performance of waste disposed in Slit Trenches 1-5 by calculating exposure doses and concentrations. As of 8/19/2010, Slit Trenches 1-5 have been filled and are closed to future waste disposal in support of an ARRA-funded interim operational cover project. Slit Trenches 6 and 7 are currently in operation and are not addressed within this analysis. Their current inventory limits are based on the 2008 SA and are not being impacted by this study. This analysis considers the location and the timing of waste disposal in Slit Trenches 1-5 throughout their operational life. In addition, the following improvements to the modeling approach have been incorporated into this analysis: (1) Final waste inventories from WITS are used for the base case analysis where variance in the reported final disposal inventories is addressed through a sensitivity analysis; (2) Updated K{sub d} values are used; (3) Area percentages of non-crushable containers are used in the analysis to determine expected infiltration flows for cases that consider collapse of these containers; (4) An updated representation of ETF carbon column vessels disposed in SLIT3-Unit F is used. Preliminary analyses indicated a problem meeting the groundwater beta-gamma dose limit because of high H-3 and I-129 release from the ETF vessels. The updated model uses results from a recent structural analysis of the ETF vessels indicating that water does not penetrate the vessels for about 130 years and that the vessels remain structurally intact throughout the 1130-year period of assessment; and (5) Operational covers are included with revised installation dates and sets of Slit Trenches that have a common cover. With the exception of the modeling enhancements noted above, the analysis follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) and the 2008 SA (Collard and Hamm, 2008). Infiltration flows through the vadose zone are

  3. Automated Science Processing for the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, James

    2012-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope provides high sensitivity to emission from astronomical sources over a broad energy range (20MeV to >300 GeV) and has substantially improved spatial, energy, and timing resolution compared with previous observatories at these energies [4]. One of the LAT's most innovative features is that it performs continuous monitoring of the gamma-ray sky with all-sky coverage every 3 h. This survey strategy greatly enables the search for transient behavior from both previously known and unknown sources. In addition, the constant accumulation of data allows for increasingly improved measurements of persistent sources. These include the Milky Way Galaxy itself, which produces gamma-ray emission as a result from interactions of cosmic rays with gas in the Galaxy, and potential signals from candidate dark matter particles in the Milky Way and its neighboring galaxies. The automated science processing (ASP) functionality of the Fermi Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) is a part of the automated data pipeline that processes the raw data arriving from the spacecraft and puts it into a form amenable to scientific analysis. ASP operates at the end of the pipeline on the processed data and is intended to detect and characterize transient behavior (e.g., short time scale increases or “flares” in the gamma-ray flux) from astronomical sources. On detection of a flaring event, ASP will alert other observatories on a timely basis so that they may train their telescopes on the flaring source in order to detect possible correlated activity in other wavelength bands. Since the data from the LAT is archived and publicly available as soon as it is processed, ASP serves mainly to provide triggers for those follow-up observations; its estimates of the properties of the flaring sources (flux, spectral index, location) need not be the best possible, as subsequent off-line analysis can provide more refined

  4. Draft Level 1 Remedial Investigation Work Plan: 316-3 waste disposal trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan describes the work to be performed for the initial level of site characterization for the 316.3 Trenches at the Hanford Site. This initial site characterization effort will include a review of existing environmental contamination data for the 300 Area as well as collection and analysis of environmental samples to better characterize subsurface contamination at the site. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Draft Level 1 Remedial Investigation Work Plan: 316-3 waste disposal trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This work plan describes the work to be performed for the initial level of site characterization for the 316.3 Trenches at the Hanford Site. This initial site characterization effort will include a review of existing environmental contamination data for the 300 Area as well as collection and analysis of environmental samples to better characterize subsurface contamination at the site. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  7. The special trench design near the through silicon vias (TSVs) to reduce the keep-out zone for application in three-dimensional integral circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trench structure is designed and used to release process induced stress, resulting from the different material thermal expansion coefficients, in three-dimensional integral circuits (3DICs). The stress in the designed trench structure is measured by atomic force microscope Raman technique experimentally, and simulated by the full process simulation model. With the help of this simulation model, the optimized trench structure near the copper-filled TSV is designed and reported. The experimental data demonstrate that the tensile stress near the TSV can be reduced from 600 MPa to 150 MPa and the corresponding keep-out zone (KOZ) can also be decreased ∼4 times with the designed trench structure having a depth of 10 µm and spacing distance of 8 µm to the TSV. This work provides one potential solution to release process induced stress for real application of 3DICs. (paper)

  8. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS

  9. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  10. An oxide filled extended trench gate super junction MOSFET structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Cai-Lin; Sun Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an oxide filled extended trench gate super junction (SJ) MOSFET structure to meet the need of higher frequency power switches application. Compared with the conventional trench gate SJ MOSFET, new structure has the smaller input and output capacitances, and the remarkable improvements in the breakdown voltage, on-resistance and switching speed. Furthermore, the SJ in the new structure can be realized by the existing trench etching and shallow angle implantation, which offers more freedom to SJ MOSFET device design and fabrication.

  11. Assessment of the Trench IGBT reliability: low temperature experimental characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Stephane; Benmansour, Adel; Ishiko, Masayasu; Woirgard, Eric

    2005-01-01

    International audience The purpose of this study is an assessment of the Trench IGBT reliability at low temperature under static and dynamic operations by the aim of intensive measurements. The analysis of the Trench IGBT behaviour in these conditions is dedicated to the HEV applications. One question can be raised in case of the use of HEV in countries where during winter the temperature drops down -50°C or less: are Trench IGBT strongly affected by the low temperature environment? In thi...

  12. Waste processing demonstrations within the Waste Pretreatment and Processing Program of the Tank Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has created a new approach for the development of technology for DOE environmental remediation problems. Previously, technology development was conducted on a site-by-site basis and managed by multiple organizations. This new DOE strategy consolidates and focuses all technology development efforts on five priority problems. The remediation of the 1 x 108 gal of radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five DOE sites is one of the priority problems. All tank remediation projects will be integrated into the Tank Focus Area (TFA). The TFA mission is to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste across the DOE complex. The TFA has divided its efforts into several areas such as safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment and processing, immobilization, and site closure. A key predecessor of the Waste Pretreatment and Processing Program (WPPP) of the TFA was the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP) of the Underground Storage Tank -- Integrated Demonstration. Nearly all of the FY 1995 WPDP projects have been transferred into the WPPP. These WPPP projects can be divided into four systems: cesium removal, comprehensive sludge and supernate, out-of-tank evaporation, and cross-flow filtration. The current status of these WPPP projects is presented. The goal of the projects is to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste

  13. Geophysical Processes - 2013 Collapse Potential St. Louis Area (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Collapse potential correlates with locations of underground mines and sinkholes. The file includes areas in close proximity to mines and sinkholes. This project was...

  14. Slip distribution from the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake: A unique image of near-trench rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Newman, Andrew V.; Feng, Lujia; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2009-08-01

    We estimate the slip distribution from the M W 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake in 2007, from two post-seismic surveys measuring uplifted coral and submerged coastal features. The occurrence of islands extremely proximal to the trench and nucleation of rupture allowed for the collection of unprecedented coseismic deformation dataset along a large megathrust earthquake. Using data from the two surveys along the southeastern half of the slip zone within five weeks of the event, we model the elastic dislocation to identify the optimal (29°), and alternate (20°), dip and distribution of thrust along the southern rupture. The vertical deformation, which includes both coseismic and early postseismic deformation, has highly variable and large slip within 25 km of the trench and straddling Ranongga Island. The shallow focus of slip in the near-trench area may explain the locally high tsunami run-up on portions of Simbo Island, however the aseismic contribution of afterslip remains unknown.

  15. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  16. SILICON MICRO-TRENCH ETCHING USING HIGH-DENSITY PLASMA ETCHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.T. Sun; Z.G. Liu; H.C. Yu; M.B. Chen; J.M. Miao

    2005-01-01

    Dry etching of silicon is an essential process step for the fabrication of Microelectromechancal system (MEMS) The AZ7220 positive photo-resist was used as the etching mask and silicon micro-trenches were fabricated with a multiplexed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher.The influence of resist pattern profile, and etch condition on sidewall roughness were investigated detail. The results show that the sidewall roughness of micro-trench depends on profiles of photo-resist pattern, the initial interface between the resist bottom surface and silicon surface heavily. The relationship between roughness and process optimization parameters are presented in the paper. The roughness of the sidewall has been decreased to a 20-50nm with this experiment.

  17. Rapid trench initiated recrystallization and stagnation in narrow Cu interconnect lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-annealing of Cu in narrow interconnect lines has remained a top priority in order to continue down-scaling of back-end of the line interconnects. Recently, it was hypothesized that a bottom-up microstructural transformation process in narrow interconnect features competes with the surface-initiated overburden transformation. Here, a set of transmission electron microscopy images which captures the grain coarsening process in 48 nm lines in a time resolved manner is presented, supporting such a process. Grain size measurements taken from these images have demonstrated that the Cu microstructural transformation in 48 nm interconnect lines stagnates after only 1.5 h at room temperature. This stubborn metastable structure remains stagnant, even after aggressive elevated temperature anneals, suggesting that a limited internal energy source such as dislocation content is driving the transformation. As indicated by the extremely low defect density found in 48 nm trenches, a rapid recrystallization process driven by annihilation of defects in the trenches appears to give way to a metastable microstructure in the trenches

  18. Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: evidence from southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison

  19. Fire hazard analysis for the Westinghouse Hanford Company managed low-level mixed waste Trench 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is to assess comprehensively the risks from fire within the new lined landfills, provided by W-025 and designated Trench 31 and 34 of Burial Ground 218-W-5; they are located in the 200 West area of the Hanford Site, and are designed to receive low-level mixed waste

  20. Bending-related faulting and mantle serpentinization at the Middle America trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Phipps Morgan, J.; McIntosh, K.; Reichert, C.

    2003-09-01

    The dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and upper mantle has been inferred both to promote the partial melting leading to arc magmatism and to induce intraslab intermediate-depth earthquakes, at depths of 50-300km. Yet there is still no consensus about how slab hydration occurs or where and how much chemically bound water is stored within the crust and mantle of the incoming plate. Here we document that bending-related faulting of the incoming plate at the Middle America trench creates a pervasive tectonic fabric that cuts across the crust, penetrating deep into the mantle. Faulting is active across the entire ocean trench slope, promoting hydration of the cold crust and upper mantle surrounding these deep active faults. The along-strike length and depth of penetration of these faults are also similar to the dimensions of the rupture area of intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  1. Stable Isotopic Evidence for a Pedogenic Origin of Carbonates in Trench 14 near Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, J; Cerling, T E

    1990-12-14

    Layered carbonate and silica encrust fault fractures exposed in Trench 14 near Yucca Mountain, site of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository in southern Nevada. Comparison of the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the fracture carbonates with those of modern soil carbonates in the area shows that the fracture carbonates are pedogenic in origin and that they likely formed in the presence of vegetation and rainfall typical of a glacial climate. Their isotopic composition differs markedly from that of carbonate associated with nearby springs. The regional water table therefore remained below the level of Trench 14 during the time that the carbonates and silica precipitated, a period probably covering parts of at least the last 300,000 years. PMID:17818282

  2. Small-scale spatial variation in near-surface turbidites around the JFAST site near the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuro; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Kasaya, Takafumi

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of the depositional processes associated with turbidites related to recent earthquake events. A series of short sediment cores (ca. 20-30 cm long) were recovered from the landward slope of the Japan Trench around JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) site C0019 by a remotely operated vehicle, KAIKO 7000 II, and the sample sites were accurately located using an LBL (long base line) acoustic navigation system. The properties of the cores were analyzed using visual observations, soft X-ray radiographs, smear slides, measurement of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and analysis of radioactive elements (134Cs, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb). For the first time, small-scale (ca. 200-1000 m) spatial variations in recent earthquake-triggered deep-sea turbidites, the formation of which was probably linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, are described. We also examine the submarine landslide that probably generated the sediment unit below the turbidites, which is thought to be an important process in the study area. The spatial distribution and characteristics of the near-surface seismoturbidite obtained immediately after the earthquake, presented here, will enable precise calibration of offshore evidence of recent earthquakes, and thus facilitate the use of the sedimentary archive for paleoseismic interpretations. Furthermore, although sampling for turbidite seismology on steep slopes has not been widely performed previously, our results suggest that the recent event deposits may be continuously tracked from the slope to the basin using a combination of the present sampling method and conventional large-scale investigation techniques.

  3. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  4. Ultracompact polarization converter with a dual subwavelength trench built in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Villafranca Velasco, Aitor; Calvo Padilla, María Luisa; Cheben, Pavel; Ortega Moñux, Alejandro; Alonso Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Molina Fernández, Íñigo; Lapointe, Jean; Vachon, Martin; Janz, Siegfried; Xu, Dan-Xia

    2012-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an ultracompact silicon-on-insulator polarization converter is reported. The polarization conversion with an extinction ratio of 16 dB is achieved for a conversion length of only 10 mu m. Polarization rotation is achieved by inducing a vertical asymmetry by forming in the waveguide core two subwavelength trenches of different depths. By taking advantage of the calibrated reactive ion etch lag, the two depths are implemented using a single mask and etching process...

  5. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  6. Aperture effects in plasma etching of deep silicon trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aperture effect in plasma etching of deep trenches is theoretically investigated. Three possible mechanisms are proposed: limiting of ion and radical delivery to the etching region and redeposition of the reaction products. Integral equations are derived and numerically solved for rectangular trench profiles and a cosine law for surface scattering of the active particles. The approach suggested allows generalization for multicomponent plasma systems. (author)

  7. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  8. Spatial effects on salinisation processes in a coastal wetland area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Eberhard, Julius; Stefan, Krause; Martin, Maier; Anett, Schibalski; Schaik Loes, van

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present the influence of environmental changes on a coastal area which is at risk of salinisation through the subsurface. The study site is located at the estuary of the river Ems at the German North Sea coast. 30 % of the pasture-dominated landscape is below sea level and requires permanent water management. The low permeable soils prevent a significant interaction with the salty perched aquifer. But through geological faults of old paleo-channels, a connection to the surface water body exists which considerably decreases water quality. Observations in those areas show a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. We expect that under climate change the area will be more affected by dry summer periods and wetter winter periods. To analyse the effect of climate change on the study site, we choose a bottom up strategy. We simulate the hydrological dynamics of the catchment with a spatially explicit model approach. The estimated soil moistures and hydraulic heads are used as boundary conditions in a second step to calculate the local effect on salinisation on the plot scale. Because of the complex geology only predictions for areas with known layering are performed. The models are calibrated and validated based on observations. Finally, the validated model setups are used to investigate different climate scenarios covering a temperature rise between 1 and 3.5 K with different meteorological and sea level time series. To take changes in land management into account, we develop different scenarios of landuse strategies to avoid inundation during winter and salinisation during summer. Therefore, different types of polder systems are investigated. One of the scenarios of landuse strategies assumes the technological level of management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level. The scenario technological level of the land management is able to prevent low lying areas from inundation. But during summer salinisation and during winter

  9. Changes in the crust and upper mantle near the Japan-Bonin Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, R.; Windisch, C.; Murauchi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Depths and reflection times to mantle have been computed in the west Pacific from 60 sonobuoy refraction solutions, many of which could be compared with observed mantle reflection depths from multi-channel data obtained at the same time. After repicking some of these sonobuoy records, all were eventually adjusted to agree within 0.05 s with the observed mantle reflection times. This added constraint produces solutions that are clearly more reliable. Crustal velocities (exclusive of water and sediment) from the study area are rather tightly distributed about a mean value of 6.53 km/s with a standard deviation of only 0.23 km/s (n = 47). Results show that the crust thickens in a westerly direction from the west Pacific basin, where mantle depths are 11-11.5 km to a belt 200 km east of the Japan trench, coinciding with the outer gravity high, where mantle is at an average depth of 14 km. Several sonobuoys in the zone of maximum crustal thickness just east of the outer slope of the Japan trench record two deep reflectors about 0.6 s apart in the vicinity of the upper mantle. Two values of interval velocity obtained from a reduced T2/X2 analysis of the layer bounded by these reflectors are 7.5 and 7.2 km/s. These sonobuoys and a few others with weaker double reflections are all located within the outer gravity high. To the south a well-observed mantle reflection and its strong 8.2-km/s refraction disappear from our records just as the crust begins its descent into the Bonin trench. Within the outer trench slope a 7.3-km/s refractor, which is a weak arrival elsewhere, becomes the dominant refractor. The peculiar double reflector near mantle and the marked change in velocity structure and upper mantle reflectivity at the edge of the outer slopes seem to confirm the changes in upper mantle refraction velocity reported by Talwani et al. (1977) in the Curacao trench, Caribbean Sea, but our evidence is not conclusive. In spite of the ambiguity it is clear that velocity

  10. A new dry etch chemistry in deep trench silicon plasma etching for sub-100 nm technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Harald; Guenther, Siegfried; Costina, Ioan; Weidner, Guenter; Marschmeyer, Steffen; Silz, Heike [IHP, Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Wege, Stephan; Barth, Sven [Qimonda, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    An essential market share of today's DRAM production is covered by devices using a trench capacitor cell. The technology and productivity driven shrink of lateral dimensions at approximately constant capacity specifications lead to an increased deep trench (DT) aspect ratio (depth/width) requirement. For sub-100nm technologies and a given capacitance and cell size the requirement for DT etching results in aspect ratios of 60 to 80. In this paper, we describe DT process developments driven by the following motivation: To realise aspect ratio requirements a high selectivity to hard mask is needed. Therefore, process conditions which lead to minimized hard mask consumption during Si DT etching are necessary. A new DT plasma etch chemistry was introduced using CO{sub 2} as a successful alternative to the standard passivation component O{sub 2} in the common gas mixture HBr/NF{sub 3}/O{sub 2}. Investigations were focused on a non conventional hard mask material containing a TiN/Ti sandwich structure. In former investigations TiN/Ti works only as a stop layer for DT etch. Approx. 3.5 micron deep trenches over a 200 nm TiN/Ti hard mask can be realized using HBr/NF{sub 3}/CO{sub 2} processes. During Si etching a passivation layer is formed on the hard mask regions protecting TiN and ensures the requested high selectivity.

  11. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in approximately true color. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R., E-mail: joshua.hendrickson.4@us.af.mil; Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Vangala, Shivashankar [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); SURVICE Engineering, 4141 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Nader, Nima [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Solid State Scientific Corporation, 12 Simon St., Nashua, New Hampshire 03060 (United States); Guo, Junpeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results

  14. Recent Results of Hadal Investigations in the Southern Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, P. B.; Hellebrand, E.; Sharma, S. K.; Acosta-Maeda, T.; Jicha, B. R.; Cameron, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deepest parts of the southern Mariana Trench have variously been interpreted to 1) indicate strike-slip motion along the trench, 2) contain a series of 3 sediment ponds at greater than 10,900 m depth separated from one another by fault-controlled ridges on the subducting plate, and 3) have an even deeper feature in the western-most pond (Vitiaz Deep). Recent lander deployments in all three ponds and the Deepsea Challenger submersible dive by J. Cameron in 2012 showed that the deepest ponds within the Challenger Deep area have nearly unbroken, flat surfaces. One point explored showed veined serpentinite at a depth of 10,800+ m. The potential for active serpentinite-hosted seeps and vent communities was demonstrated for the Shinkai Vent Field at 5,800m depth. Rocks collected using the Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution's hybrid remotely operated vehicle, Nereus, in 2009 from deep (10,879 m) on the incoming plate south of the Challenger Deep, were recovered from the base of a fault scarp where large, columnar-jointed blocks are draped with sediment. Optical microscopy, electron-microprobe and Raman analysis show that they are partially altered massive diabase with altered interstitial glass and containing microbial tubules in vug-filling secondary phases. The chain of seamounts striking NNW, colinear with the Lyra Trough, has been interpreted as a boundary between the Pacific Plate and the seafloor north of the Caroline Ridge. Sediments, drilled from above postulated basement north of the Caroline Ridge are no older that Oligocene. Ar/Ar age dates completed for one rock collected by Nereus in 2009 give a weighted mean plateau age, based on two experiments, of 24.6 +/- 3.2 Ma. Thus, the igneous basement of the subducting plate south of the Challenger Deep is, far younger than the Jurassic Pacific Plate subducting further east. This represents a previously unidentified tectonic plate. With new vehicles and technologies the future for hadal exploration is ripe.

  15. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  16. Evaluation of trench chemical treatment for radiostrontium immobilization and evaluation of in situ Cerenkov radiation detection of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrective measures technology task for humid sites consists of two subtasks. The first has the objective of demonstrating that caustic soda/soda ash injection into a closed trench's backfill can achieve a fixation of radiostrontium from further contamination of surrounding groundwaters. Monitoring of groundwater in and around a demonstration trench, first treated in 1980, has indicated a return to near pretreatment 90Sr concentrations. However, soil samples taken in 1984 showed comparable amounts of 90Sr-CaCO3 and alkalinity to those found in samples obtained in 1981. Less than 15% of the 90Sr in these samples of backfill from the trench was leachable by 0.1N CaCl2 indicating that most of the 90Sr has remained in a fixed form up to the present. Depth incremental core samples were obtained immediately downslope of the trench and most of the 90Sr was found near the surface. Such a condition indicated that overflow of groundwater from the trench during wet periods has been the major route for 90Sr migration from the trench. The second subtask has the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of detecting 90Sr in groundwater via in situ Cerenkov radiation measurement. A prototype Cerenkov detector was fabricated of a photomultiplier tube optically coupled to a light-sealed sample chamber for lowering into a well. The device was tested on groundwaters from a group of monitoring wells within an ORNL solid waste storage area. The estimates of 90Sr concentrations were comparable to those found by other counting procedures. A second prototype detector is being designed to employ dual photomultiplier tubes in a coincident counting mode to lower background counting rates

  17. SUMMARY AND RESULTS LETTER REPORT - INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PROJECT, PHASE 3: TRENCHES 2, 3, AND 4 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on September 7 through September 10, 2010, and September 20 through Seeptember 24, 2010. ORISE performed visual inspections, conducted independent measurement, and sampling of Trenches 2, 3, and 4, which are part of Phase 3 for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities Removal Project. Trenches 2 and 3 were addressed during the first visit and Trench 4 during the second visit to BNL. Spatial orientation to Building 801 and minimal survey area inside Trenches 2 and 3 limited satellite reception and the ability to utilize a global positioning system (GPS) as real-time data capture for the gamma scan surveys in these trenches. However, Trench 4 provided suitable conditions in which gamma scan data could be collected using the GPS. ORISE performed high-density gamma scans of accessible surface areas using shielded sodium iodide detectors coupled to ratemeter-scalers with audible output. Scans for Trench 2 ranged from 4,000 to 22,000 gross counts per minute (cpm); Trench 3 from 3,000 to 5,000 gross cpm and Trench 4 from 2,600 to 9,500 gross cpm. ORISE personnel flagged the area where the elevated counts were observed in Trench 2 for further investigation. Additional scane valuations were performed on remaining pipes and associated end-caps in the trenches with no elevated activity detected. Eleven judgemental soil samples (5098M0041 through 5098M0051) were obtained throughout Trenches 2, 3, and 4. The sample locations were selected based on count rates observed during the scan survey or because of contamination potential from pipeline removal activities. ORISE personnel judgmentally selected the location for sample M0043 in response to the 22,000 cpm observed during the scan survey, and to ascertain whether the elevataed counts were a result of soil contamination or radioactive shine from the trench's spatial orientation to the Target Room in

  18. Changes in the crust and upper mantle near the Japan-Bonin trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtz, R.; Windisch, C.; Murauchi, S.

    1980-01-10

    Depths and reflection times to mantle have been computed in the west Pacific from 60 sonobuoy refraction solutions, many of which could be compared with observed mantle reflection depths from multichannel data obtained at the same time. After repicking some of these sonobuoy records, all were eventually adjusted to agree within 0.005 s with the observed mantle reflection times. This added constraint produces solutions that are clearly more reliable. Crustal velocities (exclusive of water and sediment) from the study area are rather tightly distributed about a mean value of 6.53 km/s with a standard deviation of only 0.23 km/s (n=47). Results show that the crust thickens in a westerly direction from the west Pacific basin, where mantle depths are 11--11.5 km to a belt 200 km east of the Japan trench, coinciding with the outer gravity high, where mantle is at an average depth of 14 km. Several sonobuoys in the zone of maximum crustal thickness just east of the outer slope of the Japan trench record two deep reflectors about 0.6 s apart in the vicinity of the upper mantle. Two values of interval velocity obtained from a reduced T/sup 2//X/sup 2/ analysis of the layer bounded by these reflectors are 7.5 and 7.2 km/s. These sonobuoys and a few others with weaker double reflections are all located within the outer gravity high. To the south a well-observed mantle reflection and its strong 8.2-km/s refraction disappear from our records just as the crust begins its descent into the Bonin trench. Within the outer trench slope a 7.3-km/s refractor, which is a weak arrival elsewhere, becomes the dominant refractor.

  19. REALIZATION OF IP CORE FOR ROBOT CONTROLLED TRENCHING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Mala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An IP Core of a Robot based Trenching System has been designed modeled on Intel's 8051 Microcontroller. The designed IP Core realizes all 256 instructions of 8051 and also the resources available on a generic 8051 chip. The designed system has both internal and external ROM and RAM, an address generator, and a decoder. Realization includes the timer functions, serial communication and interrupts. A comprehensive test bench has been developed and all instructions and the resources on chip have been fully tested. The code is RTL compliant and is Technology and Platform Independent. It features a high degree of parallelism and heavy pipelining targeted on FPGA or ASIC. The designed system is more efficient in terms of processing speed by over 7 to 50 times when compared to the original Intel‟s 8051. With this design, 8051 microcontroller would be given a new lease of life even when it becomes obsolete with time. The agricultural implement IP Core design has been primarily targeted on the Xilinx, Spartan 3 FPGA and works at a conservative operating frequency of 50 MHz.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  1. Image processing and analysis using neural networks for optometry area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we describe the framework of a functional system for processing and analyzing images of the human eye acquired by the Hartmann-Shack technique (HS), in order to extract information to formulate a diagnosis of eye refractive errors (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia). The analysis is to be carried out using an Artificial Intelligence system based on Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Classifier Combination. The major goal is to establish the basis of a new technology to effectively measure ocular refractive errors that is based on methods alternative those adopted in current patented systems. Moreover, analysis of images acquired with the Hartmann-Shack technique may enable the extraction of additional information on the health of an eye under exam from the same image used to detect refraction errors.

  2. Evaluation of a prototype decision support system for selecting trench cap designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-based prototype decision support system (PDSS) to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites is evaluated. The selection of the open-quotes bestclose quotes design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of. selecting and parameterizing decision variables, using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The simulation models incorporated in the PDSS are the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model which is used to simulate the trench cap water balance and the Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems (CREAMS) erosion component that is used to simulate trench cap erosion. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. The PDSS is evaluated using the Hill Air Force Base landfill cover demonstration project. The water balance and surface erosion of four alternative landfill cover designs were monitored for a 4-yr period. Two of the cover designs were used to calibrate and test the simulation models. The results of the PDSS, using both data from all four designs and long-term simulations from two of the designs, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cover designs and which cover is the open-quotes bestclose quotes alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Asia-Pacific area shows big gains in processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Asia-Pacific region's buoyant refining and petrochemical industries that are reacting to lessons from the Persian gulf war. First-and least palatable-is the knowledge there is no alternative to oil from the Middle East to fuel headlong economic growth. Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait, resulting in the loss of crude oil from both countries and the flow of products from Kuwait's sophisticated refining complexes, hammered home another valuable lesson. In a crisis, the petroleum industry-oil exporting countries in particular-will in the short term find it easier to make substitute crude supplies available than to conjure up products from alternative processing capacity. The Japanese, as might be expected, are implementing new policies to take account of this lesson. Japan's tightly controlled refining sector has been told it can expand capacity for the first time in 18 years. And, with the blessing of the Japanese government, a group of companies led by Nippon Oil has agreed to a joint venture with Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that will lead to new refining capacity in Japan and a new export refinery in Saudi Arabia that is likely to be dedicated to the Japanese market

  4. Process Performance Measurement as Part of Business Process Management in Manufacturing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tupa, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents an example of process controlling application. Process controlling described in this paper, comprises the following components: Evaluation of the efficiency of business processes based on key performance indicators Transparent representation of procedures actually performed for cause analysis. Deduction of optimization measures. Continuous monitoring of success developments. Organizational analysis. The process controlling is very important tool for process improvement i...

  5. A new paleoseismological investigation across the Paleochori-Sarakina Fault, Northern Greece: Trenching exposures of the surface rupture of 1995 Ms 6.6 Kozani-Grevena earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Gallousi, Christina; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Ioannides, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary results from a new paleoseismological investigation carried out along the Paleochori-Sarakina fault segment, West Macedonia, Northern Greece, are presented. The Paleochori-Sarakina fault is a SW-NE trending north-dipping normal fault, which was ruptured during the 13th May 1995 devastating earthquake (Ms = 6.6) that affected the Kozani-Grevena area. The 10-km-long Paleochori-Sarakina fault is expressed as a complex, 15- to 50-m-high escarpment on early-middle Miocene molassic sediments of the Meso-Hellenic trench and it forms the southeast segment of the Aliakmon river Fault system. A series of surface ruptures, with a maximum displacement of ~10 cm, were created during the 1995 earthquake in the area between Paleohori and Sarakina villages. Several trenches were excavated along the Paleohori-Sarakina fault right after the 1995 earthquake and three previous faulting events were identified. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating has been used to date the recognized paleoearthquakes. Recurrence interval based on these TL ages was 30 ka which was extremely high and the estimated slip-rate extremely low (0.01-0.03 mm/a). We excavated two new paleoseismological trenches near the Paleochori village in order to improve our knowledge on the Holocene tectono-stratigraphy of this structure and to obtain new samples for dating using an improved dating technique. The first trench was located 500 m southeast from the Paleochori village and was excavated across a 1.5-m-high north-facing fault scarp. The trench was 30 m long and up to 4 m deep. The second trench was located at the base of a 5-m-high scarp at the northeastern end of the Paleochori-Sarakina fault segment, south of the Paleochori village. The trench was 17 m long and up to 3 m deep. Both trenches intersect the fault zone which separates mollasic sediments exposed on the upthrown block from colluvial deposits of the downthrown block. The initial preliminary interpretation of the trench wall structure provided

  6. Origins and evolution of the Gagua Ridge bathymetric feature: A Possible example of failed subduction competition with the Manila trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. H.; Lavier, L. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Three E-W tomographic velocity models combined with coincident multi-channel seismic reflection data (MCS) allow us to develop a new geodynamic model to describe the origin and evolution of the Gagua Ridge bathymetric feature in the West Philippine Basin. Data were acquired in the Huatung Basin offshore Taiwan to the southeast during the 2009 TAIGER program. This region is largely dominated by the eastward subduction of the South China Sea along the Manila trench to the southwest, arc-continent collision between the North Luzon volcanic arc and the passive Chinese continental margin to the northwest, and northward subduction of the West Philippine Sea Basin oceanic crust along the Ryukyu trench to the north. While the tectonic framework and development of this complex plate boundary remains enigmatic, we present tomographic evidence showing what appears to be oceanic crust to the east of Gagua Ridge underthrust to the west beneath the oceanic crust of the Huatung Basin to a depth of 15-20 km. This observation is significant as it possibly represents a failed subduction event in the past that may have coincided, competed with, and was subsequently abandoned in favor of subduction along the Manila trench. Underthrusting of this nature is likely the result of oblique compression along structures such as transform fracture zones inherited from the seafloor spreading that are capable of juxtaposing crust of differing age and thermal maturity against one another. One of the keys to obtaining a geodynamic understanding of this process and how it may have evolved in the past is to document the crustal structure of the Gagua Ridge bathymetric feature from north to south. In this area we acquired 3 wide-angle seismic datasets, T1B at 20.6°N, T2 at 21.6°N, and T4A at 22.8°N along with coincident MCS data that bisect Gagua Ridge E-W to constrain the velocity structure at depth and deformation observed near the seafloor. These models illuminate an interesting structural

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  9. A novel double trench reverse conducting IGBT with robust freewheeling switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon that the wide P-emitter region in the conventional reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor (RC-IGBT) results in the non-uniform current distribution in the integrated freewheeling diode (FWD), and then causes a parasitic thyristor to latch-up during its reverse-recovery process, which induces a hot spot in the local region of the device is revealed for the first time. Furthermore, a novel RC-IGBT based on double trench IGBT is proposed. It not only solves the snapback problem but also has uniform current distribution and high ruggedness during the reverse-recovery process. (semiconductor devices)

  10. A novel double trench reverse conducting IGBT with robust freewheeling switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liheng, Zhu; Xingbi, Chen

    2014-08-01

    The phenomenon that the wide P-emitter region in the conventional reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor (RC-IGBT) results in the non-uniform current distribution in the integrated freewheeling diode (FWD), and then causes a parasitic thyristor to latch-up during its reverse-recovery process, which induces a hot spot in the local region of the device is revealed for the first time. Furthermore, a novel RC-IGBT based on double trench IGBT is proposed. It not only solves the snapback problem but also has uniform current distribution and high ruggedness during the reverse-recovery process.

  11. Longitudinal study of urbanisation processes in peri-urban areas of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Fertner, Christian; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist;

    Urbanisation processes increasingly influence the use of land and properties in rural areas. In peri-urban areas population composition changes as the areas offer attractive possibilities of other gainful activities than agriculture (OGA), and residential and recreational alternatives to both urban...

  12. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all

  13. Tsunami Modeling of Hikurangi Trench M9 Events: Case Study for Napier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Nyst, M.; Farahani, R.; Bryngelson, J.; Lee, R.; Molas, G.

    2015-12-01

    RMS has developed a tsunami model for New Zealand for the insurance industry to price and to manage their tsunami risks. A key tsunamigenic source for New Zealand is the Hikurangi Trench that lies offshore on the eastside of the North Island. The trench is the result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island at a rate of 40-45 mm/yr. Though there have been no M9 historical events on the Hikurangi Trench, events in this magnitude range are considered in the latest version of the National Seismic Hazard Maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2012). The RMS modeling approaches the tsunami lifecycle in three stages: event generation, ocean wave propagation, and coastal inundation. The tsunami event generation is modeled based on seafloor deformation resulting from an event rupture model. The ocean wave propagation and coastal inundation are modeled using a RMS-developed numerical solver, implemented on graphic processing units using a finite-volume approach to approximate two-dimensional, shallow-water wave equations over the ocean and complex topography. As the tsunami waves enter shallow water and approach the coast, the RMS model calculates the propagation of the waves along the wet-dry interface considering variable land friction. The initiation and characteristics of the tsunami are based on the event rupture model. As there have been no historical M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench, this rupture characterization posed unique challenges. This study examined the impacts of a suite of event rupture models to understand the key drivers in the variations in the tsunami inundation footprints. The goal was to develop a suite of tsunamigenic event characterizations that represent a range of potential tsunami outcomes for M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench. The focus of this case study is the Napier region as it represents an important exposure concentration in the region and has experience tsunami inundations in the past including during the 1931 Ms7

  14. Development of precision acoustic transponders for GPS/Acoustic observation on the deep seafloor near the Japan Trench axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H.; Kido, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has let most of researchers recognize the importance of seafloor geodetic observation, especially near the trench axis. Iinuma et al. (2012a) estimated the coseismic slip distribution combining onshore GPS data with the seafloor geodetic data. Their results reveal that a huge (> 50 m) slip occurred in a small area (about 40 km in width and 120 km in length) near the Japan Trench and generated the huge tsunami. After the Tohoku-oki earthquake, seismic coupling near the trench axis has become a key to understand giant earthquakes in subduction zones, and it is GPS/Acoustic (GPS/A) repeated seafloor positioning that can give an observational constraint to it. Observation of postseimic deformation is another and urgent task required in the Japan Trench. Seafloor geodetic observation indicates posteseimic deformation near the Japan Trench axis in the north and south of the huge slip area (Iinuma et al., 2012b). The result is clearly different from that of onshore GPS observation. Postseismic deformation is estimated to be a key observation that can discriminate proper models from several ones that can explain the occurrence of the mega thrust. Tohoku University plans to deploy extensive GPS/A observation array along the Japan Trench in 2012 with a fund from MEXT, Japan, to cope with these requests (Kido et al., in this meeting). Precision acoustic transponders have newly been developed for the array to enable the following three requests: (1) observation on the deep seafloor, (2) compatibility among three institutions in Japan, and (3) observation for ten years. The first is the observation on the deep seafloor near the trench. While the Japan Trench axis is deeper than 7000 m, the existing GPS/A sites along the Japan Trench have remained on the seafloor shallower than 2500 m except the one nearest to the trench, where we observed coseismic slip of 31 m (Kido et al., 2011). We deployed 4 units of the new transponders supplied by Kaiyo

  15. Radiation-enhanced short channel effects due to multi-dimensional influence from charge at trench isolation oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, G.U.; Khare, P.S.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Massengill, L.W.; Galloway, K.F.

    1999-12-01

    Radiation enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) was experimentally observed and verified by 3-D simulations for submicron devices with trench isolation oxides. Submicron MOSFETs with shallow trench isolation were exposed to total-ionizing-dose radiation. Prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal current-voltage characteristics, with no significant short-channel effects for as-drawn gate lengths of 0.4 {micro}m. Following irradiation, the off-state leakage current increased significantly for total doses above about 650 krad(SiO{sub 2}). In addition, the irradiated devices exhibited DIBL that increased the drain current by 5--10x for a gate length of 0.4 {micro}m (the nominal minimum gate length for this process) and much more for slightly shorter devices (0.35 {micro}m). The increase in the off-state leakage current and the accompanying DIBL are shown to be associated with a parasitic field-effect transistor that is present at the edge of the shallow trench. Three-dimensional simulations are used to illustrate the effect. Simulations show that trapped charge at the trench sidewalls enhance the DIBL by depleting the edges of the channel. Radiation-induced charge may decrease the effectiveness of short-channel engineering.

  16. The distribution of benthic biomass in hadal trenches: A modelling approach to investigate the effect of vertical and lateral organic matter transport to the seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichino, Matteo C.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, Alan; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Martin, Adrian P.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Shank, Timothy M.; Yancey, Paul H.; Ruhl, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    Most of our knowledge about deep-sea habitats is limited to bathyal (200-3000 m) and abyssal depths (3000-6000 m), while relatively little is known about the hadal zone (6000-11,000 m). The basic paradigm for the distribution of deep seafloor biomass suggests that the reduction in biomass and average body size of benthic animals along depth gradients is mainly related to surface productivity and remineralisation of sinking particulate organic carbon with depth. However, there is evidence that this pattern is somewhat reversed in hadal trenches by the funnelling of organic sediments, which would result in increased food availability along the axis of the trenches and towards their deeper regions. Therefore, despite the extreme hydrostatic pressure and remoteness from the pelagic food supply, it is hypothesized that biomass can increase with depth in hadal trenches. We developed a numerical model of gravitational lateral sediment transport along the seafloor as a function of slope, using the Kermadec Trench, near New Zealand, as a test environment. We propose that local topography (at a scale of tens of kilometres) and trench shape can be used to provide useful estimates of local accumulation of food and, therefore, patterns of benthic biomass. Orientation and steepness of local slopes are the drivers of organic sediment accumulation in the model, which result in higher biomass along the axis of the trench, especially in the deepest spots, and lower biomass on the slopes, from which most sediment is removed. The model outputs for the Kermadec Trench are in agreement with observations suggesting the occurrence of a funnelling effect and substantial spatial variability in biomass inside a trench. Further trench surveys will be needed to determine the degree to which seafloor currents are important compared with the gravity-driven transport modelled here. These outputs can also benefit future hadal investigations by highlighting areas of potential biological interest

  17. Human astrocytic grid networks patterned in parylene-C inlayed SiO2 trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M D; Raos, B J; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Graham, E S; Unsworth, C P

    2016-10-01

    Recent literature suggests that glia, and in particular astrocytes, should be studied as organised networks which communicate through gap junctions. Astrocytes, however, adhere to most surfaces and are highly mobile cells. In order to study, such organised networks effectively in vitro it is necessary to influence them to pattern to certain substrates whilst being repelled from others and to immobilise the astrocytes sufficiently such that they do not continue to migrate further whilst under study. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time how it is possible to facilitate the study of organised patterned human astrocytic networks using hNT astrocytes in a SiO2 trench grid network that is inlayed with the biocompatible material, parylene-C. We demonstrate how the immobilisation of astrocytes lies in the depth of the SiO2 trench, determining an optimum trench depth and that the optimum patterning of astrocytes is a consequence of the parylene-C inlay and the grid node spacing. We demonstrate high fidelity of the astrocytic networks and demonstrate that functionality of the hNT astrocytes through ATP evoked calcium signalling is also dependent on the grid node spacing. Finally, we demonstrate that the location of the nuclei on the grid nodes is also a function of the grid node spacing. The significance of this work, is to describe a suitable platform to facilitate the study of hNT astrocytes from the single cell level to the network level to improve knowledge and understanding of how communication links to spatial organisation at these higher order scales and trigger in vitro research further in this area with clinical applications in the area of epilepsy, stroke and focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:27521614

  18. Imaging trench-line disruptions: Swath mapping of subduction zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake, and during the 2005 Sumatra earthquake is able to image the exact trench line, west of the Andaman Island. The multibeam bathymetry, gravity and fractal studies of about twenty-five thousand square kilometres off...

  19. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: cask-in-trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a description of the Cask-in-Trench Storage Concept which meets a specified set of requirements; an estimate of the costs of construction, operation and decommissioning of the concept; the costs required to expand the facility throughput and storage capability; and the life cycle costs of the facility. 22 figures, 34 tables

  20. Nature and Architecture of the Sedimentary Deposits in the Trench of the Ecuadorian Subduction Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miguel; Proust, Jean-Noel; Michaud, Francois; Pouderoux, Hugo; Ratzov, Gueorgui

    2016-04-01

    The active margin of Ecuador is characterized by strong tectonic erosion that contributes to the formation of a deep trench filled by a complex suite of sedimentary facies. Gravity flow sedimentation is ubiquitous along the margin and facies range from laterally continuous m-thick mass transport deposits to isolated cm-thick turbidites intercalated with hemipelagite and ash layers. However, the nature and architecture of those deposits remain equivocal. This study presents the interpretation of detailed bathymetry, high-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores recently acquired along the 600 km-long Ecuadorian margin (ATACAMES campaign onboard the R/V L'Atalante, 2012). The margin comprises three morphological segments: (1) the central segment marked by the subduction of the Carnegie Ridge, which induced a narrow (10-30 km wide) and relatively shallow trench (3100-3700 m deep), a steep and gullied continental slope with no canyon and a 20-60 km wide shelf characterized by active subsidence, (2) the northern segment characterized by a wider (~100 km) and deeper (3800-4000 m) trench, a gentler gullied continental slope and similar shelf settings (10-50 km wide), (3) the southern segment presents a wide (20-60 km) and deep (4000-4700 m) trench, a starved continental slope with well-defined canyon systems and a wide subsiding shelf (50-100 km wide). The sedimentary dynamics along the margin is evaluated by the analysis of 15 sediment cores. High-resolution visual description of the cores, X-Ray imagery and the measurement of petrophysical properties (gamma density, magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity) led to the identification of 6 sedimentary facies that characterize 6 sedimentary processes: Turbidite beds (turbidity currents), Hemipelagites (continuous marine sedimentation), Tephras (airfall ash layers consecutive to volcanic eruptions), Debris flow deposits (cohesive debris flows), Megaturbidite/Homogenite (large-scale and/or hybrid gravity flows), Mass

  1. Ultra-low specific on-resistance SOI double-gate trench-type MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianfei, Lei; Xiaorong, Luo; Rui, Ge; Xi, Chen; Yuangang, Wang; Guoliang, Yao; Yongheng, Jiang; Bo, Zhang; Zhaoji, Li

    2011-10-01

    An ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron, sp) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) double-gate trench-type MOSFET (DG trench MOSFET) is proposed. The MOSFET features double gates and an oxide trench: the oxide trench is in the drift region, one trench gate is inset in the oxide trench and one trench gate is extended into the buried oxide. Firstly, the double gates reduce Ron, sp by forming dual conduction channels. Secondly, the oxide trench not only folds the drift region, but also modulates the electric field, thereby reducing device pitch and increasing the breakdown voltage (BV). ABV of 93 V and a Ron, sp of 51.8 mΩ·mm2 is obtained for a DG trench MOSFET with a 3 μm half-cell pitch. Compared with a single-gate SOI MOSFET (SG MOSFET) and a single-gate SOI MOSFET with an oxide trench (SG trench MOSFET), the Ron, sp of the DG trench MOSFET decreases by 63.3% and 33.8% at the same BV, respectively.

  2. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  3. Study of Paleoearthquakes by Excavation of Grouped Trenches on the Zemuhe Fault in Daqingliangzi, Xichang, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Qinjian; Ren Zhikun; Zhang Junlong

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainties are common in the dating of paleoearthquakes. To improve the credibility of the dating of paleoearthquakes, analysis was done on fault activity, sedimentary environment and seismo-geomorphology to investigate paleoearthquakes along the Zemuhe active fault zone. Grouped trenches were excavated near Daqingliangzi, which revealed three palaeoearthquake events aged 160a, 3100a and 5500a~8900a, respectively, including recurrence intervals of about 3000a. Sedimentary processes related to strike-slip fault type earthquakes were discussed, and a sedimentary model was put forward for strike-slip faults at hillsides where drumlin and reverse scarp developed.

  4. Ultracompact polarization converter with a dual subwavelength trench built in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Aitor V; Calvo, María L; Cheben, Pavel; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Schmid, Jens H; Ramos, Carlos Alonso; Fernandez, Iñigo Molina; Lapointe, Jean; Vachon, Martin; Janz, Siegfried; Xu, Dan-Xia

    2012-02-01

    The design and fabrication of an ultracompact silicon-on-insulator polarization converter is reported. The polarization conversion with an extinction ratio of 16 dB is achieved for a conversion length of only 10 μm. Polarization rotation is achieved by inducing a vertical asymmetry by forming in the waveguide core two subwavelength trenches of different depths. By taking advantage of the calibrated reactive ion etch lag, the two depths are implemented using a single mask and etching process. The measured converter loss is -0.7 dB and the 3 dB bandwidth is 26 nm. PMID:22297354

  5. DLC coating on a micro-trench by bipolar PBII and D and analysis of plasma behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bipolar plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (bipolar PBII and D) has been recognized as a promising technique for coating deposition on complex three-dimensional targets. As the target is fully immersed in the plasma throughout the process, the plasma sheath can be formed with quite high conformability around the target. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating was deposited on a micro-trench pattern by using bipolar PBII and D, and the structure of the DLC film across the overall surface region of the trench was examined by making use of their corresponding Raman spectra. The two types of negative high voltage pulses were applied to the targets for comparison: −0.5 and −15 kV. The scale of the micro-trench used in the study is much smaller than that of the plasma sheath produced under these negative voltages (about 1 cm and 14 cm for −0.5 kV and −15 kV, respectively). The plasma behaviour (i.e., ion flux, impact angle and energy) in the surrounding of the micro-trench was calculated with the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision method (PIC-MCCM). As a result, DLC film was successfully coated on the overall surface of the trench. When the applied negative voltage was −0.5 kV, the structure of DLC film coated on the sidewall of the trench became a more polymer-like carbon (PLC) than those of the top and bottom surfaces. This, as indicated by the simulation results, is because the ions, which strike the sidewall, tend to have less incident energy. Whereas in the case of −15 kV, the DLC film on the sidewall was a more graphite-like carbon (GLC) film, despite its smaller incident ion energy in comparison to those of the top and bottom surfaces. This phenomenon is attributed to the sputtering effect from the bottom surface of the trench, as evidenced by the plasma simulation. (paper)

  6. Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on vertical Si{110} sidewalls formed on trench-etched Si(001) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jarod C.; Shen, Haoting; Yuwen, Yu; Wang, Ke; Mayer, Theresa S.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-07-01

    A maskless Si trench structure was developed to integrate crystallographically non-polar GaN microstructures with semi-polar facets on Si(001). GaN "fins" were preferentially grown by MOCVD on Si{110} trench sidewalls formed by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of Si(001) such that GaN(0001)//Si{110} and GaN(10-10)//Si(001), resulting in a non-polar crystal structure with respect to the Si(001) substrate surface. No masking layer was required to prevent GaN growth on the Si(001) top surface of the trenches, instead, it was found that GaN nucleated preferentially on the Si{110} trench sidewalls. GaN was also observed to nucleate at the top corner of the trenches due to Si etching and exposure of high-index Si facets during the pre-growth H2 anneal. This undesired GaN nucleation was successfully suppressed by reducing the H2 anneal time and/or increasing the growth temperature and decreasing the precursor V/III to enhance Ga-adatom diffusion. Cross-sectional TEM studies confirmed that the GaN fins were crystallographically non-polar with respect to the Si(001) substrate surface and were bounded by semi-polar and non-polar facets. The reported Si fabrication and GaN growth process shows promise for the integration of non-polar and semi-polar GaN microstructures on industry standard Si(001) substrates.

  7. Some interactive factors affecting trench-cover integrity on low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes important mechanisms by which radionuclide can be transported from low-level waste disposal sites into biological pathways, discuss interactions of abiotic and biotic processes, and recommends environmental characteristics that should be measured to design sites that minimize this transport. Past experience at shallow land burial sites for low-level radioactive wastes suggest that occurrences of waste exposure and radionuclide transport are often related to inadequate trench cover designs. Meeting performance standards at low-level waste sites can only be achieved by recognizing that physical, chemical, and biological processes operating on and in a trench cover profile are highly interactive. Failure to do so can lead to improper design criteria and subsequent remedial action procedures that can adversely affect site stability. Based upon field experiments and computer modeling, recommendations are made on site characteristics that require measurement in order to design systems that reduce surface runoff and erosion, manage soil moisture and biota in the cover profile to maximize evapotranspiration and minimize percolation, and place bounds on the intrusion potential of plants and animals into the waste material. Major unresolved problems include developing probabilistic approaches that include climatic variability, improved knowledge of soil-water-plant-erosion relationships, development of practical vegetation establishment and maintenance procedures, prediction and quantification of site potential and plant succession, and understanding the interaction of processes occurring on and in the cover profile with deeper subsurface processes

  8. Disruption of Broca's Area Alters Higher-order Chunking Processing during Perceptual Sequence Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, Andrea; Solopchuk, Oleg; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Van Bever, Violette; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Because Broca's area is known to be involved in many cognitive functions, including language, music, and action processing, several attempts have been made to propose a unifying theory of its role that emphasizes a possible contribution to syntactic processing. Recently, we have postulated that Broca's area might be involved in higher-order chunk processing during implicit learning of a motor sequence. Chunking is an information-processing mechanism that consists of grouping consecutive items in a sequence and is likely to be involved in all of the aforementioned cognitive processes. Demonstrating a contribution of Broca's area to chunking during the learning of a nonmotor sequence that does not involve language could shed new light on its function. To address this issue, we used offline MRI-guided TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the activity of either the posterior part of Broca's area (left Brodmann's area [BA] 44) or a control site just before participants learned a perceptual sequence structured in distinct hierarchical levels. We found that disruption of the left BA 44 increased the processing time of stimuli representing the boundaries of higher-order chunks and modified the chunking strategy. The current results highlight the possible role of the left BA 44 in building up effector-independent representations of higher-order events in structured sequences. This might clarify the contribution of Broca's area in processing hierarchical structures, a key mechanism in many cognitive functions, such as language and composite actions. PMID:26765778

  9. Summary of remedial investigations at the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches (316-3), 300-FF-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedial investigations at the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches (316-3) in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site were conducted as part of the 300-FF-1 operable unit Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) in accordance with the approved RI work plan. During the RI, the southwestern boundary of the 300-FF-1 operable unit was modified by all signatories to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which shifted the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches to the 300-FF-3 operable unit. As a consequence, the RI results from these waste management units were not included in the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation Report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. As a results of recent Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the 300-FF-2 operable unit now consists of the remaining 300 Area operable units within the 300 Area National Priorities List (NPL), which includes the former 300-FF-3 operable unit. Therefore, this document summarizes the RI results from the 307 retention basins and 307 trenches in the 300-FF-2 operable unit. Analysis and evaluation of these results well be included in the 300-FF-2 RI report

  10. Low-level nuclear waste shallow land burial trench isolation. Final report, October 1981-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report on a three year study to evaluate trench cap designs, trench construction and trench loading by accelerating the creation of void space to simulate waste degradation in order to apply stress conditions on the trench in a relatively short period of time. Eight trenches were initially constructed and instrumented, four in a semi-arid region and four in a more humid mountainous region. The concepts being tested were the ''soil arch'' and the ''soil slab'' in trench cap designs. After the first year the semi-arid site was abandoned due to cap failures. The humid site was continued to be monitored. A new trench incorporating an improved soil slab design with a wick was constructed at the location of the only failed trench at that time, at the humid site. As the result of these experiments the following conclusions have been reached: (1) Controlled compaction of backfill soils to ASTM D698 standards is not sufficient to mitigate surface subsidence in the long term. (2) Single sheet geotextile reinforcement is not adequate reinforcement for a trench cap in the shallow land burial mode. (3) A geotextile wrapped soil slab will attenuate the movement of surface subsidence and reduce surface water infiltration. (4) A steel-reinforced soil-cement slab has maintained its stability and appears to meet the requirements necessary for long term stability. (5) If the crown and cap remain stable so does the trench. Movement of water through the trench sidewalls is small and doesn't pond. (6) Aliphatic tracers performed well and dye type of tracers poorly in field use. (7) In general, tracers are feasible and effective as a trench monitoring tool. (8) Narrow designed trenches provide for improved trench cap stability. This report recommends a design for an enhanced isolation disposal trench providing improved monitoring capabilities

  11. Spatio-temporal Variations of Characteristic Repeating Earthquake Sequences along the Middle America Trench in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, L. A.; Taira, T.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Santoyo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Repeating earthquake sequences are sets of events that are thought to rupture the same area on the plate interface and thus provide nearly identical waveforms. We systematically analyzed seismic records from 2001 through 2014 to identify repeating earthquakes with highly correlated waveforms occurring along the subduction zone of the Cocos plate. Using the correlation coefficient (cc) and spectral coherency (coh) of the vertical components as selection criteria, we found a set of 214 sequences whose waveforms exceed cc≥95% and coh≥95%. Spatial clustering along the trench shows large variations in repeating earthquakes activity. Particularly, the rupture zone of the M8.1, 1985 earthquake shows an almost absence of characteristic repeating earthquakes, whereas the Guerrero Gap zone and the segment of the trench close to the Guerrero-Oaxaca border shows a significantly larger number of repeating earthquakes sequences. Furthermore, temporal variations associated to stress changes due to major shows episodes of unlocking and healing of the interface. Understanding the different components that control the location and recurrence time of characteristic repeating sequences is a key factor to pinpoint areas where large megathrust earthquakes may nucleate and consequently to improve the seismic hazard assessment.

  12. Sediment velocities from sonobuoys: Bengal Fan, Sunda Trench, Andaman Basin, and Nicobar Fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, E.L.; Bachman, R.T.; Curray, J.R.; Moore, D.G.

    1977-07-10

    New measurements of interval compressional wave velocities were made in the first sediment layer using the sonobuoy technique during two expeditions in the Bay of Bengal, in the Andaman Sea, and over the Nicobar Fan and Sunda Trench. Sediment interval velocities from these areas were added to those previously reported, and revised diagrams and regression equations of instantaneous and mean velocity versus one-way travel time are furnished for four areas of the Bengal Fan, and for the Anadman Basin, Nicobar Fan, Sunda Trench. The velocity gradients directly below the sea floor were used to separate the Bengal Fan into four geoacoustic provinces. In the north and west the velocity gradients are 0.86 and 1.28 s/sup -1/, respectively, whereas in the central part of the fan the gradient is 1.87 s/sup -1/. These variations indicate lesser increases of velocity with depth in the sea floor in the north and west, and they are probably due to more rapid deposition, less consolidation, and less lithification near the riverine source areas of the sediments. The near-surface velocity gradients in the other areas are the Andaman Basin, 1.53 s/sup -1/, the Nicobar Fan 1.63 s/sup -1/, and the Sunda Trench, 1.41 s/sup -1/. The linear velocity gradients (from the sediment surface to a given travel time) in 17 areas of the Indian Ocean, Pacific area, Atlantic Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico were averaged at each 0.1 s from 0 to 0.5 s of one-way travel time. These averaged gradients ranged from 1.32 s/sup -1/ at t=0 to 0.76 s/sup -1/ at t=0.5 s. The regression equation for the velocity gradients a, in s/sup -1/, as a function of one-way travel time t, in seconds, is a=1.316-1.117t (for use from t=0 to 0.5 s). These average velocity gradients can be used with sediment surface velocities and one-way travel times (measured from reflection records) to compute sediment layer thickness in areas of turbidites lacking interval velocity measurements in the first sediment layer.

  13. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing

  14. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing.

  15. Geophysical investigation of the 116-B-11 retention basin, 116-B-1 liquid waste disposal trench, and 116-B-13 sludge trench, 100-BC-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of geophysical investigations and data integration conducted for the 116-B-1 liquid waste disposal trench, the 116-B-11 retention basin, and the 116-B-13 sludge trench, which are all located at the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit (Figure 1). The objectives of this investigation include the following: Map the extent of 116-B-1 trench and any anomalous debris/material that may have been buried in it; Locate and accurately map the walls and pipelines associated with the 116-B-11 retention basin; and Locate and map the 116-B-13 sludge trench

  16. Timing of the saprolitisation processes in the sediments of the Ardenne area (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dating and the timing of the paleo-weathering processes are essential to predict the stability of the host-rocks for radioactive waste-disposal. This work deals with the mechanisms and the timing of the saprolitisation on the mature sedimentary potential host-rocks of the Haute-Lesse area (Ardenne, Belgium). In this area, the alternations of Lochkovian shales and sandstones experienced the Hercynian tectonic activity and were later affected by saprolitisation processes. (authors)

  17. Timing of the saprolitisation processes in the sediments of the Ardenne area (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yans, J.; Dupuis, Ch. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium); Perruchotz, A. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Geochimie des roches sedimentaires, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    The dating and the timing of the paleo-weathering processes are essential to predict the stability of the host-rocks for radioactive waste-disposal. This work deals with the mechanisms and the timing of the saprolitisation on the mature sedimentary potential host-rocks of the Haute-Lesse area (Ardenne, Belgium). In this area, the alternations of Lochkovian shales and sandstones experienced the Hercynian tectonic activity and were later affected by saprolitisation processes. (authors)

  18. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  19. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. ► Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. ► We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. ► Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. ► The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m2/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country’s total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1–3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with

  20. Precision evaluation for intensive GPS acoustic measurements along Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Osada, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Yasuda, K.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Tohoku-oki earthquake in 2011, researchers recognized the importance of the state of inter-plate coupling close to the trench for giant earthquakes, in where seafloor geodetic surveys were few or not available. To overcome this limitation, we have developed GPS/acoustic instrument for greater depth up to 6000m, which can cover the region close to the trench for most subduction zones. MEXT, Japan promotes to construct a network of GPS/acoustic survey sites along the Japan trench to elucidate post-seismic behavior after the giant earthquake. In 2012, research group in Tohoku and Nagoya Universities constructed 20 new survey sites along the Japan trench and started their initial positioning. Three to six transponders were installed for each site, which were 86 transponders in total. The network covers large portion of the Japan trench, mainly along the deep land-side of the trench, covering the region of expected significant afterslip as well as of the large coseismic slip. In this year second phase surveys are planned to detect displacement of roughly 1-yesr since the last survey. These are the first intensive surveys that we have never been experienced, and with new survey style. Therefore, in advance to the second phase survey, we summarize the first phase survey in 2012 in the presentation. As one of the most important key to obtain precise positioning of seafloor transponders is how to estimate horizontal variation of sound speed in ocean, which are neglected in the past analysis. For this purpose, some of the sites consist of six transponders, with which such variation can be potentially estimated. For this context, in the second phase surveys, we are going to introduce automatic surface vehicle to enable simultaneous measurement from two points from sea surface, which will provide information of the horizontal variation in sound speed even for three or four transponders. In addition we have made both moving and stationary surveys, in which we can

  1. THE CONTEXT OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN URBAN AREA OF PIATRA-NEAMȚ CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA-ELENA ROȘU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The context of the geomorphological processes in urban area of Ppiatra-Neamț city. The paper approches the issue induced by the geomorphological processes in the development and planning of Piatra-Neamț city. The methodology used for this study has implied the identification of the slope`s geomorphological processes: rock fallings and landslides produced due to the clay bedrock, precipitation`s water infiltration, deforestation and other human interventions. The identification of these processes was followed by their clasification and inventory and was continued with the mapping process of the affected areas from the territory, such as: southern and western sides of Cozla Hill, the south-western side of Pietricica Hill, Bâtca Doamnei Hill, Humăriei Hill and Vulpea Hill. The geomorphological processes from the study area induce restriction in the development and planning of the city through their associated risks. Furthermore is necesary to search a new methodology to approach the risks induces by the geomorphological processes and this shall imply predictibility, control, risk studies and preservation of the affected areas. The given study is practicaly useful in identifying the development measures for the urban areas by being part of the territorial planning and urban studies.

  2. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  3. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O S

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  4. Tsunami Numerical Simulation for Hypothetical Giant or Great Earthquakes along the Izu-Bonin Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T.; Ishibashi, K.; Satake, K.

    2013-12-01

    . Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with Corioli's force (Satake, 1995, PAGEOPH) in the area of 130 - 145°E and 25 - 37°N. The 15-seconds gridded bathymetry data are used. The tsunami propagations for eight hours since the faulting of the various fault models were computed. As a result, large tsunamis from assumed giant/great both interplate and outer-rise earthquakes reach the Ryukyu Islands' coasts and the Pacific coasts of Kyushu, Shikoku and western Honshu west of Kanto. Therefore, the tsunami simulations support the Ishibashi and Harada's hypothesis. At the time of writing, the best yet preliminary model to reproduce the 1605 tsunami heights is an outer-rise steep fault model which extends 26.5 - 29.0°N (300 km of length) and with 16.7 m of average slip (Mw 8.6). We will examine tsunami behavior in the Pacific Ocean from this fault model. To examine our results, field investigations of tsunami deposits in the Bonin Islands and discussions on plate dynamics and seismogenic characteristics along the Izu-Bonin trench are necessary.

  5. Geophysical investigation of the 116-H-1 liquid waste disposal trench, 100-HR-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geophysical investigation and data integration were conducted for the 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, which is located in the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench is also known as the 107-H Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, the 107-H Rupture Effluent Trench, and the 107-H Trench (Deford and Einan 1995). The trench was primarily used to hold effluent from the 107-H Retention Basin that had become radioactive from contact with ruptured fuel elements. The effluent may include debris from the ruptured fuel elements (Koop 1964). The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench was also used to hold water and sludge from the 107-H Retention Basin during the basin's deactivation in 1965

  6. Phase-change memory technology with self-aligned μTrench cell architecture for 90 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovano, A.; Pellizzer, F.; Tortorelli, I.; Riganó, A.; Harrigan, R.; Magistretti, M.; Petruzza, P.; Varesi, E.; Redaelli, A.; Erbetta, D.; Marangon, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Fackenthal, R.; Atwood, G.; Bez, R.

    2008-09-01

    A novel self-aligned μTrench-based cell architecture for phase change memory (PCM) process is presented. The low programming current and the good dimensional control of the sub-lithographic features achieved with the μTrench structure are combined with a self-aligned patterning strategy that simplify the integration process in term of alignment tolerances and of number of critical masks. The proposed architecture has been integrated in a 90 nm 128 Mb vehicle based on a pnp bipolar junction transistor for the array selection. The good active and leakage currents achieved by the purposely optimized selecting transistors combined with programming currents of 300 μA of the storage element and good distributions measured on the 128 Mb array demonstrate the suitability of the proposed architecture for the production of high-density PCM arrays at 90 nm and beyond.

  7. Mapping cortical areas associated with Chinese word processing with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the cortical areas engaged during Chinese word processing with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to examine the reliability and reproducibility of fMRI for localization of functional areas in the human brain. Methods: fMRI data were collected on 8 young, right-handed, native Chinese speakers during performance of Chinese synonym and homophone judgement tasks on 2 different clinical MRI systems (1.5 T GE Signa Horizon and 1.5 T Siemens Vision). A cross correlation analysis was used to statistically generate the activation map. Results: Broca's area, Wernicke's area, bilateral extrastriate, and ventral temporal cortex were significantly activated during both synonym and homophone tasks. There was essentially no difference between results acquired on 2 different MRI systems. Conclusion: fMRI is feasible for localizing cortical areas critical for Chinese language processing in the human brain. The results are reliable and well reproducible across different clinical MRI systems

  8. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  9. Process variations in surface nano geometries manufacture on large area substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido;

    2014-01-01

    The need of transporting, treating and measuring increasingly smaller biomedical samples has pushed the integration of a far reaching number of nanofeatures over large substrates size in respect to the conventional processes working area windows. Dimensional stability of nano fabrication processes...

  10. Cattle overwintering area: a model site for studies on soil nitrogen (and carbon) transformation processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Hynšt, Jaroslav; Brůček, Petr; Čuhel, Jiří; Elhottová, Dana

    As: Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), 2006. s. 10. [COST Action 856, Ecological Aspects of Denitrification, with Emphasis on Agriculture . Workshop 10, Denitrification - systems biology approaches. 05.10.2006-07.10.2006, As] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : cattle overwintering area * soil nitrogen transformation processes * soil carbon transformation processes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Shallow trench isolation dimensions effects on leakage current and doping concentration of advanced p-n junction diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyai, A. [TMEC, 51/4 Moo 1, Wang-Takien District, Amphur Muang, Chachoengsao 24000 (Thailand)]. E-mail: amporn.poyai@nectec.or.th; Rittaporn, I. [TMEC, 51/4 Moo 1, Wang-Takien District, Amphur Muang, Chachoengsao 24000 (Thailand); Simoen, E. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Claeys, C. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); E.E. Department, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rooyackers, R. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-12-15

    This paper describes the impact of active area and shallow trench isolation (STI) width on the junction leakage current and doping concentration. A higher junction leakage current is found for a narrower active area and STI width. This is mainly due to a higher compressive stress. This compressive stress also affects the doping concentration near the junction. A higher compressive stress when reduce active area width causes a higher doping concentration while a higher compressive stress when reduce STI width results in a lower doping concentration.

  12. Filling Narrow Trenches by Iodine-Catalyzed CVD of Copper and Manganese on Manganese Nitride Barrier/Adhesion Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Roy Gerald; Lin, Youbo; Au, Yeung Billy

    2011-01-01

    We present a process for the void-free filling of sub-100 nm trenches with copper or copper-manganese alloy by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Conformally deposited manganese nitride serves as an underlayer that initially chemisorbs iodine. CVD of copper or copper-manganese alloy releases the adsorbed iodine atoms from the surface of the manganese nitride, allowing iodine to act as a surfactant catalyst floating on the surface of the growing copper layer. The iodine increases the growth rate...

  13. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroma, E.; Nordbaeck, N.; Engstroem, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    In October 2012, the geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site. The SE-NW trending, ca. 85 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island next to investigation trenches OL-TK18 and OL-TK4. The lithology in investigation trench OL-TK19 is of heterogeneous character, with rock type varying from veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss to pegmatitic granite, along with portions of mica gneiss and K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. In addition, inclusions of mica gneiss, quartz gneiss and skarn are encountered. The rocks have been subjected to a multiphase ductile deformation and the trench is situated in an area where the latest ductile deformation phase, D4 prevails. The investigation trench can be divided into three domains according to its dominant deformation phase and foliation; the eastern part of the trench is dominated by the D3 deformation phase whereas the middle and western parts are dominated by the D4 deformation phase. The S3 foliation has a more ENE-WSW oriented direction whereas the S4 is trending NE-SW. In addition to this difference in orientation, the different structural signature of these two deformation types is observed, the S3 foliation is defined by smaller scaled granitic leucosome veining whereas the S4 foliation is intensely sheared and have a schistose character. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 132 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency 1.53 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations, three fracture sets can be defined. The first set is vertical and NW-SE trending, second set strikes NE-SW with a moderate dip towards the SE and the third set is vertical and NE-SW trending. The median fracture length is 1.38 m and most fractures do not exceed 0.5 m in length, the longest measured fracture being 5.30 m in length. Fracture fillings are mostly

  14. Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area: Influence of the transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The troposphere is subject to continuous inputs, production and removal processes of ozone and its precursors from natural processes and human activities acting together within a very complex system. In order to assess the behaviour of background ozone in the Mediterranean area, a description of trends, seasonal and diurnal behaviours of free tropospheric ozone is provided. In the Mediterranean area and southern Europe the background tropospheric ozone concentration appears significantly affected by three main air mass transport processes: (i) transport of polluted air masses on regional and long-range scales, (ii) downward transport of stratospheric air masses, and (iii) transport of mineral dust from the Sahara desert. In this review of the literature of the last two decades, we present an overview of these phenomena, mainly monitored at high baseline mountain stations representative of background atmospheric conditions. - How background ozone is influenced by vertical and horizontal transport processes in the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area.

  15. Variation in deformation of the South Panama Accretionary Prism: Response to oblique subduction and trench sediment variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Mary E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    1990-08-01

    Migrated single-channel seismic lines and Sea-MARC II side scan and bathymetry data document an active accretionary prism along the obliquely convergent margin of south Panama, a region previously believed to be a transform margin. The eastern flank of the Coiba Ridge is being subducted in this region, creating the requisite geometry for along-strike variation in trench sediment thickness and type. The regional east dip of the downgoing plate causes the depth of the oceanic crust along the trench to drop approximately 1800 m from west to east. In the western region of the study area the incoming sedimentary section consists of approximately 600 m of pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. A wedge of trench turbidites that overlies the incoming hemipelagic sediments thickens from less than 100 m in the western region to more than 900 m in the eastern region of the study area. The eastward increase in sediment thickness correlates with the following changes in the accretionary prism: (1) decrease in initial surface slope; (2) broadening of the inner trench slope; (3) increase in thrust spacing; (4) steepening of frontal thrusts; and (5) fold development. Each of the responses reflects, in varying degrees, the increase in volume and changing physical properties of the accreted material, as well as the changing shear strength of the décollement. The increase in overburden pressure and compaction in the deeper sediments, together with the change in lithology from oceanic to trenchfill sediments, should produce an eastward increase in sediment shear strength both within the wedge and along its base. Because the décollement will tend to form where the pore fluid pressure-overburden ratio is at a maximum, the shear strength within the wedge should increase relative to basal shear strength. Decreased surface slopes will result from the increasing contrast in shear strength between the wedge and its base.

  16. THE CONTEXT OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN URBAN AREA OF PIATRA-NEAMȚ CITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTĂLINA-ELENA ROȘU; I. A. IRIMUȘ

    2014-01-01

    The context of the geomorphological processes in urban area of Ppiatra-Neamț city. The paper approches the issue induced by the geomorphological processes in the development and planning of Piatra-Neamț city. The methodology used for this study has implied the identification of the slope`s geomorphological processes: rock fallings and landslides produced due to the clay bedrock, precipitation`s water infiltration, deforestation and other human interventions. The identification of these proces...

  17. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF DESERTIFICATION PROCESSES OF THE SOIL COVER ON CARPATO-DANUBIANO-PONTIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Jigau

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects and consequences of desertification of a soil cover of Carpato-Danubiano-Pontic area become more and more appreciable. In this connection, this phenomenon became a subject of a number of the National and Regional programs directed on the item of information up to a minimum or complete prevention of these processes. At the same time, it is necessary to ascertain, that the efforts directed on it do not provide expected results, that is caused by a number of unsolved questions. To number last concern an estimation of the factors and identification of mechanisms of processes desertification. In the literature these processes are frequently reduced to increase of frequency of atmospheric droughts or to separate processes of degradation of efficiency of a soil cover On our sight is unreasonable the role separate of external processes (erosion, landslips etc. and is reduced a role of processes physical degradation of soils is exaggerated. In most cases role of physical degradation processes is reduced only to packing and destructurization. The processes of physical degradation result in appreciable reduction permeable and moisture capacity of soil, and at the end to reduction of stocks of productive moisture, is established. There of the essential changes undergo processes of humus formation and migration of water soluble substances. At the same time, intensity of a number of other chemical and biochemical processes and, on the contrary appreciably decreases, the intensity of physical processes is increased. All this gives to processes of pedogenesis some features characteristic for deserted areas.

  18. Review of corrective measures to stabilize subsidence in shallow-land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes is frequently followed by subsidence: the slumping, cave-in, or depression of the trench's surface. This report describes and evaluates the measures proposed for correcting subsidence, including roller compaction, grouting, explosives, surcharging, falling mass, pile driving, in situ incineration, and accelerated decomposition. Subsidence, which has occurred at all the major waste disposal sites, has two major causes: filling of packing voids (spaces between waste containers) and filling of interior voids (spaces within containers). Four additional mechanisms also contribute to subsidence: collapse of trench walls, chemical and biological degradation, soil consolidation, and shrink and swell phenomena. Corrective measures for subsidence are evaluated on three criteria: effectiveness, applicability, and cost. The evaluation indicates that one method, falling mass, is considered to be effective, widely applicable, and relatively low in cost, suggesting that this would be the most generally useful technique and would yield the greatest payoff from further development and field trials. There are many uncertainties associated with the cost and effectiveness of corrective measures which can best be resolved by experimental field demonstrations. Site-specific analyses for each disposal area are recommended, to determine which techniques are appropriate and to evaluate the overall desirability of applying corrective measures

  19. Quantitative Study of Seismogenic Potential Along Manila Trench: Effects of Scaborough Seamount Chain Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, D.; Ning, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.; Hsu, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern seismicity record along the Manila Trench shows only infrequent Mw7 earthquakes, the lack of great earthquakes may indicate the subduction fault is either aseismically slipping or is accumulating strain energy toward rapid release in a megathrust earthquake. We conduct numerical simulations of the plate coupling, earthquake nucleation and dynamic rupture propagation processes along the Manila subduction fault (15-19.5ºN), taking into consideration the effects of plate geometry (including subducted seamounts), fault strength, rate-state frictional properties and pore pressure variations. Specifically, we use the bathymetry to depict the outline of Manila trench along its strike, 2681 background seismicity (1970/02/13 to 2013/09/06) from Chinese Earthquake Network Center and 540 focal mechanism solutions (1976/01/01 to 2013/01/27) from Global CMT project to constrain the geometry of the subducting Sunda/Eurasian slab. The compilation of seismicity and focal mechanism indicates the plate dipping angle gradually changes from 28º (south of the Scaborough Seamount Chain) to 12º (north of it). This geometric anomaly may due to the subducted part of the seamount chain. Preliminary modeling results using gabbro gouge friction data show that the Scaborough Seamount Chain could be a barrier to earthquake rupture propagation. Only earthquakes larger than Mw7 can overcome the barrier to rupture the entire Manila trench. Smaller earthquakes would cease rupturing when it encounters the seamount chain. Moreover, we propose that Manila trench subduction zone has the potential of rupturing in a Mw8 megathrust earthquake, if the simulation period is long enough for an Mw8 earthquake cycle and dynamic rupture overcomes the subducted Scaborough Seamount Chain. Our model parameters will be further constrained by laboratory rock mechanics experiments conducted on IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea (SCS), drilling samples (work in progress at China Earthquake Administration

  20. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  1. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M; Tompson, Andrew F B; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-11

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes. PMID:19501933

  2. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, G; A. Dewulf; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and Policy Group This paper is an analysis of a participatory process to define a water management plan for the area between the Kromme Rijn and the Amsterdam-Rijn canal in The Netherlands. The waterboa...

  3. Combined wide-angle and multichannel seismic survey at an asperity of subduction earthquakes in the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Smith, A. J.; Sato, T.; Tsuru, T.; Fujie, G.; Ito, A.; Takahashi, N.; Suyehiro, K.; Kaneda, Y.; Hino, R.; Mochizuki, K.; Kasahara, J.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    Recent progress of seismic wave form inversion revealed overlapping asperities of large earthquakes in the Japan Trench, e.g., the 1994 Sanriku-Haruka-Oki earthquake (M=7.5) and 1968 Tokachi-Oki earthquake (M=7.9). It is also recognized that the epicenters (initial break) of both earthquakes are situated at the trench-ward edge of the asperities, and the aftershocks were observed only around the asperities. Investigating structural factor controlling these asperity and seismicity pattern is believed to provide important and fundamental information to the physics of earthquakes. In August, 2003, we acquired wide-angle and multichannel seismic data covering the entire asperity region. The purpose of this study is to image structures of the asperity, and investigate the structures affecting the distribution of the seismicity pattern. Part of MCS data was processed onboard. We made CDP stacks by applying multiple suppression and poststack time migration. From the migration section of the dip profile, we recognized several key structures related to a subduction process; e.g., 1) the top of subducted oceanic crust can be traced up to 80 km from the trench axis. This reflector is recognized at 10 s twt to 70 km from the axis, rising up to 9s at 75 km then again down to 10 s farther than 75 km, 2) from 30 to 50km and 70 to 75 km, a weak reflector which is parallel to the top of the oceanic crust is identified. This might be the base of subducted crust, 3) located 35 to 45 km from the trench axis are several sub-parallel reflectors at 1 s above the top of the oceanic crust. These sub-parallel reflectors are also recognized at a central part of a strike profile, however there reflectors are not clear at the northern and southern end of the profile.

  4. The Tsunami Risk of South-East Tasmania, Australia - the impact of the Puysegur Trench on greater Hobart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Edward; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    The coastline of South-East Tasmania in Australia has seen various tsunami events over the last couple of centuries, many of them with an ambiguous offspring. None of these tsunamis have caused a significant loss so far. Due to the absence of locally tsunami-triggering earthquake sources, the area of greater Hobart can be considered fairly safe at least in comparison to more exposed regions like New Zealand or Chile. Nevertheless, the Puysegur trench, about 1500 km East of Tasmania is considered to be capable of triggering earthquakes beyond magnitude 8.5. These events are rare yet possible and therefore a detailed study of the likely impact patterns of such earthquake scenarios has been undertaken. The seismic source characteristics of the Puysegur trench have been reviewed in detail to provide a selection of possible rupture scenarios, considering partial and full rupture of the trench. In addition, these results have been compared to those of other authors. The propagation and inundation patterns of the scenarios are compared to previous studies and the impact of varying seismic slip distribution has been investigated. Inundation is calculated using high-resolution elevation models for various locations in and around Hobart. Furthermore, inundation and average flow velocity data is used to compute the full range of socio-economic losses associated with the event set. This study provides a detailed tsunami risk assessment of South East Tasmania and indicates the hazard and risk variability with respect to varying slip distribution of the earthquake source.

  5. Assessment of the teaching-learning process in students of the health area: cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Moita Garcia Kawakame; Ana Maria Kazue Miyadahira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo evaluate the skills and knowledge of undergraduate students in the health area on cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers with the use of an automatic external defibrillator.METHODThe evaluation was performed in three different stages of the teaching-learning process. A theoretical and practical course was taught and the theoretical classes included demonstration. The evaluation was performed in three different stages of the teaching-learning process. Two instruments were applied ...

  6. A theoretical framework and classification of capability areas for business process maturity

    OpenAIRE

    A. VAN LOOY; M. DE BACKER; Poels, G.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly striving to excel by improving their way of working, or in other words, to obtain mature business processes. However, no consensus exists on the capability areas (or skills) needed to excel. Therefore, this study presents a theoretical framework to overcome this gap. It particularly draws on theories regarding the traditional business process lifecycle, which are supplemented by recognised organisation management theories. The comprehensiveness of the framework ...

  7. Using UAVs and digital image processing to quantify areas of soil and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A. A.; La Scalea, R. A.; Colturato, A. B.; Kawabata, C. L. O.; Furtado, E. L.; Castelo Branco, K. R. L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a very popular tool for remote sensing and crop monitoring. They are more easily deployed, cheaper and can obtain images with higher spatial-resolution than satellites. Some small, commercial UAVs can obtain images with spatial-resolution as low as 1.5cm per pixel. This opens up the range of possible remote sensing and monitoring applications. Moreover, they can cover large areas in very little time, such as 50 ha in about 20min, which makes UAVs the ideal tool for monitoring large farms and plantations. On the other hand, it is important to know precisely the area covered by farms in order to avoid invasion of other properties or preserved areas, and also to detect flaws in the plantation area. However, it is difficult to measure planted areas in some cases, such as Eucalyptus crops. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the use of UAV imagery for precise area measurement in Eucalyptus crops. We developed an image-processing algorithm to segment regions of soil, low biomass and high biomass and tested it on a Eucalyptus plantation in the city of Lenis Paulista -SP, Brazil. Results show that the area quantification is very accurate especially for bare soil regions and this method can be used to estimate areas in other scenarios.

  8. High Density Faraday Cup Array or Other Open Trench Structures and Method of Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Gilchrist, Kristin Hedgepath (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The detector array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charged particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from the collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. In the detector array, adjacent ones of the plurality of trenches are disposed in a staggered configuration relative to one another. The method forms in a substrate a plurality of trenches across a surface of the substrate such that adjacent ones of the trenches are in a staggered sequence relative to one another, forms in the plurality of trenches a plurality of collectors, and connects a plurality of electrodes respectively to the collectors.

  9. Dung beetle communities in coal mining areas in the process of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Zamprônio Bett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetles that are sensitive to environmental alterations may be used as indicator species to mark the recovery of degraded areas. This work aimed at registering and comparing the communities of Scarabaeinae located in areas with different periods of environmental recovery after being used for coal mining. This study was developed in Lauro Müller, Santa Catarina, and consisted of two areas in the process of recovery, one for one year and one for five years. Fifteen pitfall traps baited with human feces were placed in each area in order to attract the dung beetles. The counting, identification and measurement of body size and biomass of the specimens captured were carried out in the laboratory. Sampling sufficiency was verified and variables from both areas were compared using a t test. The recorded species were Canthon aff. chalybaeus, Canthon angularis, Canthon rutilans cyanescens, Deltochilum multicolor, Dichotomius sericeus, Eurysternus parallelus and Ontherus sulcator. A total of 35 individuals were captured, three in the one-year recovery area and 32 in the area under recovery for five years, C. rutilans cyanescens being the most abundant species (40.6%. All species collected were found in the five-years recovery area, whereas only C. aff. chalybaeus and D. multicolor were found in the one-year recovery area. Individuals sampled in the area with one year of recovery had an average size of 11.03 mm and average biomass of 0.051 g, whereas in the five-years recovery area the average size and the biomass of the dung beetles sampled was 12.25 mm and 0.093 g, respectively.

  10. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK9 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and associated granitic leucosome veining usually strike NE-SW and dip gently to the southeast (the mean dip/dip direction is 38/158 deg). The foliation gradually turns from NE-SW striking in the southern part of the trench to E-W striking in the northern part. No pre-D2B structures were identified in the OL-TK9. The leucosome veins show isoclinal D2 folds in places. During the third deformation phase (D3), the isoclinal F2 folds of the mica gneiss and the granite leucosome veins were refolded by F3 folding mainly producing small-scale, tight folds with fold axis moderately plunging towards east and rarely to the west. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were measured. Dip direction and dip, rock type, length, form, undulation, character, aperture, and infilling if present were recorded for each fracture. A total of 1197 fractures were measured including several fracture clusters (cluster = many identical fractures in a small area). The mean fracture density of the trench is 3.23 fractures/m. From the fracture orientation data, three different fracture sets were interpreted: Set (I) fractures dip gently to the south-southeast, set (II) fractures dip steeply to the east or west, and set (III) fractures dip moderately towards the north. Partly due to the width of the trench most fractures have trace length less than two metres. Most fractures (51,4 %) are open or partially open and 32.4 % of the fractures have infillings. Fracture infillings include chlorite, calcite, kaolinite, epidote, pyrite, illite, mica minerals, quartz, Fe-oxide (hematite), and soil. Several deformation zone intersections were observed in the investigation trench. Four Brittle Joint cluster Intersections (parallel to the foliation), one N-S striking Brittle Fault zone Intersection, one Semi-brittle Fault zone Intersection, and one N-S striking Ductile Shear zone Intersection intersect the trench. (orig.)

  11. The role of geophysical ERT method to evaluate the leakproofness of diapragm wall of deep foundation trenches on the example of the construction of retail and office complex in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacanowski Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of assessing the leakproofness of the bottom of a deep foundation trench, secured by cavity wall, using geophysical methods of electrical resistivity tomography. The study was conducted on a large construction project in Lublin, in a place where there are complicated soil-water conditions: the groundwater level is above the proposed depth of foundation trench, the subsoil is heterogeneous, and there are karsted and weathered carbonate sediments with confined aquifer below the bottom of the trench. A hydraulic fracture occurred at the bottom of the trench during the engineering works, which caused the water flow into the trench. In order to recognize the soil-water conditions the first stage of geophysical measurements of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT was made. The applied methodology allowed to determine the extent of the hydraulic fracture zone within the bottom of foundation trench. In order to assess the leakproofness of Diaphragm Wall the geophysical ERT measurements were repeated (stage 2 A clear reduction in the value of the electrical resistivity of soils in the area of hydraulic fracture was caused by clay injection. The results of ERT measurements are discussed and graphically presented.

  12. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764...

  13. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA §...

  14. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND §...

  15. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA §...

  16. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764...

  17. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764...

  18. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764...

  19. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA §...

  20. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN §...

  1. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE §...

  2. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS §...

  3. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON §...

  4. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Dewulf, A.; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and P

  5. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... specified in Executive Order 13132, Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999). This action does not..., Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). This...

  6. Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon-Nanotube Oscillator in Graphene Nanoribbon Trench

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunae; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Ki-Sub; Kwon, Oh-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/carbon-nanotube (CNT) hybrid material can be useful in energy storage and nanoelectronic technologies. Here we address the CNT-oscillator encapsulated in a graphene-nanoribbon (GNR) trench as a novel design, and investigate its properties via classical molecular dynamics simulations. Since the energy barrier was very low while the CNT was encapsulated in the GNR trench, the CNT absorbed on the GNR surface could easily be encapsulated in the GNR trench. MD simulations showed that the ...

  8. Effect of longwall face advance rate on spontaneous heating process in the gob area - CFD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleslav Taraba; Zdenek Michalec [University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    A commercial CFD software programme, FLUENT, was used to study the oxidation process of coal in the mined-out longwall (gob) area. A three-dimensional, single-phase model with a continuously advancing longwall face has been developed. For the model, the gob longwall area was designed on the basis of the actual longwall panel operating in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Mines (OKD, Czech Republic). The behaviour of the coal to oxygen was modelled using the results arising mainly from the former laboratory-scale experiments with Czech bituminous coals. Basically, the technique of pulse flow calorimetry and measurements at a continuous airflow reactor were applied during the laboratory investigations. In the contribution, the main focus was to understand the effect of the longwall face advancing speed on the oxidation heat production as well as evolution of the gases in the gob area. Simultaneously, the effect of coal crushing in the mined-out area on the spontaneous heating process was examined. Numerical simulations confirmed the existence of a 'favourable' zone for the onset and development of the spontaneous heating process in the gob area. The location and the maximal temperature reached in the 'favourable' zone were found to be significantly affected by the advancing rate of the coalface. The slower the advancing rate is, the higher the maximal temperature and smaller the depth of the 'favourable' zone in the gob area are. When the rate drops to a certain 'critical' value, spontaneous heating turns to flammable combustion of the coal. The value of the 'critical' advancing rate was confirmed to increase if the grain size of the coal left in the gob decreases. Numerical examinations of carbon monoxide concentrations then proved that small incidents of spontaneous heating could occur in the gob area that need not be detected in the airflow of the longwall tail gate. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucnal, P. R.; Santoro, M. A.; Fan, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit, by using optical processing, allows an increase in capacity of a CDMA LAN. An experiment is performed demonstrating the performance of an optical CDMA LAN, operating at 100 Mbd with three users.

  10. Process and balance assessment in lignite mining areas by multi-isotope approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-isotope approach using stable isotopes of various light elements offers possibilities to recognize chemical processes within the aquifers, interactions between ground and surface water, quantification of the balance of water or dissolved compounds in anthropogenic stressed landscapes. Especially in mining areas, the quality of ground- and surface water is one of the main problems during and after remediation measures. Caused by lowering of groundwater level, sulfide oxidation and consequently acidification of surface and groundwater systems are common processes. Successful remediation strategies require knowledge of the chemical and physical processes proceeding in dump sites, and of the groundwater flow dynamic

  11. Subsidence Sensitivity Study for Low-Level Waste in Slit Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated two global and two local subsidence scenarios for slit trenches to determine the effect on well concentrations for three long-lived radionuclides as compared to Performance Assessment (PA, McDowell-Boyer, et al, 2000) results. Global subsidence, where all trenches and the land between the trenches were assumed to subside equally, increased well concentrations by about 25 percent in the worst case analyzed. Local subsidence, where only part of a trench was assumed to subside, decreased peak well concentrations,indicating that some local subsidence could be beneficial

  12. 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and trench logging using terrestrial remote sensing and GPR – combining techniques towards an objective multiparametric interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schneiderwind

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two normal faults on the Island of Crete and mainland Greece were studied to create and test an innovative workflow to make palaeoseismic trench logging more objective, and visualise the sedimentary architecture within the trench wall in 3-D. This is achieved by combining classical palaeoseismic trenching techniques with multispectral approaches. A conventional trench log was firstly compared to results of iso cluster analysis of a true colour photomosaic representing the spectrum of visible light. Passive data collection disadvantages (e.g. illumination were addressed by complementing the dataset with active near-infrared backscatter signal image from t-LiDAR measurements. The multispectral analysis shows that distinct layers can be identified and it compares well with the conventional trench log. According to this, a distinction of adjacent stratigraphic units was enabled by their particular multispectral composition signature. Based on the trench log, a 3-D-interpretation of GPR data collected on the vertical trench wall was then possible. This is highly beneficial for measuring representative layer thicknesses, displacements and geometries at depth within the trench wall. Thus, misinterpretation due to cutting effects is minimised. Sedimentary feature geometries related to earthquake magnitude can be used to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard assessments. Therefore, this manuscript combines multiparametric approaches and shows: (i how a 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and logging can be accomplished by combining t-LiDAR and GRP techniques, and (ii how a multispectral digital analysis can offer additional advantages and a higher objectivity in the interpretation of palaeoseismic and stratigraphic information. The multispectral datasets are stored allowing unbiased input for future (re-investigations.

  13. Bioremediation process in impacted area of petroleum activities; Processos de biorremediacao em areas influenciadas por atividades petroliferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Trigueis, Jorge Alberto; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza; Celino, Joil Jose; Lima, Danusia Ferreira; Santana, Robson Carneiro [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The present work's objective is to test sampling methodologies applied on the bioremediation processes in situ, involving the establishment of sample replicates, specific laboratory procedures and its results, inedited on the referred technique. Agricultural fertilizers were used, NPK and OSMOCOTE, as biostimulants on mangroves substrates affected by petroleum activities. The tested methodology used on the experiment was based on the monitoring of this technology in aquarium with water from Sao Paulo's river and sediment contaminated by oil, realized in three steps (first pre-test, second pre-test and third pre-test) that happened between the months of August and November of 2007. The physical-chemical parameters were measured with portable devices carefully calibrated and the oil analyzed with gas chromatography. The saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) had an increase on the concentrations for some aquariums and these found results do not permit to confirm if the inhibition of the degradation of the saturated hydrocarbons are somehow related to the usage of the nutrients NPK or OSMOCOTE. The time interval applied on the procedure, the sampling methodology used and even the intrinsic heterogeneity of the mangrove substrate are in the evaluation stage with new tests in order to make better the technique delineation, inedited, utilized in the area. (author)

  14. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  15. Development of Observatories for the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Saruhashi, T.; Sawada, I.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Kano, Y.; Yamano, M.; Muraki, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Davis, E. E.; Sun, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and accompanying tsunami produced the largest slip ever recorded in an earthquake and devastated much of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. The IODP proposal for JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling project) planned to drill into the Tohoku subduction zone using the research ship Chikyu, measure the fault zone physical properties, recover fault zone material, and install an observatory to directly record the temperature anomaly caused by frictional slip during the earthquake. Considering the significant technical and operational challenges related to the great water depth of ~7,000 meters, and timing constraints, the observatory needed to be both robust and simple. After frequent discussions among scientists, engineers and operators, we decided to prepare two different types of observatories. 1. Autonomous MTL (Miniature Temperature Logger) observatory. The important temperature monitoring is accomplished by 55 MTLs attached to a string (Vectran rope) which is suspended inside a 4.5" casing in the borehole. The string latches at the top of the casing to allow retrieval using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kaiko operated by JAMSTEC. This observatory avoids risks associated with a thermistor cable and wellhead data logger, and increases reliability by applying proven technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this configuration allows flexibility in defining the final depth distribution of the temperature sensors. This is advantageous since information of the exact depth of the fault zone will be known only after drilling and logging. Also, the judicious placement of weak links along the string helps to minimize possible loss of the entire sensor string if it is clamped by post-seismic movements that deform the casing. 2. Telemetered PT (Pressure and Temperature) observatory. Based on the previous deployment experience of the NanTroSEIZE C0010 observatory, we prepared another system that enables long term monitoring and repeated ROV data

  16. Contact Area and Temperature of Same-Parameter Fractal Surfaces in Sliding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of fractal parameters for characterizing tribological properties of surfaces, some stable fractal surfaces, which possess the same fractal dimension, scale factor and root-mean-square deviation of surface topography, were synthesized, and then simulated using finite element analysis to calculate the maximum temperature and contact area during sliding process. It was found that for same-parameter fractal surfaces the maximum temperature and contact area fluctuated dramatically. Thus, the tribological properties of surfaces can not be characterized by some simple parameters.

  17. Process and device for imploding a micro-area by means of a fast liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention describes a process and a device for controlling a fast liner with hot plasma, in order to start or drive a structured micro-area to implode, in turn. In this way a natural pulse formation causes high implosion speeds for generating energy in the form of radiation, neutrons and/or alpha particles. By optimizing the extraordinarily powerful flow instability to heat the very dense plasma, the invention produces effective giving up of radiation energy to heat the plasma and to initiate the fast liner to implode the micro-area. (orig.)

  18. Key Biodiversity Areas in the Indo-Burma Hotspot: Process, Progress and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Tordoff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs provide geographic targets for the expansion of protected area coverage, and identify sites for urgent conservation action. Identification of KBAs in the Indo-Burma Hotspot was undertaken during 2003, for a region of analysis comprising Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma, Thailand and Vietnam, plus parts of southern China. The starting point was information on 282 Important Bird Areas identified by BirdLife International and collaborators. These data were then overlaid with point locality data on globally threatened mammals, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish and plants, with additional KBAs identified as required. Through this process, a total of 438 KBAs were identified, covering 258,085km2 or 11.5 percent of the region of analysis. Only 58 percent of the KBAs are wholly or partly included within protected areas, suggesting that there may be a need for further expansion of protected area networks, particularly in Myanmar and Vietnam. The criteria for KBA identification are triggered by 812 species, of which 23 are believed only to occur at a single KBA globally. The KBAs have proven to be a useful conservation priority setting tool in Indo-Burma, helping to guide investments by various donors and application of environmental safeguard policies by international financial institutions. There are fewer examples of KBAs being used to guide expansion of protected area systems in Indo-Burma. In large part, this is because the period of rapid expansion of protected areas in most hotspot countries predated the KBA identification process, and political support for further significant expansion is currently limited.

  19. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPPlat) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPPlat is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910 nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPPlat is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPPlat, whose influence on total BPPlat remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%

  20. The Incident in Trench A - Follow-up and Lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Olga Beltramello; Peter Jenni

    An incident happened on 12th October during the dismounting of the HF truck platform in Trench A in the ATLAS cavern. Nobody was injured or in direct danger to be hurt, thanks in particular to the vigilance of the lifting operation crew. However, there is ample matter to reflect upon, and to recall safety measures applicable at any time in the cavern. What happened? During the lifting operation of a lateral platform from the orange HF Truck, used for example for the calorimeter assembly, one of the ~7 m long pillars fell on the access stairs into the ATLAS detector (sector 13). The standard operation to dismount the platform consisted in first unbolting the platform from its support pillars and removing it. Then, after securing a given pillar with the crane, this pillar is unbolted from the floor and removed. By mistake, this pillar was not bolted onto the floor, and fell when the platform was removed. Nobody was present in the trench during the lifting operation and the fall of the pillar. The contractor in...

  1. Additional electric field in real trench MOS barrier Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    In real trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS diode) additional electric field (AEF) the whole is formed in the near contact region of the semiconductor and its propagation space is limited with the barrier metal and the metallic electrodes of MOS structures. Effective potential barrier height TMBS diode is formed via resulting electric field of superposition AEF and electric field of space charge region (SCR) semiconductor. The dependence of the resulting electric field intensity of the distance towards the inside the semiconductor is nonlinear and characterized by a peak at a certain distance from the interface. The thickness of the SCR in TMBS diode becomes equal to the trench depth. Force and energy parameters of the AEF, and thus resulting electric field in the SCR region, become dependent on the geometric design parameters TMBS diode. The forward I-V characteristic TMBS diode is described by the thermionic emission theory as in conventional flat Scottky diode, and in the reverse bias, current is virtually absent at initial voltage, appears abruptly at a certain critical voltage.

  2. Constraints on Subduction Zone Coupling along the Philippine and Manila Trenches based on GPS and Seismological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, M. W.; Johnson, K. M.; Nowicki, M. A. E.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Galgana, G.; Hsu, Y. J.; Yu, S. B.; Rau, R. J.; McCaffrey, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of two techniques to estimate the degree of coupling along the two major subduction zone boundaries that bound the Philippine Mobile Belt, the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench. Convergence along these plate margins accommodates about 100 mm/yr of oblique plate motion between the Philippine Sea and Sundaland plates. The coupling estimates are based on a recently acquired set of geodetic data from a dense nationwide network of continuous and campaign GPS sites in the Philippines. First, we use a kinematic, elastic block model (tdefnode; McCaffrey, 2009) that combines existing fault geometries, GPS velocities and focal mechanism solutions to solve for block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation. Secondly, we use a plate-block kinematic model described in Johnson (2013) to simultaneously estimate long-term fault slip rates, block motions and interseismic coupling on block-bounding faults. The best-fit model represents the Philippine Mobile Belt by 14 independently moving rigid tectonic blocks, separated by active faults and subduction zones. The model predicts rapid convergence along the Manila Trench, decreasing progressively southwards, from > 100 mm/yr in the north to less than 20 mm/yr in the south at the Mindoro Island collision zone. Persistent areas of high coupling, interpreted to be asperities, are observed along the Manila Trench slab interface, in central Luzon (16-18°N) and near its southern and northern terminations. Along the Philippine Trench, we observe ~50 mm/yr of oblique convergence, with high coupling observed at its central and southern segments. We identify the range of allowable coupling distributions and corresponding moment accumulation rates on the two subduction zones by conducting a suite of inversions in which the total moment accumulation rate on a selected fault is fixed. In these constrained moment inversions we test the range of possible solutions that meet criteria for minimum, best-fit, and

  3. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Hatchell, B.K. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD&E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD&E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions.

  4. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD ampersand E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions

  5. Development of wide area reaction system for Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previously developed numerical simulation method for the TFA-MOD process, which calculated the YBCO growth kinetics, gas element diffusion and gas flow, was applied to study the suitable gas flow mode for a multi-turning Reel-to-Reel tape conveyance system of a long YBCO coated conductors. The high YBCO production rate with uniform J c distribution among tape lines is desired in the system. It was found by the numerical simulation for the vertical gas flow onto the tape surface to realize the above demands even in a wider reaction area. We developed a new wide area reaction tube for the Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process according to the numerically designed gas flow configuration. The demand for the new tube was confirmed to be satisfied by experiments

  6. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Use of radio frequency bias in the large area plasma processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the large-area plasma processing system (LAPPS) scheme, rf bias can be used for either of two purposes: to provide energetic ion bombardment of a substrate, or to controllably raise the electron temperature (which is intrinsically very cool) to a desired value. The physics of rf bias in the LAPPS differs from the situation in conventional processing reactors for several reasons: (1) The plasma density adjacent to the substrate can be so high that the ion plasma frequency exceeds the microwave frequency. (2) Plasma transport to the substrate is across a magnetic field. (3) Ionization occurs only in a thin, well-defined planar sheet, and thus the volume occupied by plasma is very broad in two dimensions but thin in the third dimension. (4) The surface area of the substrate is comparable to that of the containment vessel. We discuss the modifications to the theory of rf bias that are needed to account for these factors in a LAPPS plasma

  8. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ''clean'' fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into ≤10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release ≥90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving

  9. Multi Agent System Based Process Control in Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events; a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper. Due to some unexpected failures of control strategy execution or the consequent unexpected disturbance, the power system will face...... more complex emergent situation than planned. The process control strategy will be applied to improve the effectiveness and reliability of MAS based control strategy. The supervisory agent will help control center in the high level to manage not only the regular control process against the estimated...

  10. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos V Rizzo-Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well.

  11. APD arrays and large-area APDs via a new planar process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, R; Vanderpuye, K; Grazioso, R; Myers, R; Entine, G

    2000-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed which allows the beveled-edge-type of avalanche photodiode (APD) to be made without the need for the artful bevel formation steps. This new process, applicable to both APD arrays and to discrete detectors, greatly simplifies manufacture and should lead to significant cost reduction for such photodetectors. This is achieved through a simple innovation that allows isolation around the device or array pixel to be brought into the plane of the surface of the silicon wafer, hence a planar process. A description of the new process is presented along with performance data for a variety of APD device and array configurations. APD array pixel gains in excess of 10 000 have been measured. Array pixel coincidence timing resolution of less than 5 ns has been demonstrated. An energy resolution of 6% for 662 keV gamma-rays using a CsI(T1) scintillator on a planar processed large-area APD has been recorded. Discrete APDs with active areas up to 13 cm sup 2 have been operated.

  12. Characterization of zeolite-trench-embedded microcantilevers with CMOS strain gauge for integrated gas sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shu; Denoual, Matthieu; Awala, Hussein; Grand, Julien; Mintova, Sveltana; Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Mita, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    Custom-synthesized zeolite is coated and fixed into microcantilevers with microtrenches of 1 to 5 µm width. Zeolite is a porous material that absorbs chemical substances; thus, it is expected to work as a sensitive chemical-sensing head. The total mass increases with gas absorption, and the cantilever resonance frequency decreases accordingly. In this paper, a thick zeolite cantilever sensor array system for high sensitivity and selectivity is proposed. The system is composed of an array of microcantilevers with silicon deep trenches. The cantilevers are integrated with CMOS-made polysilicon strain gauges for frequency response electrical measurement. The post-process fabrication of such an integrated array out of a foundry-made CMOS chip is successful. On the cantilevers, three types of custom zeolite (FAU-X, LTL, and MFI) are integrated by dip and heating methods. The preliminary measurement has shown a clear shift of resonance frequency by the chemical absorbance of ethanol gas.

  13. High-quality chalcogenide glass waveguide fabrication by hot melt smoothing and micro-trench filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanfen; Qi, Renduo; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-05-01

    We propose a fabrication method for chalcogenide glass (ChG) waveguides based on hot melt smoothing and micro-trench filling. ChGs has low melting points and good flowability. Experiments show that this method can realize high quality As2S7 glass waveguides with reverse ridge structures. The attenuations of the fundamental quasi-TE mode and quasi-TM mode are 0.1 and 0.9 dB/cm, respectively. This method avoids fabrication processes, such as photolithography, lift-off, and dry or wet etching that are directly applied to the ChG films. It provides a simple way to fabricate high quality ChG waveguides, which have great potential for applications in integrated nonlinear optical devices.

  14. Remote sensing parameterization of the processes of energy and water cycle over desertification areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Yaoming(马耀明); Tsukamoto; Osamu; Ishikawa; Hirohiko

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction over de-sertification area, it is indispensable to utilize of satellite remote sensing. Two scenes of LandsatTM were used to produce a set of maps of surface reflectance, MSAVI, vegetation coverage, sur-face temperature, net radiation, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux. Statisticalanalysis based on these maps revealed some quantitative significant land surface characteristics.Future developments of the method are also discussed.

  15. Solution processed large area field effect transistors from dielectrophoreticly aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Paul; Silbar, Eliot; Zayas, Yashira M.; Khondaker, Saiful I.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate solution processable large area field effect transistors (FETs) from aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Commercially available, surfactant free CNTs suspended in aqueous solution were aligned between source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis technique. After removing the metallic nanotubes using electrical breakdown, the devices displayed p-type behavior with on-off ratios up to ~ 2X10^4. The measured field effect mobilities are as high as 123 cm2/Vs, which...

  16. MORPHODYNAMICS PROCESSES IN THE LAGOON OF VENICE: THE SCANELLO SALT MARSH AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bonardi, Maurizio; Cucco, Andrea; Schiozzi, Laura; Tosi, Luigi; Sitran, Raffaella; Scroccaro, Isabella

    2002-01-01

    Geomorpholgical variations have been naturally occurring in the Lagoon of Venice since its formation. In recent times, however, complex morphodynamic changes, caused by natural processes and by the direct or indirect impact of man activities have been recognised. Moreover, there remains a lack of knowledge concerning sediment erosion, re-suspension, transport and sedimentation, sea-lagoon balance and the role played by the hydrodynamics. A detailed study of the Scanello salt marsh area,...

  17. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H3PO4 without pretreatment. → The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. → The lower SiO2 content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. → Some silica in rice husk reacted with H3PO4 to form SiP2O7 which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H3PO4 with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO2 content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO2 content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO2 content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H3PO4 to form silicon phosphate (SiP2O7), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP2O7 could be removed by post-process.

  18. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  19. Mapping cortical areas associated with Chinese word processing using functiona l magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林; 唐一源; 王岩; 李德军; 翁旭初; 张武田; 庄建程; 胡小平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify the cortical areas engaged during Chinese word processing using func tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to examine the reliability and repr oducibility of fMRI for localization of functional areas in the human brain.Methods FMRI data were collected on 8 young, right-handed, native Chinese speakers duri ng performance of Chinese synonym and homophone judgment tasks on two different clinical MRI systems (1.5 T GE Signa Horizon and 1.5 T Siemens Vision). A cro ss correlation analysis was used to statistically generate the activation map.Results Broca's area, Wernicke's area, bilateral extrastriate, and ventral tempo ral cortex were significantly activated during both the synonym and homophone activities. There was essentially no difference between results acquired on two different MRI systems.Conclusions FMRI can be used for localizing cortical areas critical to Chinese language proc essing in the human brain. The results are reliable and well reproducible acros s different clinical MRI systems.

  20. Hadal disturbance in the Japan Trench induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguri, K.; Kawamura, K.; Sakaguchi, A.;

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending similar to 30-50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic...

  1. Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

  2. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  3. Chasing the Ghost of Melesina Trench: A film by Qina Liu in collaboration with Katharine Kittredge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kittredge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmmaker Qina Liu has created a short documentary about Katharine Kittredge's decade-long quest to learn about the life and work of Anglo-Irish diarist and poet Melesina Trench. The story tells of remarkable coincidences, documents lost and found, and the emergence of Trench's descendants in the project's final chapter.

  4. Simple analytical expression for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Morioka, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the mode coupling coe cient in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is derived, which has a sim- ple relationship with the one in normal step-index structures. The amount of inter-core crosstalk reduction (in dB) with trench-assisted structures compared to the...

  5. Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, Elena M.; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Vladychenskaya, Irina P.; Petrov, Nikolai B.

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of the subfamily Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia, Vesicomyidae) are tiny deep-sea molluscs distributed worldwide and reaching huge abundances of hundreds and thousands of specimens in trawl catches. During the German-Russian deep-sea expedition KuramBio (R/V Sonne, 2012) for the first time two vesicomyin species were collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from the depths of 4861-5787 m, Vesicomya pacifica (Smith, 1885) and "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. Two species of vesicomyins, V. sergeeviFilatova, 1971 and V. profundiFilatova, 1971, which were previously reported from the hadal of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, were not collected at the abyssal depth despite of the close geographical proximity of the sampling area to their distribution ranges. Altogether nine species of vesicomyins are recorded now from the West and Indo-West Pacific; data on distribution and morpho-anatomical characters of these species are provided. Taxonomic description of V. pacifica is revised including information on its soft part anatomy, new localities and COI sequences. For the first time for a vesicomyin bivalve molecular data is given for a species with an explicit morphological description and unambiguous taxonomic affiliation. Molecular analysis of 160 published COI sequences of vesicomyids and newly obtained molecular data on V. pacifica showed that V. pacifica and two undescribed vesicomyin species forming a monophyletic clade which exhibits sister relationships with the Pliocardiinae, the group of chemosymbiotic vesicomyids. "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. is provisionally assigned to the genus Vesicomya (s.l.) until additional morphological and molecular data are obtained. It differs from Vesicomya s.s. by a broader hinge margin with more radiating teeth and the presence of only one pair of demibranchs.

  6. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  7. Chemico-physical processes influencing acidic precipitation: the case study of Milan urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffeis, G. [Environmental adviser, Verdello, Bergamo (Italy); Tamponi, M. [National Health Service IV U.O. PMIP, USL 7, Lecco (Italy); Tebaldi, G. [National Health Service IV U.O. PMIP, USL 38, Milan (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the model presented in this work is to describe the acidic contents of cloud droplets` temporal evolution, both during their formation process and the following stage of precipitation. The attention is mainly focused on precipitation in which the contribution of local polluted air masses, typical of big urban areas, is predominant. Some phenomena are particularly taken into consideration: the exchange processes of those pollutants mostly influencing the pH, from the gas to the liquid phase; the process of sulphur oxidation in the liquid phase and finally the phenomenon of inclusion of the atmospheric particulate through interception processes. The model has been useful in the analysis of experimental data about the precipitations in Milan urban area from the January 1st 1991 to June 30th 1992. For instance, it has been possible to explain both a rapid decrease of pH, happening with strong convective instability, and the significant washout of basic particulate, taking place during the first minutes in most of the events. The sensitivity analysis has also shown that pH depends on ammonia concentration and on temperature in a significant way.

  8. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  9. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  10. Problems in the educational process during the pediatric surgery area teaching of fourth year medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luis González López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Very typical situations of the Pediatric Surgery Services in the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos may interfere with the appropriate development of the educational process. Consequently, students might not master the principles of medical practice in the most common surgical diseases in children, thus limiting its further application in their professional performances as basic general practitioners. To obtain more accurate information on the causes of this phenomenon is considered to be paramount in order to search for practical solutions to improve the educational process and to fulfil the goals of the teaching stage. The contents on the following information sources are analyzed in this paper: documents for higher education and for medicine career, publications and papers presented in scientific events (directly or indirectly related to the practice of Pediatric Surgery and hospital statistics. This review was aimed at analyzing the situations that negatively affect the educational process during the pediatric surgery area teaching of fourth year medicine students.

  11. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  12. A synthetic seismicity model for the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1991-01-01

    A novel iterative technique, based on the concept of fault segmentation and computed using 2D static dislocation theory, for building models of seismicity and fault interaction which are physically acceptable and geometrically and kinematically correct, is presented. The technique is applied in two steps to seismicity observed at the Middle America Trench. The first constructs generic models which randomly draw segment strengths and lengths from a 2D probability distribution. The second constructs predictive models in which segment lengths and strengths are adjusted to mimic the actual geography and timing of large historical earthquakes. Both types of models reproduce the statistics of seismicity over five units of magnitude and duplicate other aspects including foreshock and aftershock sequences, migration of foci, and the capacity to produce both characteristic and noncharacteristic earthquakes. Over a period of about 150 yr the complex interaction of fault segments and the nonlinear failure conditions conspire to transform an apparently deterministic model into a chaotic one.

  13. Effect of bedrock permeability on subsurface stormflow and the water balance of a trenched hillslope at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp-van, Meerveld, H. J.; Peters, N.E.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of bedrock permeability on subsurface stormflow initiation and the hillslope water balance is poorly understood. Previous hillslope hydrological studies at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia, USA, have assumed that the bedrock underlying the trenched hillslope is effectively impermeable. This paper presents a series of sprinkling experiments where we test the bedrock impermeability hypothesis at the PMRW. Specifically, we quantify the bedrock permeability effects on hillslope subsurface stormflow generation and the hillslope water balance at the PMRW. Five sprinkling experiments were performed by applying 882-1676 mm of rainfall over a ???5.5 m ?? 12 m area on the lower hillslope during ???8 days. In addition to water input and output captured at the trench, we measured transpiration in 14 trees on the slope to close the water balance. Of the 193 mm day-1 applied during the later part of the sprinkling experiments when soil moisture changes were small, 175 mm day-1 (91%). Bedrock moisture was measured at three locations downslope of the water collection system in the trench. Bedrock moisture responded quickly to precipitation in early spring. Peak tracer breakthrough in response to natural precipitation in the bedrock downslope from the trench was delayed only 2 days relative to peak tracer arrival in subsurface stormflow at the trench. Leakage to bedrock influences subsurface stormflow at the storm time-scale and also the water balance of the hillslope. This has important implications for the age and geochemistry of the water and thus how one models this hillslope and watershed. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, P; Tsopanomichalou, M; Duman, T; Stefan, M; Silvestri, A; Rinaldi, B; Garcia, O; Giparaki, M; Plata, E; Kozlov, A I; Barbujani, G; Vernesi, C; Papola, F; Ciavarella, G; Kovatchev, D; Kerimova, M G; Anagnou, N; Gavrila, L; Veneziano, L; Akar, N; Loutradis, A; Michalodimitrakis, E N; Terrenato, L; Novelletto, A

    2001-07-01

    In this work we focus on a microsatellite-defined Y-chromosomal lineage (network 1.2) identified by us and reported in previous studies, whose geographic distribution and antiquity appear to be compatible with the Neolithic spread of farmers. Here, we set network 1.2 in the Y-chromosomal phylogenetic tree, date it with respect to other lineages associated with the same movements by other authors, examine its diversity by means of tri- and tetranucleotide loci and discuss the implications in reconstructing the spread of this group of chromosomes in the Mediterranean area. Our results define a tripartite phylogeny within HG 9 (Rosser et al. 2000), with the deepest branching defined by alleles T (Haplogroup Eu10) or G (Haplogroup Eu9) at M172 (Semino et al. 2000), and a subsequent branching within Eu9 defined by network 1.2. Population distributions of HG 9 and network 1.2 show that their occurrence in the surveyed area is not due to the spread of people from a single parental population but, rather, to a process punctuated by at least two phases. Our data identify the wide area of the Balkans, Aegean and Anatolia as the possible homeland harbouring the largest variation within network 1.2. The use of recently proposed tests based on the stepwise mutation model suggests that its spread was associated to a population expansion, with a high rate of male gene flow in the Turkish-Greek area. PMID:11592923

  15. Slab stagnation and buckling in the mantle transition zone: Rheology, phase transition, trench migration, and seismic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Craig; Cizkova, Hana

    2014-05-01

    Subducting slabs may exhibit buckling instabilities and consequent folding behavior in the mantle transition zone for various combinations of dynamical parameters, accompanied by temporal variations in dip angle, plate velocity, and trench retreat. Parameters governing such behavior include both viscous forces (slab and mantle rheology) and buoyancy forces (slab thermal structure and mineral phase relations). 2D numerical experiments show that many parameter sets lead to slab deflection at the base of the transition zone, typically accompanied by quasi-periodic oscillations (consistent with previous scaling analyses) in largely anticorrelated plate and rollback velocities, resulting in undulating stagnant slabs as buckle folds accumulate subhorizontally atop the lower mantle. Slab interactions with mantle phase transitions are important components of this process (Bina and Kawakatsu, 2010; Čížková and Bina, 2013). For terrestrial parameter sets, trench retreat is found to be nearly ubiquitous, and trench advance is quite rare - due to both rheological structure and ridge-push effects (Čížková and Bina, 2013). Recent analyses of global plate motions indicate that significant trench advance is also rare on Earth, being largely restricted to the Izu-Bonin arc (Matthews et al., 2013). Consequently, we explore the conditions necessary for terrestrial trench advance through dynamical models involving the unusual geometry associated with the Philippine Sea region. Detailed images of buckled stagnant slabs are difficult to resolve due to smoothing effects inherent in seismic tomography, but velocity structures computed for compositionally layered slabs, using laboratory data on relevant mineral assemblages, can be spatially low-pass filtered for comparison with tomographic images of corresponding resolution. When applied to P-wave velocity anomalies from stagnant slab material beneath northeast China, model slabs which undulate due to compound buckling fit

  16. Fabrication of large area silicon solar cells by rapid thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivoththaman, S.; Laureys, W.; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R.

    1995-10-01

    Large area n+pp+ solar cells have been fabricated on 10 cm×10 cm pseudo-quasi-square CZ silicon wafers (1 Ω cm, p-type) predominantly used by the photovoltaic (PV) industry. All the high-temperature steps have been performed by rapid thermal processing (RTP). Emitter formation, back surface field (BSF) formation, and surface oxidation have been performed in just two RTP steps each lasting 50 s. Solar cells of 15% efficiency have been fabricated this way, demonstrating the applicability of this low thermal budget technology to large area, modulable size, industrial quality Si wafers. Furthermore, the rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) is shown to result in good quality thin oxides with Si/SiO2 interface trap densities (Dit)<1011 cm-3 eV-1 near-midgap.

  17. Results of the NNWSI area-to-location phase of the repository siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive system study has been completed to screen the Nevada Research and Development Area of the Nevada Test Site and nearby areas for relatively favorable locations for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a mined repository. The effort to develop a formal screening process was initiated in 1979 and brought to fruition in 1981 using a data base that had been developed in the interim. Fifteen locations were identified based on groupings of similarly rated grid cells. These locations were ranked according to the sum of weights associated with individual analyses. Of the 15 locations, northern Yucca Mountain ranks highest, primarily due to favorable ratings for long-term safety, containment, isolation, avoidance of disruptive events, tectonic attributes, human disturbance attributes, and the presence of Calico Hills Tuff and Topopah Spring Tuff. Two other locations, northeastern Jackass Flats and Calico Hills-Upper Topapah Wash, also rate generally high. 6 figures, 6 tables

  18. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  19. Community structure and diversity of scavenging amphipods from bathyal to hadal depths in three South Pacific Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Nichola C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Linley, Thomas; Mayor, Dan J.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-05-01

    There are few biological datasets that span large bathymetric ranges with sufficient resolution to identify trends across the abyssal and hadal transition zone, particularly over multiple trenches. Here, scavenging Amphipoda were collected from three trenches in the South Pacific Ocean at bathyal to hadal depths. Diversity and community structure were examined from stations within the Kermadec Trench (1490-9908 m) and New Hebrides Trench (2000-6948 m) and additional data were included from the South Fiji Basin (4000 m) and Peru-Chile Trench (4602-8074 m). The hadal community structure of the Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches were distinct from the surrounding abyssal and bathyal depths and correlated to hydrostatic pressure and POC flux. Low POC flux in the New Hebrides Trench and South Fiji Basin best explained the dissimilarity in abyssal community structure from those of the disparate Kermadec and Peru-Chile trenches. POC flux also best explained patterns in hadal community structure with the Kermadec and New Hebrides Trench communities showing greater similarity to each other than to the eutrophic Peru-Chile Trench. Hydrostatic pressure was the strongest driver of intra-trench assemblage composition in all trench environments. A unimodal pattern of species diversity, peaking between 4000 and 5000 m, was best explained by hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

  20. A novel trench gate MOSFET with a multiple-layered gate oxide for high-reliability operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Gi; Kah, Dong Ha; Na, Kyoung Il; Yang, Yil Suk; Koo, Jin Gun; Kim, Jong Dae; Lee, Jin Ho [Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Soo [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Gate dielectrics in trench structures for trench gate metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) power devices are very important to realize excellent characteristics. In this paper we describe multiple-layer gate dielectrics for trench gate MOSFETs with both thermal and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gate oxides that exhibit excellent gate oxide properties and surface roughness. Through various trench etching experiments for better surface conditions in the trench, the optimum etching gas chemistry and etch conditions were found. The destruction of gate dielectric in trench gate MOSFET occurs at the top and the bottom trench corner edges. The structure of the gate electrode is pulled out with the polysilicon layer which is buried in the trench. Thus, high electric field operation is inevitable at the gate between source diffusion and the gate polysilicon. Moreover, the trench corner oxide suffers from the high electric field. We propose a multiple-gate dielectric structure of a thermal oxide and CVD oxide for highly reliable operation of the device. This enables trench surface smoothing and low thermal stress at the trench corners and provides the oxide thickness uniformity, giving superior device characteristics of high breakdown voltage and low leakage current. These improvements are caused by the excellent quality of the gate oxide and the good thickness uniformity that is formed at the inner trench with a specific geometrical factor.

  1. Genetic processes and environmental significance of Lower Devonian brachiopod shell concentrations in Longmenshan area, Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjie; Qu, Xuelin; Du, Lingchun; Dai, Tingyong; Yang, Yuchuan; Li, Junwu; Yang, Chengjin

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive features of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Longmenshan area in southwestern China are brachiopod shell concentrations, especially in the Bailiuping, Ganxi and Xiejiawan Formations, where brachiopod shell concentrations occur widely throughout. Depending on the dominant skeletal elements, six types of shell concentrations can be distinguished: Protochonete, Acrospirifer, Howellella, Orientospirifer, polyspecific shell and polyspecific fragments concentrations. According to the shell features, taphonomic signature, host sediments and their relationships, four genetic models of the various shell concentrations are described in this paper. The genetic processes and distributions along an onshore-offshore area were clarified on the base of taphonomic analysis. Pavements of opportunistic species of Protochonetes are autochthonous assemblages living in quieter, deeper, more offshore waters near the maximum storm wave base. The pavements are the result of reduced sedimentation; the substrate was silty and water-saturated with variable turbidity soupy-mud. Transport by high-energy processes is interpreted as the final formation process of polyspecific fragments concentrations with most extensive scope from intertidal zone to the maximum storm wave base. The Acrospirifer, Howellella, and Orientospirifer concentrations have been stirred by storm wave action and quickly buried after short transport tempestite model. They are most easily preserved around the average storm wave-base. The polyspecific shell concentrations, which include large bivalves are autochthonous assemblages living in shallow and relatively quieter water near shore environments. Autochthonous assemblages of the opportunist Protochonetes bailiupingensis occurring in the Bailiuping Formation of the Longmenshan area not only record of storm events, but are also important features to identify and correlate the Bailiuping Formation in the field.

  2. Analysis and evaluation of water coming from several uranium processing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of liquid effluent from uranium mines and mills in China during operation is described in this paper. Analysis and evaluation of water types coming from different sources of polluted areas are also presented in this paper. From this study, several methods for processing liquid effluents were chosen for study to improve current practice. In this work, three uranium mines and mills were carefully chosen for investigation. One is located in the north west of China. The other two are located in the southern part of China. (author)

  3. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  4. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  5. Two designs for image digital processing applications in the nuclear area using ImaWin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work two designs of image processing systems of low cost for the nuclear area are presented. They have the advantage of the adaptability given by the ImaWin software and the connection with Internet, applied to digitalisation in research and development fields. The first design is the development of a digitalisation system for inspection and study of fuel plate radiographs for test reactors, while the second one describes the specification and design of an intelligent system of intrusion signals continuous inspection and administrative control of fissile material deposits. (author)

  6. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  7. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described.

  8. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described

  9. Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

  10. Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, H.; Yamano, A.; Fukui, T.; Uchiyama, H.; Takahashi, M.; Yoki, M.; Akase, T.

    2012-01-01

    A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

  11. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  12. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  13. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT)

  14. Involvement of the TPJ area in processing of novel global forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    The neuropsychological syndrome "simultanagnosia" is characterized by the inability to integrate local elements into a global entity. This deficit in Gestalt perception is mainly apparent for novel global structures administered in clinical tests or unfamiliar visual scenes. Recognition of familiar complex objects or well-known visual scenes is often unaffected. Recent neuroimaging studies and reports from simultanagnosia patients suggest a crucial involvement of temporoparietal brain areas in processing of hierarchically organized visual material. In this study, we investigated the specific role of the TPJ in Gestalt perception. On the basis of perceptual characteristics known from simultanagnosia, we hypothesized that TPJ is dominantly involved in processing of novel object arrangements. To answer this question, we performed a learning study with hierarchical stimuli and tested behavioral and neuronal characteristics of Gestalt perception pre- and posttraining. The study included 16 psychophysical training sessions and two neuroimaging sessions. Participants improved their behavioral performance for trained global stimuli and showed limited transfer to untrained global material. We found significant training dependent neuronal signal modulations in anterior right hemispheric TPJ regions. These activation changes were specific to trained global stimuli, whereas no systematic neuronal response changes were observed for recognition of untrained global stimuli, local elements and regular objects that served as control stimuli. In line with perceptual characteristics in simultanagnosia, the results argue for an involvement of TPJ in processing of novel global structures. We discuss the signal modulations in the context of a more efficient or different neuronal strategy to process familiar global stimuli. PMID:25811709

  15. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Alberts, D.G. [Waterjet Technology, Inc., Kent, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT).

  16. Reflection processing and interpretation of refraction seismic data, extension area 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Currently construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to use two-dimensional reflection seismic processing methods to refraction seismic data collected from Olkiluoto in year 2005 and 2006, and to locate gently dipping reflectors from the stacked sections. This work is continuation to the similar work carried out in 2006. The method provides a cost-effective way to get 3D interpretation from existing data. Reflecting events are typically linked to fault or shear zones in bedrock, and sometimes to lithological contacts. Reflectors coincide with e.g. fracture intensity maxima and P-wave velocity minima locations met in drillholes. The goal was to link together previous reflector and model information at ONKALO area and later results from 3D reflection seismic measurements carried out in 2007. Processing was done using mainly open source software Seismic Unix. After the processing, the most distinct two-dimensional reflectors were picked from seismic sections using visualization environment OpendTect. The features from crossing lines were combined into three-dimensional surfaces. Special attention was given to the detection of possible faults and discontinuities. The geometry of the surfaces was defined based on procedure similar to 3D migration and available geological information. The applied processing method was successful in detecting the reflectors. Most significant steps were the refraction and residual statics, removal of short offset (less than 50 m shot-geophone interval) traces and deconvolution. Some distinct reflectors can be seen at times 20-200 ms (vertical depths 50-500 m). The signal gets noisier below 200 ms. Reflectors are best visible as coherent phase between the adjacent traces, but are not much above the surrounding noise level

  17. Composition and distribution of bivalves of the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, Gennady M.

    2015-01-01

    The KuramBio German-Russian deep-sea expedition ("Sonne", 2012) revealed a rich fauna of bivalves (55 species belonging to 21 families) on the abyssal plain (4861-5787 m) adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. Per station species richness varied from 18 to 33 species. The richest families were Cuspidariidae (7 species), Tindariidae (6 species), Thyasiridae (6 species), and Xylophagidae (5 species). The families Nuculidae, Malletidae, Yoldiidae, Mytilidae, Protocuspidariidae, and Verticordiidae were represented by a single species. Representatives of the family Siliculidae were recorded in the northwestern Pacific for the first time. Thirteen species (23.6%) were most common in the investigated northwestern Pacific region. Nine species (16.4%) were only found at one of the stations. Eight species (14.5%) are first records for the northwestern Pacific, of which Yoldiella cf. jeffreysi (Hidalgo, 1877), Pristigloma cf. albaSanders and Allen, 1973, and Syssitomya cf. pourtalesianaOliver, 2012 were previously known only for the Atlantic Ocean. The high diversity and richness of the bivalve fauna on the abyssal plain in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area may be connected to the favorable feeding conditions in this, one of the most highly productive areas of the Pacific Ocean.

  18. A single-stage biological process for municipal sewage treatment in tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iaconi, C; De Sanctis, M; Lopez, A

    2014-11-01

    This pilot scale study aims to test the effectiveness of an innovative compact biological system (SBBGR - Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) for treating municipal wastewater in tourist areas characterised by intense seasonal water demand and wastewater discharge. The results obtained after a long term operation of 463 days have shown that the proposed system is able to assure average removal efficiencies higher than 90% for COD (chemical oxygen demand), total suspended solids and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) independently of the influent concentration values and organic loading, which ranged from 0.2 to 5.1 kgCOD/m(3)biofilter.d Furthermore, the plant showed a high degree of operation flexibility and stability in response to the organic load variations occurring in tourist areas. In fact, no significant deterioration in the plant's effluent quality was observed even during a sudden several-fold increase in organic loading. High nitrogen removal efficiencies (80%, on average) were also achieved thanks to the establishment of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification process favoured by the plant's high biomass concentration and operating conditions. Finally, the system was characterized by an excess sludge production much lower (60-80% lower) than that of conventional biological systems operating without a primary clarifier. An acceptable level of stabilization of excess sludge was also obtained so that a further stabilization process was no longer required. PMID:24908613

  19. In situ grouting of a low-level radioactive waste trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shallow land burial trench containing low level radioactive waste was injected with a particulate grout to help control subsidence and radionuclide migration. The trench's accessible voids have been estimated at 20 vol %, and most of these voids appear to have been filled with grout. This injection was accomplished with a simple, labor intensive technique, and an inexperienced crew at an estimated cost of about $55,000. The grout costs $0.21/gal and 8081 gal was injected into the trench. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Novel concepts for high voltage junction termination techniques using very deep trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomirescu, D.; Charitat, G.; Morancho, F.; Rossel, P.

    1998-11-01

    This work presents some ideas for a termination technique using very deep trenches available from micro-system technologies. We demonstrate, by means of simulation in a first step, that it is possible to efficiently protect junctions using trenches with various architectures and compositions, termed Trench Termination Techniques: T{sup 3}. We focus on a 6 kV device but the solutions proposed are completely and easily scalable to any voltage range; moreover the results presented are almost independent of the junction depth. (author)

  1. Transparent conductive film by large area roll-to-roll processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on polyethylene terephthalate film has been used as the substrate for roll-to-roll fabrication of large area printed electronics devices, but it is expensive and could be cracked when bending, limiting its applications. Transparent conductive (TC) electrode made by roll-to-roll coating of transparent conductive ink on flexible substrate is an alternative, but both the ink material and the control of the coating quality are very crucial. The major challenges are the coating performance, coating uniformity and defect control during roll-to-roll processing. In this paper, we report the chemical synthesis of silver nanowires in preferred shape and size, the surface modification of the Ag nanowires for better dispersion into the commercial Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer ink, and the controlled roll-to-roll coating process on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate by a one meter web-width roll-to-roll slot die coating system. We obtained high uniformity PEDOT:PSS coating with optical transmission higher than 80% and sheet resistance lower than 100 Ω/square, and silver containing coating with sheet resistance below 40 Ω/square and maintained optical transmittance. The slot die coating mechanism is investigated and the influencing factors for coating uniformity and defect are defined. The coated transparent conductive film has the same properties as the sputtered ITO and has been used as the TC electrode for printed lighting, whose performance has been proven by standard weathering test for 1000 h. - Highlight: • Controlled synthesis of silver nanowires using trace amount of Cl− ions • Large area roll-to-roll processed transparent conductive (TC) coatings • TC film has light transmission > 80% and sheet resistance < 100 Ω/sq. • Silver containing ink achieved better property than conductive polymer ink. • Used as the TC electrode for printed lighting

  2. Study on rain-runoff process in the peripheral mountainous area of tne Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Bin; WANG Yu-kuan; REN Yi; LIU Cheng; XU Pei

    2008-01-01

    Studies on rain.runoff process in the peripheral mountainous area of the Sichuan Basin,which is re-garded as a key ecological shelter,will contribute to flood control and environmental protection for the Upper Yang-tze River Basin.In two typical catchments--the Fujiang River Catchment and the Wujiang River Catchment,rainfall simulations have been conducted to study the rain-runoff processes of yellow soil and limestone soil in three types of land use-forestland.farmland and grassland.Results showed that(1)within the same rainfall process,overland flow occurs first on farmland,then on grassland,and finally on forestland;(2)soil surface coverage has a great im-pact on the occurrence and amount of overland flow.The runoff amount Can increase 2-4 times after the coverage iS removed;(3)the infiltration before the occurrence of overland flow will decrease because of higher gravel contents of soil.but it takes no effect on infiltration once,overland flow becomes stable;(4)the runoff coefficient of the lime-stone soil forestland iS greater than that of the yellow soil forest land,but less than that of the farmland;(5)threeempirical infiltration models,including Horton'model,Kostiakov'model,and modified Kostiakov'model,were compared by using the observed results under rainfall simulation.The results showed that the Kostiakov'model per-formed better than both the Horton'model and modified Kostiakov model.According to the results of this research,the Kostiakov's model Can be used to simulate rainfall infiltration when water erosion is modeled in the peripheral mountainous area of the Sichuan Basin.

  3. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  4. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Standards Committee's Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ''commercial'' bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein

  5. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO3) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  6. Area-delay trade-offs of texture decompressors for a graphics processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa Súñer, Emilio; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

    2011-05-01

    Graphics Processing Units have become a booster for the microelectronics industry. However, due to intellectual property issues, there is a serious lack of information on implementation details of the hardware architecture that is behind GPUs. For instance, the way texture is handled and decompressed in a GPU to reduce bandwidth usage has never been dealt with in depth from a hardware point of view. This work addresses a comparative study on the hardware implementation of different texture decompression algorithms for both conventional (PCs and video game consoles) and mobile platforms. Circuit synthesis is performed targeting both a reconfigurable hardware platform and a 90nm standard cell library. Area-delay trade-offs have been extensively analyzed, which allows us to compare the complexity of decompressors and thus determine suitability of algorithms for systems with limited hardware resources.

  7. Final characterization report for the non-process areas of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility characterization survey data collected from January 21, 1997 through February 3, 1997. The characterization activities evaluated the radiological status and identified the hazardous materials locations. The scope of this report is limited to the nonprocess areas in the facility, which include the special work permit (SWP) change room, toilet, equipment room, electrical cubicle, control room, and pipe gallery. A portion of the roof (excluding the roof over the process hood and viewing room) was also included. Information in this report will be used to identify waste streams, provide specific chemical and radiological data to aid in planning decontamination and demolition activities, and allow proper disposal of the demolition debris, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  8. Hydrogeochemical processes of thallium in a rural area of Southwest Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The water system in a rural area of Lanmuchang in Southwest Guizhou is facing a risk of thallium (Tl) contamination due to Tl mineralization around the area. The major trace elements and Tl in the water system are studied to understand the hydrogeochemical processes of Tl constrained by Tl mineralization. The results showed that the dispersion pattern of Tl follows a descending order in concentration from mine groundwater (deep groundwater)→stream water→shallow groundwater→background water, reflecting the impact of Tl mineralization on the hydrogeochemical composition. Tl concentrations in stream water in both regimes are remarkably higher (2-30 fold) downstream than up- and mid-streams, probably caused by the unidentified discharge of deep groundwater. Low Tl levels are detected in the current drinking water, however, the highly elevated Tl in stream water and ground water may pose a potential environmental risk through daily washing and agricultural irrigation. This study suggests that human activities, such as agricultural irrigation, could intensify the environmental risk of Tl.

  9. Joint processing and analysis of seismic gravity measurements in Capital Circle area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Min-yu; MA Li; LIU Shao-ming; ZHANG Jing; SUN Shao-an; WANG Wu-xing

    2006-01-01

    In Capital Circle area, there are three groups of repeated gravity measurements observed by different institutes using different instruments or methods. The simultaneous adjustment of absolute and relative measurements and the elimination of systematic error among the relative measurements have been carried out in this paper. Thus an unified temporal gravity change system with absolute reference has been established. On the basis of this, the crustal subsidence effect on gravity, which belongs to non-tectonic factor, is analyzed and the station displacement corrections are carried out, so that the long-wave disturbance is eliminated. So far our following aims are realized:the advantages of the absolute and relative measurement methods are complementary to each other; the contradiction and environment disturbance are eliminated; the amounts of information are enlarged; the sampling interval of time domain is compressed. In a word, the ability of identifying the tectonic activity process is enhanced. The results show that: there are systematic errors between the two groups of relative measurements and within the data of 10 campaigns; the uneven local crustal subsidence in the southeast of the study area results in a linear rise of gravity value at 10 stations; they can be corrected by the regression analysis. The maps of revised temporal gravity change can obviously and integrally reflect the Ms=5.0 earthquake in Guye on October 6, 1995.

  10. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  11. Oceanographic cruise Indian Ocean and Java Trench June 1969 (NODC Accession 7100908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard H.M.A.S DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Java Trench and the Indian Ocean during...

  12. Geophysical characteristics of the Ninetyeast Ridge–Andaman island arc/trench convergent zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, C.; Gireesh, R.; Chand, S.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, D.G.

    The convergence tectonics of the Ninetyeast Ridge (NER), upon the Andaman island arc–trench system is examined through an analysis of ETOPO2 bathymetry, satellite-derived free air gravity and seismic data. Oblique subduction and the buoyancy forces...

  13. Complex morphology of subducted lithosphere in the mantle beneath the Tonga trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der

    1995-01-01

    At the Tonga trench, old Pacific sea floor subducts at a rapid rate below the Indo-Australia plate, generating most of the world's deep earthquakes and producing a deep slab of former oceanic lithosphere.

  14. Human impact on geomorphic processes and hazards in mountain areas in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remondo, Juan; Soto, Jesús; González-Díez, Alberto; Díaz de Terán, José Ramón; Cendrero, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    The temporal occurrence of slope movements, their contribution to relief evolution and human influence on those processes in two study areas of northern Spain are presented. The work is based on temporal analyses covering 100 ka in one study area and 43 years in the other. Temporal analysis has been the basis for quantitatively assessing the magnitude of human influence and developing landslide susceptibility and hazard models with known, independently-tested prediction capability. The results obtained in one study area show a relationship between landsliding periods and increasing precipitation during upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Significant increases of landslide frequency and mobilisation rate were also found around 5500 and 200 years ago. Those moments coincide with two periods of intensified human presence and activities: Neolithic and industrial revolutions. The increase observed represents about one order of magnitude from pre-Neolithic to present. A similar increase has been found between 1954 and 1997 in the other study area. The latter increase shows no relationship with changes in climate parameters or seismic activity. A fairly good correlation has been found between landslide frequency and socioeconomic indicators of human activity. Sedimentation rates in two neighbouring estuaries were determined and significant increases, particularly in the second part of last century, were also found. Evidence obtained suggest that the increases observed in the frequency of slope instability events (and therefore hazard), denudation and sedimentation rates are due to a greater extent to indirect geomorphologic changes caused by human action rather than climate change. Detailed analysis of landslide frequency during that 43-year period has also been used to produce and validate landslide susceptibility models and obtain landslide hazard maps with known prediction accuracy. Validation tests were carried out comparing susceptibility maps based on landslides that

  15. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and trenching survey at Wandhay, Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michio Morino; Javed N Malik; Prashant Mishra; Chandrashekhar Bhuiyan; Fumio Kaneko

    2008-06-01

    Several new active fault traces were identified along Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).A new fault (named as Bhuj Fault,BF)that extends into the Bhuj Plain was also identified.These fault traces were identified based on satellite photo interpretation and field survey.Trenches were excavated to identify the paleoseismic events,pattern of faulting and the nature of deformation.New active fault traces were recognized about 1 km north of the topographic boundary between the Katrol Hill and the plain area.The fault exposure along the left bank of Khari River with 10 m wide shear zone in the Mesozoic rocks and showing displacement of the overlying Quaternary deposits is indicative of continued tectonic activity along the ancient fault.The E-W trending active fault traces along the KHF in the western part changes to NE-SW or ENE-WSW near Wandhay village. Trenching survey across a low scarp near Wandhay village reveals three major fault strands F1, F2,and F3.These fault strands displaced the older terrace deposits comprising Sand,Silt and Gravel units along with overlying younger deposits from units 1 to 5 made of gravel,sand and silt. Stratigraphic relationship indicates at least three large magnitude earthquakes along KHF during Late Holocene or recent historic past.

  16. Subsidence and landslide processes in the Wieliczka area (Poland): insights from PSI and ground data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, J.; Lamanna, C.; Graniczny, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Czarnogorska, M.; Wojcik, A.; Bovenga, F.; Refice, A.; Conte, D.; Nutricato, R.

    2009-04-01

    This work builds upon the earlier Persistent Scatterers SAR Interferometry (PSI) study of the Wieliczka area [1], focused on the detection of long-term subsidence caused by the activity of the ancient Wieliczka Salt Mine (Unesco Heritage Site, Poland). The SPINUA processing of several tens of ERS images covering the period 1992-2000 has led to the identification of over 3000 radar targets (density about 100 PS/km2) and shown that the subsiding zone (movements up to 24 mm/yr) corresponds well to the subsurface extent of the salt deposit and mine works. The Wieliczka area is characterized by a range of ground instability phenomena (subsidence, landslides, slope creep), as well as variable geological, geomorphological and land cover conditions, and hence offers an excellent opportunity to test the practical applicability of multi-temporal differential interferometry techniques. Here we extend the study to the peri-urban and rural areas surrounding the town of Wieliczka and explore the utility of C-band PSI to investigate landslides and related ground instability phenomena. Furthermore, we provide a more in depth interpretation of the satellite-borne observations by supplementing the PSI data with in situ information, including also the data from a local geodetic network consisting of over 1000 benchmarks. It is shown that i) the PSI-detected ground displacements agree very well with the levelling results and provide useful complementary data (increased density of measurements); ii) a very small percentage (below 3%) of PS falls within the landslide limits (in relation to the low degree of urbanization of failure-prone slopes and presence of vegetation) and relatively little information can be obtained on slope movements. Furthermore, there is a concentration of large, pre-existing landslides that originate on the north-facing slopes of the Carpathian overthrust front and descend towards a few km long subsidence bowl in the central-western part of Wieliczka. The toes

  17. Assessment of the teaching-learning process in students of the health area: cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Moita Garcia Kawakame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo evaluate the skills and knowledge of undergraduate students in the health area on cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers with the use of an automatic external defibrillator.METHODThe evaluation was performed in three different stages of the teaching-learning process. A theoretical and practical course was taught and the theoretical classes included demonstration. The evaluation was performed in three different stages of the teaching-learning process. Two instruments were applied to evaluate the skills (30-items checklist and knowledge (40-questions written test. The sample comprised 84 students.RESULTSAfter the theoretical and practical course, an increase was observed in the number of correct answers in the 30-items checklist and 40-questions written test.CONCLUSIONAfter the theoretical class (including demonstration, only one of the 30-items checklist for skills achieved an index ≥ 90% of correct answers. On the other hand, an index of correct answers greater than 90% was achieved in 26 (86.7% of the 30 items after a practical training simulation, evidencing the importance of this training in the defibrillation procedure.

  18. Ultralow specific on-resistance high voltage trench SOI LDMOS with enhanced RESURF effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A RESURF-enhanced high voltage SOI LDMOS (ER-LDMOS) with an ultralow specific on-resistance (Ron, sp) is proposed. The device features an oxide trench in the drift region, a P-pillar at the sidewall of the trench, and a buried P-layer (BPL) under the trench. First, the P-pillar adjacent to the P-body not only acts as a vertical junction termination extension (JTE), but also forms a vertical reduced surface field (RESURF) structure with the N-drift region. Both of them optimize the bulk electric field distributions and increase the doping concentration of the drift region. Second, the BPL together with the N-drift region and the buried oxide layer (BOX) exhibits a triple-RESURF effect, which further improves the bulk field distributions and the doping concentration. Additionally, multiple-directional depletion is induced owing to the P-pillar, the BPL, and two MIS-like structures consisting of the N-drift region combined with the oxide trench and the BOX. As a result, a significantly enhanced-RESURF effect is achieved, leading to a high breakdown voltage (BV) and a low Ron, sp. Moreover, the oxide trench folds the drift region in the vertical direction, resulting in a reduced cell pitch and thus Ron, sp. Simulated results show that the ER-LDMOS improves BV by 67% and reduces Ron, sp by 91% compared with the conventional trench LDMOS at the same cell pitch. (semiconductor devices)

  19. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  1. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2–2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  2. Design and simulation of a microwave powered microplasma system for local area materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Jeffri Julliarsa

    A microwave powered microplasma source is developed and tested for materials processing on spatially localized areas. A small diameter stream of plasma (less than 2 mm in diameter) is created by focusing microwave energy inside a discharge tube. The discharge then flows out the end of the tube onto the surface being processed delivering ions and reactive radicals. The diameter of the plasma stream from the tube to the material being processed can be controlled by an aperture mounted at the end of the tube. The spot size of the localized plasma stream ranges from 2 mm down to 10's micrometers depending on the aperture size. The discharge is created by using 2.45 GHz microwave energy that is coupled into the discharge using a small foreshortened cylindrical cavity that has a hollow inner conductor and a small capacitive gap at the end of the cavity. A processing gas mixture is fed through a 2 mm inner diameter quartz tube which is located inside the hollow inner conductor of the cavity. This tube is exposed to a high electric field at the small gap end of the cavity thus generating a surface wave plasma. The length of the surface wave discharge in the tube can be extended by increasing the microwave power to the discharge so that the plasma reaches the aperture. The operating pressures range from 0.5 Torr to 100 Torr and the microwave power utilized ranges from a few Watts to 10's Watts. Several properties of the discharge including plasma power density, electron density and electron temperature are measured. The power densities of argon and Ar/O2 plasma discharges vary from 10's to over 450 W/cm 3. The plasma density and electron temperature of argon discharges are measured using a double Langmuir probe placed in the materials processing area. The plasma densities are in the range of 1011 -- 1013 cm-3. Computational modeling of the plasma discharge and the microwave excitation of the discharge is performed using a finite element analysis. The goal of the modeling

  3. An Integrated Reclamation Scheme to Ensure Good Mining and Mineral Processing Practices in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opafunso Zacheus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental conditions of mining and mineral processing sites in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria with special reference to Ondo State, Nigeria. For the purpose of the study, field data were collected on the location, locality, mining status and environmental conditions of solid mineral deposits in the states that make up the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS receivers were used to determine the location of each site visited. Physical assessment of the environmental degradation as a result of oil and gas exploitation and unfriendly mining and mineral processing practices was done. The area was characterized by great biological diversity with sensitive and fragile ecosystem resulting from dangerous mining and mineral processing practices. To ensure good mining and mineral processing in the area, an integrated reclamation scheme has been developed.

  4. Process and balance assessment in lignite mining areas by multi-isotope approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The multi-isotope approach using stable isotopes of various light elements offers possibilities to recognize chemical processes within the aquifers, interactions between ground and surface water, quantification of the balance of water or dissolved compounds in anthropogenic stressed landscapes. Especially in mining areas, the quality of ground- and surface water is one of the main problems during and after remediation measures. Caused by lowering of groundwater level, sulfide oxidation and consequently acidification of surface and groundwater systems are common processes. Successful remediation strategies require knowledge of the chemical and physical processes proceeding in dump sites, and of the groundwater flow dynamic. Experienced in using sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in post-mining landscapes, we will present three key examples for assessing the sulfate reduction in dump sediments, the water balance of mining lakes, and sulfate input from different sulfur sources. (i) Sulfate reduction: During the long time saturation process the groundwater system of dumps can turn to reducing conditions as indicated by S- and O-isotope signatures of dissolved sulfate. Mainly in the overburden dump sediments of Cospuden mining area (south of Leipzig, Germany) sulfate reduction follows a continuous trend in time from younger to older parts. The input of oxidizing solutions can prevent the reduction process. Evidently, sulfate reduction is still underdeveloped in the conveyor bridge dump caused by penetration of sulfate and iron rich solutions from the weathering zone. A spatial and temporal development was evaluated in different age structured dump sediments using the δ34S and δ18O values of sulfate. (ii) Lake water and sulfate balance: The acidic mining lake 111 (Lusatia mining area, Germany, pH-value 2.6) exists for more than 40 years and reached stable hydrological and hydrochemical conditions about 30 years ago. Isotope data (H, O) were used to

  5. Characterization of 3D Trench PZT Capacitors for High Density FRAM Devices by Synchrotron X-ray Micro-diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangmin; Han, Hee; Park, Yong Jun; Choi, Jae-Young; Park, Youngsoo; Baik, Sunggi

    2007-01-01

    3D trench PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) capacitors for 256 Mbit 1T-1C FRAM devices were characterized by synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction at Pohang Light Source. Three layes, Ir/PZT/Ir were deposited on SiO2 trench holes with different widths ranging from 180 nm to 810 nm and 400 nm in depth by ALD and MOCVD. Each hole is separated from neighboring holes by 200 nm. The cross sectional TEM analysis for the trenches revealed that the PZT layers were consisted of columnar grains at the trench entrance and changes to polycrystalline granular grains at the lower part of the trench. The transition from columnar to granular grains was dependent on the trench size. The smaller trenches were favorable to granular grain formation. High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystal structure of each region. The beam was focused to about 500 μm and the diffraction patterns were obtained from a single trench. Only the peaks corresponding to ferroelectric tetragonal phases are observed for the trenches larger than 670 nm, which consist of fully columnar grains. However, the trenches smaller than 670 nm showed the peaks corresponding the pyrochlore phases, which suggested that the granular grains are of pyrochlore phases and non-ferroelectric.

  6. Characterization of 3D Trench PZT Capacitors for High Density FRAM Devices by Synchrotron X-ray Micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D trench PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) capacitors for 256 Mbit 1T-1C FRAM devices were characterized by synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction at Pohang Light Source. Three layers, Ir/PZT/Ir were deposited on SiO2 trench holes with different widths ranging from 180 nm to 810 nm and 400 nm in depth by ALD and MOCVD. Each hole is separated from neighboring holes by 200 nm. The cross sectional TEM analysis for the trenches revealed that the PZT layers were consisted of columnar grains at the trench entrance and changes to polycrystalline granular grains at the lower part of the trench. The transition from columnar to granular grains was dependent on the trench size. The smaller trenches were favorable to granular grain formation. High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystal structure of each region. The beam was focused to about 500 μm and the diffraction patterns were obtained from a single trench. Only the peaks corresponding to ferroelectric tetragonal phases are observed for the trenches larger than 670 nm, which consist of fully columnar grains. However, the trenches smaller than 670 nm showed the peaks corresponding the pyrochlore phases, which suggested that the granular grains are of pyrochlore phases and non-ferroelectric

  7. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests

  8. Ground Testing of Prototype Hardware and Processing Algorithms for a Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, N.; Dressler, R. A.; Richtsmeier, S. S.; McLean, J.; Dao, P. D.; Murray-Krezan, J.; Fulcoly, D. O.

    2013-09-01

    Recent ground testing of a wide area camera system and automated star removal algorithms has demonstrated the potential to detect, quantify, and track deep space objects using small aperture cameras and on-board processors. The camera system, which was originally developed for a space-based Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS), operates in a fixed-stare mode, continuously monitoring a wide swath of space and differentiating celestial objects from satellites based on differential motion across the field of view. It would have greatest utility in a LEO orbit to provide automated and continuous monitoring of deep space with high refresh rates, and with particular emphasis on the GEO belt and GEO transfer space. Continuous monitoring allows a concept of change detection and custody maintenance not possible with existing sensors. The detection approach is equally applicable to Earth-based sensor systems. A distributed system of such sensors, either Earth-based, or space-based, could provide automated, persistent night-time monitoring of all of deep space. The continuous monitoring provides a daily record of the light curves of all GEO objects above a certain brightness within the field of view. The daily updates of satellite light curves offers a means to identify specific satellites, to note changes in orientation and operational mode, and to queue other SSA assets for higher resolution queries. The data processing approach may also be applied to larger-aperture, higher resolution camera systems to extend the sensitivity towards dimmer objects. In order to demonstrate the utility of the WASSS system and data processing, a ground based field test was conducted in October 2012. We report here the results of the observations made at Magdalena Ridge Observatory using the prototype WASSS camera, which has a 4×60° field-of-view , single camera pointed at the GEO belt provided a continuous night-long record of the intensity and location of more than 50 GEO objects

  9. The Asia-Pacific effects of a megatsunami along the Tonga Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    A megatsunami (M>9.0) along the Tonga Trench has far-reaching consequences for 4 major continents of the world, and exposure ranging from the cities of Sydney and Brisbane, the coastlines of Japan, Canada, USA, and along South America not to mention the Pacific Islands. Using the TSUDAT software of Geoscience Australia, relevant scenarios are selected for the location. Fault mechanics and the possible regime are also then examined to create the scenario. In this study, the effects of a megatsunami scenario are investigated including the run-up heights in coastal regions on these four continents in addition to other hazard effects. Global level DEM and bathymetry data is used to provide a first estimate of the exposed population, built infrastructure (capital stock) and GDP in the tsunami inundation area. The uncertainties of such a study are taken into account by adjusting the scenario via source mechanism, magnitude range and directivity effects. This is combined with basic vulnerability functions from historical tsunamis in order to give an exposed and estimated loss and cost of reconstruction across the Pacific rim. Notes as to the warning times, country preparation and evacuation plans for tsunamis are also made given long lead times in some cases.

  10. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of Compacted Job Control Waste, Non-compactible, Non-incinerable Waste, And Other Wasteforms In Slit Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following issuance of the original document (i.e., rev. 0), it was decided to change the terminology for the calculated average concentrations derived from the inventory limit and the volumetric capacity of the unit. In the original document, the concentration values were termed ''limits''. This terminology proved problematic in managing the inventory limits through the deviation process. Thus, these values are now termed ''concentration guidelines''. Since the average concentration values presented in the UDQ serve no essential purpose, they were removed from the table. It was also decided to delete the table of materials acceptable for trench disposal (Table 2 of the original document). This table was only envisioned to be a listing of example materials. The intent of the PA, as well as the UDQ, is that any material, except for activated metal, meeting the trench WAC is acceptable

  11. Effect of the method of estimation of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity with regards to the design of stormwater infiltration trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva coutinho, Artur; Predelus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Ben Slimene, Erij; Celso Dantas Antonino, Antonio; Winiarski, Thierry; Joaquim da Silva Pereira Cabral, Jaime; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Best management practices are based on the infiltration of stormwater (e.g. infiltration into basins or trenches) to reduce the risk of flooding of urban areas. Proper estimations of saturated hydraulic conductivity of the vadose zone are required to avoid inappropriate design of infiltration devices. This article aims at assessing (i) the method-dependency of the estimation of soils saturated hydraulic conductivity and (ii) the consequences of such dependency on the design of infiltration trenches. This is illustrated for the specific case of an infiltration trench to be constructed to receive stormwater from a specific parking surface, 250 m2 in area, in Recife (Brazil). Water infiltration experiments were conducted according to the Beerkan Method, i.e. application of a zero water pressure head through a disc source (D=15 cm) and measures of the amount of infiltrated water with time. Saturated hydraulic conductivity estimates are derived from the analysis of these infiltration tests using several different conceptual approaches: one-dimensional models of Horton(1933) and Philip(1957), three-dimensional methods recently developed (Lassabatere et al., 2006, Wu et al., 1999, and Bagarello et al., 2013) and direct 3-dimensional numerical inversion. The estimations for saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged between 65.5 mm/h and 94 mm/h for one-dimensional methods, whereas using three-dimensional methods saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged between 15.6 mm/h and 50 mm/h. These results shows the need for accounting for 3D geometry, and more generally, the physics of water infiltration in soils, if a proper characterization of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity is targeted. In a second step, each estimate of the saturated hydraulic conductivity was used to calculate the stormwater to be stored in the studied trench for several rainfall events of recurrence intervals of 2 to 25 years. The calculation of these volumes showed a great sensitivity with regards to the

  12. Assessing earthquake hazards with fault trench and LiDAR maps in the Puget Lowland, Washington, USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. R.; Bradley, L.; Personius, S. F.; Johnson, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Deciphering the earthquake histories of faults over the past few thousands of years in tectonically complex forearc regions relies on detailed site-specific as well as regional geologic maps. Here we present examples of site-specific USGS maps used to reconstruct earthquake histories for faults in the Puget Lowland. Near-surface faults and folds in the Puget Lowland accommodate 4-7 mm/yr of north-south shortening resulting from northward migration of forearc blocks along the Cascadia convergent margin. The shortening has produced east-trending uplifts, basins, and associated reverse faults that traverse urban areas. Near the eastern and northern flanks of the Olympic Mountains, complex interactions between north-south shortening and mountain uplift are reflected by normal, oblique-slip, and reverse surface faults. Holocene oblique-slip movement has also been mapped on Whidbey Island and on faults in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains in the northeastern lowland. The close proximity of lowland faults to urban areas may pose a greater earthquake hazard there than do much longer but more distant plate-boundary faults. LiDAR imagery of the densely forested lowland flown over the past 12 years revealed many previously unknown 0.5-m to 6-m-high scarps showing Holocene movement on upper-plate faults. This imagery uses two-way traveltimes of laser light pulses to detect as little as 0.2 m of relative relief on the forest floor. The returns of laser pulses with the longest travel times yield digital elevation models of the ground surface, which we vertically exaggerate and digitally shade from multiple directions at variable transparencies to enhance identification of scarps. Our maps include imagery at scales of 1:40,000 to 1:2500 with contour spacings of 100 m to 0.5 m. Maps of the vertical walls of fault-scarp trenches show complex stratigraphies and structural relations used to decipher the histories of large surface-rupturing earthquakes. These logs (field mapping

  13. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  14. Dynamic and noise performance of large gate area MESFETs made in a monolithic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) with gate area up to 48,000 μm2 have been designed and fabricated using an ion-implanted GaAs monolithic process. They have been characterized at 300 K and in particular at 77 K and 4 K as they will be used at the input stage of low-noise preamplifiers for different kinds of cryogenic particle detectors. A single device with W = 6,000 μm has a 1/f noise sufficiently low to substitute it for a group of ten discrete MESFETs of the best quality put in parallel at the input of voltage-sensitive preamplifiers for bolometric detectors. A substantial reduction of noise, with high speed and low power dissipation was obtained in a prototype of a preamplifier designed for LAR calorimetry. Using the SPICE parameters extracted from measurements done on the present FETs, the authors designed monolithic low noise preamplifiers for the mentioned applications. The chips are presently under fabrication

  15. Ozone formation in relation with combustion processes in highly populated urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Avino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex chain of photochemical reactions is one of the most important tasks in the air quality evaluation, expecially in urban areas. In fact, in this case there are high emission levels of NOx and no-methane hydrocarbons by combustion processes such as autovehicular traffic, domestic heating and industrial plants. Ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but it is formed from a complex series of reactions between emitted nitrogen oxides (NOx and reactive organic compounds (ROC. The high ozone concentrations, which occur during photochemical episodes, are usually accompanied by elevated concentrations of other photochemical oxidants such as nitric acid (HNO3, peroxyacylnitrates (PANs, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, etc. The complex series of these reactions constitutes the most important issue to the degradation of air quality. Further, the NMHCs play a key role in the formation of photochemical air pollution: they are considered as precursors for ozone production at the ground level when the sunlight and nitrogen oxides are present. From a practically point of view defining a quality standard or a limit is substantially correct but it is no sufficient to solve the problem. So it should become necessary to acquire knowledge on the different formation mechanisms of the photochemical pollution phenomena. In this paper there will be shown the results of a long-term study performed in Rome for evaluating the ozone formation in relationship with the autovehicular traffic density.

  16. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE OPERATIONAL COVERS REANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Swingle, R.

    2011-05-26

    Operational inventory limits for the disposal of solid low-level waste in Slit Trenches 1-7 were established by the Special Analysis (SA) performed by Collard and Hamm (2008). To determine disposal limits for the Slit Trenches, the SA followed the methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) which assumed that the inventories in each trench were instantaneously placed in 12/1995, which is the date when SLIT1 began operation. The 2008 SA analyzed the impact from placing storm-water runoff covers simultaneously over Slit Trenches 1-7 at 5, 10 and 15 years after the inventory was introduced. To include a measure of conservatism in the limits, the lowest of the limits calculated for any storm-water runoff cover placement time or that calculated in the original 2008 PA was chosen as the operational limit for each radionuclide. Through the availability of funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), storm-water runoff covers were placed over Slit Trenches 1-5 in December 2010. SRNL was requested to perform a UDQE for this accelerated action. Table 1 below lists the operational dates for Slit Trenches 1-5 and the time elapsed between when the first waste package was disposed in each Slit Trench and when the storm-water runoff covers were placed. As shown in Table 1, SLIT1 was covered 15.0 years after the date of the first waste package disposal. SLIT2 was covered 9.2 years after the date of the first waste package disposal in SLIT2 which falls within the window of {+-} 1.0 year within which the 2008 SA cover time analysis was assumed to be valid (Crowley and Butcher, 2008). Therefore, the analysis of SLIT1 and SLIT2 in the 2008 SA is considered adequate. However, the cover timings for SLIT3, SLIT4 and SLIT5 are from 2.2 to 1.6 years beyond the nearest cover time of 5 years assumed in the 2008 SA analysis and fall outside of the acceptable one-year margin. Therefore, an additional study was conducted by Collard et al. (2011) that assessed the

  17. Map of Phoenix Digging Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop has started digging, and the next areas planned for digging. The majority of the area to the right of the current trench is being preserved for future digging. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Identification of Yield-Limiting Defects in a 0.5 Micron, Shallow Trench Isolation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, Bruce L.; Headley, Thomas J.; Hembree, Charles E.; Henderson, Christopher L.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1999-08-02

    During the development and qualification of a radiation-hardened, 0.5 {micro}m shallow trench isolation technology, several yield-limiting defects were observed. The 256K (32K x 8) static-random access memories (SRAMs) used as a technology characterization vehicle had elevated power supply current during wafer probe testing. Many of the die sites were functional, but exhibited quiescent power supply current (I{sub DDQ}) in excess of 100 {micro}A, the present limit for this particular SRAM. Initial electrical analysis indicated that many of the die sites exhibited unstable I{sub DDQ} that fluctuated rapidly. We refer to this condition as ''jitter.'' The I{sub DDQ} jitter appeared to be independent of temperature and predominantly associated with the larger 256K SRAMs and not as prevalent in the 16K SRAMs (on the same reticle set). The root cause of failure was found to be two major processing problems: salicide bridging and stress-induced dislocations in the silicon islands.

  19. Reality check on Ontario electricity price procurement: a report from the trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approaches taken to manage energy price risks from three different perspectives were presented. The first perspective presented was that of a law firm specializing in assisting a wide variety of clients constituting retailers and large industrial, institutional, and commercial users. The second perspective presented was that of Dofasco, the largest industrial electricity consumer in Ontario, followed by the perspective offered by Oakville Hydro, representing one of few municipally owned electricity retailers in Ontario. The first order of business, from the lawyer's viewpoint, is to identify relevant considerations for consumers and retailers, such as how do you intend to participate in the new market, what are the desired outcomes, the appetite for risk. The formulation of an approach should take the following into consideration: historical context versus new market reality, experience with electricity suppliers, and dilemma for consumers and retailers on how to level the playing field. The chosen approach was that of a request for proposals process for electricity price procurement. In the case of Dofasco, the introduction of the deregulated electricity market meant business risks, which it chose to address using an integrated risk management approach. Oakville Hydro explained its reasons for jumping into a trench: earn financial rewards and prevent brand equity erosion. Retail business must be kept simple through identifying, understanding and limiting the risks; and moving carefully but expeditiously. To mitigate the risks, it advocated getting the best legal and economics advice possible, looking for experienced partners, and not betting the shop.tabs., figs

  20. Relationships between environment and characteristics of marine Fe-Mn deposits in the Romanche trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological characteristics and Fe-Mn deposits from the North wall of the Romanche trench (Atlantic ocean) were studied in order to investigate possible relationships of these deposits with hydrothermalism. The results indicate diffuse hydrothermal activity in all of the rock samples which may explain the notable mineralogical associations observed, such as talc-dolomite-hematite-serpentine. All rock outcrops were covered with Fe-Mn deposits, but no such deposits were noted on sedimentary platforms. The variations in average chemical composition are very low among the different deposits. Hence, the phenomenon which produces these deposits is not localized. From this study, we conclude that marine Fe-Mn deposits result from the continuous supply of terrigenous iron and discontinuous supply of manganese, probably hydrothermal in origin. Detrital particles and numerous chemical elements are scavenged during the accretion process itself, whereas some trace elements, among the least soluble (Co, Ti, Th, Ce), are adsorbed on these deposits, independently of the accretion. This explains the inverse variation of the content of these elements versus deposit thickness

  1. Distributed Coseismic and Early Postseismic Dip-Slip from the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake: A Unique Image of Near-Trench Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Newman, A. V.; Fritz, H.

    2008-12-01

    We estimate the spatial distribution of dip-slip in the 1 April 2007 magnitude MW=8.1 Solomon earthquake, which created a locally large tsunami with runup heights up to 12 m. The event is unique in that involved the rupture of at least two subducting plates, and that land occurs very close to the trench on the hanging wall side. The occurrence of islands extremely proximal to the trench allowed for the collection of near-shore uplift and subsidence information from costal areas (including the exposure and subsidence of corals), hence giving a unique well-resolved image of the near-trench geodetically derived slip. Two surveys, taken between 1 week and 1 month after the event primarily across the southern portion of the slip zone, comprise a dataset of approximately 100 measurements of between +3.6 and -1.5 m of vertical displacements [Fritz and Kalligeris, 2008; Taylor et al., 2008]. We use the Okada [1992] elastic dislocation model, to explore the distribution of dip-slip on discrete patches. To maintain a realistic distribution of slip we smooth the solution by attempting to minimize the second-order spatial derivative of slip, hence minimizing the stress change across the system. Because data are only vertical in nature and the expected strike-slip component of the thrust is small, only the dip-slip component of rupture was considered. Early results show highly variable dip-slip both along-strike and down- dip, with a significant focus of slip in the shallow near trench area. If real, this near-trench focusing may explain the locally high runup on portions of Simbo Island. Because it is not certain how much of the modeled slip occurred due to coseismic versus post-seismic recovery and afterslip, we explore the variability of solutions between the two surveys and compare results with the available spatial distribution of co-seismic finite-slip model of C. Ji [unpublished, 2007].

  2. Modeling and Field Study of Coupled Bio-Optical Physical Processes in the Monterey Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, I.; Arnone, R.; Teague, W.; Chavez, F.; Schofield, O.; Moline, M.; Penta, B.; Ryan, J.; Gould, R.; Anderson, S.; Jolliff, J. K.; Book, J. W.; Derada, S.; Paduan, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists from government, academia and non-profit organizations participated in an interdisciplinary field program in the Monterey Bay from during May-June of 2008. The experiment was a collaboration between the NRL project "Bio-Optical Studies of Predictability and Assimilation for the Coastal Environment (BIOSPACE)", Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) project "Rapid Environmental Assessment Using an Integrated Coastal Ocean Observation-Modeling System (ESPRESSO)", the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), the NRL project "Unattended Sea-bed Power for In-water Operations", and the U.S. Geological Survey. Objectives of the NRL BIOSPACE and MURI ESPRESSO projects are centered around developing an understanding of coupled bio-optical and physical processes in the coastal zone and improvements of predictability of coastal ocean optical properties on time scales of 1-5 days. MBARI has long-term objectives of monitoring, studying and managing the Monterey Bay ecosystem dynamics and health. The goals for the 2008 field program were to create a synoptic view of the coupled bio- optical physical conditions in the Monterey Bay and to relate satellite observed properties to their subsurface structure. The program was focused on the so-called "upwelling shadow area"(northern part of the bay), where biological processes are enhanced as a result of the slower physical dynamics. The field program deployed a wide range of assets: gliders, AUVs, ScanFish (a ship-towed platform), SEPTR, etc. This deployment was supplemented with intensive station sampling from the R/V Point Sur and satellite ocean color imagery (MODIS, MERIS). The field program was supported by a real-time modeling effort consisting of a hierarchy of different resolution, nested, data assimilating, coupled bio-optical physical models. Development of a pair of cyclonic (in the bay) and anticyclonic (outside of the bay) eddies was observed and predicted by the model during an

  3. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  4. Investigation by high resolution X-ray diffraction of the local strains induced in Si by periodic arrays of oxide filled trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, M. [TECSEN-CNRS, Universite Paul Cezanne (Aix-Marseille III), FST Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); ATMEL Rousset - ZI ROUSSET, 13106 Rousset cedex (France); Escoubas, S.; Gailhanou, M.; Thomas, O. [TECSEN-CNRS, Universite Paul Cezanne (Aix-Marseille III), FST Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Micha, J.S. [UMR SPrAM 5819, CNRS-CEA-UJF, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rohr, P.; Coppard, R. [ATMEL Rousset - ZI ROUSSET, 13106 Rousset cedex (France)

    2007-08-15

    High Resolution X-ray Diffraction allows for the measurement of periodic strain fields in monocrystalline silicon and is non-destructive. In this study a periodic strain field is induced in Si by SiO{sub 2} filled trenches (Shallow Trench Isolation process). The strain in Si is evaluated for different periods of the trench arrays namely from 2 {mu}m to 0.2 {mu}m. The periodic strain field gives rise to satellites in reciprocal space maps around the Si substrate peak. The intensity and envelope of these satellites depend on the local strain. The experimental reciprocal space maps are qualitatively compared with those computed from the elastic displacement field calculated with finite element modeling. When the array period decreases, a strong increase in local strain is observed. From 0.58 {mu}m period and below, in addition to the Si substrate diffraction peak, a secondary diffraction peak representative of the strain in Si lines can be distinguished on reciprocal space maps. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. A Numerical Study of the Screening Effectiveness of Open Trenches for High-Speed Train-Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hung Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the 2D boundary element method in time domain to examine the screening effectiveness of open trenches on reducing vibration generated by a high-speed train. The parameters included configurations of the trench, train speed, the distance between the source and the trench, and the Poisson’s ratio of the soil. A reducing displacement level (in dB scale was defined and used to evaluate the screening effectiveness of a wave barrier. The maximal reducing displacement level reached 25 dB when an open trench was used as a wave barrier. The depth of an open trench is a main influential parameter of screening effectiveness. The cutoff frequency of the displacement spectrum increases with decreasing trench depth. The maximal screening effectiveness occurs when the depth is 0.3-0.4 Rayleigh wavelength. Using an open trench as a wave barrier can reduce 10–25 dB of vibration amplitude at frequencies between 30 and 70 Hz. A considerable increase in screening effectiveness of the open trench was observed from 30 to 70 Hz, which matches the main frequencies of vibration induced by Taiwan High Speed Rail. The influence of trench width on screening effectiveness is nonsignificant except for frequencies from 30 to 40 Hz. Poisson’s ratio has various effects on the reduction of vibration at frequencies higher than 30 Hz.

  6. Numerical analysis of the Gibbs-Thomson effect on trench-filling epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Ji, Shiyang; Kosugi, Ryoji; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion equation was numerically analyzed to examine the rate of homoepitaxial growth on a trenched 4H-SiC substrate. The radii of curvature at the top and bottom of the trenches were used to take the Gibbs-Thomson effect into account in the analysis based on the conventional boundary-layer model. When the trench pitch was less than or equal to 6.0 µm, the measured dependence of the growth rate on the trench pitch was found to be explained by the Gibbs-Thomson effect on the vapor-phase diffusion of growing species.

  7. Ocean-Bottom Seismograph Array Results from the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, H. E.; Pulliam, J.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    A six-month deployment of five ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS) in 2007 provided unique geometrical constraints on the style of faulting in a sharp corner of the boundary between North America (NOAM) and Caribbean (CAR) plates to the east of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). This region has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since 1976, as indicated by the historical catalog, and the OBS deployment capture two such swarms. When analyzed jointly with land-based stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and Netherlands Antilles Network, the OBS recordings provide stronger geometrical constraints on hypocenters and focal mechanisms than is possible with land-based stations alone. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P-wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, produce left-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip events distributed broadly over the study region, but a sub-area dominated by right-lateral strike-slip events that corresponds to the two recorded swarms. A stress inversion reveals maximum horizontal compressive stress vectors for the broader region that are aligned with the local direction of NOAM-CAR plate convergence, as determined by previous studies, but the sub-area in which the swarms occurred is dominated by horizontal stresses that are nearly normal to the direction of convergence. When evaluated in the context of previous studies, these results support the hypothesis that the subducting NOAM plate is tearing, or crumpling, in this corner of the boundary. Tearing may result as the subducting slab accommodates the sharp bend here, as a response to mantle flow from CAR to NOAM regimes, or as a result of eastward propagation of the dramatic PRT, or as a combination of these events.

  8. A 100-V High-Performance SOI Trench LDMOS with Low Cell Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punetha, Mayank; Singh, Yashvir

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report structural modifications in the conventional laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) field-effect transistor on thin silicon-on-insulator by incorporating trenches into the planar technology. The proposed power LDMOS includes two trenches built in the drift region on both sides of the p-base. The gate electrode is placed vertically in the left-side trench, while the right-side trench is filled with oxide. The proposed trench structure suppresses the electric field in the drift region due to the reduced-surface-field effect and allows increased doping concentration to achieve a better trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance. At breakdown voltage of 103 V, the proposed device provides six times higher Baliga's figure of merit, 38% decrease in gate-drain charge, and 9.5 times improvement in dynamic figure of merit as compared with the conventional LDMOS. Further, the proposed device achieves four times reduction in cell pitch as compared with the conventional structure.

  9. Design and fabrication of high power single mode double-trench ridge waveguide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shaoyang; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruikang; Lu, Dan; Ji, Chen

    2014-03-01

    A high power single-lateral-mode double-trench ridge waveguide semiconductor laser is reported. The laser has a compressively strained double quantum-well (DQW) and an GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement structure. The ridge waveguide is defined by two trenches of finite width on either side of the ridge, which will result mode radiation towards outside of the trenches. The relationship between the leakage loss and the waveguide geometry of the each lateral mode is studied with effective index method. The relationship under different bias condition is evaluated. Based on the simulation, lasers with various trench width, trench depth and ridge width are fabricated and tested. With optimized geometry parameters, a laser of 1.5-mm cavity length with a maximum single-lateral-mode operation current of 550 mA is obtained. The threshold current and the slope efficiency of the laser is 30 mA and 0.72 W/A, respectively. The maximum single-lateral-mode power is up to 340 mW.

  10. Ways of Fishery Local Life: Processes of Participation in Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Areas of the Upper Gulf of Eastern Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulak Sa-Ngiamlak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Local fishery was an inherited occupation for a long time. The objective of this research were to study: (1 the local fishery lifestyle of community in local fishery on upper area in Gulf of Thailand, (2 the appropriate participation process in natural resource management on upper part in Gulf of Thailand of people and organization and (3 the guidelines in natural resource management on the coastal area in upper part on Gulf of Thailand as relevant to local fishery lifestyle. Approach: The research area consisted of the shore of upper area in Gulf of Thailand including: Chachoengsao, Samutprakan, Samutsakon, Samutsongkram, Pechburi, Chonburi, Ra-yong, Chantaburi and Trad provinces. The samples as informants were 100 persons. The instruments using for data collection included the Survey, Interview Form, Observation Form, Record Form of Focus Group Discussion and Record Form of Participatory Workshop. The obtained data were classified into groups and investigated by using Triangulation Technique. Qualitative data were analyzed based on specified objectives. Results: The study of local fishery lifestyle found that there was location as in the present area owing to the fertility of area next to the sea. So, they could earn their living by fishery on coastal area. The local fishermen’s lifestyle was simple. Their living places were wooden houses with high space under a Thai house. For relationship of relative groups, they still helped each other among community people. They had belief in guardian spirit of a ship or boat and Kromluang Choomponke dudomsak. They did traditional fishery. Most of their instruments were made by themselves and adapted based on appropriateness. The wisdoms were transferred within their family, (2 the participation process in appropriate natural resource management, found that based on problem situations of natural resource on coastal area in upper area on Gulf of Thailand, being destroyed. Consequently

  11. Plutonium Mobility Studies: 216-Z-9 Trench Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-09-05

    A variety of analyses were conducted on selected sediment samples collected from two wells (299 W15-46 and 299-W15-48) drilled near the 216-Z-9 Trench to elucidate the form and potential for Pu and Am to be mobilized under present conditions and those that could be expected in future remediation scenarios. Analyses included moisture content, determination of the less than sand size fraction (silt plus clay), carbon analysis, SEM/EDS analysis, microwave-assisted acid digestions for total element analysis, and extraction tests using Hanford groundwater as the leachate. Results of the extraction tests were used as input to conduct equilibrium geochemical modeling of the solutions with Geochemist’s Workbench®. Geochemical modeling results for Pu were evaluated in terms of recent conclusions regarding the solubility and redox reactions of Pu by Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b). It was found that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am were associated with sediments of low silt/clay content and occur above silt/clay rich layers within the sediment profile. It was also found that the Pu and Am were relatively enriched in the silt/clay portion of these samples. The fact that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in sediments with low silt/clay contents suggests that waste solutions had perched on top of the low permeability silt/clay rich layers and interactions with the high silt/clay layers was minimal. SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the Pu and Am in these sediments does not occur as discrete micron size particles, and therefore must occur as mononuclear or polynuclear/ nanoclusters size particles adsorbed throughout the sediment samples. Leaching of these samples with Hanford groundwater indicates that release of Pu and Am from the sediments is correlated most significantly with the acidity of the water and not the initial concentrations of Pu and Am in the sediments. Only extracts that were acidic after contact with the sediments (pH 4.3 to 5.4) contained

  12. Processes of bedrock groundwater seepage and their effects on soil water fluxes in a foot slope area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Naoya; Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Yamakawa, Yosuke; Tsutsumi, Daizo

    2016-04-01

    The impact of bedrock groundwater seepage on surface hydrological processes in a foot slope area is an important issue in hillslope hydrology. However, properties of water flux vectors around a seepage area are poorly understood because previous studies have lacked sufficient spatial resolution to capture detailed water movements. Here, we conducted hydrometric observations using unprecedented high-resolution and three-dimensional tensiometer nests in the mountainous foot slope area of the Hirudani experimental basin (Japan). Our findings are summarized as follows: (1) a considerable quantity of groundwater seeped from the bedrock surface in the study site. A groundwater exfiltration flux occurred constantly from a seepage area regardless of rainfall conditions. Saturated lateral flow over the bedrock surface occurred constantly in the region downslope of the seepage area. Groundwater was likely to mixed with soil water infiltration and flowed toward the lower end of the slope. (2) During the wet season, the seepage area expanded ∼3 m in the upslope direction along the bedrock valley in a single season. (3) The pressure head waveform observed in the seepage area showed gradual and significant increases after large rainfall events. However, the seepage pressure propagated within a relatively narrow area: a slope distance of ∼4 m from the seepage point in the downslope direction due to the damping of seepage pressure. (4) Within the whole study area, groundwater seeped from a narrow area located at the bottom of the valley line of the bedrock surface. The shape of the seepage area changed along the valley line in the wet season. Overall, we reveal spatial and temporal variations in bedrock groundwater seepage under the soil mantle and the effects on soil water fluxes. These findings should improve the accuracy of models for predicting surface hydrogeomorphological processes in mountainous hillslopes.

  13. Seismic reflection imaging in the ruptured area of The Tohoku-Oki Earthquake - Results from rapid response seismic reflection surveys -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; No, T.; Fujie, G.; Kaiho, Y.; Sato, T.; Barnes, J.; Boston, B.; Yamashita, M.; Park, J.; Miura, S.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Moore, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes ever observed and generated devastating Tsunamis. Seismological analysis revealed that the large slip occurred beneath the lower trench slope area, close to the Japan trench axis, (e.g. Ide et al. 2011), which seems to be related with the Tsunami generation. We conducted rapid response reflection seismic surveys using R/V Kairei after the main shock to delineate the structure of the ruptured area off Miyagi. Ten E-W lines with at least 120 km of length were surveyed using a 6 km-long, 444 channel streamer cable and a 7800 inch^3 tuned air gun array. The line spacing was 10-20 km. Preliminary processed data and their interpretation demonstrate that the structure considerably varies from south to north in the survey area. Normal faults dominate in the deep sea terrace. Those faults cut sedimentary sequence in this area, and sometimes offset the reflector at the top of cretaceous sequence. Beneath the trench slope, there are few reflectors especially in the shallower depth below the seafloor. Low angle landward dipping reflectors are observed in most of the survey area, some of them coincides with the backstop interface pointed out by Tsuru et al. (2000), but apparent shape and location of these reflectors are not consistent through the survey area. These reflectors may represent faults, but it is difficult to determine the sense of faulting. In the northern part of the survey area, prominent seaward dipping normal faults are observed in the upper to middle slope. Similar normal faults in small scale can be also recognized in some other lines, and should be one of key features offshore Tohoku region.

  14. Feature Profile Evolution of SiO2 Trenches In Fluorocarbon Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Helen; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arunachalam, Valli; Rauf, Shahid; Coronell, Dan; Carroll, Carol W. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Etching of silicon microstructures for semiconductor manufacturing in chlorine plasmas has been well characterized. The etching proceeds in a two-part process, where the chlorine neutrals passivate the Si surface and then the ions etch away SiClx. However, etching in more complicated gas mixtures and materials, such as etching of SiO2 in Ar/C4F8, requires knowledge of the ion and neutral distribution functions as a function of angle and velocity, in addition to modeling the gas surface reactions. In order to address these needs, we have developed and integrated a suite of models to simulate the etching process from the plasma reactor level to the feature profile evolution level. This arrangement allows for a better understanding, control, and prediction of the influence of equipment level process parameters on feature profile evolution. We are currently using the HPEM (Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model) and PCMCM (Plasma Chemistry Monte Carlo Model) to generate plasma properties and ion and neutral distribution functions for argon/fluorocarbon discharges in a GEC Reference Cell. These quantities are then input to the feature scale model, Simulation of Profile Evolution by Level Sets (SPELS). A surface chemistry model is used to determine the interaction of the incoming species with the substrate material and simulate the evolution of the trench profile. The impact of change of gas pressure and inductive power on the relative flux of CFx and F to the wafer, the etch and polymerization rates, and feature profiles will be examined. Comparisons to experimental profiles will also be presented.

  15. An Integrated Reclamation Scheme to Ensure Good Mining and Mineral Processing Practices in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Opafunso Zacheus; George Agyei; T.B. Afeni

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the environmental conditions of mining and mineral processing sites in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria with special reference to Ondo State, Nigeria. For the purpose of the study, field data were collected on the location, locality, mining status and environmental conditions of solid mineral deposits in the states that make up the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers were used to determine the location of each site visited. Physi...

  16. Effect of some natural processes on the generation and characteristics of aerosols over radioactive polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of radioactive aerosols over contaminated areas results from some natural and technogenic factors. Results of several years investigations of physicochemical properties of secondary aerosols, such as volume activity, radionuclide composition, dispersity, are presented taking Chernobyl accident as an example. The results of monitoring of the aerosol from traffic, dust storms and forest fires are presented. Data of aerosol monitoring in the 30 km controlled area near Chernobyl power plant and controlled areas in other regions (Belarus, Lithuania) are compared. Some methodical aspects of the sampling and analyses of aerosols are considered. The recommendations for choice of the personal respirators are given

  17. Close-range geophotogrammetric mapping of trench walls using multi-model stereo restitution software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for mapping geologic features exposed on trench walls have advanced from conventional gridding and sketch mapping to precise close-range photogrammetric mapping. In our study, two strips of small-format (60 x 60) stereo pairs, each containing 42 photos and covering approximately 60 m of nearly vertical trench wall (2-4 m high), were contact printed onto eight 205 x 255-mm transparent film sheets. Each strip was oriented in a Kern DSR15 analytical plotter using the bundle adjustment module of Multi-Model Stereo Restitution Software (MMSRS). We experimented with several systematic-control-point configurations to evaluate orientation accuracies as a function of the number and position of control points. We recommend establishing control-point columns (each containing 2-3 points) in every 5th photo to achieve the 7-mm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) accuracy required by our trench-mapping project. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Release mechanisms from shallow engineered trenches used as repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been written for the Department of the Environment as part of their radioactive waste management research programme. The aim has been to identify release mechanisms of radioactivity from fully engineered trenches of the LAND 2 type and, to identify the data needed for their assessment. No direct experimental work has been involved. The report starts with a brief background to UK strategy and outlines a basic disposal system. It gives reviews of existing experience of low level radioactive waste disposal from LAND 1 trenches and of UK experience of toxic waste disposal to provide a practical basis for the next section which covers the implications of identified release mechanisms on the design requirements for an engineered trench. From these design requirements and their interaction with potential site conditions (both saturated and unsaturated zone sites are considered) an assessment of radionuclide release mechanism is made. (author)

  19. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cooperatively developed and implemented metropolitan-wide strategy, of new and existing transportation... an appropriate congestion management strategy, explicit consideration is to be given to the... each area: (i) Demand management measures, including growth management and congestion pricing;...

  20. The role of expectations in the inflation process in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Maritta; Virén , Matti

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of inflation expectations in the euro area. On one hand, the question is how inflation expectations affect both inflation and output, and, on the other hand, how inflation expectations reflect developments in these variables. The analyses make use of a simple VAR model of inflation, inflation expectations and the output gap that allows for an analysis of the dynamic interrelationship between these variables. This model is estimated on aggregate euro area data, poo...

  1. Safety assessment of cosmetic products, with emphasis on the ocular area: regulatory aspects and validation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Maythê de Lima Cancian; Mauricio Saadi Leonardi; Mariane Martins Mosca; Lucas Offenbecker Guerra; Simone Fanan Hengeltraub; Gislaine Ricci Leonardi

    2014-01-01

    Before marketing a cosmetic product, a series of biological assays, such as ocular irritation tests, must be conducted in order to prove that the product is safe. However, a few scientific articles mention the discussion and evolution of cosmetic products testing performed in the eyes area. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the evolution of tests carried out with cosmetics, in the ocular area, as well as to describe the methodologies that have been used and that ...

  2. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  3. Geological setting of the Concordia Trench-Lake system in East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Cianfarra, P.; Forieri, A.; F. Salvini; Tabacco, I. E.; Zirizzotti, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the interpretation of radio echo-sounding (RES) data collected during the 2003 geophysical campaign of PNRA (Italian National Research Project in Antarctica), which focused on the exploration of the Concordia Trench-Lake system in East Antarctica. The data allow us to identify a new lake (ITL-28) at the southern edge of the Concordia Trench and a series of N–S trending subglacial troughs cutting through the Belgica Highlands. We have mapped the bedrock morphology at 3 km r...

  4. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of two-dimensional high-aspect-ratio metal trenches acting as resonators for gap-surface plasmons and show that these resonators are highly efficient scatterers of free waves, reaching at resonance in the perfect-conductor limit the unitary dipolar limit for...... only on the resonance wavelength. For real metals with nonzero absorption, efficient monomaterial absorbers and emitters can be fabricated. We extend the analysis to tapering trenches that can be readily fabricated employing common milling or etching techniques and verify by reflection spectroscopy and...

  5. A two-equation k-omega turbulence model simulation to narrow trench on flat plate

    OpenAIRE

    Antar M.M. Abdala, Qun Zheng, Fifi N.M. Elwekeel

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, computational simulations was made using ANSYS CFX to predict the improvements in film cooling performance with narrow trench. Two turbulence models k-ω and k-ε were used. Blowing ratios in the range (0.5:1.8) were investigated. The results compared with experiments at different blowing ratios. Comparison of results with the k-ε model indicates that the k-ω model predicts circulations inside trench equally well at all blowing ratios. Over the surface, at low blowing ratio...

  6. Low temperature Trench IGBT static and dynamic operating modes investigation based on simulation and experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Stephane; Benmansour, Adel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the low temperature Trench IGBT behavior based on simulations and experiments. On one hand, the goal was to focus on the simulations at low temperature of Trench IGBT using the physically based 2D device simulator from ISE. The basic simulation file was provided by Toyota CRDL. By low temperature, it means a value down to -40°C. On another hand, in addition to simulations, experiments have been carried. The relationship between experiments and ...

  7. First results on a process-oriented rain area classification technique using Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI nighttime data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thies

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for process-oriented rain area classification using Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI nighttime data is introduced. It is based on a combination of the Advective Convective Technique (ACT which focuses on precipitation areas connected to convective processes and the Rain Area Delineation Scheme during Nighttime (RADS-N a new technique for the improved detection of stratiform precipitation areas (e.g. in connection with mid-latitude frontal systems. The ACT which uses positive brightness temperature differences between the water vapour (WV and the infrared (IR channels (ΔTWV-IR for the detection of convective clouds and connected precipitating clouds has been transferred from Meteosat First Generation (MFG Metesoat Visible and Infra-Red Imager radiometer (MVIRI to Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI. RADS-N is based on the new conceptual model that precipitating cloud areas are characterised by a large cloud water path (cwp and the presence of ice particles in the upper part of the cloud. The technique considers information about both parameters inherent in the channel differences ΔT3.9-10.8, ΔT3.9-7.3, ΔT8.7-10.8, and ΔT10.8-12.1, to detect potentially precipitating cloud areas. All four channel differences are used to gain implicit knowledge about the cwp. ΔT8.7-10.8 and ΔT10.8-12.1 are additionally considered to gain information about the cloud phase. First results of a comparison study between the classified rain areas and corresponding ground based radar data for precipitation events in connection with a cold front occlusion show encouraging performance of the new proposed process-oriented rain area classification scheme.

  8. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  9. Usalpharma: A Cloud-Based Architecture to Support Quality Assurance Training Processes in Health Area Using Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García-Peñalvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how cloud-based architectures can extend and enhance the functionality of the training environments based on virtual worlds and how, from this cloud perspective, we can provide support to analysis of training processes in the area of health, specifically in the field of training processes in quality assurance for pharmaceutical laboratories, presenting a tool for data retrieval and analysis that allows facing the knowledge discovery in the happenings inside the virtual worlds.

  10. Usalpharma: a cloud-based architecture to support quality assurance training processes in health area using virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco J; Cruz-Benito, Juan; Maderuelo, Cristina; Pérez-Blanco, Jonás Samuel; Martín-Suárez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how cloud-based architectures can extend and enhance the functionality of the training environments based on virtual worlds and how, from this cloud perspective, we can provide support to analysis of training processes in the area of health, specifically in the field of training processes in quality assurance for pharmaceutical laboratories, presenting a tool for data retrieval and analysis that allows facing the knowledge discovery in the happenings inside the virtual worlds. PMID:24778593

  11. High velocity geomorphological processes in a tropical area: the Remparts River case study (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Manuel; Poisson, Blanche; Pouget, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Reunion Island is characterized by rapid landscape evolution resulting from its cyclonic tropical climate. However local active surface processes are not well understood. The relationships between climatic events, large scale landslides and torrential transport of sediment by the rivers remain unclear. The Remparts River is an appropriate area for studying such geomorphological processes, as it deeply incises the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano. In this study, different approaches are us...

  12. Single-exposure approach for expanding the sampled area of a dynamic process by digital holography with combined multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an approach for expanding the sampled area of a dynamic process by digital holography is reported, where angular, polarization and wavelength multiplexing are applied to record different regions of the sample on a series of sub-holograms overlapped in a single frame of the charge-coupled device. This approach based on a single exposure has special potential for the digital holographic recording of dynamic processes. (paper)

  13. Molecular simulation of multi-component adsorption processes related to carbon capture in a high surface area, disordered activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Di Biase, Emanuela; Sarkisov, Lev

    2015-01-01

    We employ a previously developed model of a high surface area activated carbon, based on a random packing of small fragments of a carbon sheet, functionalized with hydroxyl surface groups, to explore adsorption of water and multicomponent mixtures under conditions representing typical carbon capture processes. Adsorption of water is initialized and proceeds through the growth of clusters around the surface groups, in a process predominantly governed by hydrogen bond interactions. In contrast,...

  14. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: penhamartins@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.br; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  15. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  16. Calculating Soil Wetness, Evapotranspiration and Carbon Cycle Processes Over Large Grid Areas Using a New Scaling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Soil wetness typically shows great spatial variability over the length scales of general circulation model (GCM) grid areas (approx 100 km ), and the functions relating evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rate to local-scale (approx 1 m) soil wetness are highly non-linear. Soil respiration is also highly dependent on very small-scale variations in soil wetness. We therefore expect significant inaccuracies whenever we insert a single grid area-average soil wetness value into a function to calculate any of these rates for the grid area. For the particular case of evapotranspiration., this method - use of a grid-averaged soil wetness value - can also provoke severe oscillations in the evapotranspiration rate and soil wetness under some conditions. A method is presented whereby the probability distribution timction(pdf) for soil wetness within a grid area is represented by binning. and numerical integration of the binned pdf is performed to provide a spatially-integrated wetness stress term for the whole grid area, which then permits calculation of grid area fluxes in a single operation. The method is very accurate when 10 or more bins are used, can deal realistically with spatially variable precipitation, conserves moisture exactly and allows for precise modification of the soil wetness pdf after every time step. The method could also be applied to other ecological problems where small-scale processes must be area-integrated, or upscaled, to estimate fluxes over large areas, for example in treatments of the terrestrial carbon budget or trace gas generation.

  17. SOFTWARE PROCESS MATURITY AND CAPABILITY EVALUATION AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE AREAS OF E-LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Chennakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed literature review revealed that, most of the organizations develop their projects and associated software engineering activities using in-house established methods. There are discrete references in the literature on application of broad based scientific methods in designing and developing process capability and maturity models by software organizations. Documentation and extent of adherence to a well defined organized scientific method plays a major role in standardizing the systems. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI is a recognized model for providing process maturity and capability in managing the software engineering activities. Further, the area of development of process models for optimization and implementation of thrust areas were not given due attention by researchers. To address above issues, we made an attempt in this study (i to review the extent to which software organization make use of software process capability models, (ii to develop an organized software process modeling and (iii to evaluate its performance through a case study conducted in an IT industry developing E-learning maturity models and to arrive at optimized model for E-Learning thrust areas. The basis for above work is drawn by comparing the existing methods and tools used, with international models. The major contribution of present work is that, the proposed process capability model will enable organizations to follow broad based scientific methods for pre modeling their software activities and will also enable them to form levels that result in bench mark approach for E-Learning modules.

  18. The Protected Areas Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resulted in ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objectivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.

  19. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  20. Mass-transport deposits on the Algerian margin (Algiers area) : morphology, lithology and sedimentary processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Gabriela; Sultan, Nabil; Cattaneo, Antonio; Déverchère, Jacques; Yelles, Karim

    2009-01-01

    On 21st May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw: 6.9 struck the region of Boumerdès 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria. The seismic shocks had devastating effects in the offshore area between the cities of Algiers and Dellys, where numerous cable breaks were observed. The submarine area encompassing the 2003 Boumerdès epicenter (central Algerian margin) was recently investigated using geophysical and sampling tools. It has been observed that small-size slides and mass-transport deposits ...

  1. Paleoseismological data from a new trench across the El Camp Fault(Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boydell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The El Camp Fault (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Iberian Peninsula is a slow slipping normal fault whose seismic potential has only recently been recognised. New geomorphic and trench investigations were carried out during a training course across the El Camp Fault at the La Porquerola alluvial fan site. A new trench (trench 8 was dug close to a trench made previously at this site (trench 4. With the aid of two long topographic profiles across the fault scarp we obtained a vertical slip rate ranging between 0.05 and 0.08 mm/yr. At the trench site, two main faults, which can be correlated between trenches 8 and 4, make up the fault zone. Using trench analysis three paleoseismic events were identified, two between 34.000 and 125.000 years BP (events 3 and 2 and another event younger than 13 500 years BP (event 1, which can be correlated, respectively, with events X (50.000- 125.000 years BP, Y (35.000-50.000 years BP and Z (3000-25.000 years BP. The last seismic event at the La Porquerola alluvial fan site is described for the first time, but with some uncertainties.

  2. Mass-transport deposits in the northern Ecuador subduction trench : result of frontal erosion over multiple seismic cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Ratzov, Gueorgui; Collot, Jean-Yves; Sosson, M.; Migeon, S.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of Mass-Transport Deposits (MTDs) and turbidite deposition in the confined North Ecuador subduction trench provide access to paleoseismic information and insights into long-term mechanisms for frontal tectonic erosion at a convergent margin. The studied trench has been the site of four great subduction earthquakes (7.7

  3. Compliance matrix for the mixed waste disposal facilities, trenches 31 and 34, burial ground 218-W-5. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a listing of applicable regulatory requirements to the Mixed Waste Disposal trenches. After the listing of regulations to be followed is a listing of documents that show how the regulations are being implemented and followed for the Mixed Waste trenches

  4. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

  5. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  6. Potential human health risks associated with historic ore processing at Berg Aukas, Grootfontein area, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Ellmies, Rainer; Kamona, Frederick; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Knésl, Ilja; Pašava, Jan; Mufenda, Maria; Mbingeneeko, Filadelphia

    2010-11-01

    Health risks to people living at Berg Aukas have been identified through a geochemical study of mine dumps and soils at Berg Aukas. Berg Aukas once served as a mining town, where ores of Pb, V, and Zn were mined and roasted on site until 1979. Roasting of ores produced an unintended hazardous risk in the surrounding area. For this study, soil, crops, and water from the Berg Aukas area were analysed for various pollutants. The main pollutants are metals like Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Hg and Mo. They are bound to layered silicates, to easily soluble sulphide minerals, or occur in native form. The analytical results show severe heavy metal contamination of the surface soils south and east of Berg Aukas. Crops grown at the National Youth Service, like sweet potatoes, cabbage, and Irish potatoes, accumulate heavy elements that are deleterious to health. Prolonged exposure to As and heavy metals in concentrations as found in the soils and some crops in Berg Aukas can cause severe health problems like diabetes, skin lesions, bladder problems, neurological effects, as well as skin, kidney or lung cancer. Pb affects mental development of children and Pbs to brain retardation. The study aims to help the local community to delineate no-go areas for agricultural use and to either diversify the crops grown on contaminated soils or to grow crops that are less vulnerable to high heavy metal contents in soils or transfer the crops grown on contaminated soils to areas that are not contaminated.

  7. Determination of representative elementary areas for soil redoximorphic features by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photography has been a welcome tool in documenting and conveying qualitative soil information. When coupled with image analysis software, the usefulness of digital cameras can be increased to advance the field of micropedology. The determination of a Representative Elementary Area (REA) still rema...

  8. Europeanization or curricular harmonization in the area of administrative sciences (follow-up of Bologna process)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATEI

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims a comparative analysis of curricula for Bachelor studies in the area of administrative sciences. The objectives of research focused on elaboration of a set of indicators, based on the curricular contents of the programmes from the first cycle in administrative sciences, aiming to size 'the Europeanism degree' and curricular compatibilisation degree between Romanian and European universities.

  9. Slower gait, slower information processing and smaller prefrontal area in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosano, C.; Studenski, S.A.; Aizenstein, H.J.; Boudreau, R.M.; Longstreth Jr, W.T.; Newman, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slower gait in older adults is related to smaller volume of the prefrontal area (PFAv). The pathways underlying this association have not yet been explored. Understanding slowing gait could help improve function in older age. We examine whether the association between smaller PFAv and sl

  10. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATIONS IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.

  11. New data on geodynamic process in anomaly area of north Tien Shan: possible preparation of a strong earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on geodynamic process in the area of North Tien Shan, revealed earlier based in anomaly absorption of seismic waves, is being analyzed. It was established that here for last 5-7 years (since 1999 till 2005) features of S-wave absorption field in earth crust and upper mantle within anomaly area had been significantly changed - new elliptic structure had been formed, generated by focuses of relatively deep earthquakes. Within the boundaries of this area in 2005, earthquakes with mechanism of normal faulting and oblique normal prevailed. Amount of the obtained data indicate active increase of juvenile fluids in earth crust and in upper mantle within anomaly area that may testify preparation of a strong earthquake ( ∼6.5). (author)

  12. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Goldman, H.

    1981-01-01

    The attributes of the various metallization processes were investigated. It is shown that several metallization process sequences will lead to adequate metallization for large area, high performance solar cells at a metallization add on price in the range of $6. to 12. m squared, or 4 to $.8/W(peak), assuming 15% efficiency. Conduction layer formation by thick film silver or by tin or tin/lead solder leads to metallization add-on prices significantly above the $6. to 12/m squared range c.) The wet chemical processes of electroless and electrolytic plating for strike/barrier layer and conduction layer formation, respectively, seem to be most cost effective.

  13. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterfeldt, M., E-mail: martin.winterfeldt@fbh-berlin.de; Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910 nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  14. Review of electron beam and laser process use in the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New techniques such as electron beam and laser can find applications for components realization, fuel fabrication, waste processing, maintenance and dismantling because of beam specifity and performance expected. In welding low deformation is the decisive factor for the choice of the process leading to use electron beam and laser for some applications. In dismantling the low waste amount produced by laser cutting and possibilities of automation allow to forecast a wide development of the process. Significant examples are given and a prospective review of future possibilities from present development are presented. 36 refs

  15. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  16. 3D electrical method and step continuous wave radar method for Nojima site. Results of measurement of resistivity at trench site; Nojima danso ni okeru sanjigenhi teikoho to step shiki renzokuha chika radar ho tansa. Trench chosa chiten deno hiteiko sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Oda, Y.; Tank, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Jomori, A. [Japan Crust Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Several surveys were carried out near the Nojima fault, including three-dimensional resistivity measurement and underground radar survey at the Ogura area, underground radar survey at the Hirabayashi area, and resistivity measurement in the vicinity of the trench at the Nashinomoto area, in order to investigate in detail the underground structures at a depth up to several tens meters from the ground surface. Resistivity was measured by an automatic analyzer capable of simultaneously measuring potential levels at 14 channels which can cover 112 measuring points at the largest. At the Ogura area, the boundary planes of the resistivity structures are continuously detected in the direction of the fault moving during the earthquake period. The underground radar measurement results suggest accumulated displacement of strata at a depth of around 25m in the Osaka Strata and flexible structures. At the Hirabayashi area, the underground radar analysis detects discrete sections in the reflection planes at the fault position, but no reflection planes of high continuity. At the Nashinomoto area, the clay stratum detected in the fault by excavating the trenches are found to be low in resistivity by the resistivity measurement. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, G.; J. C. Davalillo; J. Mulas; Cooksley, G.; O. Monserrat; V. Pancioli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique, (SPN), has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain). The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural gro...

  18. The indication of Martian gully formation processes by slope-area analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, S.J.; Balme, M.R.; Murray, J.B.; Towner, M.C.; Okubo, C.H.; Grindrod, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation process of recent gullies on Mars is currently under debate. This study aims to discriminate between the proposed formation processes - pure water flow, debris flow and dry mass wasting - through the application of geomorphological indices commonly used in terrestrial geomorphology. High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of Earth and Mars were used to evaluate the drainage characteristics of small slope sections. Data from Earth were used to validate the hillslope, debris-flow and alluvial process domains previously found for large fluvial catchments on Earth, and these domains were applied to gullied and ungullied slopes on Mars. In accordance with other studies, our results indicate that debris flow is one of the main processes forming the Martian gullies that were being examined. The source of the water is predominantly distributed surface melting, not an underground aquifer. Evidence is also presented indicating that other processes may have shaped Martian crater slopes, such as ice-assisted creep and solifluction, in agreement with the proposed recent Martian glacial and periglacial climate. Our results suggest that, within impact craters, different processes are acting on differently oriented slopes, but further work is needed to investigate the potential link between these observations and changes in Martian climate. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  19. Statistical Process Control Concerning the Glazed Areas Influence on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepădatu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a statistical investigation, for analyzing the buildings characteristics from the energy efficiency point of view. The energy efficiency of buildings may be estimated by their capacity to ensure a healthy and comfortable environment, with low energy consumption during the whole year. The glazed areas have a decisive role in the building energy efficiency having in view the complex functions that they play in the system. A parametric study, based on the method of factorial plan of experience with two levels, allows us to emphasize the measure in which the geometric and energetic characteristics of glazed areas influence the energy efficiency, estimated by the yearly energy needs, to ensure a comfortable and healthy environment.

  20. Hydrochemical processes in the lower Jordan valley and in the Dead Sea area

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Moeller; Rosenthal, E; Geyer, S; J. Guttman; Peter Dulski; Rybakov, M.; M. Zilberbrand; C. Jahnke; A. Flexer;  

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the concentrations of major, some minor and trace elements occurring in both surface and groundwater of the lower Jordan River–Dead Sea drainage basin have been investigated in order to identify the characteristics of the regional aquifers and their recharge areas. Spider patterns of elements and rare earth distribution patterns pinpoint the characteristic chemical features of groundwater. As compared to seawater, the high Br/Cl ratios in groundwater are caused either by high Br/Cl...

  1. Testing for a time-varying price-cost markup in the Euro area inflation process

    OpenAIRE

    Bowdler, Christopher; Eilev S. Jansen

    2004-01-01

    Empirical models of inflation often incorporate equilibrium correction effects based upon levels of prices and input costs. Such models assume that the steady-state price-cost markup is constant, but recent research suggests that this may not be true for the Euro area economy, which has undergone major structural reforms over the last 25 years. We allow for permanent shifts in the markup factor through estimating an inflation equation that includes a time-varying intercept. The model suggests...

  2. Climatology and firn processes in the lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampidis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is the largest Northern Hemisphere store of fresh water, and it is responding rapidly to the warming climate. In situ observations document the changing ice sheet properties in the lower accumulation area, Southwest Greenland. Firn densities from 1840 meters above sea level retrieved in May 2012 revealed the existence of a 5.5-meter-thick, near-surface ice layer in response to the recent increased melt and refreezing in firn. As a consequence, vertical meltwater percol...

  3. Origin of the Adventure Subglacial Trench linked to Cenozoic extension in the East Antarctic Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Antarctic plate occupies a unique geodynamic setting being mostly surrounded by divergent or transform margins. Major intracontinental basins and highlands characterize its bedrock, buried under the 34 Ma East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Their formation atop of the cratonic lithosphere in the interior of East Antarctica remains a major open question. Post-Mesozoic intraplate extensional tectonic activity has been proposed for their development and is supported by this work. Here we focus on the Adventure Subglacial Trench (AST) whose origin is poorly constrained and controversial, as currently available geophysical models suggest either extensional or compressional tectonic origin. The AST is an over 250-km-long, 60-km-wide subglacial trough, elongated in the NNW-SSE direction adjacent to the westernmost flank of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin, and is parallel to regional scale alignments of magnetic and gravimetric anomalies. Geophysical campaigns allowed better definition of the AST physiography showing its typical half-graben geometry. The rounded morphology of the western flank of the AST was simulated through tectonic numerical modelling. We consider the subglacial landscape to primarily reflect a preserved relict of the tectonic processes affecting the interior of East Antarctica in the Cenozoic, due to the negligible erosion/deposition capability of the EAIS. The bedrock morphology was replicated through the activity of the listric Adventure Fault, characterized by a basal detachment at the base of the crust (34 km) and a vertical displacement of 2.5 km. This length suggests its regional/crustal importance. The predicted displacement is interpreted either as a newly formed fault or as the partial reactivation of a weaker zone along a major Precambrian crustal-scale tectonic boundary. The extensional regime in the AST is part of a more extensive 800-km long intraplate corridor characterized by nearly along-strike extension in Cenozoic times with a left

  4. Hadal disturbance and radionuclide profiles at the deepest Japan Trench, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Glud, Ronnie; Fujikura, Katsunori; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Four months after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we carried out a video survey and collected sediment core collection from the hadal region (~7,600 m water depth) of the Japan Trench using an autonomous instrument. Fine material remained suspended at ~50 m above the seabed presumably induced by turbidities released during the central earthquake and the following aftershocks. Elevated levels of Cs-137 (T1/2=30 y) and excess Pb-210 (T1/2=22.3 y) concentrations suggested that 30 cm thick sediment layer had accumulated at the trench base (7,553 m) after the mainshock. However, no Cs-134 (T1/2=2 y) fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster was detected. In contract, inspection of a nearby sediment site (7,261 m) 4.9 km away from the central trench site revealed fewer disturbances as reflected by a recent deposition of only 4 cm sediment, but here we encountered recent Cs-134 fallouts from the top 0-1 cm depth. We propose that the apparent lack of Cs-134 in the central trench is coursed by settlement of turbidites containing Cs-137 from past atmospheric fallout and higher excess Pb-210. The fast transport of the Cs-134 to the hadal slope sediment is presumably induced by enhanced scavenging and the vertical transport associated to an intensified diatom blooming occurring just at the time of the Fukushima disaster.

  5. Characterization and modeling of atomic layer deposited high-density trench capacitors in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matters-Kammerer, M.K.; Jinesh, K.B.; Rijks, T.G.S.M.; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed electrical analysis of multiple layer trench capacitors fabricated in silicon with atomic-layer-deposited Al 2O 3 and TiN is presented. It is shown that in situ ozone annealing of the Al 2O 3 layers prior to the TiN electrode deposition significantly improves the electric properties of th

  6. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  7. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with buoyanc

  8. The cause and countermeasures to the leakage from piping located C-trench in JMTR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive liquid waste generated from the JMTR reactor is stored in a waste water tank installed in the reactor building basement. Thereafter, it is sent with a waste pump to a waste water tank located at the tank yard, through the waste water transfer pipes of C trench located outside the reactor building. The C trench is the tunnel-shaped concrete structure with a cross-section of rectangle installed at underground with its basement at 5 meters below the earth (its size is about 10 m long, about 4.0 m wide, and about 4.3 m high). In 2012, leakages occurred at the SFC (spent fuel cutting) waste water transfer pipe and at the fourth drainage system piping. In 2013, a leakage occurred from the SFC system waste resin transfer pipe. Thus, leakage incidents occurred one after another from the waste liquid transfer pipe in the C trench. While showing the entire layout of JMTR facilities and the position of the C trench, this paper explains the causes of the incidents, correction measures, and recurrence prevention measures of the leakage from waste water transfer pipes. (A.O.)

  9. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-02-09

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan, under RCRA regulations in 40 CFR 265 Subpart F and WAC173-300-400, for the 216-B-63 Trench. This interim status facility is being sampled under detection monitoring criteria and this plan provides current program conditions and requirements.

  10. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility

  11. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  13. Path Choice on Rural Industrial Upgrading in the Process of Rural-urban Integration in Binhai New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With methods of reference research and field research, the current situations of rural industrialization in the process of rural-urban integration in Binhai new area are analyzed and some problems in the process of integration in the new area are pointed out, such as difficulties in breaking dual economic structure in urban and rural areas, imbalanced economic development in the area and inadequate development of the third industry. And relevant countermeasures are proposed: optimizing agriculture industrial structure and promoting agricultural industrialization to form urban agricultural model of Binhai new area focusing on facility agriculture, park agriculture and high-end agriculture and to realize the intensive growth of agriculture; rationally distributing rural industrial structure to form regional leading industry and playing the guiding role of industry to achieve industrial adjustment improvement; quickening the construction of the third industry centering on service to form the service system of modern countryside and the leading role of modern service industry so as to achieve rapid development of the third industry.

  14. Vitrification of F-area americium/curium: feasibility study and preliminary process recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank 17.1. Tank 17.1 contains the majority of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) contained in the DOE Complex. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has made a formal request for this material as fuel for production of Cf252 and other transplutonium actinides. The Am and Cm (and associated lanthanide fission products) are currently in nitric acid solution. Transportation of the intensely radioactive Am/Cm in liquid form is not considered possible. As a result, the material will either be solidified and shipped to ORNL or discarded to the Tank Farm. Nuclear Materials Processing Technology (NMPT), therefore, requested Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) to determine if the Tank 17.1 material could be vitrified, and if it was vitrified could the americium and curium be successfully recovered. Research was performed to determine if the Tank 17.1 contents could indeed be mixed with glass formers and vitrified. Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc. Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. A process has been identified which will convert the Am/Cm material into approximately 300kg of glass

  15. Feasible Application Area Study for Linear Laser Cutting in Paper Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.

    Traditional industry sectors, like paper making industry, tend to stay within well-known technology rather than going forward towards promising, but still quite new technical solutions and applications. This study analyses the feasibility of the laser cutting in large-scale industrial paper making processes. Aim was to reveal development and process related challenges and improvement potential in paper making processes by utilizing laser technology. This study has been carried out, because there still seems to be only few large-scale industrial laser processing applications in paper converting processes worldwide, even in the beginning of 2010's. Because of this, the small-scale use of lasers in paper material manufacturing industry is related to a shortage of well-known and widely available published research articles and published measurement data (e.g. actual achieved cut speeds with high quality cut edges, set-up times and so on). It was concluded that laser cutting has strong potential in industrial applications for paper making industries. This potential includes quality improvements and a competitive advantage for paper machine manufacturers and industry. The innovations have also added potential, when developing new paper products. An example of these kinds of products are ones with printed intelligence, which could be a new business opportunity for the paper industries all around the world.

  16. The causes and processes responsible for rocky desertification in karst areas of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The karst region of southern China is a fragile ecological zone with widespread rocky desertification. This paper describes the rocky desertification occurring in this region in terms of both natural and anthropogenic factors. During geological time periods, the region’s changing environment governed the natural rocky desertification processes, whereas during historical and modern times, anthropogenic processes have been superimposed on these natural processes. Human activities have accelerated and exacerbated rocky desertification. The period from the beginning to the middle of the Qing dynasty was an important transitional period in which human activities began to exert a particularly strong influence on rocky desertification. Since then, the effect of anthropogenic factors has increasingly exceeded the effect of natural factors. The rocky desertification process in southern China’s karst region combines surface ecological processes (including vegetation degradation and loss, soil erosion, surface water loss, and bedrock solution) with a reduction of the land’s biological productivity, leading to degradation that produces rocky desert. Controlling rocky desertification requires comprehensive development of sustainable agriculture and economic development that provides employment alternatives to agriculture and thereby promotes the rehabilitation of rocky desertified land.

  17. Study on Holocene Paleoearthquakes in Xizhang Trench on the Jiaocheng Fault Zone,Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xinsheng; Sun Changbin; Yan Chengguo; Zhao Jinquan; Jiang Wali; An Weiping; Li Zihong; Zhang Dawei; Cheng Xinyuan; Gao Shuyi; Wang Chunhe

    2008-01-01

    Xizhang trench is located 10 km northwest of Taiyuan city,Shanxi Province,in front of a NNW-trending scarp of 4.6m height on the northern segment of the Jiaocheng fault zone.The dimensions of the trench are 108m in length,8m in width,and 10m in depth.There are 18 horizons revealed in the trench.The upper strata are sandy loam;the upper strata of the downthrown block of the fault are gravels,the lower ones are an interbed of brown loam and sandy loam.The strata on the upthrown block of the fault are sandy loam containing gravel.The trench shows 3 fault planes,and the upper offset point on the fault plane is 1.5m below the ground surface,the newest dislocated stratum is (3.74±0.06)ka BP.The trench reveals a lot of deformation traces,such as fault planes,dislocated strata,collnvial wedges and formation tilting.The relationship between strata and faults in the trench shows that 3 paleoearthquake events have occurred at the Jiaocheng fault zone since the Early Holocene,they are about (3.74+0.06)~(3.06±0.26)ka BP,(8.35±0.09)ka~ (3.74±0.06)ka BP,and(10.66±0.85)~(8.35±0.09)ka BP.The average interval among the events is 2.6~3.6ka.The minimum coseismic vertical displacements of the 3 events are 3.0m,2.5m and 3.2m,respectively.The significance of Xizhang trench is that the Jiaocbeng fault used to be active thousands of years ago,though there is no M≥ 7.0 earthquake recorded in historical documents.Evidence of new Jiaocheng fault zone activity during the Holocene is important for the earthquake safety assessment of Taiyuan city in the future.

  18. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 3; Trench 5 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed Final Status Survey (FSS) of the concrete duct from Trench 5 from Building 801 to the Stack. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goal of (le)15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years has been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to FSS, were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decommissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task for the HFBR Underground Utilities. ORISE, together with DOE, determined that a Type A verification of Trench 5 was appropriate based on recent verification results from Trenches 2, 3, and 4, and the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities is being performed in three stages to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 3 of this project included the removal of at least 200 feet of 36-inch to 42-inch pipe from the west side to the south side of Building 801, and the 14-inch diameter Acid Waste Line that spanned from 801 to the Stack within Trench 5. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the BNL FSP and identified comments for consideration (ORISE 2010). BNL prepared a revised FSP that resolved each ORISE comment adequately (BNL 2010a). ORISE referred to the revised HFBR Underground Utilities FSP FSS data to conduct the Type A verification

  19. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-11-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  20. Transformation processes of rural areas in Latin America: the challenges of interdisciplinarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Llambí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the main empirical research about Latin-American rurality in the early twenty-first century, show us at least four different ways of transformation at Latin American Rural Territories: agribusiness headed process, family farming headed process, several diversification of activities and incomes linked by the new quality of relations between country and urban places, the kind of pro­cesses experienced by those territories where peasants or ethnical minorities prevail (native american or afro descendents as an example.The main objective is to identify the theoretical background’s that may help us explaining such processes, while implies a re-construction booth of the rural sociologist space dimension’s and the interdisciplinary focus.